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Sample records for high dietary group

  1. Temporal Effects of High Dietary Zinc on the Histological Changes Produced in White Leghorn Cocks

    OpenAIRE

    Eltohamy, Magda Mohammed; Takahara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masao; 高原, 斉; 岡本, 正夫

    1980-01-01

    Effects of high dietary Zn on histological changes of the endocrine glands were investigated in White Leghorn cocks. Cocks received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed normal testicular development. In the groups received 3000 and 4000 ppm dietary Zn, the inhibitory effects in the testes suggested impaired production and/or release of adenohypophysial gonadotrophic hormone. Adenohypophysis of the group received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed an increase in PAS-positive materials of the basophils, while ad...

  2. Aluminium in food and daily dietary intake assessment from 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hexiang; Tang, Jun; Huang, Lichun; Shen, Xianghong; Zhang, Ronghua; Chen, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminium was measured in 2580 samples of 15 food groups and dietary exposure was estimated. Samples were purchased and analysed during 2010 to 2014. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (mean 4862 mg/kg), laver (mean 455.2 mg/kg) and fried twisted cruller (mean 392.4 mg/kg). Dietary exposure to aluminium was estimated for Zhejiang residents. The average dietary exposure to aluminium via 15 food groups in Zhejiang Province was 1.15 mg/kg bw/week, which is below the provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg/kg bw /week. Jellyfish is the main Al contributor, providing 37.6% of the daily intake via these 15 food groups. This study provided new information on aluminium levels and assessment of aluminium (Al) dietary exposure in Zhejiang Province of China.

  3. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations for Food Group Intakes Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Aburto, Tania C; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Given the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in Mexico and the key role of dietary quality in these conditions, it is important to determine Mexicans' adherence to dietary recommendations. Our aim was to estimate the percentage of the Mexican population who adhere to dietary recommendations for key food groups. We analyzed 7983 participants aged ≥5 y from the nationally representative Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Dietary intake data were collected by using one 24-h recall and a repeated 24-h recall in 9% of the sample. We used the National Cancer Institute method for episodically consumed foods, which uses a 2-part (probability and amount) mixed regression model to estimate the usual intake distribution and its association with sociodemographic variables. For the food groups that are encouraged, only 1-4% of the population (range across sex and age groups) reached the recommended intake of legumes, 4-8% for seafood, 7-16% for fruit and vegetables, and 9-23% for dairy. For food groups that are discouraged, only 10-22% did not exceed the recommended upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverages, 14-42% for high saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) products, and 9-50% for processed meats, whereas the majority (77-93%) did not exceed the limit for red meat. A lower proportion of adolescents than children and adults adhered to recommendations for several food groups. Participants with higher socioeconomic status (SES) and living in urban areas consumed more (probability of consuming and/or amount consumed) fruit and vegetables, dairy, and HSFAS products, but they consumed fewer legumes than those of lower SES and living in rural areas. These results reveal the poor dietary quality of the Mexican population and the urgent need to shift these habits. If current intakes continue, the burden of disease due to obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases will likely remain elevated in the Mexican population. © 2016 American

  4. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  5. The effectiveness of group dietary counselling among non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients in resettlement scheme areas in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, R; Ali, O; Arshad, F; Kadir, K A

    1997-06-01

    A study was undertaken in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) resettlement scheme areas in Pahang, Malaysia, to determine the effectiveness of group dietary counselling in motivating diabetic patients to achieve good dietary habits, and weight and diabetes control. Sixty-one non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group received six sessions of group dietary counselling over 5 months and the control group received mass media diabetes-educational program during the same period. The one hour group dietary counselling sessions discussed general knowledge of diabetes, food groups for meal planning, the importance of dietary fibre-rich foods, types of fat in food, exercise and weight control. The experimental group met monthly with a dietitian as a counsellor. Effectiveness was assessed by improvement in food choice, and decline in percentage glycated haemoglobin (total HbA1) or body mass index (BMI). Measurements were made at a baseline visit, every two months during the six month program, and six months afterwards. Patients in the experimental group improved their food choices, resulting in a healthier diet high in unrefined carbohydrates and dietary fibre rich foods, and low in fat. There were significant reductions of their percentage total HbA1 levels and BMI following the counselling sessions, which decreased further six months after the program compared with patients in the control group. Thus group dietary counselling is effective in motivating NIDDM patients to achieve better food choice, and related weight and glycaemic control in a Malaysian setting.

  6. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  7. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  8. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-05-01

    Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk for rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1,520 Whites (720 cases, 800 controls) and 384 African-Americans (225 cases, 159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk for rectal cancer whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African-Americans, high consumption of other fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African-Americans. The high fat/meat/potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.15). The vegetable/fish/poultry and fruit/whole grain/dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African-Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the fruit/vegetables pattern (P(trend) pattern (P(trend) dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African-Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations.

  9. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  10. Dietary intakes of essential nutrients among Arab and Berber ethnic groups on rural Tunisian island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Thouraya; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Abid, Hafaoua Kammoun; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Alouane, Leila Trabelsi

    2010-01-01

    The dietary intake was investigated and food sources were identified among Tunisian ethnic groups from Jerba Island in the south of Tunisia. Ninety-four subjects of moderate socioeconomic status (47 Berbers and 47 Arabs) aged 32 to 64 y completed a 1-mo qualitative food-frequency questionnaire and a single 24-h dietary recall, and dietary intakes and demographic status were observed from 2006 to 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was not significantly associated with Arab men compared with Berber men. Therefore, obesity was significantly associated with Berber women (PBerber women (PBerber group were significantly different from the Arab group. Intakes of calcium, zinc, iron, and folate were below recommended nutrient intakes in men and women in the two ethnic groups. Vitamin E intake was greater in Berbers than in Arabs (P<0.01). Ethnicity was significantly associated with dietary intakes in the two ethnic groups of Jerba Island.

  11. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression...

  12. Evaluation of the prevalence of dietary supplement consumption in selected group of young adults

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    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior and habits of dietary supplemnts consumed by adults. The study included 108 participants. In the study group, 67,6% of respondents were females whereas 32,4% were males. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 35 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to March 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 21 questions single-choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. Respondents were asked about education, knowledge of dietary supplements and frequency of dietary supplements and the reason for their use. More than half of respondents used or currently apply dietary supplements 67.6%. All respondents were convinced of the effectiveness of dietary supplements, especially those of natural origin. Diet supplements were more often used by women (p <0.05, especially with higher education. The reason most women used dietary supplements was the desire to lose weight (31.5% of respondents and beneficial effects on hair, nails and complexion (29.6% of respondents. Among the group of men, the reason they used to go to dietary supplements was the desire to increase the body's immunity (38.9% of respondents.Respondents said that they most often use dietary supplements bought at pharmacies (57.4%. As the average time of dietary supplements, the most common response was 2-3 months (50.9%. 7.4% of respondents experienced side effects of dietary supplements (gastrointestinal disorders, headache, rash, skin discoloration.

  13. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  14. Systematic mapping review of the factors influencing dietary behaviour in ethnic minority groups living in Europe: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah Araba; Nicolaou, Mary; Powell, Katie; Terragni, Laura; Maes, Lea; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Europe has a growing population of ethnic minority groups whose dietary behaviours are potentially of public health concern. To promote healthier diets, the factors driving dietary behaviours need to be understood. This review mapped the broad range of factors influencing dietary behaviour among

  15. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  16. High dietary zinc feeding promotes persistence of multi-resistant E. coli in the swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesinski, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Pieper, Robert; Kalisch, Martin; Bednorz, Carmen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2018-01-01

    High levels of zinc oxide are used frequently as feed additive in pigs to improve gut health and growth performance and are still suggested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. However, we have recently described an increase of multi-resistant E. coli in association to zinc feeding in piglets. This previous study focused on clonal diversity of E. coli, observing the effect on multi-resistant strains by chance. To shed further light into this highly important topic and falsify our previous findings, we performed a zinc pig feeding trial where we specifically focused on in-depth analysis of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. Under controlled experimental conditions, piglets were randomly allocated to a high dietary zinc (zinc group) and a background zinc feeding group (control group). At different ages samples were taken from feces, digesta, and mucosa and absolute E. coli numbers were determined. A total of 2665 E. coli isolates were than phenotypically tested for antimicrobial resistance and results were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration testing for random samples. In piglets fed with high dietary zinc, we detected a substantial increase of multi-resistant E. coli in all gut habitats tested, ranging from 28.9-30.2% multi-resistant E. coli compared to 5.8-14.0% in the control group. This increase was independent of the total number of E. coli. Interestingly, the total amount of the E. coli population decreased over time. Thus, the increase of the multi-resistant E. coli populations seems to be linked with persistence of the resistant population, caused by the influence of high dietary zinc feeding. In conclusion, these findings corroborate our previous report linking high dietary zinc feeding of piglets with the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli and therefore question the feeding of high dietary zinc oxide as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters.

  17. Identification of Critical Groups in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic Through Specific Dietary Surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Skuterud, L.; Malatova, I.; Mirchi, R.; Krajewski, P.; Eged, K.; Somlai, J.; Sanchez, A.; Tarjan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This work has been performed as part of the EC project SAVEC (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Areas in Central Europe), expanding the EC project SAVE (Spatial Analysis of Vulnerable Ecosystems in Europe). Spatial analysis of dietary habits can be used as a tool for predicting areas where people are more vulnerable to radioactive fallout. Common dietary data such as national statistics and household budget surveys can be used for this purpose. The resolution of such data is not good enough, though, for identifying smaller critical groups with respect to dietary habits. Wild berries and mushrooms, wild fowl, game meat and freshwater fish usually have higher 137 Cs activity concentration levels than agricultural products. In the long term, these foodstuffs can contribute substantially to the internal dose even if consumed in small amounts. Yet, they are usually not included in household budget surveys or national consumption statistics. A specific dietary survey in the form of a questionnaire is the best way to get accurate information on individual diets. The questionnaires can be designed to cover radiologically important foodstuffs, such as those from the forest ecosystem. Within the SAVEC project a questionnaire detailing the consumption of foods from the forest ecosystem has been distributed to hunters in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. The results from this investigation and the identification of critical groups with respect to dietary habits in the three Central European countries will be presented. (author)

  18. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA): relative validity of a mobile phone application to measure intake of food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Anna M; Tieleman, Laurissa; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Tang, Lie Ming; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Kay, Judy; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Automation of dietary assessment can reduce limitations of established methodologies, by alleviating participant and researcher burden. Designed as a research tool, the electronic Dietary Intake Assessment (e-DIA) is a food record in mobile phone application format. The present study aimed to examine the relative validity of the e-DIA with the 24-h recall method to estimate intake of food groups. A sample of eighty university students aged 19-24 years recorded 5 d of e-DIA and 3 d of recall within this 5-d period. The three matching days of dietary data were used for analysis. Food intake data were disaggregated and apportioned to one of eight food groups. Median intakes of food groups were similar between the methods, and strong correlations were found (mean: 0·79, range: 0·69-0·88). Cross-classification by tertiles produced a high level of exact agreement (mean: 71 %, range: 65-75 %), and weighted κ values were moderate to good (range: 0·54-0·71). Although mean differences (e-DIA-recall) were small (range: -13 to 23 g), limits of agreement (LOA) were relatively large (e.g. for vegetables, mean difference: -4 g, LOA: -159 to 151 g). The Bland-Altman plots showed robust agreement, with minimum bias. This analysis supports the use of e-DIA as an alternative to the repeated 24-h recall method for ranking individuals' food group intake.

  20. A novel dietary restriction method for group-housed rats: weight gain and clinical chemistry characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanen, I H E; Inhilä, K J; Nevalainen, J I; Väisänen, S B; Mertanen, A M O; Mering, S M; Nevalainen, T O

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory rodents are usually fed ad libitum. Moderate dietary restriction decreases mortality and morbidity compared with ad libitum feeding. There are, however, problems in achieving dietary restriction. Traditional methods of restricted feeding may interfere with the diurnal rhythms of the animals and are not compatible with group-housing of rodents. We have invented a novel method, the diet board, for restricting the feed intake of laboratory rats. The use of the diet board moderately decreased weight gain of rats when compared with ad libitum-fed animals. The diet board retarded skeletal growth only minimally, whereas major differences were found in body fat depositions. Serum free fatty acid, triglyceride and cholesterol values were lower in diet-restricted rats, while the opposite was true for serum creatine kinase. There were no differences in total protein, albumin or alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, differences in interindividual variances in parameters were not detected between the groups; hence this study could not combine the diet board with reduction potential. The diet board provides mild to moderate dietary restriction for group-housed rats and is unlikely to interfere with the diurnal eating rhythm. The diet board can also be seen as a cage furniture item, dividing the open cage space and increasing the structural complexity of the environment. In conclusion, the diet board appears to possess refinement potential when compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction.

  1. Liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect induced by high dietary copper in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cao, Huabin; Su, Rongsheng; Guo, Jianying; Li, Chengmei; Pan, Jiaqiang; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an important trace mineral in the diet of poultry due to its biological activity. However, limited information is available concerning the effects of high copper on mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, 72 broilers were used to investigate the effects of high dietary copper on liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect. Birds were fed with different concentrations [11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of copper/kg dry matter (DM)] of copper from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC). The experiment lasted for 60 d. Liver tissues on d 60 were subjected to histopathological observation. Additionally, liver mitochondrial function was recorded on d 12, 36, and 60. Moreover, a site-specific defect in the electron transport chain in liver mitochondria was also identified by using various chemical inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. The results showed different degrees of degeneration, mitochondrial swelling, and high-density electrons in hepatocytes. In addition, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) in liver mitochondria increased at first and then decreased in high-dose groups. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation velocity in treated groups was higher than that in control group, which were magnified by inhibiting electron transport at Complex IV. The results indicated that high dietary copper could decline liver mitochondrial function in broilers. The presence of a site-specific defect at Complex IV in liver mitochondria may be responsible for liver mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high dietary copper. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  3. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  4. Effect of Pre-Ramadan Education on Dietary Intake and Anthropometry-Comparison Between Two Groups of Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencharif Meriem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Fasting of Ramadan leads to changes in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep and time of drug intake for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-Ramadan education on dietary intake and anthropometry of two groups of patients.

  5. Comparison of nutritional value of „fruit and vegetables” and “western” dietary patterns identified in a group of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekajło, Anna; Różańska, Dorota; Mandecka, Anna; Konikowska, Klaudia; Madalińska, Malwina; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Dietary patterns (DPs) are defined as the amounts, types and combinations of various food products in habitual diets and the frequency of their consumption. Dietary pattern analysis is usually performed in order to assess the combined effect of consumed food products on health The aim of the study was to assess and compare the nutritional value of dietary patterns identified in a group of patients staying on the oncological ward The study group consisted of 100 patients (51 women and 49 men) aged 19-83 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) validated for the population of Lower Silesian Voivodeship Factor analysis identified two main dietary patterns explaining 25.6% of variance. The “fruit and vegetables” DP consisted of vegetables, fruits, juices, unrefined grains and nuts, seeds and raisins. Instead, the “Western” DP was characterized by the consumption of high-fat and processed meat and poultry, fried fish, refined grains, honey and sugar, fats, sweets, beverages and chips. While higher scores for “fruit and vegetables” pattern were associated with increased intake of dietary fiber, antioxidant vitamins, folic acid and decreased glycemic load per 1000 kcal and sodium intake, for “Western” pattern observed relationships were opposite. Women were more likely to have higher factor scores for “fruit and vegetables” DP and lower factor scores for “Western” DP than men Dietary patterns identified in the study group differed in terms of nutritional value, in spite of similar macronutrient content in the diet. “Western” DP was characterized by lower nutritional value than “fruit and vegetables” dietary pattern.

  6. [Study of the dietary preferences and the social-psychological factors that affect the dietary behaviors of high school and university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.

  7. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M; Verstegen, M W; Heetkamp, M J; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) content on the metabolic rate in group-housed sows was studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were each fed one of four experimental diets similar in composition except for the starch and NSP content. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in starch and NSP ratio in the diet. On a DM basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed and fed at 1.30 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-d experimental period, which was preceded by a 33-d adaptation period. Both digestibility and metabolizability of energy decreased with increasing dietary SBPS content (P 0.1). Based on energy retention data and apparent fecal digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat, starch, and NSP, the estimated net energy value of fermented NSP was 13.4 kJ/g. The present study shows that group-housed sows are capable of using energy from fermented NSP (i.e., NSP from SBPS) as efficiently as energy from digested starch (i.e., starch from tapioca).

  9. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  10. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  11. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  12. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  13. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  14. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  15. Effects of dietary esfenvalerate exposures on three aquatic insect species representing different functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Katherine R; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Jepson, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Given the chemical properties of synthetic pyrethroids, it is probable that compounds, including esfenvalerate, that enter surface waters may become incorporated into aquatic insect food sources. We examined the effect of dietary esfenvalerate uptake in aquatic insects representing different functional feeding groups. We used three field-collected aquatic insect species: A grazing scraper, Cinygmula reticulata McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae); an omnivorous filter feeder, Brachycentrus americanus Banks (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae); and a predator, Hesperoperla pacifica Banks (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Laboratory-cultured algae were preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations of 0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 microg/L and provided to two C. reticulata age classes (small and final-instar nymphs). Reduction in small nymph growth was observed following three weeks of feeding on algae exposed to 0.05 and 0.1 microg/L of esfenvalerate, and the highest dietary exposure reduced egg production in final-instar nymphs. The diet for B. americanus and H. pacifica consisted of dead third-instar Chironomus tentans larvae preexposed for 24 h to esfenvalerate concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1.0 microg/L. Consumption of larvae exposed to 0.5 to 1.0 microg/L of esfenvalerate caused case abandonment and mortality in B. americanus caddisfly larvae. Although H. pacifica nymphs readily consumed esfenvalerate-exposed larvae, no adverse effects were observed during the present study. Furthermore, no evidence of esfenvalerate-induced feeding deterrence was found in any of the species tested, suggesting that aquatic insects may not be able to distinguish between pyrethroid-contaminated and uncontaminated food sources. These findings indicate that feeding deterrence is not a factor in regulating aquatic insect dietary exposures to synthetic pyrethroids.

  16. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  17. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2015-07-01

    different origin decreases calciuria, but their impact on the urinary stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. Hyperoxaluria: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. Hyperuricosuria: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. Hypocitraturia: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime and non citrus fruits (melon are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. Children: There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems

  18. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  19. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezioso, Domenico; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Lotti, Tullio; Bianchi, Giampaolo; Borghi, Loris; Caione, Paolo; Carini, Marco; Caudarella, Renata; Ferraro, Manuel; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gelosa, Marco; Guttilla, Andrea; Illiano, Ester; Martino, Marangella; Meschi, Tiziana; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miano, Roberto; Napodano, Giorgio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Rendina, Domenico; Rocco, Francesco; Rosa, Marco; Sanseverino, Roberto; Salerno, Annamaria; Spatafora, Sebastiano; Tasca, Andrea; Ticinesi, Andrea; Travaglini, Fabrizio; Trinchieri, Alberto; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2015-07-07

    stone risk profile is uncertain. Sports beverage do not affect the urinary stone risk profile. HYPEROXALURIA: A diet low in oxalate and/or a calcium intake normal to high (800-1200 mg/day for adults) reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate, conversely a diet rich in oxalates and/or a diet low in calcium increase urinary oxalate. A restriction in protein intake may reduce the urinary excretion of oxalate although a vegetarian diet may lead to an increase in urinary oxalate. Adding bran to a diet low in oxalate cancels its effect of reducing urinary oxalate. Conversely, the addition of supplements of fruit and vegetables to a mixed diet does not involve an increased excretion of oxalate in the urine. The intake of pyridoxine reduces the excretion of oxalate. HYPERURICOSURIA: In patients with renal calcium stones the decrease of the urinary excretion of uric acid after restriction of dietary protein and purine is suggested although not clearly demonstrated. HYPOCITRATURIA: The administration of alkaline-citrates salts is recommended for the medical treatment of renal stone-formers with hypocitraturia, although compliance to this treatment is limited by gastrointestinal side effects and costs. Increased intake of fruit and vegetables (excluding those with high oxalate content) increases citrate excretion and involves a significant protection against the risk of stone formation. Citrus (lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and lime) and non citrus fruits (melon) are natural sources of dietary citrate, and several studies have shown the potential of these fruits and/or their juices in raising urine citrate levels. There are enought basis to advice an adequate fluid intake also in children. Moderate dietary salt restriction and implementation of potassium intake are useful in limiting urinary calcium excretion whereas dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for children with nephrolithiasis. It seems reasonable to advice a balanced consumption of fruit and vegetables and a low

  20. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  2. Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1982-07-01

    Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.

  3. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25μg/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21μg/L (range=0.11-0.42μg/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21μg/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries

  4. Development and Pilot Study of Group-Based Dietary Self-Management Program for Community Dwellers with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfiza Ridwan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most countries worldwide, hypertension is considered as an important problem. Moreover, an increasing trend in the prevalence and incidence has been reported in most countries. This increasing trend requires an innovative approach to improve the lifestyle modification of hypertensive sufferers including their dietary behaviors. Objective: This developmental research aims to develop a program for improving the dietary behaviors of community dwellers with hypertension. Method: The process of this program development includes a literature review related to the self-management programs for hypertension, and dietary behavior outcomes, expert validation, and pilot testing. Result: The setting, strategies, duration, and outcome measurement from the literature review were taken into consideration to develop the new program. The newly developed group-based self-management program consists of: 1 the sharing and reflecting of individual current dietary behavior, 2 group educational session, 3 individual comparison of behavior and reflection of obstacles, 4 individual goal setting, and 5 follow up. In the educational session, the DASH eating plan is used as the reference as it is commonly used in studies about diet for hypertension. Key words: hypertension, self-management, group based program, dietary behaviors.

  5. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  6. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-01-01

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 μg and 19.6 +/- 1.6 μg, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 μg to 10.5 +/- 4.8 μg) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 μg vs 1661 +/- 471 μg, respectively, when compared to the control group

  7. Dietary health behaviour and beliefs among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of six healthy dietary behaviours and associated factors in university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. In a cross-sectional survey, we used a self-administered questionnaire (largely based on the European Health and Behaviour Survey) among 19503 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, Standard deviation=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 27 universities in 26 countries. Results indicated that for a total of six healthy dietary behaviours, overall, students scored a mean of 2.8 healthy dietary behaviours. More female than male students indicated healthy dietary behaviours. In multivariate linear regression among men and women, living in an upper middle income or high income country, dieting to lose weight, the high importance of dietary health benefits, high non-organized religious activity, high physical activity and currently a non-tobacco user were associated with the healthy dietary behaviour index. The study found a high prevalence of relatively poor dietary healthy behaviours.

  8. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  10. Exercise and dietary change ameliorate high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance via mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ju Yong; Shin, Ki Ok; Woo, Jinhee; Woo, Sang Heon; Jang, Ki Soeng; Lee, Yul Hyo; Kang, Sunghwun

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and dietary change on obesity and insulin resistance and mTOR signaling protein levels in skeletal muscles of obese rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into CO (Normal diet) and HF (High Fat diet) groups in order to induce obesity for 15 weeks. The rats were then subdivided into CO, COT (CO + Training), HF, HFT (HF + Training), HFND (Dietary change), and HFNDT (HFND + Training) groups (10 rats / group). The training groups underwent moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 8 weeks, after which soleus muscles were excised and analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed by independent t-test and One-way ANOVA tests with a 0.05 significance level. Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and HOMA-IR in the HF group were significantly higher, as compared with other groups (p continuous high fat intake, regular exercise and dietary change showed a positive effect on insulin resistance and mTOR signaling protein levels.

  11. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  12. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301, two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308. Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356 and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003. No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01 and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05. Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10. The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat

  13. Attention switching after dietary brain 5-HT challenge in high impulsive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2007-09-01

    High levels of impulsivity have adverse effects on performance in cognitive tasks, particularLy in those tasks that require high attention investment. Furthermore, both animal and human research has indicated that reduced brain serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with increases in impulsive behaviour or decreased inhibition ability, but the effects of 5-HT challenge have not yet been investigated in subjects vulnerable to impulsivity. The present study aimed to investigate whether subjects with high trait impulsivity perform worse than low impulsive subjects in a task switching paradigm in which they have to rapidly shift their attention between two response rules, and to investigate the influence of a 5-HT enhancing diet. Healthy subjects with high ( n = 19) and low (n = 18) trait impulsivity scores participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. All subjects performed the attention switch task in the morning following breakfast containing either tryptophan-rich alpha-lactalbumin (4.8 g/100 g TRP) or placebo protein (1.4 g/100 g TRP). Whereas there were no baseline differences between high and low impulsive subjects in task switching abilities, high impulsive subjects made significantly more switch errors and responded slower after dietary 5-HT stimulation, whereas no dietary effects were found on task switching performance in low-impulsive subjects. The deterioration in task switching performance induced by the 5-HT enhancing diet in high impulsive subjects was suggested to be established by general arousal/attention-reducing effects of 5-HT, which might have a larger impact in high impulsive subjects due to either different brain circuitry involved in task switching in this group or lower baseline arousal levels.

  14. The gender-related differences of nutrient intakes in a group of Italian obese patients display the ongoing transition from Mediterranean to western dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giorgio; Canducci, Edgardo; Guida, Ada; Frascari, Ambra; Rossi, Angelo; Bersani, Gianluca; Ravani, Bruna; Alvisi, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare nutrients and energy intakes between obese women and men and the variation rates over or below the recommended dietary allowances. A retrospective survey was conducted on the records of obese patients, categorized into gender-related groups (36 women, 36 men). Total energy and nutrient intakes were determined. The highest variation rates were found for animal protein, averaging 225 % over the recommended dietary allowance, without significant differences between women and men. The simple carbohydrate intake was quite elevated in women with variations almost 80% over the RDA, significantly higher than in men (22%). The consumption of high-protein foods in both sexes, and even more the association with high-simple carbohydrate foods in women, display the Westernization of traditional eating habits.

  15. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    in dietary habits. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52...... participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. RESULTS: At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio...... compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003). No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased...

  16. Using Creative Group Techniques in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Laura J.; Gladding, Samuel T.

    2007-01-01

    Groups in high schools that use creative techniques help adolescents express their emotions appropriately, behave differently, and gain insight into themselves and others. This article looks at seven different creative arts media--music, movement, visual art, literature, drama, play, and humor--and offers examples of how they can be used in groups…

  17. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  18. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  19. Dietary and supplemental maternal methyl-group donor intake and cord blood DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; A S Langie, Sabine; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-02

    Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. LC-MS/MS and pyrosequencing were used to measure global and gene specific methylation, respectively. Dietary intake of methyl-groups before and during pregnancy was associated with changes in LEP, DNMT1, and RXRA cord blood methylation. Statistically significant higher cord blood LEP methylation was observed when mothers started folic acid supplementation more than 6 months before conception compared with 3-6 months before conception (34.6 ± 6.3% vs. 30.1 ± 3.6%, P = 0.011, LEP CpG1) or no folic acid used before conception (16.2 ± 4.4% vs. 13.9 ± 3%, P = 0.036 for LEP CpG3 and 24.5 ± 3.5% vs. 22.2 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045 for LEP mean CpG). Taking folic acid supplements during the entire pregnancy resulted in statistically significantly higher cord blood RXRA methylation as compared with stopping supplementation in the second trimester (12.3 ± 1.9% vs. 11.1 ± 2%, P = 0.008 for RXRA mean CpG). To conclude, long-term folic acid use before and during pregnancy was associated with higher LEP and RXRA cord blood methylation, respectively. To date, pregnant women are advised to take a folic acid supplement of 400 µg/day from 4 weeks before until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Our results suggest significant epigenetic modifications when taking a folic acid supplement beyond the current advice.

  20. The false alarm hypothesis: Food allergy is associated with high dietary advanced glycation end-products and proglycating dietary sugars that mimic alarmins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Masilamani, Madhan; Li, Xiu-Min; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of food allergy has increased dramatically in the last few decades in westernized developed countries. We propose that the Western lifestyle and diet promote innate danger signals and immune responses through production of "alarmins." Alarmins are endogenous molecules secreted from cells undergoing nonprogrammed cell death that signal tissue and cell damage. High molecular group S (HMGB1) is a major alarmin that binds to the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are also present in foods. We propose the "false alarm" hypothesis, in which AGEs that are present in or formed from the food in our diet are predisposing to food allergy. The Western diet is high in AGEs, which are derived from cooked meat, oils, and cheese. AGEs are also formed in the presence of a high concentration of sugars. We propose that a diet high in AGEs and AGE-forming sugars results in misinterpretation of a threat from dietary allergens, promoting the development of food allergy. AGEs and other alarmins inadvertently prime innate signaling through multiple mechanisms, resulting in the development of allergic phenotypes. Current hypotheses and models of food allergy do not adequately explain the dramatic increase in food allergy in Western countries. Dietary AGEs and AGE-forming sugars might be the missing link, a hypothesis supported by a number of convincing epidemiologic and experimental observations, as discussed in this article. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zeinab; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Zinab, Hassan Eini; Farrokhzad, Solmaz; Rahimi, Roya; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-05-01

    The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups' intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case-control study. A case-control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05-2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59-1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively). Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.

  2. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  3. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  5. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  6. Assessing the Validity and Reproducibility of an Iron Dietary Intake Questionnaire Conducted in a Group of Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Ślązak, Joanna; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse a designed brief iron dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IRONIC-FFQ—IRON Intake Calculation-Food Frequency Questionnaire), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 75 Polish women aged 20–30 years. Participants conducted 3-day dietary records and filled in the IRONIC-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 50% (weighted κ of 0.36), while analysis of correlation revealed correlation coefficients of almost 0.5. In the assessment of reproducibility, almost 80% of individuals were correctly classified and less than 3% were misclassified (weighted κ of 0.73), while a correlation coefficient higher than 0.85 was obtained. Both in the assessment of validity and of reproducibility, a Bland–Altman index of 6.7% was recorded (93.3% of compared pairs of results were in the acceptable range, attributed to differences within ± 2SD limit). Validation of the IRONIC-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and positively validated reproducibility. PMID:28264423

  7. Major dietary patterns in relation to demographic and socio-economic status and food insecurity in two Iranian ethnic groups living in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Ghazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Nouri-Saeidlou, Sakineh

    2016-12-01

    To identify major dietary patterns and their association with socio-economic status (SES) and food insecurity in two major ethnic groups living in Urmia, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study. All four geographical zones of Urmia city. Participants (n 723; 427 women and 296 men), aged 20-64 years, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri Turks and 278 Kurds). Three major dietary patterns were extracted: 'Traditional High SES' (THS), 'Traditional Low SES' (TLS) and 'Transitional'. After adjusting for confounders, the THS pattern was positively associated with education level and negatively associated with moderate or severe food insecurity in Azeri Turks; whereas, among Kurds, it was more common in women and positively associated with age. The TLS pattern was more common among men and negatively associated with educational level and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men, positively associated with being married and negatively associated with household income/capita. The 'Transitional' pattern was positively associated with being employed and negatively associated with age and all levels of food insecurity in Azeris; while, among Kurds, it was more common among men and negatively associated with age, being married and physical activity level. Findings suggest that household SES and food insecurity are associated with detrimental dietary patterns and that this effect may be stronger than cultural and ethnic background. These patterns differ by age and gender. Therefore, such characteristics should be considered in planning and formulating diet-related policies and programmes.

  8. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group “Grain (Cereal)”, Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended “grain (cereal)” core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the “grain (cereal)” group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre (p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference (p = 0.006) and BMI (p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity. PMID:28218715

  9. The Cross-Sectional Association between Consumption of the Recommended Five Food Group "Grain (Cereal)", Dietary Fibre and Anthropometric Measures among Australian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; McConnell, Andrew; Tuck, Kate; Mansour, Marie

    2017-02-18

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommended "grain (cereal)" core food group includes both refined and whole grain foods, but excludes those that are discretionary (i.e., cakes). We investigated the association between daily serves from the "grain (cereal)" group and its effect on fibre and adiposity. Data from Australian adults in the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used ( n = 9341). Participants were categorised by serves of core grain foods and general linear models were used to investigate the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary covariates on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and fibre intake. Compared to core grain avoiders (0 serves), high consumers (6+ serves/day) were: more likely male and socially advantaged, had a healthier dietary pattern, less likely dieting, overweight or obese, and were at lower risk of metabolic complications. After adjustment for age, sex and energy intake, there was an inverse relationship between core grain serves intake and BMI ( p < 0.001), waist circumference ( p = 0.001) and a positive relationship with fibre ( p < 0.001). Model adjustments for diet and lifestyle factors resulted in a smaller difference in waist circumference ( p = 0.006) and BMI ( p = 0.006). Core grain serves was significantly associated with higher fibre, but marginally clinically significant for lower adiposity.

  10. Unhealthful Food-and-Beverage Advertising in Subway Stations: Targeted Marketing, Vulnerable Groups, Dietary Intake, and Poor Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar C; Schechter, Clyde B

    2017-04-01

    Unhealthful food-and-beverage advertising often targets vulnerable groups. The extent of such advertising in subway stations has not been reported and it is not clear how ad placement may relate to subway ridership or community demographics, or what the implications might be for diets and diet-related health in surrounding communities. Riding all subway lines (n = 7) in the Bronx, NY, USA, investigators systematically assessed all print ads (n = 1586) in all stations (n = 68) in 2012. Data about subway ridership came from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Demographic data on surrounding residential areas came from the U.S. Census Bureau. Data on dietary intake and diet-related conditions came from a city health-department survey. There were no ads promoting "more-healthful" food-or-beverage items (i.e., fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, water or milk). There were many ads for "less-healthful" items (e.g., candies, chips, sugary cereals, frozen pizzas, "energy" drinks, coffee confections, hard alcohol, and beer). Ad placement did not relate to the number of riders entering at stations. Instead, exposure to food-or-beverage ads generally, and to "less-healthful" ads particularly (specifically ads in Spanish, directed at youth, and/or featuring minorities), was directly correlated with poverty, lower high-school graduation rates, higher percentages of Hispanics, and/or higher percentages of children in surrounding residential areas. Correlations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Additional analyses suggested correlations between ad exposures and sugary-drink consumption, fruit-and-vegetable intake, and diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol rates. Subway-station ads for "less-healthful" items were located disproportionately in areas home to vulnerable populations facing diet and diet-related-health challenges. The fact that uneven ad placement did not relate to total rider counts suggests ads were not directed at the largest

  11. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  12. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  13. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  14. Toxic hepatitis in a group of 20 male body-builders taking dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timcheh-Hariri, Alireza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Aryan, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad

    2012-10-01

    Dietary supplements have been used for decades for enhancing muscle growth. The harm caused by some of these products is well documented. We investigated and reported toxic hepatitis in 20 male athletes following self-prescribing of a number of dietary supplements which are lesser known. The patients' ages ranged from 24 to 32 with a mean of 28 years. They had taken three kinds of supplements for 1 year including testosterone optimizer agent T Bomb II, a creatine supplement Phosphagen and an amino acid based supplement Cell-Tech. Based on the history, clinical examination, and laboratory findings the cases were diagnosed as toxic hepatitis. After discontinuation of taking the supplements, clinical recovery and improvement of liver function tests were achieved within 30 days. Causality assessment with the CIOMS (Council for International Organization Medical Sciences) scale showed a "possible" grade of causality (+5 points) for these supplements. It can be concluded that these newer anabolic supplements may induce toxic hepatitis. Since the health risks of them may be severe, the use of these kinds of dietary supplements should be discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High dietary fiber during late gestation reduces the rate of stillborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed to inves......The beneficial effects of dietary fiber in the diet of gestating sows have been thoroughly investigated from behavioral and welfare prospective. However, there is limited information whether dietary fiber is beneficial from a reproductive point of view. Therefore, the present study aimed...... assigned to the control and treatment group, respectively. Sows in the control group were fed according to normal feeding strategy of the herd, fed a standard gestation diet until 1 week before expected parturition, fed a transition diet until day 5 of lactation and a standard lactation diet until weaning....... Sows in the treatment group were fed as the control group but part of the gestation diet (from day 102 to 108 of gestation) and part of the transition diet (from day 109 of gestation until farrowing) was replaced by a fiber rich supplement. Thus, 350 and 700 g/d of the supplement replaced part...

  16. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-

  17. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  18. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures

  19. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  20. Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, Jessica A; Bazinet, Adam L; Valdés, Ángel; Collins, Allen G; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-10-26

    The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of marine specialized consumers for which reliable phylogenies exist hampers attempts to test the role of trophic specialization in evolution. In this study, RNA-Seq data is used to produce a phylogeny of Cladobranchia, a group of marine invertebrates that feed on a diverse array of prey taxa but mostly specialize on cnidarians. The broad range of prey type preferences allegedly present in two major groups within Cladobranchia suggest that prey type shifts are relatively common over evolutionary timescales. In the present study, we generated a well-supported phylogeny of the major lineages within Cladobranchia using RNA-Seq data, and used ancestral state reconstruction analyses to better understand the evolution of prey preference. These analyses answered several fundamental questions regarding the evolutionary relationships within Cladobranchia, including support for a clade of species from Arminidae as sister to Tritoniidae (which both preferentially prey on Octocorallia). Ancestral state reconstruction analyses supported a cladobranchian ancestor with a preference for Hydrozoa and show that the few transitions identified only occur from lineages that prey on Hydrozoa to those that feed on other types of prey. There is strong phylogenetic correlation with prey preference within Cladobranchia, suggesting that prey type specialization within this group has inertia. Shifts between different types of prey have occurred rarely throughout the evolution of

  1. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  2. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Key, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30 251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. PMID:27101764

  4. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  5. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency ques...

  6. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  7. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  8. Heritable transmission of stress resistance by high dietary glucose in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tauffenberger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is a major energy source and is a key regulator of metabolism but excessive dietary glucose is linked to several disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiac dysfunction. Dietary intake greatly influences organismal survival but whether the effects of nutritional status are transmitted to the offspring is an unresolved question. Here we show that exposing Caenorhabditis elegans to high glucose concentrations in the parental generation leads to opposing negative effects on fecundity, while having protective effects against cellular stress in the descendent progeny. The transgenerational inheritance of glucose-mediated phenotypes is dependent on the insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway and components of the histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylase complex are essential for transmission of inherited phenotypes. Thus dietary over-consumption phenotypes are heritable with profound effects on the health and survival of descendants.

  9. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  10. Dietary B vitamin needs of strains of pigs with high and moderate lean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahly, T S; Williams, N H; Lutz, T R; Ewan, R C; Swenson, S G

    2007-01-01

    Ten sets of 5 littermate pigs from each of 2 genetic strains were utilized to determine the impact of the dietary concentration of 5 B vitamins (riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, cobalamin, and folacin) on growth from 9 to 28 kg of BW in pigs with high or moderate capacity for lean growth. All pigs (penned individually) were reared via a segregated, early weaning scheme, so that the lean growth potential of each strain could be expressed. The basal diet provided the 5 test vitamins at concentrations of total and estimated bioavailability equivalent to a minimum of 100 and 70%, respectively, of their estimated requirements (NRC, 1998) for 5- to 10-kg pigs. At a BW of 9 +/- 0.9 kg, pigs within each litter were allotted to the basal diet supplemented with sources of the 5 test vitamins equivalent to an additional 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400% (bioavailable) of the NRC requirements. Pigs from the high lean strain consumed less feed (P vitamin concentrations were increased. However, the dietary B vitamin concentrations needed to optimize G:F were greater (P 470% of NRC, 1998) vs. moderate (270%) lean strain. Based on these data, the dietary needs for 1 or more of the 5 B vitamins are greater than current NRC (1998) estimates, particularly in pigs expressing a high rate of lean tissue growth. The greater need for these vitamins is not associated with greater dietary energy intake or body energy accretion rate but is potentially due to shifts in the predominant metabolic pathways.

  11. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban

  12. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Snijder, M.B.; Schene, A.H.; Lok, A.; Vries, J.H. de; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  13. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; De Vries, Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  14. Metabolic impacts of high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Fjære, Even; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice...... were fed control (C) or very high-fat diet (VHF) containing low or high levels of POPs (VHF+POPs) for eight weeks. To elevate the dietary concentrations of POPs, casein was replaced by whale meat containing high levels of pollutants. Feeding VHF+POPs induced high POP accumulation in the adipose tissue...... of mice. However, compared with VHF-fed mice, animals fed VHF+POPs had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and reduced body weight. Levels of ectopic fat in skeletal muscles and liver were reduced in mice fed VHF+POPs. These mice also gained less adipose tissue and had a tendency...

  15. Dietary Reversal Ameliorates Short- and Long-Term Memory Deficits Induced by High-fat Diet Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available A high-fat diet (HFD, one of the major factors contributing to metabolic syndrome, which is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases, leads to insulin resistance and cognitive impairment. It is not known whether these alterations are improved with dietary intervention. To investigate the long-term impact of a HFD on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory, C57BL6 mice were placed into one of three groups based on the diet: a standard diet (control, a HFD, or a HFD for 16 weeks and then the standard diet for 8 weeks (HF16. HFD-induced impairments in glucose tolerance and hippocampal insulin signaling occurred concurrently with deficits in both short- and long-term memory. Furthermore, these conditions were improved with dietary intervention; however, the HFD-induced decrease in insulin receptor expression in the hippocampus was not altered with dietary intervention. Our results demonstrate that memory deficits due to the consumption of a HFD at an early age are reversible.

  16. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  17. Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J; Ullrich, I H

    1986-03-01

    High sucrose diets may cause increased serum triglycerides and decreased high density lipoprotein concentration. To determine whether dietary fiber protects against these effects, four groups of six healthy young men were assigned to one of four very high carbohydrate diets providing 0, 18, 36, or 52% of calories as sucrose. Each diet was fed in both low (less than 14 g) and high (greater than 34 g) levels of dietary fiber for 10 days each. Triglycerides increased during the 36 and 52% sucrose diets compared to 0 and 18% sucrose diets, and fiber protected partially against this rise. Serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were lower during the 0 and 18% sucrose diets than the 36 or 52% sucrose diets but fiber had no effect. HDL cholesterol decreased during all low fat diets, with a trend toward a greater decrease during the high sucrose diets. The results suggest that fiber protects against carbohydrate-induced lipemia but has no effect on cholesterol during very high carbohydrate diets.

  18. Dietary Intake of DHA and EPA in a Group of Pregnant Women in the Moncton Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nicole Arsenault; Leblanc, Caroline P

    2017-06-01

    To compare docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and fish intake of pregnant women at 30 weeks of gestation to current recommendations and to determine the factors associated with omega-3 (ω-3) intake. A food frequency questionnaire was completed by 54 women (54/131 = 41%) at 30 ± 0.8 weeks gestation. Supplement intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and ω-3 food habits were evaluated. Among this high socioeconomic status (SES) group, 66.7% and 64.8% met the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of 200 mg/d DHA and 300 mg/d DHA + EPA, respectively, and only 48.1% met the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) recommendation of 500 mg/d DHA + EPA. Eighteen of the 54 women took a ω-3 supplement during the third trimester. This significantly improved their total intake to meet the FAO/WHO (88.9% ≥200 mg/d DHA and 94.4% ≥300 mg/d DHA + EPA) and the Academy (77.8% ≥500 mg/d DHA + EPA) recommendations. Among nonsupplement users (36/54), 50% met the FAO/WHO recommendations and only 33.3% met the Academy recommendations. Results suggest that the majority of high SES women did not meet ω-3 recommendations from food alone. Continued prenatal education on the importance of fish intake and on the addition of ω-3 prenatal supplement is essential.

  19. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  20. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  1. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  2. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  3. [Nutritional status assessment in a group of university students by means of dietary parameters and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Roldán, C; Veiga Herreros, P; López de Andrés, A; Cobo Sanz, J Ma; Carbajal Azcona, A

    2005-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status in a young adults by means of dietary parameters and body composition. The sample comprises 49 young men (35 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 21.9 +/- 2.9 ages, at Alfonso X el Sabio University of Madrid. Body composition was analyzed through anthropometrical parameters. By means of validated questionnaires, physical activity performed within a week was assessed, as well as energy and nutrients intake. The later was estimated through a registry of all foods and beverages consumed for the last 14 days performed by each one of the participants (previously instructed) and estimating the amounts by weight or home or standard servings. The resting energy waste was determined by indirect calorimetry and through the Harris-Benedict predictive formula. Body mass index was similar in both men and women (p = 0.10) (23.5 +/- 1.9 and 22.0 +/- 2.8 kg/m2). The percentage of fat obtained through anthropometrics was 16.4 +/- 3.5% and 27.1 +/- 3.8% (p vitamin A in men, with levels below the recommended ones. In some aspects, the diet from this group deviates from current dietary standards. It would be advisable to increase the physical activity that would allow a higher food intake in order to cover for the insufficient intake of some nutrients without energetically unbalancing the diet. The assessment of resting energetic waste by indirect calorimetry seems to better predict the energetic needs.

  4. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  5. Dietary intake in the early years and its relationship to BMI in a bi-ethnic group: the Born in Bradford 1000 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Samuel; Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Barber, Stuart

    2018-04-02

    To assess relationships between dietary intake at age 12, 18 and 36 months and BMI Z-scores at age 36 months in a bi-ethnic group. A prospective cohort study comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Exposures included dietary intake at 12, 18 and 36 months (FFQ) with an outcome of BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Born in Bradford 1000 study, Bradford, UK. Infants at age 12 months (n 722; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani), 18 months (n 779; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani) and 36 months (n 845; 45 % White British, 55 % Pakistani). Diet at age 12 months was not associated with BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Higher consumption of vegetables at 18 and 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at 36 months (model coefficient (95 % CI): -0·20 (-0·36, -0·03) and -0·16 (-0·31, -0·02), respectively). Higher consumption of high-fat chips at age 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at age 36 months (-0·16 (-0·32, 0·00)). Overall, White British children had higher 36-month BMI Z-scores than Pakistani children (adjusted mean difference (95 % CI): 0·21 (0·02, 0·41)). Our findings indicate that dietary intake at 18 and 36 months was somewhat related to BMI Z-score at age 36 months and suggest the importance of early interventions aimed at establishing healthy eating behaviours.

  6. Inhibition of serum cholesterol oxidation by dietary vitamin C and selenium intake in high fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M; Ansorena, D; Milagro, F I; Campión, J; Martínez, J A; Astiasarán, I

    2008-04-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been considered as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. In this study, an increased oxidative status was induced in Wistar rats by feeding them a high-fat diet (cafeteria diet). Another group of animals received the same diet supplemented with a combination of two different antioxidants, ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg rat/day) and sodium selenite (200 microg/kg rat/day) and a third group fed on a control diet. Total and individual COPs analysis of the different diets showed no differences among them. At the end of the experimental trial, rats were sacrificed and serum cholesterol, triglycerides and COPs were measured. None of the diets induced changes in rats body weight, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Serum total COPs in rats fed on the high-fat diet were 1.01 microg/ml, two times the amount of the control rats (0.47 microg/ml). When dietary antioxidant supplementation was given, serum total COPs concentration (0.44 microg/ml) showed the same levels than those of the rats on control diet. 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, formed non-enzymatically via cholesterol peroxidation in the presence of reactive oxygen species, showed slightly lower values in the antioxidant-supplemented animals compared to the control ones. This study confirms the importance of dietary antioxidants as protective factors against the formation of oxysterols.

  7. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  8. Dietary salecan reverts partially the metabolic gene expressions and NMR-based metabolomic profiles from high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Li, Minghui; Yang, Xiao; Xu, Xi; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Jianfa

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that dietary salecan (a water-soluble β-glucan) effectively reduces high-fat-diet-induced adiposity through disturbing bile-acid-promoted emulsification in mice. However, the effects of salecan on metabolic genes and metabolites involved in lipid accumulation are mostly unknown. Here, we confirmed that dietary 3% and 6% salecan for 4 weeks markedly decreased fat accumulation in liver and adipose tissue in high-fat-diet rats, displaying a decrease in mRNA levels of SREBP1-C, FAS, SCD1 and ACC1 involved in de novo lipogenesis and a reduction of levels of GPAT1, DGAT1 and DGAT2 related to triglyceride synthesis. Dietary salecan also increased the mRNA levels of PPARα and CYP7A1, which are related to fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol decomposition, respectively. In the 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic analysis, both the serum and liver metabolite profiles differed among the control groups, and the metabolic profiles of the salecan groups were shifted toward that of the low-fat-diet group. Metabolites analysis showed that salecan significantly increased hepatic glutathione and betaine levels which are related to regulation of cellular reactive oxygen species. These data demonstrate that dietary salecan not only disturbed fat digestion and absorption but also influenced lipid accumulation and metabolism in diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Macro and Micro-Nutrients Intake, Food Groups Consumption and Dietary Habits among Female Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, L; Esmaillzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Improving the dietary intake among different groups and population is important for improving the health status. This study determines the nutrients and food group intake as well as dietary habits among female students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundreds and eighty nine healthy female youths who were randomly selected among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran were enrolled. A validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. Folate, iron, calcium and fiber intake were lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) amounts (70, 76, 90, 56% of RDA, respectively). Forty five percent of the population consumed fast foods 2 times a week and 35% used the frying oils for cooking most of the time. Female youths had lower amount of some micronutrients. Consuming frying oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and fast food intake should be limited among this group.

  10. Potentiation of antioxidant effect of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Shubhra; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant role of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, CB), a rich source of soluble fibre, was investigated in a hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress situation in rats. In the context of dietary garlic (Allium sativa) potentiating the hypocholesterolemic influence of CB, we also examined if dietary garlic enhances the antioxidant potential of CB. Groups of Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 15% tender CB powder or 1% garlic powder or their combination in a high-cholesterol diet. Concentrations of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and liver were examined. Dietary CB displayed an antioxidant influence in terms of elevating ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations and stimulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in blood and liver. The antioxidant effect of dietary CB was generally potentiated by co-administration of garlic. Thus, consumption of tender CB and garlic together could form a strategy for improving the body's antioxidant status.

  11. Dietary study and whole body measurements in selected groups in Norway 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.; Boee, E.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1994-12-01

    This study is a continuation of a study that started in 1987. The main sources to the radiocesium intake in the different groups are almost the same compared to the previous years. The radiation dose burden to which the Norwegian population is subjected shows great variations and is dependent on the types of foods eaten. The consumption of reindeer meat and freshwater fish is of major importance. 6 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs

  12. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  13. Necrotic enteritis challenge and high dietary sodium level affect odorant composition or emission from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Swick, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). On d 33, while challenge did not lead to higher mortality, it reduced feed intake by 5.48% (P litter moisture and litter headspace concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (P litter moisture (P litter headspace concentration of sulfur compounds and phenol (P litter flux of some additional odorants, which included 2,3-butanedione (P broiler farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Correlation between quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate and obesity in a group of women from Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Shishehbor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Obesity and being overweight are one of current nutritional disorders found in many developed and developing countries such as Iran, it seems that recently the role of carbohydrates in the formation of such illness has been considered. Studies conducted in the field of obesity and quality and quantity of carbohydrate (glycemic index and glycemic load have had inconsistent results. Therefore, This study evaluates the relationship between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and some indicators of obesity. Material & Methods: The subjects were 95 healthy Iranian females aged 25-55 y .dietary GI, GL assessed from six24 hour food recalls. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standard methods. Information such as history of disease and genetics was collected by a questionnaire. Independent sample t test, correlation confident ، one–way ANOVA Were used to investigate the correlation between dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and anthropometric measurements. Results: The mean dietary GI was 72.8 and the mean dietary GL was 154.4. After making the necessary adjustments for potential dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, no significant association was seen between dietary GI, GL and BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio in healthy women. Conclusion: The fact that there was no relation between dietary GI and GL and anthropometric measurements in healthy women may be due to the fact that results obtained from overweight samples were not reported in the current study.

  15. Dietary supplementation and doping-related factors in high-level sailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodek Jelena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DSs in sports are considered a natural need resulting from athletes’ increased physical demands, and although they are often consumed by athletes, data on DS usage in Olympic sailing are scarce. The aim of this study was to study the use of and attitudes towards DSs and doping problems in high-level competitive sailing. Methods The sample consisted of 44 high-level sailing athletes (5 of whom were female; total mean age 24.13 ± 6.67 years and 34 coaches (1 of whom was female; total mean age 37.01 ± 11.70. An extensive, self-administered questionnaire of substance use was used, and the subjects were asked about sociodemographic data, sport-related factors, DS-related factors (i.e., usage of and knowledge about DSs, sources of information, and doping-related factors. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was used to determine the differences in group characteristics, and Spearman’s rank order correlation and a logistic regression analysis were used to define the relationships between the studied variables. Results DS usage is relatively high. More than 77% of athletes consume DSs, and 38% do so on a regular basis (daily. The athletes place a high degree of trust in their coaches and/or physicians regarding DSs and doping. The most important reason for not consuming DSs is the opinion that DSs are useless and a lack of knowledge about DSs. The likelihood of doping is low, and one-third of the subjects believe that doping occurs in sailing (no significant differences between athletes and coaches. The logistic regression found crew number (i.e., single vs. double crew to be the single significant predictor of DS usage, with a higher probability of DS consumption among single crews. Conclusion Because of the high consumption of DSs future investigations should focus on real nutritional needs in sailing sport. Also, since athletes reported that their coaches are the primary source of information about

  16. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men.

  17. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  18. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  19. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  1. Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational groups' perspectives of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lillian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1 to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2 to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3 to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general. Methods The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups. Results Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of

  2. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  4. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jiao, Rui-Qing; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-03-29

    High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), uric acid (UA) and methylglyoxal (MG). Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  6. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG, free fatty acid (FFA, uric acid (UA and methylglyoxal (MG. Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  7. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for > or =median compared with or =median compared with food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  8. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Design: Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for ≥median compared with food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). Conclusion: High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons. PMID:19793852

  9. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  10. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...

  11. Nominal group technique-elicited barriers and facilitators to following the Dietary Guidelines for solid fats and added sugars in children: The HEALTH Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US population has a high intake of discretionary solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS) which currently exceeds federal dietary recommendations. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to following the DGA. Thirty-eight 5th grade children across six Human Nutrition Resear...

  12. Age group and sex do not influence responses of vitamin K biomarkers to changes in dietary vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Jennifer T; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L

    2012-05-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18-40 y) and 21 older (55-80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex.

  13. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Della Pepa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content.

  14. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  15. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD, DR, high-fat diet (HFD, and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2, which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression.

  16. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  17. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  18. High level of dietary soybean oil depresses the growth and anti-oxidative capacity and induces inflammatory response in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hua; Shen, Haohao; Liu, Jiahuan; Xie, Fangli; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2018-06-01

    Increasing demand, uncertain availability and high price of fish oil with the expansion of aquaculture made it essential to search alternative lipid sources. Vegetable oil has been proved to be the best candidate for the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds. However, this replacement especially in high level potentially has some negative effects on fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses of large yellow croaker to replacement of dietary fish oil by soybean oil. Three isonitrogenous (46% crude protein) and isolipidic (13% crude lipids) diets were formulated to feed fish (initial body weight: 36.80 ± 0.39 g) for 12 weeks. The control diet was designed to contain 6.5% of fish oil, and named as FO. On the basis of the control diet, the fish oil was 50% and 100% replaced by soybean oil, and these two diets were named as FS and SO, respectively. Results showed that the specific growth rate significantly decreased in the SO group. Crude lipid contents in muscle and liver of fish fed SO diet were significantly higher than those in the FO group. The ratio of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to identified fatty acids in liver decreased significantly, while n-6 PUFAs increased significantly with increasing dietary soybean oil inclusion. The levels of triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and tumour necrosis factor α, and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum significantly increased in SO group. The total anti-oxidative capacity and expressions of the anti-oxidation-related genes (superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase, glutathion peroxidase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) were significantly decreased by dietary soybean inclusion. Dietary soybean oil significantly decreased the gene expressions of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (arginase I and interleukin 10), and increased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin

  19. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  20. Ability Group Configuration for the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Scott

    This research project looks to investigate the effectiveness of different ability grouping arrangements for the high school physics classroom. Students were first organized based on their academic aptitude in physics into three general groups of high, medium, and low achieving students. They were then divided into both groups of four and dyads that were constructed in one of four arrangements, namely: random, homogeneous, heterogeneous, or student choice. Data was collected based on their academic performance as well as survey responses regarding the group and dyad performance. Students worked in a rotation of these groups and dyads for a unit to measure student preference and introduce collaborative work formally to the classes. At this point it was evident that students preferred the student choice arrangement based on survey responses, yet the student choice survey responses also resulted in the lowest level of reliability when compared to all other grouping methods. For the next unit students were kept in either the random, homogeneous, or heterogeneous grouping arrangement for the entirety of the unit. At the conclusion of the second unit student achievement as well as survey responses were analyzed. As a result of this research there appears to be a slight student preference as well as academic benefit to homogeneous group and dyad arrangements for each of the three ability groups of students in the high school physics classroom when compared to random and heterogeneous grouping methods of academic group arrangement.

  1. Dietary Therapy and Nutrition Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Work Group Report of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetch, Marion; Venter, Carina; Skypala, Isabel; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Grimshaw, Kate; Durban, Raquel; Cassin, Alison; Henry, Michelle; Kliewer, Kara; Kabbash, Lynda; Atkins, Dan; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Holbreich, Mark; Chehade, Mirna

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic/immune-antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. Dietary elimination therapy has been shown to be an effective, drug-free prescription for the treatment of EoE. A range of different dietary elimination therapies have been used. Regardless of the elimination diet chosen, dietary therapy requires in-depth nutrition assessment and management. Elimination diets are not without risk and may impact nutritional status, eating pleasure, and overall quality of life. With adequate guidance, dietary therapy can be effective and nutritionally balanced, and the adverse impact on lifestyle can be minimized. This work group report addresses the potential challenges of implementing an elimination diet for the management of EoE and provides instructions and tools for physicians, dietitians, and other allied health professionals to help guide them in planning elimination diets for both children and adults. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association of Meal Practices and Other Dietary Correlates With Dietary Intake Among High School Students in the United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Kim, Sonia A; Park, Sohyun; Grimm, Kirsten A; Merlo, Caitlin; Harris, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    To examine behavioral and environmental factors that may be related to dietary behaviors among U.S. high school students. Data were obtained from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. The study was school-based. Study subjects were a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12 (n = 11,458). Variables of interest included meal practices, in-home snack availability, and intakes of healthful foods/beverages (fruits, vegetables, water, and milk) and less healthful foods/beverages (fried potatoes, pizza, and sugar-sweetened beverages). Sex-stratified logistic regression models were used to examine associations of meal practices and snack availability with dietary intake. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for race/ethnicity and grade. Eating breakfast daily, frequent family dinners, and bringing lunch from home were associated with higher odds of consuming at least three healthful foods or beverages. High fast-food intake was associated with lower odds of healthful dietary intake and higher odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake (female OR = 3.73, male OR = 4.60). Students who mostly/always had fruits and vegetables available at home had increased odds of fruits (female OR = 3.04, male OR = 2.24), vegetables (female OR = 2.12, male OR = 1.65), water (female OR = 1.82, male OR = 1.85), and milk intake (female OR = 1.45, male OR = 1.64). Encouraging daily breakfast consumption, frequent family dinners, and fruit and vegetable availability at home may lead to higher intakes of healthful foods among high school students.

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins in food are increasingly a food safety hazard concern in particular in developing countries. This study was performed to determine the occurrence and determinants of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in rice and maize and to assess health risks through dietary intake exposure among...

  5. Who's for dinner? High-throughput sequencing reveals bat dietary differentiation in a biodiversity hotspot where prey taxonomy is largely undescribed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgar, Joanna M; Murray, Daithi C; Craig, Michael D; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Stokes, Vicki; Bunce, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Effective management and conservation of biodiversity requires understanding of predator-prey relationships to ensure the continued existence of both predator and prey populations. Gathering dietary data from predatory species, such as insectivorous bats, often presents logistical challenges, further exacerbated in biodiversity hot spots because prey items are highly speciose, yet their taxonomy is largely undescribed. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatic analyses to phylogenetically group DNA sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) to examine predator-prey dynamics of three sympatric insectivorous bat species in the biodiversity hotspot of south-western Australia. We could only assign between 4% and 20% of MOTUs to known genera or species, depending on the method used, underscoring the importance of examining dietary diversity irrespective of taxonomic knowledge in areas lacking a comprehensive genetic reference database. MOTU analysis confirmed that resource partitioning occurred, with dietary divergence positively related to the ecomorphological divergence of the three bat species. We predicted that bat species' diets would converge during times of high energetic requirements, that is, the maternity season for females and the mating season for males. There was an interactive effect of season on female, but not male, bat species' diets, although small sample sizes may have limited our findings. Contrary to our predictions, females of two ecomorphologically similar species showed dietary convergence during the mating season rather than the maternity season. HTS-based approaches can help elucidate complex predator-prey relationships in highly speciose regions, which should facilitate the conservation of biodiversity in genetically uncharacterized areas, such as biodiversity hotspots. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  7. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  8. Modulatory effects of dietary supplementation by Vernonia amygdalina on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ijeh, Ifeoma I; Okafor, Polycarp N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem arising from energy imbalance. The effect of 10% dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves into high-fat diets on some biological markers of adiposity and dyslipidaemia was investigated. Experimental diets consisted of the following – CD (control diet); HFD (high-fat diet); and HFD- VA (HFD containing 10% Vernonia amygdalina leaves) supplementation. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. After twelve weeks of feeding, serum lipid profile, blood glucose concentrations, body weight, adiposity index, feed intake, fecal loss and relative organ weight were investigated. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adiposity in rats. HFD-induced obese rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum TG and TC compared to rats on a normal diet. However, the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL-C in HFDVA rats reduced significantly relative to the levels in HFD rats. Our results indicate that HFDVA reversed fatty infiltration leading to decreased body weight and fat tissue mass in the rats. These results suggested that incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina into high-fat diets may have therapeutic potentials for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted.

  9. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P < 0.001) among diets, whereas intake of digestible CP was similar among diets. On average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P < 0.05) lying on their chest than pigs fed SBH diets. Total time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed SECM diets than for pigs fed SBH diets. Activity-related heat production (AHP) averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship

  10. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  11. Effects of high-carbohydrate and high-fat dietary treatments on measures of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Richard M; Austin, Rachel E; Bond, Vernon; Faruque, Mezbah; Goring, Kim L; Hickey, Brian M; Blakely, Raymond; Demeersman, Ronald E

    2009-07-17

    We tested the hypothesis that respiratory quotient (RQ) determines sympathovagal balance associated with metabolism of stored and dietary energy substrates. Six 18-20 year-old African-American males were studied after two control pretreatments of fasting and post-treatments of metabolizing high-fat and high-carbohydrate beverages. RQ, heart rate (HR), energy expenditure (EE) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded at rest and repeated 1 h-3 h after ingesting isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat beverages. Sympathovagal modulation of HR was quantified by the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio from fast Fourier transform (spectral) analysis of the electrocardiogram RR intervals during paced breathing at 0.2 Hz. Significance of differences of peak post-treatment values from controls was evaluated by analysis of covariance and of correlations by linear regression at Pcarbohydrate and high-fat treatments increased RQ, EE, HR and LF/HF with significant interactions between covariates. LF/HF values were not significant after eliminating covariance of RQ, EE and HR for the control vs. high-fat and for the high-fat vs. high-carbohydrate and after eliminating covariance of EE and HR for the control vs. high-carbohydrate treatments. Across the RQ values, correlations were significant for EE and LF/HF. These findings imply that high RQ and sympathetic modulation produced by metabolizing carbohydrate is associated with high resting energy expenditure. We conclude that respiratory quotient may be an important determinant of the LF/HF ratio in the heart rate variability spectrum, likely, by a respiratory chemosensory mechanism.

  12. Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Manger, Mari; Skeie, Eli; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Chandyo, Ram; Shrestha, Prakash S; Locks, Lindsey; Ulvik, Rune J; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Strand, Tor A

    2014-07-14

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70% of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90% of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20% (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5% (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95% CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy.

  13. Dietary differentiation and the evolution of population genetic structure in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    Full Text Available Recent studies on highly mobile carnivores revealed cryptic population genetic structures correlated to transitions in habitat types and prey species composition. This led to the hypothesis that natal-habitat-biased dispersal may be responsible for generating population genetic structure. However, direct evidence for the concordant ecological and genetic differentiation between populations of highly mobile mammals is rare. To address this we analyzed stable isotope profiles (δ(13C and δ(15N values for Eastern European wolves (Canis lupus as a quantifiable proxy measure of diet for individuals that had been genotyped in an earlier study (showing cryptic genetic structure, to provide a quantitative assessment of the relationship between individual foraging behavior and genotype. We found a significant correlation between genetic distances and dietary differentiation (explaining 46% of the variation in both the marginal test and crucially, when geographic distance was accounted for as a co-variable. These results, interpreted in the context of other possible mechanisms such as allopatry and isolation by distance, reinforce earlier studies suggesting that diet and associated habitat choice are influencing the structuring of populations in highly mobile carnivores.

  14. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.

  15. High Dietary Fructose Intake on Cardiovascular Disease Related Parameters in Growing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, SooYeon; Ahn, Hyejin; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-12-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based on AIN-93G, n = 8), a high-fructose diet group (30Frc: fed regular diet with 30% fructose, n = 8), a high-fat diet group (45Fat: fed regular diet with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8) or a high fructose with high-fat diet group (30Frc + 45Fat, fed diet 30% fructose with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8). After an eight-week treatment period, the body weight, total-fat weight, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines, abdominal aortic wall thickness, and expressions of eNOS and ET-1 mRNA were analyzed. The result showed that total-fat weight was higher in the 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group ( p fructose consumption and high fat consumption in growing rats had similar negative effects on CVD-related parameters.

  16. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Phillips, Stuart M; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Luc; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard G M; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Soligard, Torbjørn; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can offer benefits to the athlete, but others may be harmful to the athlete's health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation if an anti-doping rule violation results. A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome, and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialed in training or simulated competition before implementation in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the anti-doping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete's health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount, and expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before embarking on supplement use.

  17. Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Rong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1 normal chow (N; (2 high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt (HF; (3 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG; (4 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG; (5 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC; and (6 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC. From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a body weight, (b fat pad mass, (c liver weight, (d total liver lipid, (e liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol. These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  18. Investigating behavior changes of laying hens molted by high dietary zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smayyeh Salari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The commercial egg industry commonly uses induced molt procedures to rejuvenate flocks for a second or third laying cycle. Molting may be induced by feed withdrawal for up to 10 days (7, water withdrawal for 2 days (19, or both, along with a reduction of day length (14. Such programs cause concern about animal welfare because it is thought that they may be harmful to hens (28. Given the concerns for potential bird stress, various methods of nutrient restriction that would avoid long term feed withdrawal have been investigated (20, 24. One of the alternative methods for molt induction is high-dietary Zn (4. Materials and Methods In this study, a total of 30 Hy-line W-36 leghorn hens (at 50 wk old (1400 ± 150 g, were randomly assigned to 5 replicate. Ten cages (3 hens in each cage on both the upper and lower tiers were considered to observe behavior patterns. Data recording of predetermined behavioral patterns were carried out using five Camera Digital Video Recorder Multiplexer System. Behavior recording began at 9:00 h each day and ended at 11:00 h and a second observation starting at 16:00 p.m and ended at 18:00 p.m. Total of ten cages (containing 3 hens/ cage (30 hens total were used to collect 5 behaviors (feeding, drinking, nonnutritive pecking, preening and aggression pecking and one posture (sitting. The following ethogram was adopted from Webster (27 feeding defined as pecking behavior directed toward the feed trough or toward a neighboring feed trough. Drinking was defined as the appearance of ingesting water from the nipple at the near of the cage. Nonnutritive pecking was defined as non aggressive pecking at anything other than feed, which included cage pecking, feather pecking, bill pecking and air pecking. Preening behavior involved the manipulation of the plumage with the beak. Aggressive was the sum of pecks that occurred within a cage or between neighboring cages. Sitting was defined as a crouched posture with shanks

  19. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Cevik, Ebru; Gerssen, Arjen; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-03-19

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17β-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements.

  20. [Dietary patterns and its relation with overweight and obesity in Chilean girls of medium-high socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera Marqués, Lydia; Olivares Cortés, Sonia; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Bustos Zapata, Nelly

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns in girls and to assess their association with obesity or overweight. A school-based sample of 108 girls between 8 and 11 years of medium-high socioeconomic level was selected in Santiago, Chile. The body mass index was calculated and a quantified food frequency and physical activity questionnaires (validated in the FAO/MINEDUC/INTA Project Nutritional Education in primary schools) were applied. Four distinct dietary factors or patterns were obtained explaining 54% of the total variation using factorial analysis. The first factor was characterized by an energy-dense diet (high consumption of fat foods, ice creams, chocolates, French fries, snacks). The second factor represented a healthy diet (dairy products, fruits and salads). The third factor represented intake of soft drinks (either with or without sugar). The fourth factor represented a diet rich in calories and sugars (bread, sausages, sweets). The association between the four dietary factors and overweight/obesity was assessed through logistic regression models. The first factor, energy-dense foods, was the only one significantly associated with the presence of obesity (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.12 - 3.09). The results of this research about dietary patterns are consistent with studies carried out in other countries.

  1. High Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Low Insulin Resistance in the Newfoundland Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer; Wadden, Danny; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Vasdev, Sudesh; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnesium plays a role in glucose and insulin homeostasis and evidence suggests that magnesium intake is associated with insulin resistance (IR). However, data is inconsistent and most studies have not adequately controlled for critical confounding factors. Objective The study investigated the association between magnesium intake and IR in normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) along with pre- and post- menopausal women. Design A total of 2295 subjects (590 men and 1705 women) were recruited from the CODING study. Dietary magnesium intake was computed from the Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Adiposity (NW, OW and OB) was classified by body fat percentage (%BF) measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry according to the Bray criteria. Multiple regression analyses were used to test adiposity-specific associations of dietary magnesium intake on insulin resistance adjusting for caloric intake, physical activity, medication use and menopausal status. Results Subjects with the highest intakes of dietary magnesium had the lowest levels of circulating insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-ß and subjects with the lowest intake of dietary magnesium had the highest levels of these measures, suggesting a dose effect. Multiple regression analysis revealed a strong inverse association between dietary magnesium with IR. In addition, adiposity and menopausal status were found to be critical factors revealing that the association between dietary magnesium and IR was stronger in OW and OB along with Pre-menopausal women. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that higher dietary magnesium intake is strongly associated with the attenuation of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese individuals in the general population and pre-menopausal women. Moreover, the inverse correlation between insulin resistance and dietary magnesium intake is stronger when adjusting for %BF than BMI. PMID:23472169

  2. Obligations to High Priority Target Groups: Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, June Jackson

    Community mental health center services must be most plentiful where the need is greatest and must be appropriate and available to meet these needs. The first high priority group, according to statistics on juvenile delinquency, and narcotics, is the black inner city. Socio-psychiatric services, numerous enough in quantity to begin to meet needs…

  3. High dietary zinc supplementation increases the occurrence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes in the intestine of weaned pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vahjen, Wilfried; Pietruszy?ska, Dominika; Starke, Ingo C.; Zentek, J?rgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary zinc oxide is used in pig nutrition to combat post weaning diarrhoea. Recent data suggests that high doses (2.5?g/kg feed) increase the bacterial antibiotic resistance development in weaned pigs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the development of enterobacterial antibiotic resistance genes in the intestinal tract of weaned pigs. Findings Weaned pigs were fed diets for 4?weeks containing 57 (low), 164 (intermediate) or 2425 (high) mg?kg?1 analytical grade...

  4. Daily Dietary Selenium Intake in a High Selenium Area of Enshi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebin Yin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enshi is a high selenium (Se region in Hubei, China, where human selenosis was observed between 1958 and 1963. This study investigated the daily dietary Se intake of residents in Shadi, a town located 72 km northeast of Enshi City, to assess the risk of human selenosis in the high Se area. Foods consumed typically by the local residents and their hair samples were analyzed for total Se concentration. Concentrations of Se in different diet categories were as follows: cereals: 0.96 ± 0.90 mg kg−1 DW in rice and 0.43 ± 0.55 mg kg−1 DW in corn; tuber: 0.28 ± 0.56 mg kg−1 in potato and 0.36 ± 0.12 mg kg−1 in sweet potato; vegetables: ranging from 0.23 ± 1.00 mg kg−1 in carrot to 1.57 ± 1.06 mg kg−1 in kidney bean; animal proteins: 1.99 ± 1.11 mg kg−1 in chicken and egg. Based on the food Se concentrations and the daily per-capita consumption, the estimated daily Se intake in Shadi was 550 ± 307 µg per capita. Moreover, the Se concentrations in the hairs of local adult residents were 3.13 ± 1.91 mg kg−1 (n = 122 and 2.21 ± 1.14 mg kg−1 (n = 122 for females and males, respectively, suggesting that females might be exposed to higher levels of Se from daily cooking. Although there was no human selenosis occurrence in recent years, the high level of the daily Se intake suggested that the potential risk of selenosis for local residents, especially females, might be a matter of concern.

  5. Dietary whey proteins shield murine cecal microbiota from extensive disarray caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Naice E S; Roquetto, Aline R; de Pace, Fernanda; Moura, Carolina S; Santos, Andrey Dos; Yamada, Aureo T; Saad, Mário José A; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    High-fat diets are used to induce adverse alterations in the intestinal microbiota, or dysbiosis, generalized inflammation and metabolic stress, which ultimately may lead to obesity. The influence of dietary whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce stress. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to test if dietary milk-whey proteins, both in the intact form and hydrolyzed, could have an effect on the compositional changes of the cecal microbiota that can be induced in mice when receiving a high-fat diet in combination with the standard casein. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control casein diet (AIN 93-G); high-fat-casein (HFCAS); high-fat-whey protein concentrate (HFWPC) and high-fat whey-protein hydrolysate (HFWPH) for 9weeks. The intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S-rRNA of the invariant (V1-V3) gene, potentially endotoxemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release was determined colorimetrically, and liver fat infiltration assessed by light microscopy. The high-fat diet proved to induce dysbiosis in the animals by inverting the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes, promoted the increase of LPS and resulted in liver fat infiltration. The whey proteins, whether intact or hydrolyzed, resisted the installation of dysbiosis, prevented the surge of circulating LPS and prevented fat infiltration in the liver. It is concluded that dietary whey proteins exert metabolic actions that tend to preserve the normal microbiota profile, while mitigating liver fat deposition in mice consuming a high-fat diet for nine weeks. Such beneficial effects were not seen when casein was the dietary protein. The hydrolyzed whey protein still differed from the normal whey protein by selectively protecting the Bacteroidetes phylum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  7. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  8. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  9. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study and included 4969 individuals aged 18-70 years. Diet was assessed using four ethnic-specific FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced rank regression with mono- and disaccharides, saturated fat and total fat as response variables. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms by using continuous scores and depressed mood (identified using the cut-off point: PHQ-9 sum score ≥10). The Netherlands. Three dietary patterns were identified; an HSHF dietary pattern (including chocolates, red meat, added sugars, high-fat dairy products, fried foods, creamy sauces), an HS dietary pattern (including sugar-sweetened beverages, added sugars, fruit (juices)) and an HF dietary pattern (including high-fat dairy products, butter). When comparing extreme quartiles, consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern was associated with more depressive symptoms (Q1 v. Q4: β=0·18, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·30, P=0·001) and with higher odds of depressed mood (Q1 v. Q4: OR=2·36, 95 % CI 1·19, 4·66, P=0·014). No associations were found between consumption of the remaining dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms and with depressed mood. Our findings reinforce the idea that the focus should be on dietary patterns that are high in both sugar and saturated fat.

  10. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Burke, Louise M; Dvorak, Jiri; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Peeling, Peter; Rawson, Eric S; Walsh, Neil P; Garthe, Ina; Geyer, Hans; Meeusen, Romain; van Loon, Lucas J C; Shirreffs, Susan M; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stuart, Mark; Vernec, Alan; Currell, Kevin; Ali, Vidya M; Budgett, Richard GM; Ljungqvist, Arne; Mountjoy, Margo; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Erdener, Uğur; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens. The appropriate use of some supplements can benefit the athlete, but others may harm the athlete’s health, performance, and/or livelihood and reputation (if an antidoping rule violation results). A complete nutritional assessment should be undertaken before decisions regarding supplement use are made. Supplements claiming to directly or indirectly enhance performance are typically the largest group of products marketed to athletes, but only a few (including caffeine, creatine, specific buffering agents and nitrate) have good evidence of benefits. However, responses are affected by the scenario of use and may vary widely between individuals because of factors that include genetics, the microbiome and habitual diet. Supplements intended to enhance performance should be thoroughly trialled in training or simulated competition before being used in competition. Inadvertent ingestion of substances prohibited under the antidoping codes that govern elite sport is a known risk of taking some supplements. Protection of the athlete’s health and awareness of the potential for harm must be paramount; expert professional opinion and assistance is strongly advised before an athlete embarks on supplement use. PMID:29540367

  11. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  12. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Yasuna; Honma, Taro; Kijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation influences the risk of obesity in offspring, but the details of this phenomenon are unclear. In particular, there is little information on the influence on the offspring of the maternal nutritional status during lactation only. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of high dietary fat intake in dams during lactation on the risk of obesity in offspring, using C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a control diet (CD) during pregnancy. After birth, dams were fed a CD or a high-fat diet (HD) during lactation (3 wk). Fat and energy were significantly increased in milk from dams fed a HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at 3 wk old and fed a CD for 4 wk, which resulted in no significant difference in their physique. Four weeks after weaning, the offspring (7 wk old) were fed a CD or HD for 4 wk to induce obesity. High dietary fat intake in dams and offspring promoted lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipocyte hypertrophy in male offspring. The underlying mechanism may involve an increase in expression of Lpl and a decrease in expression of Hsl in white adipose tissue of offspring. In conclusion, our results show that high dietary fat intake during lactation promotes development of diet-induced obesity in male offspring.

  15. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  16. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  17. Reduction of high levels of internal radio-contamination by dietary intervention in residents of areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Tsubokura

    Full Text Available Maintaining low levels of chronic internal contamination among residents in radiation-contaminated areas after a nuclear disaster is a great public health concern. However, the efficacy of reduction measures for individual internal contamination remains unknown. To reduce high levels of internal radiation exposure in a group of individuals exposed through environmental sources, we performed careful dietary intervention with identification of suspected contaminated foods, as part of mass voluntary radiation contamination screenings and counseling program in Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital and Hirata Central Hospital. From a total of 30,622 study participants, only 9 residents displayed internal cesium-137 (Cs-137 levels of more than 50 Bq/kg. The median level of internal Cs-137 contamination in these residents at the initial screening was 4,830 Bq/body (range: 2,130-15,918 Bq/body and 69.6 Bq/kg (range: 50.7-216.3 Bq/kg. All these residents with high levels of internal contamination consumed homegrown produce without radiation inspection, and often collected mushrooms in the wild or cultivated them on bed-logs in their homes. They were advised to consume distributed food mainly and to refrain from consuming potentially contaminated foods without radiation inspection and local produces under shipment restrictions such as mushrooms, mountain vegetables, and meat of wild life. A few months after the intervention, re-examination of Cs levels revealed remarkable reduction of internal contamination in all residents. Although the levels of internal radiation exposure appear to be minimal amongst most residents in Fukushima, a subset of the population, who unknowingly consumed highly contaminated foodstuffs, experienced high levels of internal contamination. There seem to be similarities in dietary preferences amongst residents with high internal contamination levels, and intervention based on pre- and post-test counseling and dietary advice from

  18. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  19. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  20. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Ugarte, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats (Felis catus) maintain greater blood Se concentrations compared with dogs (Canis familiaris) and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 μg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to

  1. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  2. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svandis Erna Jonsdottir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR. Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective: To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design: A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE. Participants (n=175 were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results: Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion: Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  3. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-12-16

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30-65 years of age, with BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants' 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  4. Exploiting peer group concept for adaptive and highly available services

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, M A; Fraz, M M; Ali, A; Ali, Arshad; Fraz, Mohammad Moazam; Jan, Muhammad Asif; Zahid, Fahd Ali

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype for redundant, highly available and fault tolerant peer to peer framework for data management. Peer to peer computing is gaining importance due to its flexible organization, lack of central authority, distribution of functionality to participating nodes and ability to utilize unused computational resources. Emergence of GRID computing has provided much needed infrastructure and administrative domain for peer to peer computing. The components of this framework exploit peer group concept to scope service and information search, arrange services and information in a coherent manner, provide selective redundancy and ensure availability in face of failure and high load conditions. A prototype system has been implemented using JXTA peer to peer technology and XML is used for service description and interfaces, allowing peers to communicate with services implemented in various platforms including web services and JINI services. It utilizes code mobility to achieve role interchange amo...

  5. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  7. The Utility of Focus Group Interviews to Capture Dietary Consumption Data in the Distant Past: Dairy Consumption in Kazakhstan Villages 50 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael; Schonfeld, Sara; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Bouville, André; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nicholas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Semenova, Yulia; Simon, Steven; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Potischman, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    From 1949 to 1962, residents of several villages in Kazakhstan Abstract: received substantial doses of radiation to the thyroid gland resulting from nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. The primary source of radiation was internal from an intake of radioactive iodine by consumption of contaminated dairy products. A previous research study of childhood exposure and thyroid disease in this region gathered limited data on study participants’ dairy intake at the time of the fallout for the purpose of estimating past radiation doses. Because many subjects were too young at the time of the nuclear tests to recall dietary consumption and existing sources of archival data are limited, it was necessary to interview parents and other village residents who cared for children during this time; older adults ranging in age from 75 to 90 years old. Results from 11 focus group interviews conducted in 2007 with 82 women from 4 villages in Kazakhstan yielded group-level estimates of age-, gender-, ethnicity- and village-specific dairy consumption patterns in rural Kazakhstan during the 1950s. Children typically consumed cow’s milk with limited consumption of mare, goat, and sheep milk; and consumed dairy products such as sour milk (airan), soft cottage cheese (tvorog), and fermented mare milk (koumiss) with the greatest amounts of koumiss reported at ages 15–21. The consumption patterns differed by age and between Kazakh and Russian children, which should lead to different estimates of radiation exposure to the thyroid. This study demonstrated the utility of focus groups to obtain quantitative estimates for dietary intake in the distant past. PMID:24286002

  8. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P 50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary incorporation of whey proteins and galactooligosaccharides exhibits improvement in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in high fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Kavadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was planned to investigate the effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI of high purity and a galactooligosaccharides (GOS preparation on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance under high fat diet (45.47% energy from fat fed conditions in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis was also examined. Methods: Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin & GLP-1 (ELISA were measured; HOMA-IR determined in different treatment groups. mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes in liver and small intestine tissues analysed by qRT-PCR. Results: Dietary incorporation of WPI/GOS alone or in combination was observed to significantly resist (p [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 326-332

  10. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  11. [Simultaneous determination of 16 flavonoids in the ginkgo dietary supplement tea by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yalan; Huang, Fang; Wu, Fuhai; Wu, Huiqin; Huang, Xiaolan; Deng, Xin

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of 16 functional components of ginkgo dietary supplement tea such as catechin, vitexin, puerarin, isoflavoues aglycone, silymarin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin, hesperitin dihydrochalcone, kaempferol, hesperitin, isorhamnetin, baicalein, nobiletin and tangeretin by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was proposed. The conditions of chromatography and mass spectrometry were optimized. The 16 flavonoids were separated on a C18 chromatographic column with acetonitrile and water (additional 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phases under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Good linearities for all the compounds, with correlation coefficients over 0.996, were acquired. The recoveries were in the range of 70.9% to 100.0% (n = 6), while the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10%. The results showed that the nine flavonoids, which were kaempferol, quercetin, hesperitin, vitexin, luteolin, catechin, apigenin, naringenin and isorhamnetin, were higher in contents among the 16 flavonoids in real samples, and they constituted up to 99.6% of the total flavonoids. The contents of these nine flavonoids can be considered as the quality control index of the ginkgo dietary supplement tea. The method proved to be rapid, selective, sensitive and stable, and it can be applied to control the quality of the ginkgo dietary supplement tea.

  12. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2016-01-01

    /eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive...

  13. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  14. Effects of the Quest to Lava Mountain Computer Game on Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Elementary School Children: A Pilot Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Shegog, Ross; Chow, Joanne; Finley, Carrie; Pomeroy, Mike; Smith, Carolyn; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2015-08-01

    Computer-based educational games present an opportunity for health education in school; however, their feasibility in school settings and effectiveness in changing behavior are poorly understood. To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of the Quest to Lava Mountain (QTLM) computer game on dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and psychosocial factors among ethnically diverse children in Texas. Quasi-experimental group-randomized controlled trial conducted during the 2012-2013 school year. A total of 107 children in fourth and fifth grade consented. There was an attrition rate of 8.8% with a final sample size of 44 children in three intervention schools, and a sample of 50 children in three comparison schools. Dietary intake was measured using two random 24-hour recalls, whereas child self-report surveys measured diet, physical activity, and psychosocial factors before and after the intervention. Process data on QTLM usability and back-end server data on QTLM exposure and progress achieved were collected. QTLM was implemented as part of the in-school or afterschool program. Recommended game exposure duration was 90 min/wk for 6 weeks. Analysis of covariance or logistic regression models evaluated effects of QTLM on diet, physical activity, and psychosocial factors. Post hoc exploratory analysis examined the changes before and after the intervention in outcome variables among children in the intervention group. Significance was set at Peffects of QTLM on physical activity. However, post hoc analysis showed that higher QTLM exposure and gaming progress was associated with increased frequency of physical activity (Peffects on diet and physical activity behaviors among children in elementary school. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Differences in Male Workers among Smaller Occupational Groups within Large Occupational Categories: Findings from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Tsuji, Mayumi; Senju, Ayako; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2018-05-11

    Studies examining workers' diet according to smaller occupational groups within "large occupational categories" are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the potential differences in workers' diets based on the classification of workers into smaller occupational groups that comprise "large occupational categories". The subjects of this study were working fathers who had participated in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (N = 38,656). Energy and nutrient intake were calculated based on data collected from the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Occupations were classified according to the Japanese Standard Occupational Classification. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the adherence to current dietary recommendations within smaller occupational groups. In particular, significant differences were observed among the categorical groups of "professional and engineering workers", "service workers", and "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers". In "professional and engineering workers", teachers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium intake recommendations compared with nurses (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.02⁻3.14; p < 0.001). In "agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers", agriculture workers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.46⁻3.15; p < 0.001) and vitamin C (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.31⁻2.74, p = 0.001) intake recommendations compared with forestry and fishery workers. These findings may be beneficial from a research perspective as well as in the development of more effective techniques to improve workers' diet and health.

  16. High Precision Renormalization Group Study of the Roughening Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M; Pinn, K

    1994-01-01

    We confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario of the roughening transition for three different Solid-On-Solid models: the Discrete Gaussian model, the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model and the dual transform of the XY model with standard (cosine) action. The method is based on a matching of the renormalization group flow of the candidate models with the flow of a bona fide KT model, the exactly solvable BCSOS model. The Monte Carlo simulations are performed using efficient cluster algorithms. We obtain high precision estimates for the critical couplings and other non-universal quantities. For the XY model with cosine action our critical coupling estimate is $\\beta_R^{XY}=1.1197(5)$. For the roughening coupling of the Discrete Gaussian and the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model we find $K_R^{DG}=0.6645(6)$ and $K_R^{ASOS}=0.8061(3)$, respectively.

  17. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A content analysis of the quantity and accuracy of dietary supplement information found in magazines with high adolescent readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Patricia; Zhang, Vivien; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and accuracy of dietary supplement (DS) information through magazines with high adolescent readership. Eight (8) magazines (3 teen and 5 adult with high teen readership) were selected. A content analysis for DS was conducted on advertisements and editorials (i.e., articles, advice columns, and bulletins). Noted claims/cautions regarding DS were evaluated for accuracy using Medlineplus.gov and Naturaldatabase.com. Claims for dietary supplements with three or more types of ingredients and those in advertisements were not evaluated. Advertisements were evaluated with respect to size, referenced research, testimonials, and Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) warning visibility. Eighty-eight (88) issues from eight magazines yielded 238 DS references. Fifty (50) issues from five magazines contained no DS reference. Among teen magazines, seven DS references were found: five in the editorials and two in advertisements. In adult magazines, 231 DS references were found: 139 in editorials and 92 in advertisements. Of the 88 claims evaluated, 15% were accurate, 23% were inconclusive, 3% were inaccurate, 5% were partially accurate, and 55% were unsubstantiated (i.e., not listed in reference databases). Of the 94 DS evaluated in advertisements, 43% were full page or more, 79% did not have a DSHEA warning visible, 46% referred to research, and 32% used testimonials. Teen magazines contain few references to DS, none accurate. Adult magazines that have a high teen readership contain a substantial amount of DS information with questionable accuracy, raising concerns that this information may increase the chances of inappropriate DS use by adolescents, thereby increasing the potential for unexpected effects or possible harm.

  19. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2014-11-01

    There is presently a great interest in the therapeutic potential of agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, for various diseases. Recent clinical studies have already shown that oral agmatine sulfate given for up to 3 weeks provides a safe and, as compared with current therapeutics, more effective treatment for neuropathic pain. These studies have ushered in the use of dietary agmatine as a nutraceutical. However, in view of information paucity, assessment of long-term safety of oral agmatine treatment is now clearly required. The authors of this report undertook to assess their own health status during ongoing consumption of a high daily dosage of oral agmatine over a period of 4-5 years. A daily dose of 2.67 g agmatine sulfate was encapsulated in gelatin capsules; the regimen consists of six capsules daily, each containing 445 mg, three in the morning and three in the evening after meals. Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. These initial findings are highly important as they provide significant evidence for the extended long-term safety of a high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--a cardinal advantage for its utility as a nutraceutical.

  20. Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  1. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; Valkengoed, Van Irene G.M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  2. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? : The Helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke; Nicolaou, Mary; Van Valkengoed, Irene

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (t2d) in ethnic minorities in europe is higher in comparison with their european host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (hshf dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for t2d. Information on

  3. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile in LDLr-KO mice on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-L; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2008-01-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary α-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out (L...

  4. High Energy Physics Group. Annual progress report, fiscal year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant progress during the past twelve months of the Hawaii experimental program, aside from publication of results of earlier work, has been the favorable outcome of several important proposals in which a substantial fraction of our group is involved: the Mark II detector as first-up at the SLC, and DUMAND's Stage I approval, both by DOE review panels. When added to Fermilab approval of two neutrino bubble-chamber experiments at the Tevatron, E632 and E646, the major part of the Hawaii experimental program for the next few years is now well determined. Noteworthy in the SLAC/SLC/Mark II effort is the progress made in developing silicon microstrip detectors with microchip readout. Results from the IMB(H) proton decay experiment at the Morton Salt Mine, although not detecting proton decay, set the best lower limit on the proton's lifetime. Similarly the Very High Energy Gamma Ray project is closely linked with DUMAND, at least in principle, since these gammas are expected to arise from pi-zero decay, while the neutrinos come from charged meson decay. Some signal has been seen from Cygnus X-3, and other candidates are being explored. Preparations for upgrading the Fermilab 15' Bubble Chamber have made substantial progress. Sections of the Progress Report are devoted to VAX computer system improvements, other hardware and software improvements, travel in support of physics experiments, publications and other public reports, and last analysis of data still being gleaned from experimental data taken in years past (PEP-14 and E546, E388). High energy physics theoretical research is briefly described

  5. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.

  6. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  7. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  8. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  9. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  11. High dietary fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vidya M Raj; Wei, Guo; Baird, Bradley C; Murtaugh, Maureen; Chonchol, Michel B; Raphael, Kalani L; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered an inflammatory state and a high fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation in the general population. Here, we determined whether fiber intake is associated with decreased inflammation and mortality in chronic kidney disease, and whether kidney disease modifies the associations of fiber intake with inflammation and mortality. To do this, we analyzed data from 14,543 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was 5.8%. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the odds of elevated serum C-reactive protein levels were decreased by 11% and 38% in those without and with kidney disease, respectively. Dietary total fiber intake was not significantly associated with mortality in those without but was inversely related to mortality in those with kidney disease. The relationship of total fiber with inflammation and mortality differed significantly in those with and without kidney disease. Thus, high dietary total fiber intake is associated with lower risk of inflammation and mortality in kidney disease and these associations are stronger in magnitude in those with kidney disease. Interventional trials are needed to establish the effects of fiber intake on inflammation and mortality in kidney disease.

  12. Assessment of current dietary intake of organochlorine contaminants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in killer whales (Orcinus orca) through direct determination in a group of whales in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Henríquez-Hernandez, Luis A; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Garcia-Hartmann, Manuel; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-02-15

    We determined the levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the plasma of captive adult killer whales and in their food. The goal of this research was the assessment of the dietary exposure of killer whales to these pollutants to gain insight on what is the actual magnitude of the exposure in this species, which is considered among the most contaminated in the planet. Plasma median ∑OCP and ∑PCB contents were 3150.3 and 7985.9 ng g(-1)l.w., respectively. A total of 78.9% of the PCBs were marker-PCBs, and 21.1% were dioxin-like PCBs (6688.7 pg g(-1)l.w. dioxin toxic equivalents). This is the first report of the blood levels of PAHs in killer whales, and their median value was 1023.1 ng g(-1)l.w. In parallel, we also determined the levels of these contaminants in the fish species that are used to feed these animals to estimate the orcas' average daily dietary intake of pollutants. All the contaminants in the fish were detected in the plasma of the killer whales, and proportionality between the intake and the blood levels was observed in all the animals. The calculated intake was extremely high for certain contaminants, which is a concern, giving a glimpse of what possibly occurs in the wild, where exposure to these contaminants can be even higher. Therefore, although many of these chemicals have been banned for decades, even today, the levels of these chemicals could reach very toxic concentrations in the tissues of these endangered animals because of their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PBL Group Autonomy in a High School Environmental Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, D. Mark; Belland, Brian R.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing class sizes, teachers and facilitators alike hope for learning groups where students work together in self-contained and autonomous ways requiring reduced teacher support. Yet many instructors find the idea of developing independent learning in small groups to be elusive particularly in K-12 settings (Ertmer and Simons in…

  14. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  15. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  16. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  17. Within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake in Japanese adults: effect of age and sex differences on group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Azusa; Asakura, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2013-01-01

    Information on within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake is critical for precisely estimating usual dietary intake; however, data from Japanese populations are limited. We used dietary records to examine within- and between-individual variation by age and sex in the intake of energy and 31 selected nutrients among Japanese adults. We also calculated the group size required to estimate mean intake for a group and number of days required both to rank individuals within a group and to assess an individual's usual intake, all with appropriate arbitrary precision. A group of Japanese women (younger: 30-49 years, n = 58; older: 50-69 years, n = 63) and men (younger: 30-49 years, n = 54; older: 50-76 years, n = 67) completed dietary records for 4 nonconsecutive days in each season (16 days in total). Coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation were generally larger in the younger group than in the older group and in men as compared with women. The group size required to estimate a group's mean intake, and number of days required to assess an individual's usual intake, were generally larger for the younger group and for men. In general, a longer period was required to rank women and older adults. In a group of Japanese adults, coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation, which were used to estimate the group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment, differed by age, sex, and nutrient.

  18. Low adherence to the western and high adherence to the mediterranean dietary patterns could prevent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Amiano, Pilar; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Martín, Vicente; Alonso, Maria Henar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Guevara, Marcela; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristobal; Huerta, Jose María; Capelo, Rocío; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Urtiaga, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Moreno, Víctor; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina

    2018-03-26

    To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC). MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models. While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)]. Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.

  19. Effect of high levels of dietary molybdenum and sulphate on SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-10-29

    Oct 29, 1988 ... The concentrations of plasma copper in groups. M and MS were higher than that of the control group in both the ewes and the rams. In the case of group C, the concentration of TCA-soluble plasma copper represented about 95% of the total plasma copper compared to 65% in the case of groups M and MS.

  20. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  1. Application of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography for the determination of carotenoids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhao, Haiyan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wei; Fan, Sai; Wu, Guohua; Zhao, Rong

    2015-12-18

    A quick and simple ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-photodiode array detector method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 9 carotenoids in dietary supplements. The influences of stationary phase, co-solvent, pressure, temperature and flow rate on the separation of carotenoids were evaluated. The separation of the carotenoids was carried out using an Acquity UPC(2) HSS C18 SB column (150mm×3.0mm, 1.8μm) by gradient elution with carbon dioxide and a 1:2 (v:v) methanol/ethanol mixture. The column temperature was set to 35°C and the backpressure was 15.2MPa. Under these conditions, 9 carotenoids and the internal standard, β-apo-8'-carotenal, were successfully separated within 10min. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) of the calibration curves were all above 0.997, the limits of detection for the 9 carotenoids were in the range of 0.33-1.08μg/mL, and the limits of quantification were in the range of 1.09-3.58μg/mL. The mean recoveries were from 93.4% to 109.5% at different spiking levels, and the relative standard deviations were between 0.8% and 6.0%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of 9 carotenoids in commercial dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary patterns during high school and risk of colorectal adenoma in a cohort of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Malik, Vasanti S; Fung, Teresa T; Pischon, Tobias; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward; Wu, Kana

    2014-05-15

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for later risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. We aimed to examine associations between adolescent dietary patterns (derived using factor analysis) and risk of colorectal adenoma in middle adulthood. We analyzed data from 17,221 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, who had completed a validated high school (HS) food frequency questionnaire in 1998 when they were 34-51 years old, and had subsequently undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy. Between 1998 and 2007, 1,299 women were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma. In multivariable models adjusted for adult dietary patterns, a higher "prudent" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of rectal (odds ratio [OR] highest vs. lowest quintile, 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75, p-trend = 0.005), but not colon adenomas. A higher "Western" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of desserts and sweets, snack foods and red and processed meat, was significantly associated with rectal (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.85, p-trend = 0.005) and advanced (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.33, p-trend = 0.08), but not associated with colon or non-advanced adenomas. This study suggests that overall eating patterns during high school may influence later risk of rectal and advanced adenoma, independent of adult diet. Our results support the hypothesis that diet during early life may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2013 UICC.

  3. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Indiana University Task C group is participating in the experiments GEM at the SSC and MACRO at the Gran Sasso. After an introduction to GEM in paragraph II, a detailed report is presented on the work done during the current contract period on the design of the outer region of the GEM Central Tracker. The Central Tracker Monte Carlo, which was the other significant GEM activity by the group, is included. In paragraph III is introduced MACRO and a brief status report is given. Muon Astronomy analysis done using MACRO data is also presented

  4. Impact of Mediterranean diet education versus posted leaflet on dietary habits and serum cholesterol in a high risk population for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Broer, Jan; de Vries, Jeanne H. M.; Hulshof, Karin F. A. M.; May, Jo F.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    Objective: To investigate the impact of intensive group education on the Mediterranean diet on dietary intake and serum total cholesterol after 16 and 52 weeks, compared to a posted leaflet with the Dutch nutritional guidelines, in the context of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  5. Effect of dietary supplements in American bullfrogs reared in low and high stocking densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgina Juliana Gradisse Freitas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Bacillus subtillis and beta-glucan from the fungus Agaricus blazei on survival, growth and immunological capacity in bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus cultured in low and high stocking densities. Animals weighing 24.3 ± 2.38 g were randomly distributed into four treatments with four simultaneous replicates: D100: 100 frogs/m2 (control; D236: 236 frogs/m2; D236 + Prob.: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with probiotic; and D236 + BG: 236 frogs/m2 supplemented with beta-glucan. The parameters evaluated were weight gain, survival, plasma corticosterone (CORT, phagocytic capacity (PC and phagocytic index (PI, at 24 h and 15 and 30 days. There is significant interaction between treatments and time for CORT levels. At 30 days, these values were very close for the D100 (control and D236 + BG groups. Meanwhile, no statistical differences were observed between treatments for PC and PI. These results indicate that beta-glucan reduced the effects of stress caused by high density in bullfrogs, but the probiotic did not reduce these effects. Both compounds are not efficient at increasing survival rates, weight gain and neither immune response of animals. Thus, the use of commercial food additives may not have the favorable impact desired by the farmer. Their use in aquaculture should be further studied in experiments involving a longer trial period and taking into account the cost of their use.

  6. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimeur Adil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control; with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA; with a high-fat diet (HF; or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other

  7. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Guéno, Frédérique; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Meskini, Nadia; Tremblin, Gérard

    2012-10-31

    Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules, such as pigments. The synergistic effect

  8. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  9. Animal Welfare Groups Press for Limits on High School Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussions from the conference on "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes" are highlighted in this article. The list of science fair rules, which resulted from the conference, is included. (SA)

  10. LC-QTOF/MS metabolomic profiles in human plasma after a 5-week high dietary fiber intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Barri, Thaer; Ulmius, Matilda

    2013-01-01

    , in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected......The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n¿=¿25) aged 58.6 (1.1)¿years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5)¿kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet...

  11. A diet high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increases the genotoxic potential of 'faecal water'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieger, Martin A.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effects of different diets on the genotoxicity of human faecal water, a diet rich in fat, meat and sugar but poor in vegetables and free of wholemeal products (diet 1) was consumed by seven healthy volunteers over a period of 12 days. One week after the end of this period......, the volunteers started to consume a diet enriched with vegetables and wholemeal products but poor in fat and meat (diet 2) over a second period of 12 days. The genotoxic effect of faecal waters obtained after both diets was assessed with the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) using the human colon...... and purine bases revealed no differences after pretreatment with both types of faecal water. The results indicate that diets high in fat and meat but low in dietary fibre increase the genotoxicity of faecal water to colonic cells and may contribute to an enhanced risk of colorectal cancer....

  12. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation.To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks.Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks.Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  13. Development of a screening tool for detecting undernutrition and dietary inadequacy among rural elderly in Malaysia: simple indices to identify individuals at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Dixon, R A; Earland, J

    1999-11-01

    Undernutrition and the consumption of poor diets are prevalent among elderly people in developing countries. Recognising the importance of the early identification of individuals at high nutritional risk, this study aimed to develop a simple tool for screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 11 randomly selected villages among the 62 in Mersing District, Malaysia. Undernutrition was assessed using body mass index, plasma albumin and haemoglobin on 285 subjects. Dietary inadequacy (a count of nutrients falling below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances) was examined for 337 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of undernutrition and dietary inadequacy from social and health factors, and to derive appropriate indices based on these predictions. The multivariate predictors of undernutrition were 'no joint disease', 'smoker', 'no hypertension', 'depended on others for economic resource', 'respiratory disease', 'perceived weight loss' and 'chewing difficulty', with a joint sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 84%. The equivalent predictors of dietary inadequacy were 'unable to take public transport', 'loss of appetite', 'chewing difficulty', 'no regular fruit intake' and 'regularly taking less than three meals per day', with a joint sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 47%. These predictions, with minor modification to simplify operational use, led to the production of a simple screening tool. The tool can be used by public health professionals or community workers or leaders as a simple and rapid instrument to screen individual at high risk of undernutrition and/or dietary inadequacy.

  14. Working group report: High energy and collider physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in such a high value of tan β in the present investigation as the loss of light ..... 1 de- cays for θt = 130◦, and tan β = 10: in (a) as a function of φ1 for M2 = 225 ..... rana masses of the neutrinos can be generated both at the tree-level and at the.

  15. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The combined effect of lead exposure and high or low dietary calcium on health and immunocompetence in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoeijs, Tinne; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Darras, Veerle M.; Arckens, Lutgarde; Eens, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    The widespread contamination by lead and the acidification of the environment ask for a better understanding of the effects of the interaction between lead and calcium on various aspects of health, including disease defense, in wildlife. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to sublethal levels of lead, combined with high or low dietary calcium, on health and several components of immunity in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Thirty individuals of each sex were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a group exposed to lead with an additional calcium source (i.e. grit) and a group exposed to lead without access to an extra calcium source. Lead was administered as lead acetate via the drinking water (20 ppm) for 38 consecutive days. Exposure to lead increased significantly the concentrations of lead in kidney and bone in individuals of the experimental groups. Furthermore, the lack of a calcium supplement significantly enhanced the uptake of lead. Lead did not affect health indices such as hematocrit, spleen mass and body mass, nor the adrenal stress response. Cell-mediated immune responsiveness, assessed by a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to phytohaemagglutinin, was also not affected by lead exposure. On the other hand, lead exposure did significantly suppress the secondary humoral immune response towards sheep red blood cells in females, but only when the additional calcium source was not available. This effect was not found in males, suggesting sexual differences in susceptibility of humoral immunity to lead treatment in zebra finches. - Male and female finches may respond to lead differently

  17. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy of clusters of Group V elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lai-sheng; Niu, B.; Lee, Y.T.; Shirley, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    High resolution HeI (580 angstrom) photoelectron spectra of As 2 , As 4 , and P 4 were obtained with a newly-built high temperature molecular beam source. Vibrational structure was resolved in the photoelectron spectra of the three cluster species. The Jahn-Teller effect is discussed for the 2 E and 2 T 2 states of P 4 + and As 4 + . As a result of the Jahn-Teller effect, the 2 E state splits into two bands, and the 2 T 2 state splits into three bands, in combination with the spin-orbit effect. It was observed that the ν 2 normal vibrational mode was involved in the vibronic interaction of the 2 E state, while both the ν 2 and ν 3 modes were active in the 2 T 2 state. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Effects of a Group-Mediated Exercise and Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Results From the IDEA-P Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Lucas, Alexander R; Grainger, Elizabeth; Simpson, Christina; Fairman, Ciaran M; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Buell, Jackie; Monk, J Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Clinton, Steven K

    2018-04-19

    Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment for prostate cancer, the physiological impacts of ADT result in functional decline and enhanced risk of chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. The Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial (IDEA-P) is a single-blind, randomized, pilot trial comparing the effects of a group-mediated, cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary intervention (EX+D) with those of a standard-of-care (SC) control during the treatment of prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. A total of 32 prostate cancer patients (M age = 66.28, SD = 7.79) undergoing ADT were randomly assigned to the 12-week EX+D intervention (n = 16) or control (n = 16). The primary outcome in IDEA-P was change in mobility performance with secondary outcomes including body composition and muscular strength. Blinded assessment of outcomes were obtained at baseline and at 2- and 3-month follow-ups. Favorable adherence and retention rates were observed, and no serious intervention-related adverse events were documented. Intent-to-treat ANCOVA controlling for baseline value and ADT duration demonstrated that EX+D resulted in significantly greater improvements in mobility performance (p < .02), muscular strength (p < .01), body fat percentage (p < .05), and fat mass (p < .03) at 3-month follow-up, relative to control. Findings from the IDEA-P trial suggest that a GMCB-based EX+D intervention resulted in significant, clinically meaningful improvements in mobility performance, muscular strength, and body composition, relative to controls. Collectively, these results suggest that the EX+D was a safe and well-tolerated intervention for prostate cancer patients on ADT. The utility of implementing this approach in the treatment of prostate cancer patients on ADT should be evaluated in future large-scale efficacy trials. NCT02050906.

  19. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  20. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Bemrah, N.; Veyrand, B.; Pollono, C.; Merlo, M.; Desvignes, V.; Sirot, V.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg −1 bw.d −1 ). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis

  1. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: High seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, A., E-mail: ami.s.yamada@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Bemrah, N., E-mail: nawel.bemrah@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Veyrand, B., E-mail: bruno.veyrand@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Pollono, C., E-mail: charles.pollono@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d' Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), USC INRA 1329, Nantes 44307 (France); Merlo, M., E-mail: mathilde.merlo@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Desvignes, V., E-mail: virginie.desvignes@anses.fr [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); Sirot, V., E-mail: sirotv@gmail.com [Risk Assessment Directorate, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 27-31 avenue du Général Leclerc, Maisons-Alfort 94701 (France); and others

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination values < LOD considered as 0), high freshwater fish consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOS (7.5 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFUnA (1.3 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFDA (0.4 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHpS (0.03 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) while high seafood consumers appear as the most exposed to PFOA (1.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg{sup −1} bw.d{sup −1}). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals. - Highlights: • The dietary exposure was estimated for 15 perfluoroalkyl acids. • Despite the overestimation, the FFQ remains useful to evaluate the whole diet. • The high fish consumers are the most dietary exposed population. • Fishery products are the main exposure contributors under LB hypothesis.

  2. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  3. When Do Low Status Groups Help High Status Groups? The Moderating Effects of Ingroup Identification, Audience Group Membership, and Perceived Reputational Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that, when negative metastereotypes are made salient, members of low status groups help members of high status groups in order to improve the reputation of their low status group and its associated social identity. The present research investigated three potential moderators of low status groups’ outgroup helping: ingroup identification, audience group membership, and perceived reputational benefit. In Study 1 (N = 112 we found that members of a low status group (Keele University students were most likely to offer to help raise funds for a high status group (University of Birmingham students when they were high identifiers who had considered a negative metastereotype and believed that their responses would be viewed by an outgroup member. In Study 2 (N = 100 we found a similar effect in an intergroup context that referred to psychology students (low status ingroup and junior doctors (high status outgroup, showing that the effect was limited to people who perceived reputational benefit in helping the outgroup. The practical and social implications of these findings are discussed in relation to intergroup contact and international relations.

  4. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491

  5. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  6. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Bradbury

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944. In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  7. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Assessment of the nutritional status of a group of people older than 50 years by means of dietary and body composition parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Roldán, C; Veiga Herreros, P; Cobo Sanz, J Ma; Carbajal Azcona, A

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status of elder adults by means of dietary and body composition parameters. The sample comprised 49 adults, older than 50 years (23 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 54.84±4.56 years, working at a private university. The body composition was analyzed by using anthropometric parameters. The energy and nutrients intake was gathered by means of a registry of all the foods and beverages consumed during 3 days that was filled-up by each (previously instructed) participant and estimating the amounts through photographic models. Total energy requirements were estimated by the Harris-Benedict and FAO/WHO calculations. The body mass index was similar (p=0.018) in both men and women (26.1±1.9 and 24.4±2.8 kg/m²). The percentage of fat obtained by anthropometrics was 29.6±3.6 and 36.8±3.1% (p=0.000) in men and women, respectively. The level of physical activity was very light to light. Daily energy intake was appropriate for total energy demands when these were calculated by the calculations proposed by FAO/WHO. The caloric profile indicated an unbalance with high proteins and lipids and low carbohydrates intake. As for the micronutrients, the diets assessed indicated a deficient intake of folic acid and vitamins D and E, in both genders, and zinc and selenium also in women. We have found overweight problems according to the BMI and the waist circumference, and obesity according to the body fat percentage, with the potential risk for the development of an associated complication. It would be advisable to improve the quality of the diets consumed by increasing the amount of some micronutrients and fiber, and by promoting an increase in the physical activity.

  9. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine fecal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Rinttila, T.; Zentek, J.; Kettunen, A.; Alaja, S.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Harmoinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Spillmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI) function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC), high-protein (HP) and dry commercial (DC) diets on the canine colonic

  10. The effect of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Daniella Fatmata; Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Zhou, Qunlan; Ren, Mingchun; Xie, Jun; Liu, Bo; Chen, Ruli; Pan, Liangkun

    2017-08-01

    The effects of dietary folic acid on biochemical parameters and gene expression of three heat shock proteins (HSPs) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerling under acute high temperature stress. Six dietary folic acid groups (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0) mg/kg diets were designed and assigned into 18 tanks in three replicates each (300 l/tank) and were administered for 10 weeks in a re-circulated water system. The fingerlings with an initial weight of 27.0 ± 0.03 g were fed with their respective diets four times daily. At the end of the experiment, samples were collected before challenge, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days. Serum total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cortisol, glucose, complement C3 (C3), complement C4 (C4, immunoglobulin M (IgM) hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and the expression of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), 70 (HSP70), and 90 (HSP90) were studied. The results showed that fish fed with dietary folic acid between 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/kg significantly (P stress, 0, 24, 72 h, and 7 days significantly (P  0.05) of the three HSPs. However, there were statistical significant interactive effect between dietary folic acid inclusion level and temperature duration on serum C3 and C4 (P  0.05). The present results indicate that supplementation of basal diet from 1.0 mg/kg; 2.0 and 5.0 mg/kg can enhance acute high temperature resistance ability in M. amblycephala fingerling to some degree and improve physiological response, immune and antioxidant capacities, and expression level of three HSPs.

  11. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  12. How dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD is translated into practice in those with or at high risk of CVD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Neubeck, Lis; Redfern, Julie; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    CVD is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and nutrition is an important lifestyle factor. The aim of the present systematic review was to synthesise the literature relating to knowledge translation (KT) of dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD into practice in populations with or at high risk of CVD. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus) was performed. Studies were included if a nutrition or dietary KT was demonstrated to occur with a relevant separate measureable outcome. Quality was assessed using a tool adapted from two quality checklists. Population with or at high risk of CVD or clinicians likely to treat this population. A total of 4420 titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion, with 354 full texts retrieved to assess inclusion. Forty-three articles were included in the review, relating to thirty-five separate studies. No studies specifically stated their aim to be KT. Thirty-one studies were in patient or high-risk populations and four targeted health professionals. Few studies stated a theory on which the intervention was based (n 10) and provision of instruction was the most common behaviour change strategy used (n 26). KT in nutrition and dietary studies has been inferred, not stated, with few details provided regarding how dietary knowledge is translated to the end user. This presents challenges for implementation by clinicians and policy and decision makers. Consequently a need exists to improve the quality of publications in this area.

  13. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  14. High-Phosphorus, Low-Calcium Dietary Intakes and Bone Effects of Physical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerath, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... Diet inquiries showed changes in calcium and phosphorus intakes. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of physical activity on bone tissue in the context of high-phosphorus and low-calcium intakes. Sedentary (SED) and trained (TR...

  15. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... effect on blood pressure, a high sodium intake has also been associated with ... promotion of healthy eating habits from an early age is important. Chen and ..... help consumers make informed purchasing decisions. However ...

  16. An extremely high dietary iodide supply forestalls severe hypothyroidism in Na+/I- symporter (NIS) knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Kaspari, Rachel R; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Boutagy, Nabil E; Sinusas, Albert J; Carrasco, Nancy

    2017-07-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active iodide (I - ) accumulation in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis. Mutations in the SLC5A5 gene encoding NIS that result in a non-functional protein lead to congenital hypothyroidism due to I - transport defect (ITD). ITD is a rare autosomal disorder that, if not treated promptly in infancy, can cause mental retardation, as the TH decrease results in improper development of the nervous system. However, in some patients, hypothyroidism has been ameliorated by unusually large amounts of dietary I - . Here we report the first NIS knockout (KO) mouse model, obtained by targeting exons 6 and 7 of the Slc5a5 gene. In NIS KO mice, in the thyroid, stomach, and salivary gland, NIS is absent, and hence there is no active accumulation of the NIS substrate pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ). NIS KO mice showed undetectable serum T 4 and very low serum T 3 levels when fed a diet supplying the minimum I - requirement for rodents. These hypothyroid mice displayed oxidative stress in the thyroid, but not in the brown adipose tissue or liver. Feeding the mice a high-I - diet partially rescued TH biosynthesis, demonstrating that, at high I - concentrations, I - enters the thyroid through routes other than NIS.

  17. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  18. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  20. Effect of a Soy Dietary Supplement on Menopausal Symptoms and Hormones in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Margo

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of a dietary soy supplement resulting in an intake of 45 mg/day of phytoestrogens, was tested in a randomized cross-over design in menopausal women aged 45-58 years of age who reported...

  1. Determination of soluble dietary fibre content of Okara treated with high hydrostatic pressure and enzymes: a comparative evaluation of two methods (AOAC and HPLC-ELSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, E; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Rupérez, P

    2017-04-01

    Okara is a promising by-product from soybean and a rich source of dietary fibre, chiefly insoluble (IDF). To increase its solubility and functionality, a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assisted by food grade enzymes - Ultraflo ® L or Viscozyme ® L- has been performed. To monitor the effectiveness, an analysis of dietary fibre, mainly the soluble fraction (SDF), was accomplished by the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method with dialysis followed by both, spectrophotometric methods and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) analysis of the soluble fraction. A significant increase in SDF (≈1.5-times) to the expense of a decrease in IDF was shown and chromatograms revealed two peaks of 95 and 22 kDa. Thus, treated Okara possessed a more balanced and convenient ratio of soluble to insoluble dietary fibre, which could have health benefits as prebiotic. Inbuilt interferences of the official AOAC's method for dietary fibre were confirmed and the direct HPLC-ELSD approach was about twice more sensitive than spectrophotometric methods. Consequently, the direct HPLC-ELSD analysis of the supernatant is proposed as a cheaper, faster and reliable method. Combined HHP-treatments plus specific enzymes represent a promising alternative for the valorisation and preservation of agrofood by-products.

  2. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  3. GDF-3 is an adipogenic cytokine under high fat dietary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yang Yan; Meng Ying; Shi Yanggu

    2004-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) is structurally a bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor subfamily member of the TGF-β superfamily. GDF-3 exhibits highest level of expression in white fat tissue in mice and is greatly induced by high fat diet if fat metabolic pathway is blocked. To identify its biological function, GDF-3 was overexpressed in mice by adenovirus mediated gene transfer. Mice transduced with GDF-3 displayed profound weight gain when fed with high fat diet. The phenotypes included greatly expanded adipose tissue mass, increased body adiposity, highly hypertrophic adipocytes, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma leptin. GDF-3 stimulated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression in adipocytes, a master nuclear receptor that controls adipogenesis. However, GDF-3 was not involved in blood glucose homeostasis or insulin resistance, a condition associated with obesity. In contrast, similar phenotypes were not observed in GDF-3 mice fed with normal chow, indicating that GDF-3 is only active under high lipid load. Thus, GDF-3 is a new non-diabetic adipogenic factor tightly coupled with fat metabolism

  4. A systematic review of high-fibre dietary therapy in diverticular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünlü, Cagdas; Daniels, Lidewine; Vrouenraets, Bart C.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2012-01-01

    The exact pathogenesis of diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon is not well established. However, the hypothesis that a low-fibre diet may result in diverticulosis and a high-fibre diet will prevent symptoms or complications of diverticular disease is widely accepted. The aim of this review is

  5. High-Throughput Dietary Exposure Predictions for Chemical Migrants from Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency researchers have developed a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation High -Throughput (SHEDS-HT) model for use in prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. In this research, new methods were implemented in SHEDS-HT...

  6. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization. Keywords: Larger yellow croaker, Copper, Antioxidant enzyme, Lipid metabolism enzyme

  7. Current mass spectrometry strategies for selenium speciation in dietary sources of high-selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Hearn, Ruth; Catterick, Tim [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the most relevant mass spectrometry approaches to selenium (Se) speciation in high-Se food supplements in terms of qualitative and quantitative Se speciation and Se-containing species identification, with special reference to high-Se yeast, garlic, onions and Brazil nuts. Important topics such as complexity of Se speciation in these materials and the importance of combining Se-specific detection and molecule-specific determination of the particular species of this element in parallel with chromatography, to understand their nutritional role and cancer preventive properties are critically discussed throughout. The versatility and potential of mass spectrometric detection in this field are clearly demonstrated. Although great advances have been achieved, further developments are required, especially if ''speciated''certified reference materials (CRMs) are to be produced for validation of measurements of target Se-containing species in Se-food supplements. (orig.)

  8. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p dietary intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  10. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  11. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  12. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children's dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Moran, Alyssa; Dixon, L Beth; Kiszko, Kamila; Cantor, Jonathan; Abrams, Courtney; Mijanovich, Tod

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of a new government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and dietary habits in children. A difference-in-difference study design was utilized. Two neighbourhoods in the Bronx, New York City. Outcomes were collected in Morrisania, the target community where the new supermarket was opened, and Highbridge, the comparison community. Parents/caregivers of a child aged 3-10 years residing in Morrisania or Highbridge. Participants were recruited via street intercept at baseline (pre-supermarket opening) and at two follow-up periods (five weeks and one year post-supermarket opening). Analysis is based on 2172 street-intercept surveys and 363 dietary recalls from a sample of predominantly low-income minorities. While there were small, inconsistent changes over the time periods, there were no appreciable differences in availability of healthful or unhealthful foods at home, or in children's dietary intake as a result of the supermarket. The introduction of a government-subsidized supermarket into an underserved neighbourhood in the Bronx did not result in significant changes in household food availability or children's dietary intake. Given the lack of healthful food options in underserved neighbourhoods and need for programmes that promote access, further research is needed to determine whether healthy food retail expansion, alone or with other strategies, can improve food choices of children and their families.

  13. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with cardiovascular protection in higher but not in lower socioeconomic groups: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Pounis, George; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Cerletti, Chiara; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether the cardiovascular benefits associated with Mediterranean diet (MD) may differ across socioeconomic groups. Prospective analysis on 18991 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Moli-sani cohort (Italy). Adherence to MD was appraised by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Household income (euros/year) and educational level were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Over 4.3 years of follow-up, 252 cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occurred. Overall, a two-point increase in MDS was associated with 15% reduced CVD risk (95% confidence interval: 1% to 27%). Such association was evident in highly (HR = 0.43; 0.25-0.72) but not in less (HR = 0.94; 0.78-1.14) educated subjects (P for interaction = 0.042). Similarly, CVD advantages associated with the MD were confined to the high household income group (HR = 0.39; 0.23-0.66, and HR = 1.01; 0.79-1.29 for high- and low-income groups, respectively; P for interaction = 0.0098). In a subgroup of individuals of different socioeconomic status but sharing similar MDS, diet-related disparities were found as different intakes of antioxidants and polyphenols, fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary antioxidant capacity, dietary diversity, organic vegetables and whole grain bread consumption. MD is associated with lower CVD risk but this relationship is confined to higher socioeconomic groups. In groups sharing similar scores of adherence to MD, diet-related disparities across socioeconomic groups persisted. These nutritional gaps may reasonably explain at least in part the socioeconomic pattern of CVD protection from the MD. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  14. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  15. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Nasir Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. Methods: A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females of the median age of 20 years (range: 18–25 were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Results: Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2 overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7% students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30–420. Only 70 (28.7% students had regular walk or jogging. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students.

  17. High prevalence of preobesity and obesity among medical students of Lahore and its relation with dietary habits and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan Nasir; Assir, Muhammad Zaman Khan; Shafiq, Mudassar; Chaudhary, Aghosh-E-Gul; Jabeen, Atika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among students of medical colleges of Lahore and to study its correlation with high-caloric diet intake and physical inactivity. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at four medical colleges of Lahore, Pakistan between March and June 2012. A total of 244 medical students (85 males, 159 females) of the median age of 20 years (range: 18-25) were randomly included in the study. Anthropometric measures were obtained. High-caloric diet intake and physical profile were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. The relationships between obesity indices (body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio) were investigated and correlated with the studied dietary and physical activity factors. Approximately, 30.5% males and 16% females had BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2) overall affecting 21% of total medical students. Central obesity was found in 46% of male and 31.4% of female students. Central obesity was associated with a higher total daily caloric intake, studying at private medical college and male gender. Overall, 197 of 244 (80.7%) students played no sports in college. Median time to watch television or work on the computer was 120 min a day (range: 30-420). Only 70 (28.7%) students had regular walk or jogging. A substantial proportion of Pakistani medical students were overweight or obese. Higher total daily caloric intake was associated with central obesity but not a BMI >25. Physical activity parameters favored an overall sedentary aptitude for medical students.

  18. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  19. Randomized clinical trial of standard dietary treatment versus a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet or the LighterLife Programme in the management of obesity*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Catherine; Hession, Michelle; Murray, Susan; Wise, Alan; Broom, Iain

    2009-09-01

    With the current obesity epidemic, the search for effective weight loss approaches is required. In the present study, changes in weight, body composition and cardiovascular (CV) risk in response to a low-fat, reduced-energy diet (LFRE), a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet (LCHP), or a commercially available very low-calorie diet (LighterLife; LL) were assessed. One hundred and twenty obese patients (body mass index ≥35 kg/m² ) underwent a screening period of 3 months on the LFRE. Those who lost >5% of their body weight were maintained on this approach for an additional 3 months, whereas those who lost >10% at this time were maintained for 1 year. Patients failing to achieve these targets were randomly allocated to either the LCHP (n = 38) or LL (n = 34) for a period of 9 months. Significantly greater weight loss was seen for patients on the LL than the LCHP at 3 (mean (± SD) -11.6 ± 12.9 vs -2.8 ± 4.5 kg, respectively; P vs -1.9 ± 5.0 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001) after screening. Significantly greater improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting glucose, and diastolic blood pressure was seen at 3 months in patients on the LL compared with the LCHP (P < 0.05). These differences were no longer significant at 9 months, with the exception of fasting glucose. The attrition rate was elevated in the LCHP group, but did not differ significantly from the LL group. Greater weight loss and improved CV risk were achieved with the LL, which mostly reflects the patient support provided for each dietary treatment. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. High Expression of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Menstrual Blood: Implications for Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Keiko; Kamada, Yasuhiko; Sakamoto, Ai; Matsuda, Miwa; Nakatsuka, Mikiya; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium and associated with inflammation and immune abnormalities. However, the molecular basis for endometriosis is not well understood. To address this issue, the present study examined the expression of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 in menstrual blood to investigate its role in the ectopic growth of human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). A total of 139 patients were enrolled in this study; 84 had endometriosis and 55 were nonendometriotic gynecological patients (control). The HMGB1 levels in various fluids were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and RAGE and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) messenger RNA expression in HMGB1- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated ESCs was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The HMGB1 concentration was higher in menstrual blood than in serum or peritoneal fluid ( P endometriosis following retrograde menstruation when complexed with other factors such as LPS by inducing inflammation and angiogenesis.

  1. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants: A joint statement with the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edmond S; Cummings, Carl

    2013-12-01

    Allergic conditions in children are a prevalent health concern in Canada. The burden of disease and the societal costs of proper diagnosis and management are considerable, making the primary prevention of allergic conditions a desirable health care objective. This position statement reviews current evidence on dietary exposures and allergy prevention in infants at high risk for developing allergic conditions. It revisits previous dietary recommendations for pregnancy, breastfeeding and formula feeding, and provides an approach for introducing solid foods to high-risk infants. While there is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond six months of age helps to prevent allergy, the protective effect of early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at four to six months of age) remains under investigation. Recent research appears to suggest that regularly ingesting a new, potentially allergenic food may be as important as when that food is first introduced.

  3. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  4. High dietary biotin levels affect the footpad and hock health of broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities and litter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z W; Fan, Q H; Wang, X X; Guo, Y M; Wang, H J; Dong, X

    2017-06-01

    Responses to stocking density (SD), dietary biotin concentration and litter condition were evaluated on 2016 Ross 308 male broilers in the fattening period (day 22-day 42). The birds were placed in 48 pens with either dry or wet litter to simulate the final stocking density of 30 kg (12 broilers/m 2 ; normal stocking density, NSD) and 40 kg (16 broilers/m 2 ; high stocking density, HSD) of body weight (BW)/m 2 floor space. A corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with biotin to provide a normal (NB; 155 μg/kg) or high (HB, 1521 μg/kg) level of dietary biotin. There were six repetitions per treatment. The inappropriate moisture content of litter associated with HSD was avoided (p  0.05) for growth and processing yield. In HSD, the biotin effect (gains, FCR) was significantly higher (p chickens, and a significant interaction (p density, biotin supplementation and litter condition existed from 35 to 42 days of age. Taken together, increasing dietary biotin improves the performance and well-being of broiler chickens stocked at high densities in litter-independent and litter-dependent manners respectively. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  6. Nutritional status, dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care assessment in a group of older adults attending community centres in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, G; Rossi, M; Roggi, C; Maccarini, L

    2013-02-01

    The population of industrialised countries is ageing as a consequence of an increase in life expectancy. As a result of the increasing ageing process, the assessment of nutritional status and dietary habits, as well as the assessment of self-care, is needed to plan selected actions aimed at improving the quality of life in the third and fourth life spans. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a randomly selected sample of 200 healthy older adults (≥65 years old), attending community centres for older people in Pavia, Northern Italy. Ninety-two percent of the recruited subjects participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were performed. Dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and self-care were investigated using a questionnaire administered by two dietitians. The majority of subjects were low socio-economic status and overweight [mean (SD) body mass index = 28.4 (4.3) kg/m(2) ], 12% were malnourished according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment score and the majority of the arm muscle circumference measurements were below the 10th percentile, predicting accelerated loss of lean mass, even in the healthy independently living older adults. Only 30% of the sample had adequate dietary habits, whereas the ability to self-care was good for the whole sample. The unhealthy and unbalanced diet, frequently too rich in sugar and fats and low in protein intake, might explain being overweight and the loss of lean mass in the study subjects. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangping Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  8. New Highly Sensitive Real-Time PCR Assay for HIV-2 Group A and Group B DNA Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertine, Mélanie; Gueudin, Marie; Mélard, Adeline; Damond, Florence; Descamps, Diane; Matheron, Sophie; Collin, Fidéline; Rouzioux, Christine; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    HIV-2 infection is characterized by a very low replication rate in most cases and low progression. This necessitates an approach to patient monitoring that differs from that for HIV-1 infection. Here, a new highly specific and sensitive method for HIV-2 DNA quantification was developed. The new test is based on quantitative real-time PCR targeting the long terminal repeat (LTR) and gag regions and using an internal control. Analytical performance was determined in three laboratories, and clinical performance was determined on blood samples from 63 patients infected with HIV-2 group A ( n = 35) or group B ( n = 28). The specificity was 100%. The 95% limit of detection was three copies/PCR and the limit of quantification was six copies/PCR. The within-run coefficients of variation were between 1.03% at 3.78 log 10 copies/PCR and 27.02% at 0.78 log 10 copies/PCR. The between-run coefficient of variation was 5.10%. Both manual and automated nucleic acid extraction methods were validated. HIV-2 DNA loads were detectable in blood cells from all 63 patients. When HIV-2 DNA was quantifiable, median loads were significantly higher in antiretroviral-treated than in naive patients and were similar for groups A and B. HIV-2 DNA load was correlated with HIV-2 RNA load ( r = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4 to 0.8; P < 0.0001). Our data show that this new assay is highly sensitive and quantifies the two main HIV-2 groups, making it useful for the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and for pathogenesis studies on HIV-2 reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Receptor-based high-throughput screening and identification of estrogens in dietary supplements using bioaffinity liquid-chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Blesa, Natalia Gómez; Major, Hilary; Pedotti, Mattia; Varani, Luca; Ferrero, Valentina E V; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-11-01

    A high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of recombinant human estrogen receptor α (ERα) ligands in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated mass spectrometric ligand binding assay was developed applying (13)C2, (15) N-tamoxifen as non-radioactive label and fast ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS), operated in the single reaction monitoring mode, as a readout system. Binding of the label to ERα-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by competing estrogens in the sample extract yielding decreased levels of the label in UPLC-QqQ-MS. The label showed high ionisation efficiency in positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode, so the developed BioMS approach is able to screen for estrogens in dietary supplements despite their poor ionisation efficiency in both positive and negative ESI modes. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate, and all these wells could be measured within 3 h. Estrogens in suspect extracts were identified by full-scan accurate mass and collision-cross section (CCS) values from a UPLC-ion mobility-Q-time-of-flight-MS (UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS) equipped with a novel atmospheric pressure ionisation source. Thanks to the novel ion source, this instrument provided picogram sensitivity for estrogens in the negative ion mode and an additional identification point (experimental CCS values) next to retention time, accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry data. The developed combination of bioaffinity screening with UPLC-QqQ-MS and identification with UPLC-IM-Q-ToF-MS provides an extremely powerful analytical tool for early warning of ERα bioactive compounds in dietary supplements as demonstrated by analysis of selected dietary supplements in which different estrogens were identified.

  10. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  11. Evaluation of a dietary targets monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, M E J; Anderson, A S; Morrison, C; Currall, J

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate a two-page food frequency list for use as a Dietary Targets Monitor in large scale surveys to quantify consumptions of the key foods groups targeted in health promotion. Intakes of fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were compared with a short food frequency list (the Dietary Targets Monitor) specifically designed to assess habitual frequency of consumption of foods in relation to dietary targets which form the basis of a National (Scottish) Food and Health Policy. A total of 1085 adults aged 25-64 y from the Glasgow MONICA Study. : The two questionnaires both collected data on frequencies of food consumption for fruit and vegetables, starchy foods and fish. Comparing the two questionnaires, there were consistent biases, best expressed as ratios (FFQ:Dietary Targets Monitor) between the methods for fruit and vegetables (1.33, 95% CI 1.29, 1.38) and 'starchy foods' (1.08, 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), the DTM showing systematic under-reporting by men. For fish consumption, there was essentially no bias between the methods (0.99, 95% CI 0.94, 1.03). Using calibration factors to adjust for biases, the Dietary Targets Monitor indicated that 16% of the subjects were achieving the Scottish Diet food target (400 g/day) for fruit and vegetable consumption. Nearly one-third (32%) of the subjects were eating the recommended intakes of fish (three portions per week). The Dietary Targets Monitor measure of starchy foods consumption was calibrated using FFQ data to be able to make quantitative estimates: 20% of subjects were eating six or more portions of starchy food daily. A similar estimation of total fat intake and saturated fat intake (g/day) allowed the categorization of subjects as low, moderate or high fat consumers, with broad agreement between the methods. The levels of agreement demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis, were insufficient to permit use of the adjusted DTM to estimate quantitative

  12. High value co-products from wine by-product's (i): dietary fibre concentrates with antioxidants properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Simal, S.; Eim, V. S.; Castell-Palou, A.; Femenia, A.

    2009-07-01

    The concept of dietary fibre (DF) is well established and the nutritional benefits (protection against certain types of cancer, regulation of food transit through the digestive system, blood cholesterol lowering) of DF intake are generally accepted. Our DF intake comes primarily form cereal products, fruits and vegetables that are consumed in its traditional presentation. (Author)

  13. Participation in School Physical Education and Selected Dietary Patterns among High School Students--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of self-reported enrollment, attendance, and participation in school physical education, noting dietary patterns among students in grades 9-12 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Percentages of students participating varied significantly. Males participated and exercised more than females. Very few students…

  14. High value co-products from wine by-product's (i): dietary fibre concentrates with antioxidants properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Simal, S.; Eim, V. S.; Castell-Palou, A.; Femenia, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dietary fibre (DF) is well established and the nutritional benefits (protection against certain types of cancer, regulation of food transit through the digestive system, blood cholesterol lowering) of DF intake are generally accepted. Our DF intake comes primarily form cereal products, fruits and vegetables that are consumed in its traditional presentation. (Author)

  15. Dietary Carnitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) fed high fat diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Thillart, van den G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four

  16. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of

  17. Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO, and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the

  18. Depression evaluation in an attendance group for high-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Said Daher Baptista; Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the variation of depression symptomatology in an informative high-risk post-partum group of pregnant (GAGER). Six high-risk pregnant women, from a University Hospital participated in this research, and they were evaluated four times: first, before forming the group; second, after two participations in this group; third, 24 to 36 hours after partum; and, four weeks post-partum. The instruments used were a Psychological Clinic Interview and, the Edinburgh Po...

  19. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  20. Dietary Patterns Characterized by High Meat Consumption Are Associated with Other Unhealthy Life Styles and Depression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Gregório

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveWe aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs of Portuguese adults, to assess their socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle determinants, and to identify their impact on health.DesignEpiDoC 2 study included 10,153 Portuguese adults from the EpiDoC Cohort, a population-based study. In this study, trained research assistants using computer-assisted telephone interview collected socioeconomic, demographic, dietary, lifestyles, and health information from March 2013 to July 2015. Cluster analysis was performed, based on questions regarding the number of meals, weekly frequency of soup consumption, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, dairy products, and daily water intake. Factors associated with DP were identified through logistic regression models.ResultsTwo DPs were identified: the “meat dietary pattern” and the “fruit & vegetables dietary pattern.” After multivariable adjustment, women (OR = 0.52; p < 0.001, older adults (OR = 0.97; p < 0.001, and individuals with more years of education (OR = 0.96; p = 0.025 were less likely to adopt the “meat dietary pattern,” while individuals in a situation of job insecurity/unemployment (OR = 1.49; p = 0.013, Azores island residents (OR = 1.40; p = 0.026, current smoking (OR = 1.58; p = 0.001, daily alcohol intake (OR = 1.46; p = 0.023, and physically inactive (OR = 1.86; p < 0.001 were positively and significantly associated with “meat dietary pattern.” Moreover, individuals with depression symptoms (OR = 1.50; p = 0.018 and the ones who did lower number of medical appointments in the previous year (OR = 0.98; p = 0.025 were less likely to report this DP.ConclusionOur results suggest that unhealthy DPs (meat DP are part of a lifestyle behavior that includes physical inactivity, smoking habits, and alcohol consumption. Moreover, depression symptoms are also associated with unhealthy DPs.

  1. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Selenium and Selenoprotein Deficiencies Induce Widespread Pyogranuloma Formation in Mice, while High Levels of Dietary Selenium Decrease Liver Tumor Size Driven by TGFα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianxin; Ward, Jerrold M.; Perella, Christine M.; Hoffmann, Victoria J.; Rogers, Keith; Combs, Gerald F.; Schweizer, Ulrich; Merlino, Glenn; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dietary selenium and selenoprotein status may influence both anti- and pro-cancer pathways, making the outcome of interventions different from one study to another. To characterize such outcomes in a defined setting, we undertook a controlled hepatocarcinogenesis study involving varying levels of dietary selenium and altered selenoprotein status using mice carrying a mutant (A37G) selenocysteine tRNA transgene (TrsptG37) and/or a cancer driver TGFα transgene. The use of TrsptG37 altered selenoprotein expression in a selenoprotein and tissue specific manner and, at sufficient dietary selenium levels, separate the effect of diet and selenoprotein status. Mice were maintained on diets deficient in selenium (0.02 ppm selenium) or supplemented with 0.1, 0.4 or 2.25 ppm selenium or 30 ppm triphenylselenonium chloride (TPSC), a non-metabolized selenium compound. TrsptG37 transgenic and TGFα/TrsptG37 bi-transgenic mice subjected to selenium-deficient or TPSC diets developed a neurological phenotype associated with early morbidity and mortality prior to hepatocarcinoma development. Pathology analyses revealed widespread disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation. Pyogranulomas occurred in liver, lungs, heart, spleen, small and large intestine, and mesenteric lymph nodes in these transgenic and bi-transgenic mice. The incidence of liver tumors was significantly increased in mice carrying the TGFα transgene, while dietary selenium and selenoprotein status did not affect tumor number and multiplicity. However, adenoma and carcinoma size and area were smaller in TGFα transgenic mice that were fed 0.4 and 2.25 versus 0.1 ppm of selenium. Thus, selenium and selenoprotein deficiencies led to widespread pyogranuloma formation, while high selenium levels inhibited the size of TGFα–induced liver tumors. PMID:23460847

  3. A PILOT STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH HIGH AND LOW HABITUAL DIETARY MAGNESIUM INTAKE ON RESTING AND RECOVERY FROM AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsy S. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.

  4. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  5. A dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products and low consumption of refined cereals is positively associated with plasma adiponectin levels in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Malagaris, Ioannis; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-06-01

    In light of the potential beneficial effects of adiponectin on insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, it is becoming increasingly important to identify all modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, that may affect circulating adiponectin concentrations. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between dietary patterns and plasma adiponectin levels using principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. Two hundred twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were performed in all subjects. Blood samples were taken, and adiponectin concentrations were measured. Food intake was evaluated by 3-day food diaries, and PCA was used for the identification of the participants' dietary patterns. The PCA identified 10 dietary components explaining 82% of the total variance in food intake. Bivariate correlation between circulating adiponectin levels and dietary components revealed a positive significant association only with the first component that was characterized by high intake of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products as well as low intake of refined cereals (P = .04). This association remained unchanged after controlling for potential confounders (standardized beta coefficient = 0.18, P = .03). A dietary pattern characteristic of consumption of alcoholic beverages was found to be marginally related to adiponectin levels in the multivariate model (standardized beta coefficient = 0.14, P = .10). Our data indicate that a dietary pattern characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain cereals and low-fat dairy products is modestly positively associated with adiponectin concentrations.

  6. Prediction of high pressure vapor-liquid equilibria with mixing rule using ASOG group contribution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.; Kurihara, K.

    1985-02-01

    To develop a widely applicable method for predicting high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria by the equation of state, a mixing rule is proposed in which mixture energy parameter ''..cap alpha..'' of theSoave-RedlichKwong, Peng-Robinson, and Martin cubic equations of state is expressed by using the ASOG group contribution method. The group pair parameters are then determined for 14 group pairs constituted by six groups, i.e. CH/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/, CH/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ groups. By using the group pair parameters determined, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria are predicted with good accuracy for binary and ternary systems constituted by n-paraffins, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in the temperature range of 100 - 450K.

  7. Effects of dietary organic chromium and vitamin C supplementation on performance, immune responses, blood metabolites, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfendereski, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of chromium-methionine (CrMet) and vitamin C (VC) on performance, immune response, and stress status of laying hens subjected to high stocking density. A total of 360 Hy-Line W-36 leghorn hens (at 26 wk old) were used in a 2×3×2 factorial arrangement that had 2 cage densities (5 and 7 hens per cage), 3 Cr levels (0, 500, and 1,000 ppb as CrMet), and 2 dietary VC levels (0 and 500 ppm as L-ascorbic acid). The trial lasted for 12 wk. The first 2 wk were for adaptation (26 to 28 wk of age), and the remaining 10 wk served as the main recording period. In addition to performance, immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was assessed at d 7 and 14 postvaccination. Also, the birds' stress status was evaluated by analyzing appropriate plasma metabolites. The results showed that hens in cages with higher stocking density had lower hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake compared with those in normal density cages (Pfeed conversion efficiency (Pfeed conversion ratio in VC-unsupplemented diets. Although plasma concentrations of triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins were not influenced by dietary treatments, supplemental CrMet decreased plasma cholesterol levels (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage were significantly higher than those of hens in normal cage density (Phens. While high stocking density caused a marked increase in plasma corticosterone (Phens. The high stocking density challenge suppressed NDV antibody response (Phens kept at a density of 7 hens/cage (P<0.01). From the present observations, it can be concluded that CrMet can improve laying performance largely because it alleviates harmful responses to stressful conditions. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with obesity in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Furukori, Hanako; Nakagami, Taku; Ishioka, Masamichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-06-20

    Obesity among patients with schizophrenia is a growing concern because being overweight is widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Dietary patterns have been suggested as one modifiable factor that may play a role in development of obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 338) aged 44.0 ± 13.2 (mean ± SD) years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups were extracted by principal component analysis. A total of 61 subjects (18.0%) were classified as obese. Three dietary patterns were identified: the healthy dietary pattern, the processed food dietary pattern, and the alcohol and accompanying dietary patterns. After adjusting for age and gender, patients within the high tertile of each healthy dietary pattern (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.62) and processed food dietary pattern (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.89) had a significantly lower risk for obesity compared with low tertile of dietary pattern. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns, including higher intake of protein, fat, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins, may be related to a decreased prevalence of obesity within patients with schizophrenia. Future longitudinal research exploring dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia is warranted.

  9. Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Muñoz-Espinosa, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A; González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2016-09-01

    Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status. We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design. Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05). Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong; Chan, Joanne Chung-yan

    2008-06-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the inconsistent effects of heterogeneous ability grouping on students in small group work such as project-based learning. The present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. At the student level, we examined the interaction effect between students' within-group achievement and group processes on their self- and collective efficacy. At the group level, we examined how group heterogeneity was associated with the average self- and collective efficacy reported by the groups. The participants were 1,921 Hong Kong secondary students in 367 project-based learning groups. Student achievement was determined by school examination marks. Group processes, self-efficacy and collective efficacy were measured by a student-report questionnaire. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyse the nested data. When individual students in each group were taken as the unit of analysis, results indicated an interaction effect of group processes and students' within-group achievement on the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy. When compared with low achievers, high achievers reported lower collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of low quality. However, both low and high achievers reported higher collective efficacy than self-efficacy when group processes were of high quality. With 367 groups taken as the unit of analysis, the results showed that group heterogeneity, group gender composition and group size were not related to the discrepancy between collective- and self-efficacy reported by the students. Group heterogeneity was not a determinant factor in students' learning efficacy. Instead, the quality of group processes played a pivotal role because both high and low achievers were able to benefit when group processes were of high quality.

  11. Improving Study Habits of Junior High School Students Through Self-Management versus Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.; Trujillo, Amaryllis E.

    1975-01-01

    Both a self-management approach, teaching the principles of behavior modification and self-control (n=36), and a group-discussion technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n=41), led to improvements in grade point averages compared with a no-treatment control group (n=36) for low-achieving junior high school students. (Author)

  12. Preference for High Status Predicts Implicit Outgroup Bias among Children from Low-Status Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Dunham, Yarrow; Merrill, Anna; Hoosain, Leah; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas members of high-status racial groups show ingroup preference when attitudes are measured implicitly, members of low-status racial groups--both adults and children--typically show no bias, potentially reflecting awareness of the ingroup's low status. We hypothesized that when status differences are especially pronounced, children from…

  13. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  14. Identification of dietary patterns associated with obesity in a nationally representative survey of Canadian adults: application of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Wolfinger, Russell D; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-03-01

    Background: Analyzing the effects of dietary patterns is an important approach for examining the complex role of nutrition in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the dietary patterns of Canadians with the use of a priori, hybrid, and simplified dietary pattern techniques, and to compare the associations of these patterns with obesity risk in individuals with and without chronic diseases (unhealthy and healthy obesity). Design: Dietary recalls from 11,748 participants (≥18 y of age) in the cross-sectional, nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 were used. A priori dietary pattern was characterized with the use of the previously validated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI). Weighted partial least squares (hybrid method) was used to derive an energy-dense (ED), high-fat (HF), low-fiber density (LFD) dietary pattern with the use of 38 food groups. The associations of derived dietary patterns with disease outcomes were then tested with the use of multinomial logistic regression. Results: An ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern had high positive loadings for fast foods, carbonated drinks, and refined grains, and high negative loadings for whole fruits and vegetables (≥|0.17|). Food groups with a high loading were summed to form a simplified dietary pattern score. Moving from the first (healthiest) to the fourth (least healthy) quartiles of the ED, HF, and LFD pattern and the simplified dietary pattern scores was associated with increasingly elevated ORs for unhealthy obesity, with individuals in quartile 4 having an OR of 2.57 (95% CI: 1.75, 3.76) and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.88, 3.98), respectively ( P -trend obesity ( P -trend dietary patterns with healthy obesity and unhealthy nonobesity were weaker, albeit significant. Conclusions: Consuming an ED, HF, and LFD dietary pattern and lack of adherence to the recommendations of the 2015 DGAI were associated with

  15. Interaction of a non-histone chromatin protein (high-mobility group protein 2) with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, G.H.; Shooter, K.V.; Johns, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction with DNA of the calf thymus chromatin non-histone protein termed the high-mobility group protein 2 has been studied by sedimentation analysis in the ultracentrifuge and by measuring the binding of the 125 I-labelled protein to DNA. The results have been compared with those obtained previously by us [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 47, 263-270] for the interaction of high-mobility group protein 1 with DNA. Although the binding parameters are similar for these two proteins, high-mobility group protein 2 differs from high-mobility group protein 1 in that the former appears to change the shape of the DNA to a more compact form. The molecular weight of high-mobility group protein 2 has been determined by equilibrium sedimentation and a mean value of 26,000 was obtained. A low level of nuclease activity detected in one preparation of high-mobility group protein 2 has been investigated. (orig.) [de

  16. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  17. Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes Prevents Fat Deposition and Lowers Triglyceride in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet (HFD induces obesity. This study examined the effects of Shiitake mushroom on the prevention of alterations of plasma lipid profiles, fat deposition, energy efficiency, and body fat index induced by HFD. Rats were given a low, medium, and high (7, 20, 60 g/kg = LD-M, MD-M, HD-M Shiitake mushroom powder in their high-fat (50% in kcal diets for 6 weeks. The results showed that the rats on the HD-M diet had the lowest body weight gain compared to MD-M and LD-M groups (P<0.05. The total fat deposition was significantly lower (−35%, P<0.05 in rats fed an HD-M diet than that of HFD group. Interestingly, plasma triacylglycerol (TAG level was significantly lower (−55%, P<0.05 in rats on HD-M than HFD. This study also revealed the existence of negative correlations between the amount of Shiitake mushroom supplementation and body weight gain, plasma TAG, and total fat masses.

  18. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  19. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level.

  1. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J

    2017-12-01

    The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of

  2. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns.

  3. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  5. Early first trimester maternal ‘high fish and olive oil and low meat’ dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P.M.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Vries, de Jeanne H.M.; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2018-01-01

    Background/objectives: Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome.

  6. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  7. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  8. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  9. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOU, W.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade

  10. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  11. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (Phypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreases in high-fat and/or high added sugar food group intake occur when a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed within a lifestyle intervention: a secondary cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshani, Vaishali Deepak; Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. Objective Examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake, and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Design Secondary cohort analysis. Participants One hundred sixty-nine participants (52.0 ± 8.6 years, 34.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% female) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. Main Outcome Measures From 3, 24-hr phone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from NDSR software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher fat and/or added sugar food groups vs. naturally lower fat and/or added sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of non-modified vs. fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Statistical Analyses Performed Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Results Significant reductions (p hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. PMID:27436530

  13. Relationship between major dietary patterns and sarcopenia among menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Reza; Aliakbar, Sima; Abdollahi, Afsoun; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Maghbooli, Zhila; Mirzaei, Khadijeh

    2017-12-01

    Dietary habits have been associated with the prevalence of the sarcopenia and limited data are available in this field for menopausal women. This study focused on the relationship between dietary patterns and prevalence of the sarcopenia in menopausal women. This cross-sectional study was done in 250 menopausal women 45 years old or older. Dietary data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and physical activity was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Height, weight, skeletal muscle mass, hand grip, and gait speed were measured and sarcopenia was defined based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) guidelines. Using factor analysis, two major dietary patterns were found: a Western pattern (high in commercial beverage, sugar and dessert, snacks, solid fat, potato, high fat dairy, legume, organ meat, fast food, and sweets) and a Mediterranean pattern (high in olive, low-fat dairy, vegetable, fish, nut, and vegetable oil). After adjusting for confounding variables, for the highest vs the lowest tertiles, the Odds Ratio (OR) for sarcopenia was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-2.37] in the Western pattern and 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.89] in the Mediterranean pattern. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean dietary pattern has a favorable role in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  14. Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Young-Mee; Hyun Lee, Joo; Youl Kim, Deuk; Hwang, Se-Hee; Hong, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Bo; Jin Lee, Song; Hye Park, Chi

    2012-02-01

    D-Psicose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, has shown promise in reducing body fat accumulation in normal rats and plasma glucose level in genetic diabetic mice. Effects of D-psicose on diet-induced obesity are not clearly elucidated, and we investigated food intake, body weight, and fat accumulation in rats fed high-fat (HF) diet. Sprague-Dawley rats became obese by feeding HF diet for 4 wk, and were assigned either to normal or HF diet supplemented with or without D-psicose, sucrose, or erythritol for 8 wk. Changing HF to normal diet gained less body weight and adipose tissue due to different energy intake. D-psicose-fed rats exhibited lower weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and fat accumulation than erythritol- and sucrose-fed rats. This effect was more prominent in D-psicose-fed rats with normal diet than with HF diet, suggesting combination of psicose and calorie restriction further reduced obesity. There was no difference in serum cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C/HDL-C ratios between D-psicose group and other groups. Liver weight in 5% psicose group with normal diet was higher than in other groups, but histopathological examination did not reveal any psicose-related change. D-Psicose inhibited the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that D-psicose produces a marked decrease, greater than erythritol, in weight gain and visceral fat in an established obesity model by inhibiting MSC differentiation to adipocyte. Thus, D-psicose can be useful in preventing and reducing obesity as a sugar substitute and food ingredient. We can develop D-psicose as a sugar substitute and food ingredient since it can prevent obesity in normal people, but also suppress adiposity as a sugar substitute or food ingredients with antiobesity effect in obese people. D-psicose can be unique functional sweetener because of its function of reducing visceral

  15. High Prevalence of Inadequate Calcium and Iron Intakes by Mexican Population Groups as Assessed by 24-Hour Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; López-Olmedo, Nancy; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; García-Guerra, Armando; Rivera, Juan A; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    A National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) conducted in Mexico in 1999 identified a high prevalence of inadequate mineral intakes in the population by using 24-h recall questionnaires. However, the 1999 survey did not adjust for within-person variance. The 2012 ENSANUT implemented a more up-to-date 24-h recall methodology to estimate usual intake distributions and prevalence of inadequate intakes. We examined the distribution of usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the Mexican population in groups defined according to sex, rural or urban area, geographic region of residence, and socioeconomic status (SES). We used dietary intake data obtained through the 24-h recall automated multiple-pass method for 10,886 subjects as part of ENSANUT 2012. A second measurement on a nonconsecutive day was obtained for 9% of the sample. Distributions of usual intakes of the 4 minerals were obtained by using the Iowa State University method, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated by using the Institute of Medicine's Estimated Average Requirement cutoff. Calcium inadequacy was 25.6% in children aged 1-4 y and 54.5-88.1% in subjects >5 y old. More than 45% of subjects >5 y old had an inadequate intake of iron. Less than 5% of children aged 12 y had inadequate intakes of magnesium, whereas zinc inadequacy ranged from <10% in children aged <12 y to 21.6% in men aged ≥20 y. Few differences were found between rural and urban areas, regions, and tertiles of SES. Intakes of calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc are inadequate in the Mexican population, especially among adolescents and adults. These results suggest a public health concern that must be addressed. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  17. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  18. Preparation of dietary fibre-enriched materials from preharvest dropped apples and their utilisation as a high-fibre flour substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujeong; Kim, Yongwook; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2013-06-01

    Preharvest dropped apples from a weather disaster are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to reduced market value. In this study, they were utilised to produce dietary fibre-enriched materials (DFEMs) and their baking performance in a food system was then evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute. Hydrothermal treatment and fractionation of preharvest dropped apple powder produced fibre-rich fractions (856.2 g kg(-1)). The use of DFEMs increased the pasting properties of wheat flour and improved dough mixing stability. When DFEMs were incorporated in the cookie formulation (2, 4 and 6 g dietary fibre per serving), the cookie dough exhibited increased elongational viscosity and solid-like behaviour which became more pronounced with increasing levels of DEFMs. After baking, reduced spread was observed in DFEM cookies which could be readily attributed to their rheological characteristics. However, greater moisture retention by DFEMs produced cookie samples with softer texture. DFEMs prepared from preharvest dropped apples could be successfully evaluated in a cookie model system as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. This study suggests a new value-added application of preharvest dropped fruits, positively extending their use for better healthful diets. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The efficacy of the appetite suppressant, diethylpropion, is dependent on both when it is given (day vs. night) and under conditions of high fat dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B; Solorio, Jessica; Perez, Claudia I; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a public health problem caused by excessive consumption of high caloric diets and/or lack of physical activity. Although treatments for obesity include low caloric diets and exercise programs, these activities frequently are supplemented with appetite suppressants. For the short-term treatment of weight loss, diethylpropion (DEP) is a commonly used appetite suppressant. However, little is known with regard to how to improve its weight loss efficacy. We therefore evaluated, in rats, two administration protocols where the animals received daily injections of DEP. First, when these nocturnal animals were normally active (at night) and when they were normally inactive (daytime), and second, with or without high fat dietary restriction (HFDR). We observed that DEP induced a greater weight-loss administered when the animals were in their active phase than in their inactive phase. Moreover, DEP's administration during the inactive phase (and to a lesser degree in the active phase) promotes the consumption of food during normal sleeping time. In addition, we found that DEP-induced weight loss under ad libitum access to a HF diet, but its efficacy significantly improved under conditions of HFDR. In summary, the efficacy of DEP, and presumably other like appetite suppressants, is enhanced by carefully controlling the time it is administered and under dietary restriction of HF diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants: a joint position statement of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Canadian Paediatric Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edmond S; Cummings, Carl; Atkinson, Adelle; Chad, Zave; Francoeur, Marie-Josée; Kirste, Linda; Mack, Douglas; Primeau, Marie-Noël; Vander Leek, Timothy K; Watson, Wade Ta

    2014-01-01

    Allergic conditions in children are a prevalent health concern in Canada. The burden of disease and the societal costs of proper diagnosis and management are considerable, making the primary prevention of allergic conditions a desirable health care objective. This position statement reviews current evidence on dietary exposures and allergy prevention in infants at high risk of developing allergic conditions. It revisits previous dietary recommendations for pregnancy, breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and provides an approach for introducing solid foods to high-risk infants. While there is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond six months of age helps to prevent allergy, the protective effect of early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at four to six months) remains under investigation. Recent research appears to suggest that regularly ingesting a new, potentially allergenic food may be as important as when that food is first introduced. This article has already been published (Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec;18(10):545-54), and is being re-published with permission from the original publisher, the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  1. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  2. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  3. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  4. The effect of group rational emotive behavior therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The perpose of this stud was to determiine the effpyct of group rational emotive therapy on inefficient ideas of female high school students . Therfor 24 students were randomly selected and two therapy and control groups. The therapy group received 10 sessions of 90 minute therapy while the control groups did not receive any thing. The inefficient ideas quertomaire was administered to all subjects as the pre and post tests. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the mean total scores of the therapy group was significantly less on the following sub-scales : expectations (p=0/05 , excessive anxiety (p=0/04 , helplessness with change (p=0/05 , expecting others support (p=0/03 , and dependency (p=0/0001 .

  5. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  6. Relations between high and low power groups: the importance of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsey, Matthew J; Spears, Russell; Cremers, Iris; Hogg, Michael A

    2003-02-01

    Using a social identity perspective, two experiments examined the effects of power and the legitimacy of power differentials on intergroup bias. In Experiment 1, 125 math-science students were led to believe that they had high or low representation in a university decision-making body relative to social-science students and that this power position was either legitimate or illegitimate. Power did not have an independent effect on bias; rather, members of both high and low power groups showed more bias when the power hierarchy was illegitimate than when it was legitimate. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 105). In addition, Experiment 2 showed that groups located within an unfair power hierarchy expected the superordinate power body to be more discriminatory than did those who had legitimately high or low power. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for group relations. Copyright 2003 Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. An empirical assessment of high-performing medical groups: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, Stephen M; Schmittdiel, Julie; Wang, Margaret C; Li, Rui; Gillies, Robin R; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Rundall, Thomas G

    2005-08-01

    The performance of medical groups is receiving increased attention. Relatively little conceptual or empirical work exists that examines the various dimensions of medical group performance. Using a national database of 693 medical groups, this article develops a scorecard approach to assessing group performance and presents a theory-driven framework for differentiating between high-performing versus low-performing medical groups. The clinical quality of care, financial performance, and organizational learning capability of medical groups are assessed in relation to environmental forces, resource acquisition and resource deployment factors, and a quality-centered culture. Findings support the utility of the performance scorecard approach and identification of a number of key factors differentiating high-performing from low-performing groups including, in particular, the importance of a quality-centered culture and the requirement of outside reporting from third party organizations. The findings hold a number of important implications for policy and practice, and the framework presented provides a foundation for future research.

  9. Effects of dietary supplement of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ross 308) to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with various levels of turmeric powder on blood constituents and antioxidant activity. The chicks were randomly assigned to eight dietary groups, which were given turmeric powder ...

  10. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high....../centres. In these countries, consumption of vegetables and fruit is similar to, or below, the overall EPIC means, and is low for legumes and vegetable oils. Overall, dietary patterns were similar for men and women, although there were large gender differences for certain food groups. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable...

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  12. Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Hedenus, Fredrik; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Bälter, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults. Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored. Sweden. Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years. Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively. The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.

  13. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Camilla M M; Kac, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies suggest association between low concentrations of omega-3 family fatty acids and greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD). The objective was to investigate the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD. The study comprises a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy. Statistical analysis involved calculation of PPD prevalence and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. PPD prevalence amounted to 26.4% [n = 28; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 18.0-34.8], and higher prevalences of PPD were observed in women who consumed an omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 (60.0%) and in those with pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (66.7%). These variables held as factors associated to PPD in the multivariate model, elevating the chances of occurrence of the outcome in 2.50 (CI 95%: 1.21-5.14) and 4.01 times (CI 95%: 1.96-8.20), respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, schooling, pre-pregnancy BMI, lipids consumption and time elapsed since delivery. It verified an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  15. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  16. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Wang, Bin; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Xiaolan; Lang, Hedong; Hui, Suocheng; Huang, Li; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Mengting; Mi, Mantian

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae , while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt) showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation. IMPORTANCE Metabolic endotoxemia due to gut microbial dysbiosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of

  17. Plant functional groups of potential restoration use in advancing edges of high Andean forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Castro, Carolina; Bonilla, Maria Argenis

    2011-01-01

    The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant's functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasture lands. Based on 10 x 10 m vegetation relevees for the shrubby-arboreal stratum and 1 x 1 m plots for the herbaceous stratum and the revision of vital attributes for each of the species found, this study uses a multivariate approach to construct a trait-based emergent group's classification. The most important attributes in the definition of the groups were the dispersion mechanism and the presence of basal trunk ramification in woody species; in addition differences in the presence of vegetative propagation, specific leaf area index and the ratio height/diameter at breast height were found between groups of the shrubby-arboreal stratum. Four distinct groups were defined in the herbaceous layer and five in the shrubby-arboreal layer, each group contains species with similar colonization strategies. Among the defined groups, the herbaceous species dispersed by various abiotic factors, the shrubby species with basal ramification and dispersed by wind and the species dispersed by birds constitute key strategies in forest recovery in adjacent abandoned pasture lands dominated by Holcus lanatus, and facilitate the establishment of secondary forest species.

  18. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  19. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status are related to dietary patterns at age 5 in the Amsterdam born children and their development (ABCD) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Viyan; Engberink, Marielle F; van Eijsden, Manon; Nicolaou, Mary; Dekker, Louise H; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Weijs, Peter J M

    2018-01-08

    Health inequalities are already present at young age and tend to vary with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Diet is a major determinant of overweight, and studying dietary patterns as a whole in relation to overweight rather than single nutrients or foods has been suggested. We derived dietary patterns at age 5 and determined whether ethnicity and SES were both related to these dietary patterns. We analysed 2769 validated Food Frequency Questionnaires filled in by mothers of children (5.7 ± 0.5y) in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) cohort. Food items were reduced to 41 food groups. Energy adjusted intake per food group (g/d) was used to derive dietary patterns using Principal Component Analysis and children were given a pattern score for each dietary pattern. We defined 5 ethnic groups (Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, other ethnicities) and 3 SES groups (low, middle, high, based on maternal education). Multivariate ANOVA, with adjustment for age, gender and maternal age, was used to test potential associations between ethnicity or SES and dietary pattern scores. Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine differences between groups. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 dietary patterns: a snacking, full-fat, meat and healthy dietary pattern, explaining 21% of the variation in dietary intake. Ethnicity was related to the dietary pattern scores (p pattern, whereas Turkish children scored high on full-fat and Surinamese children on the meat pattern. SES was related to the snacking, full-fat and meat patterns (p pattern and low on the full-fat pattern. This study indicates that both ethnicity and SES are relevant for dietary patterns at age 5 and may enable more specific nutrition education to specific ethnic and low socioeconomic status target groups.

  20. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  1. Indiana University high-energy physics group. Technical progress report, December 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.B.; Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Heinz, R.M.; Martin, H.J.; Ogren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The Indiana University High-Energy Physics Group has been actively involved in a variety of research programs during the current contract period. These programs are associated with major experiments conducted by our group at SLAC, Fermilab, Brookhaven and CERN. The physics areas under investigation include studies of psi meson production in hadron interactions (CERN WA-11), a study of low-p/sub t/ and high-p/sub t/ collisions utilizing the Multiparticle Spectrometer at Fermilab (E110/557/672), a glueball search (Brookhaven E771), and a high resolution study of e + e - interactions at high energy at SLAC (PEP HRS experiment). The status of the various efforts are discussed

  2. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  3. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits-eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking-was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for health promotion.

  4. Lifestyle and dietary habits of an obese pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Heneghan, Clara; McNulty, Breige; Brennan, Lorraine; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-01-01

    Obese pregnant women are the focus of numerous dietary and lifestyle intervention studies, however there is a paucity of literature examining the habitual dietary and lifestyle habits of this population. This paper aims to assess maternal dietary and lifestyle habits in an obese cohort, in order to identify priority areas to be addressed in future studies and in clinical practice. This prospective observational study recruited 100 pregnant women with a body mass index 30.0-39.9 kg/m(2) from routine antenatal clinics. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day food diary and a structured lifestyle questionnaire assessed physical activity levels, smoking and alcohol habits and wellbeing. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy were not compliant to healthy eating guidelines with an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and excess intake of saturated fat. Compliance to recommended intakes of calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D was poor from diet alone. The consumption of energy dense food groups high in fat and sugar was greater than for published pregnant populations and the general female non-pregnant population. One-third of women reported engaging in weekly physical activity that would comply with recommendations for pregnant women while 25 % reported low mood status indicating potential depression. High intakes of energy-dense processed foods and poor compliance to micronutrient recommendations are critical dietary issues of concern among obese pregnant women. Low mood is a barrier to motivation for changing behaviour which would also need to be addressed in future lifestyle intervention studies.

  5. Dose-reduction techniques for high-dose worker groups in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a study of the extent of radiation dose received by special work groups in the nuclear power industry. Work groups which chronically get large doses were investigated, using information provided by the industry. The tasks that give high doses to these work groups were examined and techniques described that were found to be particularly successful in reducing dose. Quantitative information on the extent of radiation doses to various work groups shows that significant numbers of workers in several critical groups receive doses greater than 1 and even 2 rem per year, particularly contract personnel and workers at BWR-type plants. The number of radiation workers whose lifetime dose is greater than their age is much less. Although the techniques presented would go some way in reducing dose, it is likely that a sizeable reduction to the high-dose work groups may require development of new dose-reduction techniques as well as major changes in procedures. 10 refs., 26 tabs

  6. Dietary abscisic acid ameliorates glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in db/db mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Si, Hongwei; Liu, Dongmin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2007-02-01

    Despite their efficacy in improving insulin sensitivity, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with a number of side effects (i.e. weight gain, hepatotoxicity, congestive heart failure) that have limited their use by millions of diabetic patients. We have investigated whether abscisic acid (ABA), a naturally occurring phytochemical with structural similarities to TZDs, could be used as an alternative to TZDs to improve glucose homeostasis. We first examined whether ABA, similar to TZDs, activates PPARgamma in vitro. We next determined the lowest effective dose of dietary ABA (100 mg/kg) and assessed its effect on glucose tolerance, obesity-related inflammation, and mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of db/db mice fed high-fat diets. We found that ABA induced transactivation of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes in vitro. Dietary ABA-supplementation for 36 days decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations, ameliorated glucose tolerance, and increased mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes (i.e., adiponectin, aP2, and CD36) in WAT. We also found that adipocyte hypertrophy, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and macrophage infiltration in WAT were significantly attenuated in ABA-fed mice. These findings suggest that ABA could be used as a nutritional intervention against type II diabetes and obesity-related inflammation.

  7. Dietary capsaicin and antibiotics act synergistically to reduce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjuan; Luo, Haihua; Jiang, Yong; Chen, Peng

    2017-06-13

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, effective strategies for combating high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder are still limited, and outcomes remain poor. In the present study, we evaluated the combined actions of dietary capsaicin and antibiotics on HFD-induced physiological abnormalities in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were fed with HFD (60% calories from fat) for 17 weeks, and the resultant pathophysiological effects were examined. Antibiotic treatment markedly attenuated gut inflammation and leakiness induced by HFD, whereas capsaicin showed limited effects on the gut. However, dietary capsaicin significantly increased PPAR-α expression in adipose tissue, while antibiotics had no such effect. Animals treated with a combination of capsaicin and antibiotics had the smallest body weight gain and fat pad index, as well as the lowest hepatic fat accumulation. Combination treatment also maximally improved insulin responsiveness, as indicated by insulin tolerance tests. These results suggest the co-treatment of capsaicin and antibiotics, a novel combination strategy, would play synergistically to attenuate the HFD-induced obesity, fatty liver and metabolic disorder.

  8. Frequent video-game playing in young males is associated with central adiposity and high-sugar, low-fibre dietary consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Siervo; Hannah, Cameron; Jonathan, Wells C K; Jose, Lara

    2014-12-01

    Video-game playing is associated with an increased obesity risk. The association of video-game playing with body composition, physical activity and eating behaviour was investigated. A total of 45 young males (age range 18-27 years, BMI range 18.5-35.1 kg/m(2)) were recruited. Measurements of body composition and blood pressure were performed. The EPIC-FFQ questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A questionnaire battery was administered to assess physical activity, eating behaviour, sleep quality and frequency of video-game playing (hours/week). Subjects were categorised into frequent (>7 h/week) and non-frequent (≤7 h/week) players. Frequent video-game players had greater waist circumference and fat mass. Video-game playing was significantly associated with high added sugar and low fibre consumption. A higher level of dietary restraint was observed in non-frequent video-game users. These preliminary results identify frequent video-game playing as an important lifestyle behaviour which may have important implications for understanding obesity risk in young male adults.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  11. Dietary patterns associated with HbA1c and LDL cholesterol among individuals with type 1 diabetes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Mendez, Michelle A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liu, Wei; Ji, Linong; Du, Shufa; Rosamond, Wayne; Popkin, Barry M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To identify dietary patterns that influence cardiometabolic risk among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in China. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study of T1D in China (n=99). Dietary intake was assessed using three 24-hour recalls. Reduced rank regression was used to identify dietary patterns from a set of 20 food groups that maximized the explained variation in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Results Dietary pattern 1 was characterized by low intakes of wheat products and high-fat cakes, and high intakes of beans and pickled vegetables. Dietary pattern 2 was characterized by low intakes of high-fat cakes, nuts/seeds, fish/shellfish, and teas/coffee, and high intakes of rice and eggs. Participants in the highest tertile of dietary pattern 1 had significantly (pfor age and household income. Dietary pattern 2 was not associated with HbA1c or LDL cholesterol. Conclusions We identified a dietary pattern that is significantly related to HbA1c and LDL cholesterol. These findings provide support for behavioral strategies to prevent complications in individuals with T1D in China. PMID:25630525

  12. Group Mentoring: a Way to Retain ´High-Risk´Teachers on the Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    2015-01-01

    The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...

  13. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  14. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  15. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has...

  16. High Y-chromosomal differentiation among ethnic groups of Dir and Swat districts, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Inam; Olofsson, Jill K.; Margaryan, Ashot

    2017-01-01

    The ethnic groups that inhabit the mountainous Dir and Swat districts of northern Pakistan are marked by high levels of cultural and phenotypic diversity. To obtain knowledge of the extent of genetic diversity in this region, we investigated Y-chromosomal diversity in five population samples repr...

  17. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle

  18. Using Focus Groups to Develop a Nutrition Education Video for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Frazee, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Study used focus group interviews with ninth graders to help develop a nutrition education video and teacher's guide for Florida high schools. Students believed a video would be successful, expressed interest in 10 nutrition topics, recommended using teen actors with varying body types, and suggested no more than three or four topics per video.…

  19. A high dietary intake of sodium glutamate as flavoring (ajinomoto) causes gross changes in retinal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguro, Hiroshi; Katsushima, Harumi; Maruyama, Ikuyo; Maeda, Tadao; Yanagihashi, Satsuki; Metoki, Tomomi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamate accumulation in vitreous on retinal structure and function, due to a diet high in sodium glutamate. Three different diet groups were created, consisting of rats fed on a regular diet (diet A), a moderate excess of sodium glutamate diet (diet B) and a large excess of sodium glutamate diet (diet C). After 1, 3 and 6 months of the administration of these diets, amino acids concentrations in vitreous were analyzed. In addition, retinal morphology and function by electroretinogram (ERG) of three different diet groups were studied. Significant accumulation of glutamate in vitreous was observed in rats following addition of sodium glutamate to the diet as compared to levels with a regular diet. In the retinal morphology, thickness of retinal neuronal layers was remarkably thinner in rats fed on sodium glutamate diets than in those on a regular diet. TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining revealed significant accumulation of the positive staining cells within the retinal ganglion cell layers in retinas from diets B and C as compared with that from diet A. Similar to this, immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) within the retinal inner layers from diets B and C as compared with diet A. Functionally, ERG responses were reduced in rats fed on a sodium glutamate diets as compared with those on a regular diet. The present study suggests that a diet with excess sodium glutamate over a period of several years may increase glutamate concentrations in vitreous and may cause retinal cell destruction.

  20. High-throughput dietary exposure predictions for chemical migrants from food contact substances for use in chemical prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryol, Derya; Nicolas, Chantel I; Wambaugh, John; Phillips, Katherine; Isaacs, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Under the ExpoCast program, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers have developed a high-throughput (HT) framework for estimating aggregate exposures to chemicals from multiple pathways to support rapid prioritization of chemicals. Here, we present methods to estimate HT exposures to chemicals migrating into food from food contact substances (FCS). These methods consisted of combining an empirical model of chemical migration with estimates of daily population food intakes derived from food diaries from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A linear regression model for migration at equilibrium was developed by fitting available migration measurements as a function of temperature, food type (i.e., fatty, aqueous, acidic, alcoholic), initial chemical concentration in the FCS (C 0 ) and chemical properties. The most predictive variables in the resulting model were C 0 , molecular weight, log K ow , and food type (R 2 =0.71, pchemicals identified via publicly-available data sources as being present in polymer FCSs were predicted for 12 food groups (combinations of 3 storage temperatures and food type). The model was parameterized with screening-level estimates of C 0 based on the functional role of chemicals in FCS. By combining these concentrations with daily intakes for food groups derived from NHANES, population ingestion exposures of chemical in mg/kg-bodyweight/day (mg/kg-BW/day) were estimated. Calibrated aggregate exposures were estimated for 1931 chemicals by fitting HT FCS and consumer product exposures to exposures inferred from NHANES biomonitoring (R 2 =0.61, pchemicals), they can provide critical refinement to aggregate exposure predictions used in risk-based chemical priority-setting. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  2. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Yamamoto, H

    2006-01-01

    Recent research (Flache 1996; Flache and Macy 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  3. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  4. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  5. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...

  6. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  7. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  8. High Dietary Fat Intake during Lactation Promotes the Development of Social Stress-Induced Obesity in the Offspring of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu

    2015-07-17

    This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD) during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stress influence the susceptibility of offspring to the development of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a commercial diet (CD) during pregnancy and a CD or HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at three weeks of age, fed a CD until seven weeks of age, and fed a CD or HD until 11 weeks of age. Offspring were housed alone (isolation stress) or at six per cage (ordinary circumstances). Thus, offspring were assigned to one of eight groups: dams fed a CD or HD during lactation and offspring fed a CD or HD and housed under ordinary circumstances or isolation stress. Serum corticosterone level was significantly elevated by isolation stress. High-fat feeding of offspring reduced their serum corticosterone level, which was significantly elevated by a maternal HD. A maternal HD and isolation stress had combined effects in elevating the serum corticosterone level. These findings suggest that a maternal HD during lactation enhances the stress sensitivity of offspring. White adipose tissue weights were significantly increased by a maternal HD and isolation stress and by their combination. In addition, significant adipocyte hypertrophy was induced by a maternal HD and isolation stress and exacerbated by their combination. Thus, a maternal HD and isolation stress promote visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy, accelerating the progression of obesity through their combined effects. The mechanism may involve enhanced fatty acid synthesis and lipid influx from blood into adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that a maternal HD during lactation may increase the susceptibility of offspring to the development of stress-induced obesity.

  9. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, Alexander; Kirwan, Richard; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2018-01-22

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development chronic diseases; however the full complexity of this relationship is not yet understood. Dietary pattern investigation, which reflects the complexity of dietary intake, has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach for examining the association between diet and chronic diseases. Literature on this association has largely focused on individual nutrients, with conflicting outcomes, but individuals consume a combination of foods from many groups that form dietary patterns. Our objective was to systematically review the current findings on the effects of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. In this review, we describe and discuss the relationships between dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Prudent, Seventh-day Adventists, and Western, with risk of obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenearive diseases. Evidence is increasing from both observational and clinical studies that plant-based dietary patterns, which are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, are valuable in preventing various chronic diseases, whereas a diet high in red and processed meat, refined grains and added sugar seems to increase said risk. Dietary pattern analysis might be especially valuable to the development and evaluation of food-based dietary guidelines.

  10. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  11. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) grouping based on larval habitat characteristics in high mountain ecosystems of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-García, Doris; Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo; Correa, Margarita M; Conn, Jan E; Uribe-Soto, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Information about mosquito ecology in the high mountain ecosystems of the Neotropical region is sparse. In general, few genera and species have been reported in these ecosystems and there is no information available on habitats and the mosquitoes occupying them. In the present study, specimens collected from NW Colombia in HME were grouped using larval habitat data via an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) determination. A total of 719 mosquitoes was analyzed belonging to 44 OTUs. The analysis considered habitat features and clustered the specimens into six groups from A-F. Five of these included species from different genera, suggesting common habitat requirements. Group E with four genera, seven subgenera, and six species occupied the highest areas (above 3,000 m), whereas three groups (B, D, F) were detected at lower altitudes (1,960-2,002 m). Bromeliads were the most common larval habitat, with 47% (335/719) of the specimens; five genera, six subgenera, and eight species were identified and classified into 66% (29/44) of the OTUs. This work showed some similarities to the habitat requirements and provides a grouping system that constitutes an important baseline for the classification of mosquito fauna from high mountain ecosystems according to altitude and larval habitat. © 2018 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Organisation of Dietary Control for Nutrition-Training Intervention Involving Periodized Carbohydrate (CHO) Availability and Ketogenic Low CHO High Fat (LCHF) Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtschin, Joanne G; Forbes, Sara F; Cato, Louise E; Heikura, Ida A; Strobel, Nicki; Hall, Rebecca; Burke, Louise M

    2018-02-12

    We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs. Menus also included nutrition support pre, during and post-exercise. Daily monitoring, via observation and food checklists, showed that energy and macronutrient targets were achieved: diets were matched for energy (~14.8 MJ/d) and protein (~2.1 g.kg/d), and achieved desired differences for fat and CHO: HCHO and PCHO: CHO = 8.5 g/kg/d, 60% energy; fat = 20% of energy; LCHF: 0.5 g/kg/d CHO, fat = 78% energy. There were no differences in micronutrient intakes or density between HCHO and PCHO diets; however, the micronutrient density of LCHF was significantly lower. Daily food costs per athlete were similar for each diet (~AUDS$27 ± 10). Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. Different approaches to sports nutrition support raise practical challenges around cost, micronutrient density, accommodation of special needs and sustainability.

  14. High dietary folate in pregnant mice leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency and altered methyl metabolism, with embryonic growth delay and short-term memory impairment in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahous, Renata H; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Deng, Liyuan; Cosín-Tomás, Marta; Lu, Jessica; Malysheva, Olga; Leung, Kit-Yi; Ho, Ming-Kai; Pallàs, Mercè; Kaliman, Perla; Greene, Nicholas D E; Bedell, Barry J; Caudill, Marie A; Rozen, Rima

    2017-03-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C > T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring. Female mice were placed on control diet (CD) or folic acid-supplemented diet (FASD) throughout mating, pregnancy and lactation. Three-week-old male pups were evaluated for motor and cognitive function. Tissues from E17.5 embryos, pups and dams were collected for choline/methyl metabolite measurements, immunoblotting or gene expression of relevant enzymes. Brains were examined for morphology of hippocampus and cortex. Pups of FASD mothers displayed short-term memory impairment, decreased hippocampal size and decreased thickness of the dentate gyrus. MTHFR protein levels were reduced in FASD pup livers, with lower concentrations of phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine in liver and hippocampus, respectively. FASD pup brains showed evidence of altered acetylcholine availability and Dnmt3a mRNA was reduced in cortex and hippocampus. E17.5 embryos and placentas from FASD dams were smaller. MTHFR protein and mRNA were reduced in embryonic liver, with lower concentrations of choline, betaine and phosphocholine. Embryonic brain displayed altered development of cortical layers. In summary, high folate intake during pregnancy leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, disturbed choline/methyl metabolism, embryonic growth delay and memory impairment in offspring. These findings highlight the unintended negative consequences of supplemental folic acid. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  16. High-efficiency organic solar cells based on end-functional-group-modified poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Ji Hwang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea); Lee, Youngmin; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jin Kon; Cho, Kilwon [Department of Chemical Engineering Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Engineering Pohang, 790-784 (Korea)

    2010-03-26

    Photovoltaic devices of end-functional-group-modified poly 3-(hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) are fabricated with thermal annealing. The surface energies between donor and acceptor were matched by varying the end group, which can be used to control vertical and horizontal phase separation in the active layer, leading mixed nanomorphology with optimized phase separation, low series resistance, and high performance for solar cell devices. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided.

  18. University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. Final performance report, June 1, 1989 - January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Contracts for 1989 covered the initial year of the University of Virginia High Energy Physics Group. The first proposal was submitted in the fall of 1988 and the first allocation of funding was received in June 1989. This first contract which covered the time period June 1, 1989--January 31, 1990 was in the amount of $186,000 and covered UVa HEP group operations and equipment during that period. At that point, a regular contract year was established and two subsequent contracts were issued for February 1, 1990--January 31, 1991 and February 1, 1991--January 31, 992 with awards of $280,000 and $580,000, respectively. The funding between June, 1989 and January, 1992 covered the activities of both the UVa Theory Group (Task A) and the UVa HEP Experimental Group (Task B). Expenditures of all above funds was completed by January 31, 1994. In this time period, certain initial things were accomplished using the operating funds provided by DOE and the seed funds ($2.2 million over the period). There were three main areas of activities, the building of the University of Virginia HEP infrastructure (construction of lab space, computer facilities, electronic shop, machine shop and office space), the hiring of personnel (faculty, post docs, and students) and the physics activities of the group. Much of the physics program of the experimental group revolved around the study of production and decay of heavy flavor. A list of technical papers generated by their work is provided

  19. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  20. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on mouse liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Patel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The exact pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is not known. Previous studies suggest that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs can cause oxidative stress in liver. We aim to study the effects of dietary AGEs on liver health and their possible role in the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: Two groups of mice were fed the same diet except the AGE content varied. One group was fed a high AGE diet and the second group was fed a regular AGE diet. Liver histology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were assessed. RESULTS: Histology revealed that neutrophil infiltration occurred in the livers of the high AGE group at week 26; steatosis did not accompany liver inflammation. At week 39 livers from both groups exhibited macro- or micro-steatosis, yet no inflammation was detected. Higher insulin levels were detected in the regular AGE group at week 26 (P = 0.034, compared to the high AGE group. At week 39, the regular AGE group showed higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.02 than those of the high AGE group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a high AGE diet can cause liver inflammation in the absence of steatosis. Our results show that dietary AGEs could play a role in initiating liver inflammation contributing to the disease progression of NASH. Our observation that the inflammation caused by high AGE alone did not persist suggests interesting future directions to investigate how AGEs contribute to pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative pathways in the liver.

  1. A high rate of non-compliance confounds the study of whole grains and weight maintenance in a randomised intervention trial - the case for greater use of dietary biomarkers in nutrition intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Pelletier, Xavier; Ross, Alastair B.

    2017-01-01

    than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention......-week dietary intervention phase, there were no group differences in changes in body weight and total fat mass %, whereas abdominal fat mass tended to increase more during the dietary intervention phase in the WG compared to the RG group (0.7 (SD 3.6) vs. -0.3 (SD 3.8) %; p = 0.052). Plasma...... alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake, indicated poor compliance, particularly in the WG group, where >60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower...

  2. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  3. Polybenzimidazole Membranes Containing Benzimidazole Side Groups for High Temprature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Xueyuan; Xu, Yizin

    2013-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated temperat......Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated...... temperatures without humidification. At an acid doping level of 13.1 mol H3PO4 per average molar repeat unit, the PBI membranes with a benzimidazole grafting degree of 10.6% demonstrated a conductivity of 0.15 S cm-1 and a H2-air fuel cell peak power density of 378 mW cm-2 at 180 oC at ambient pressure without...

  4. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-02-15

    Despite evidence that vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza is effective in limiting community-level transmission, the United States has had a long-standing government strategy of recommending that vaccine be concentrated primarily in high-risk groups and distributed to those people who keep the health system and social infrastructure operating. Because of this year's influenza vaccine shortage, a plan was enacted to distribute the limited vaccine stock to these groups first. This vaccination strategy, based on direct protection of those most at risk, has not been very effective in reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. Although it is too late to make changes this year, the current influenza vaccine crisis affords the opportunity to examine an alternative for future years. The alternative plan, supported by mathematical models and influenza field studies, would be to concentrate vaccine in schoolchildren, the population group most responsible for transmission, while also covering the reachable high-risk groups, who would also receive considerable indirect protection. In conjunction with a plan to ensure an adequate vaccine supply, this alternative influenza vaccination strategy would help control interpandemic influenza and be instrumental in preparing for pandemic influenza. The effectiveness of the alternative plan could be assessed through nationwide community studies.

  5. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  6. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group. Progress report 1978/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, G.

    1979-12-01

    The High Energy Physics Group at the U. of Maryland engaged in a substantial number of different types of particle physics experiments. The largest and most important experiment is that on e + e - interactions. Three experiments were carried out to search for exotic particles or interactions: a heavy neutral lepton, muonium to antimuonium transitions, axions produced by an intense electron beam. No evidence for any of these phenomena was obtained, and the corresponding limitations on relevant parameters were deduced. 10 figures

  7. Perceived barriers and facilitators of using dietary modification for CKD prevention among African Americans of low socioeconomic status: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amber E; Boulware, L Ebony; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Chit-ua-aree, Tatpong; Kahan, Kimberly; Boyér, LaPricia Lewis; Liu, Yang; Crews, Deidra C

    2014-12-06

    Factors influencing the use of dietary interventions for modification of CKD risk among African Americans have not been well-explored. We assessed perceived barriers and facilitators of CKD prevention through dietary modifications among African Americans with low socioeconomic status (SES) and at high risk for CKD. We conducted a qualitative study involving three 90 minute focus groups of low SES (limited education, unemployed, uninsured, or incomehabits. They identified vouchers for healthy foods, family-based interventions, nutritional counseling and group gatherings for persons interested in making dietary changes as acceptable facilitators of dietary CKD prevention efforts. Low SES African Americans at high risk for CKD had limited perception of their risk but they identified multiple barriers and potential facilitators of CKD prevention via dietary modifications which can inform future studies and public health interventions.

  8. Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

    2012-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg⁻¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1 in retinal tissue of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the expression and mechanism of high mobility group box protein-1(HMGB1in the retina of diabetic rats. METHODS:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into diabetic group and control group. Diabetic rat model was produced by intraperitioneal injection of 1% STZ with 60mg/Kg weight. The rats in control group received intraperitioneal injection of normal saline with same dosage. After injection, the rats were sacrificed and eyeballs were enucleated for HE staining, the retina fluorescence angiography, TUNEL and Western Blot detection at 1, 2 and 4mo for the expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the retinal cells disorder, cell densities decreases, microvasculars occlusion were founded with inner and outer nuclear layer thinning and ganglion cell apoptosis. The fluorescence angiography showed that peripheral capillaries became circuitous and vascular occlusion and non-perfusion area could be seen. The expressions of HMGB1 and NF-κB were higher than those of control with time dependence and they had significant positive correlations(PCONCLUSION:The expression of HMGB1 increases in diabetic rat retina, which may involve in the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy through the NF- κB pathway.

  10. Relationship of dietary intake of fish and non-fish selenium to serum lipids in Japanese rural coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yukiko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Masami; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In the present study, 55 men and 71 women were selected from participants in a health examination in a rural coastal community in Japan. The mean dietary selenium intake calculated from the simple food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) was 127.5 micrograms/day. Fish was the major source of dietary selenium and it contributed to 68.7% of the daily total. HDL cholesterol was higher in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group than in the low selenium intake group in all subjects and for males, and a significant difference was found between the middle selenium intake group and the low selenium intake group. The atherogenic index was significantly higher in the low selenium intake group than in the middle selenium intake group and in the high selenium intake group in males. GPx activity, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols did not show any significant differences among the three different selenium intake groups. Dietary intake of non-fish Se had a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol, and an inverse correlation with the atherogenic index in all subjects and for females. On the other hand, dietary intake of fish-Se had no relationship with any serum lipids. Non-fish Se is an important factor in selenium status for the prevention of CHD.

  11. Age-dependent alterations of glucose clearance and homeostasis are temporally separated and modulated by dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads Thue Fejerskov; Pærregaard, Simone I.; Søgaard, Ida

    2018-01-01

    Diet- and age-dependent changes in glucose regulation in mice occur, but the temporal development, mechanisms and influence of dietary fat source remain to be defined. We followed metabolic changes in three groups of mice including a low-fat diet (LFD) reference group and two high-fat, high-sucro...

  12. Modifications in bacterial groups and short chain fatty acid production in the gut of healthy adult rats after long-term consumption of dietary Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Pastoriza de la Cueva, Silvia; Peinado, M Jesús; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Navarro, M Pilar; Rubio, Luis A

    2017-10-01

    Bread crust (BC) is one of the major sources of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in the Western diet. This work was designed to analyze the impact of diets containing important levels of MRPs from BC on intestinal bacterial growth and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in adult rats. Additionally, the pools of compounds excreted in feces attending to their molecular weights were analyzed. Rats were fed for 88days a control diet or diets containing BC or its soluble high molecular weight (HMW), soluble low molecular weight (LMW) or insoluble fractions, respectively. Intestinal (cecum) microbiota composition was determined by qPCR analysis. Consumption of the BC diet lowered (PMaillard reaction products are in vivo fermented by the gut microbiota, thereby changing both the pattern of SCFAs production and the microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of high ambient temperature on ambulance dispatches in different age groups in Fukuoka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuya; Ueda, Kayo; Seposo, Xerxes; Yasukochi, Shusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ono, Masaji; Honda, Akiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2018-01-01

    The elderly population has been the primary target of intervention to prevent heat-related illnesses. According to the literature, the highest risks have been observed among the elderly in the temperature-mortality relationship. However, findings regarding the temperature-morbidity relationship are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the association of temperature with ambulance dispatches due to acute illnesses, stratified by age group. Specifically, we explored the optimum temperature, at which the relative health risks were found to be the lowest, and quantified the health risk associated with higher temperatures among different age groups. We used the data for ambulance dispatches in Fukuoka, Japan, during May and September from 2005 to 2012. The data were grouped according to age in 20-year increments. We explored the pattern of the association of ambulance dispatches with temperature using a smoothing spline curve to identify the optimum temperature for each age group. Then, we applied a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the risks of the 85th-95th percentile temperature relative to the overall optimum temperature, for each age group. The relative risk of ambulance dispatches at the 85th and 95th percentile temperature for all ages was 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.12] and 1.12 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.16), respectively. In comparison, among age groups, the optimum temperature was observed as 25.0°C, 23.2°C, and 25.3°C for those aged 0-19, 60-79, and ≥80, respectively. The optimum temperature could not be determined for those aged 20-39 and 40-59. The relative risks of high temperature tended to be higher for those aged 20-39 and 40-59 than those for other age groups. We did not find any definite difference in the effect of high temperature on ambulance dispatches for different age groups. However, more measures should be taken for younger and middle-aged people to avoid heat-related illnesses.

  14. Twenty-year trends in dietary patterns in French-speaking Switzerland: toward healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Guessous, Idris

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dietary patterns provide a summary of dietary intake, but to our knowledge, few studies have assessed trends in dietary patterns in the population. Objective: The aim was to assess 20-y trends in dietary patterns in a representative sample of the Geneva, Switzerland, population with the consideration of age, sex, education, and generation. Design: Repeated, independent cross-sectional studies were conducted between 1993 and 2014. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were assessed by using principal components analyses. Results: Among 18,763 adults, 1 healthy ("fish and vegetables") and 2 unhealthy ("meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets") patterns were identified. Scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased in both sexes and across all age groups. The stronger increase in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a narrowing of educational differences (mean ± SD scores in 1993: -0.56 ± 1.39 compared with -0.05 ± 1.58 in low- compared with highly educated groups, respectively; P Generational analysis showed that older age groups tended to show smaller changes than younger age groups: the yearly score change in "chocolate and sweets" was -0.021 (95% CI: -0.027, -0.014; P y cohort compared with -0.002 (95% CI: -0.009, 0.005; P = 0.546) for the 45- to 54-y cohort. Conclusions: Three dietary patterns were identified; scores for the "fish and vegetables" pattern increased, whereas the "meat and chips" and the "chocolate and sweets" pattern scores decreased. The stronger increases in the "fish and vegetables" pattern score among the less well-educated participants led to a smaller difference in dietary intake across the different educational levels. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. VI. Serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy

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    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four Thoroughbred and Anglo-Arab mares aged 6-12 years were used, of which 40 were non-lactating and 24 lactating. Foals from these 24 mares were weaned at the age of 6 months. Non-lactating and lactating mares were divided into 4 dietary groups each. The total daily protein intake and the protein quality (essential amino-acid content differed in the 4 groups of non-lactating and 4 groups of lactating mares. The mares were covered and the effect of the quantity and quality of dietary protein on serum progestagen concentrations during pregnancy was studied. A sharp decline in serum progestagen concentrations was recorded in all dietary groups from Days 18 to 40 of pregnancy, with some individual mares reaching values of less than 4 ng/mℓ. Serum progestagen concentrations recorded in some of the non-lactating mares on the low-quality protein diet increased to higher values (p<0.05 than those of mares in the other 3 dietary groups at 35-140 days of pregnancy. A similar trend was observed for the lactating mares on a low-quality protein diet at 30-84 days of pregnancy. No such trends were observed in any of the other dietary groups. High-quality protein supplementation increased serum progestagen concentrations during the 1st 30 days of pregnancy. Lactation depressed serum progestagen concentrations until after the foals were weaned.

  16. IMPACT OF FOOD ENRICHED WITH DIETARY FIBER ON PATIENTS WITH CONSTIPATION PREDOMINANT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Abramashvili, M

    2017-03-01

    The causes of motility disorder of gastrointestinal tract and in particular Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS are multifold, leading to complexity of treatment and requirement of more precise investigation of different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The aim of the study was investigation and comparison of the dietary fiber intake among women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and without, improvement of the dietary fiber intake using interventions with less rough changes of food related behavior and study of its effects on the bowel function, general wellbeing and compliance of patients. In total 100 healthy women, without any clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders and 98 women who met Rome III criteria of IBS-C were enrolled in the dietary fiber intake assessment survey. The dietary habits of all participants, as well as bowel function, digestive feelings and general wellbeing of patients at baseline, on the 7th and 14th day of dietary intervention was assessed by the means of adopted questionnaires. The dietary supplementation was provided during the breakfast with fiber enriched food - bread and muesli. Research data reviled significantly lower daily intake of dietary fiber among patients with IBS-C compared with healthy group. The main source of dietary fiber in IBS-C group was bread and cereals, therefore introduction of dietary fiber rich bread and muesli in the breakfast didn't affect diet-related habits and determined high compliance of patients. Two week long intervention significantly improved the bowel function and irritation related complains, the feeling of general wellbeing was considerably better on the endpoint as well.

  17. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  18. Hypovitaminosis D and mild hypocalcaemia are highly prevalent among young Vietnamese children and women and related to low dietary intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In many developing countries including Vietnam, data are lacking on vitamin D and calcium deficiencies whereas those deficiencies can play an important role in the development of bone health and possibly non-communicable diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of vitamin D and calcium deficiencies in women and young children and their nutritional related risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted among 595 women of reproductive age and 532 children <5 years from 19 provinces of Vietnam. For each individual, data concerning daily diet, socioeconomic group, anthropometric status were obtained, and plasma concentrations of calcium and vitamin D were measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D status was very high, with the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD<30 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD between 30-49.9 nmol/L being 17% and 40% in women and 21% and 37% in children, respectively. Using more liberal cut-off of 75 nmol/L, approximately 90% of the women and children were classified as having hypovitaminosis D. Overweight/obese women had a 2 times lower risk (OR = 0.46, [0.24-0.90] for vitamin D deficiency than non-overweight and non-obese women. No participant had severe calcium deficiency but moderate and mild hypocalcaemia (plasma calcium concentrations between 1.15-0.9 mmol/L for mild deficiency and between 0.9-0.8 mmol/L for moderate deficiency affected respectively 14% and 83% of the women with 97% of the children having mild hypocalcaemia. Women and children consumed about 1% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended nutrient intake (RNI for vitamin D and less than 43% of the RNI for calcium. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that calcium and vitamin D deficiencies represent a major public health concern in Vietnam. Thus, actions to improve the vitamin D and calcium status of the Vietnamese population should be considered.

  19. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  20. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

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    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  1. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  2. The Prevalence of Obesity and Its Relation to Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns among Female High School Students of Tehran, Iran

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    Sabaei Sara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many causes for obesity; inappropriate dietary patterns, inadequate physical activity, and lethargic lifestyle can be mentioned as the main and most important of these causes. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in society, it seems necessary to study its causes and find ways to tackle this problem. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 380 female high school students from district 5 of Tehran, Iran, in 2012. In this research, physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and dietary pattern was measured using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. In addition, for measurement of aerobic and anaerobic powers, the 540-meter sprint and vertical jump test (Sargent Jump Test were applied. Gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The findings of the present study show that 24.7% of the population was overweight and obese, 67% of normal weight (natural, and 8.2% underweight (thin. Chi-square test on breakfast and classification of weight (r = -0.285 and P = 0.002 showed a negative relationship between obesity and eating breakfast. Moreover, it showed a significant positive correlation between watching television and working on the computer, and obesity. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, there is a positive and direct relationship between obesity and lack of exercise and fast food intake (P < 0.05. There is also a positive and direct relationship between physical fitness, and amount of physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake (P < 0.05. The highest rates of overweight and obesity were observed in 17 year olds.

  3. Factors which may limit the value of dietary diversity and its association with nutritional outcomes in preschool children in high burden districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Devanesan Jacinth; Bhavani, Ramanathapuram Vaidyanathan

    2018-01-01

    Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state. Dietary diversity was calculated using: individual food scores calculated using 24 hour diet recall (FS24hr) data; household dietary diversity using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores calculated using food frequency data (FSFFQ). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices. It was observed that 42.7% of 1 to 5 years children were underweight, 38% stunted and 27.6% wasted across both locations. The dietary diversity was found to be relatively better in Wardha when compared with Koraput with mean diversity of FS24hr 7, DDI 90 and FSFFQ 63 in both locations. Preschool children in both locations consumed a cereal based diet. Apart from protein in both locations and energy in Koraput, the NAR of all nutrients consumed was indicating that dietary diversity calculated using 24 hour diet recall ensures nutrient adequacy but showed association only with Height-for-Age scores. Dietary diversity calculated using three methods did not show any correlation with nutritional status of 1 to 5 years children.

  4. Everything moves on: referral trends to a leavers' group in a high secure hospital and trial leave progress of group graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen; Pyszora, Natalie; Wilson, Claire; Gopie, Ramesh; Thomas, Deryk; Smith, Julia; Glorney, Emily; Moore, Estelle; Tapp, James

    2017-04-01

    Moving on from high secure psychiatric care can be a complex and potentially stressful experience, which may hinder progression. A leavers' group in a UK high secure hospital is offered to support patients with this transition. The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of patients referred for the leavers' group and compare outcomes for leavers' group graduates with those for patients who never attended a leavers' group for any reason. A retrospective quasi-experimental design was applied to data extracted from various records sources - within and outside the high security hospital. About one-fifth of patients who left the hospital on trial leave during the study were referred to the leavers' group (N = 109). Referred patients were significantly more likely to have either been admitted from another high-security hospital or transferred from prison for treatment and have a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Patients not referred had a significantly higher rate of previously refusing to participate in groups. There was a tendency for rate of return from trial leave for group graduates to be lower than that of patients who did not attend the leavers' group, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (rate ratio [RR] = 1.04; CI 0.97-1.11). A leavers' group appeared to be a valued therapy option for people who had spent a long time in high secure psychiatric care, or those who continued to require hospital treatment beyond prison tariffs. There was a low return rate from trial leave, which made the evaluation of this outcome difficult. A detailed study into both the reasons for return from trial leave and successes would provide further information on ideal preparation for moving on. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

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    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  7. A typical wave wake from high-speed vessels: its group structure and run-up

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    I. Didenkulova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-amplitude water waves induced by high-speed vessels are regularly observed in Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea, causing intense beach erosion and disturbing marine habitants in the coastal zone. Such a strong impact on the coast may be a result of a certain group structure of the wave wake. In order to understand it, here we present an experimental study of the group structure of these wakes at Pikakari beach, Tallinn Bay. The most energetic vessel waves at this location (100 m from the coast at the water depth 2.7 m have amplitudes of about 1 m and periods of 8–10 s and cause maximum run-up heights on a beach up to 1.4 m. These waves represent frequency modulated packets where the largest and longest waves propagate ahead of other smaller amplitude and period waves. Sometimes the groups of different heights and periods can be separated even within one wave wake event. The wave heights within a wake are well described by the Weibull distribution, which has different parameters for wakes from different vessels. Wave run-up heights can also be described by Weibull distribution and its parameters can be connected to the parameters of the distribution of wave heights 100 m from the coast. Finally, the run-up of individual waves within a packet is studied. It is shown that the specific structure of frequency modulated wave packets, induced by high-speed vessels, leads to a sequence of high wave run-ups at the coast, even when the original wave heights are rather moderate. This feature can be a key to understanding the significant impact on coasts caused by fast vessels.

  8. Closeout Report: Experimental High Energy Physics Group at the University of South Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Charles M; Godang, Romulus

    2013-06-25

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of South Alabama has been supported by this research grant (DE-FG02-96ER40970) since 1996. One researcher, Dr. Merrill Jenkins, has been supported on this grant during this time worked on fixed target experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, west of Chicago, Illinois. These experiments have been E-705, E-771, E-871 (HyperCP) and E-921 (CKM) before it was canceled for budgetary reasons. After the cancellation of CKM, Dr. Jenkins joined the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment as an associate member via the High Energy Physics Group at the Florida State University. A second, recently tenured faculty member, Dr. Romulus Godang joined the group in 2009 and has been supported by this grant since then. Dr. Godang is working on the BaBaR experiment at SLAC and has joined the Belle-II experiment located in Japan at KEK. According to the instructions sent to us by our grant monitor, we are to concentrate on the activities over the last three years in this closeout report.

  9. Desenvolvimento de barras de cereais à base de aveia com alto teor de fibra alimentar Development of oat based cereal bars with high dietary fiber content

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    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2007-06-01

    and are a source of vitamins, minerals, fibers, proteins and complex carbohydrates. The objective of this work was to study the effect of dietary fiber concentration and sugar in cereal bars made of oats with a high dietary fiber content. In the research, oat flakes, bran and flour from cultivar UPFA 22, selected on the basis of the dietary fiber and beta-glucans content, were used. The ingredients were used in amounts defined in laboratory tests. The experiment was carried out using a central composite rotational design applicable to the response surface methodology (RSM, and the effects of the sugar syrup concentration (70, 75 and 80 °Brix and dietary fiber content in the formulation (12, 16 and 20% on the chemical composition, calorie value, water activity, microbiology and sensorial characteristics of the cereal bars were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple regression and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. The results showed that oats can be used as an ingredient when making cereals bars presenting an adequate texture, flavor and appearance. The oats used in the formulation makes cereal bars with high dietary fiber and beta-glucan content. The bars present acceptable sensorial properties, similar to the industrialized bars, with higher acceptability when made with average concentration of sugar and high dietary fiber content. The cereal bars present low water activity and are within sanitary specifications and can be stored for 60 days.

  10. Dynamic RCS Simulation of a Missile Target Group Based on the High-frequency Asymptotic Method

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    Zhao Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To simulate dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS of missile target group, an efficient RCS prediction approach is proposed based on the high-frequency asymptotic theory. The minimal energy trajectory and coordinate transformation is used to get trajectories of the missile, decoys and roll booster, and establish the dynamic scene for the separate procedure of the target group, and the dynamic RCS including specular reflection, edge diffraction and multi-reflection from the target group are obtained by Physical Optics (PO, Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC and Shooting-and-Bouncing Ray (SBR methods. Compared with the dynamic RCS result with the common interpolation method, the proposed method is consistent with the common method when the targets in the scene are far away from each other and each target is not sheltered by others in the incident direction. When the target group is densely distributed and the shelter effect can not be neglected, the interpolation method is extremely difficult to realize, whereas the proposed method is successful.

  11. Dietary flavonoid derivatives enhance chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting the DNA damage response pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Zupkó, István; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hunyadi, Attila; Wu, Chin-Chung; Weng, Teng-Song; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds and abundant in dietary fruits and vegetables. Diet high in vegetables or dietary flavonoid supplements is associated with reduced mortality rate for patients with breast cancer. Many studies have been proposed for mechanisms linking flavonoids to improving chemotherapy efficacy in many types of cancers, but data on this issue is still limited. Herein, we report on a new mechanism through which dietary flavonoids inhibit DNA damage checkpoints and repair pathways. We found that dietary flavonoids could inhibit Chk1 phosphorylation and decrease clonogenic cell growth once breast cancer cells receive ultraviolet irradiation, cisplatin, or etoposide treatment. Since the ATR-Chk1 pathway mainly involves response to DNA replication stress, we propose that flavonoid derivatives reduce the side effect of chemotherapy by improving the sensitivity of cycling cells. Therefore, we propose that increasing intake of common dietary flavonoids is beneficial to breast cancer patients who are receiving DNA-damaging chemotherapy, such as cisplatin or etoposide-based therapy. - Highlights: • First report on inhibition of both DNA damage and repair by dietary flavonoids • Dietary flavonoids inhibit cisplatin- and UV-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. • Flavonoids combined with cisplatin or UV treatment show notable growth inhibition. • Promising treatment proposal for patients who are receiving adjuvant chemotherapy

  12. Dietary flavonoid derivatives enhance chemotherapeutic effect by inhibiting the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Zupkó, István [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös Utca 6, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Chang, Fang-Rong [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hunyadi, Attila [Institute of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged, Eötvös Utca 6, Szeged H-6720 (Hungary); Wu, Chin-Chung; Weng, Teng-Song [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hui-Chun, E-mail: wanghc@kmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); PhD Program in Translational Medicine, College of Medicine and PhD Program in Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Natural Product and Drug Development, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Translational Research Center and Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80756, Taiwan (China); Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Flavonoids are the most common group of polyphenolic compounds and abundant in dietary fruits and vegetables. Diet high in vegetables or dietary flavonoid supplements is associated with reduced mortality rate for patients with breast cancer. Many studies have been proposed for mechanisms linking flavonoids to improving chemotherapy efficacy in many types of cancers, but data on this issue is still limited. Herein, we report on a new mechanism through which dietary flavonoids inhibit DNA damage checkpoints and repair pathways. We found that dietary flavonoids could inhibit Chk1 phosphorylation and decrease clonogenic cell growth once breast cancer cells receive ultraviolet irradiation, cisplatin, or etoposide treatment. Since the ATR-Chk1 pathway mainly involves response to DNA replication stress, we propose that flavonoid derivatives reduce the side effect of chemotherapy by improving the sensitivity of cycling cells. Therefore, we propose that increasing intake of common dietary flavonoids is beneficial to breast cancer patients who are receiving DNA-damaging chemotherapy, such as cisplatin or etoposide-based therapy. - Highlights: • First report on inhibition of both DNA damage and repair by dietary flavonoids • Dietary flavonoids inhibit cisplatin- and UV-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. • Flavonoids combined with cisplatin or UV treatment show notable growth inhibition. • Promising treatment proposal for patients who are receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.

  13. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  14. Modular groups in Cantorian E(∞) high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes that the geometry and topology of quantum spacetime is shadowed closely by the Moebius geometry of quasi-Fuschian and Kleinian groups and that is the cause behind the phenomena of high-energy particle physics. In addition, on the large scale measurement of, for instance, the microwave background temperature, the universality of the Merger sponge provides an excellent limit set model for the Charlier-Zeldovich proposal of the fracticality of the universe today and the rather accurate estimate T c =(ln20/ln3)=2.726k. In particular the paper shows the link between the fix points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean phi=(1/(1+phi))=(Radical radicand 5 -1)/2 of E (∞) spacetime by analytical continuation of a Moebius transformation

  15. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  16. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    differences were observed across centres, the countries participating in EPIC are characterised by specific dietary patterns. Overall, Italy and Greece have a dietary pattern characterised by plant foods (except potatoes) and a lower consumption of animal and processed foods, compared with the other EPIC...... countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high...... consumption of tea, sauces, cakes, soft drinks (women), margarine and butter. In contrast, the diet in the Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK general population is relatively high in potatoes and animal, processed and sweetened/refined foods, with proportions varying across countries...

  17. Nutritional Profile and Dietary Patterns of Lebanese Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Fakhoury-Sayegh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women; and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by two 24-h recalls and a semi-quantitative 90-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Results from the study demonstrated that 40% of cases belonged to the high fruit group as compared to 30% following a high meat; fast food dietary pattern. Both groups increased the odds of NAFLD by four-fold (p < 0.05. The traditional diet decreases the odds by 33% after adjustment with the covariables. The high fruit diet group was, as with the high meat, fast food dietary pattern, the main potential risk factor for NAFLD in Lebanese patients.

  18. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  19. Imaging the Danish Chalk Group with high resolution, 3-component seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, J.; Rasmussen, S. L.; Nielsen, L.; Malehmir, A.; Stemmerik, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Chalk Group in the Danish Basin forms important reservoirs to hydrocarbons as well as water resources, and it has been subject to several seismic studies to determine e.g. structural elements, deposition and burial history. This study focuses on the high quality seismic response of a survey acquired with an accelerated 45 kg weight drop and 3-component MEMS-based sensors and additional wireless vertical-type sensors. The 500 m long profile was acquired during one day close to a chalk quarry and chalk cliffs of the Stevns peninsula in eastern Denmark where the well-known K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary and different chalk lithologies are well-exposed. With this simple and fast procedure we were able to achieve deep P-wave penetration to the base of the Chalk Group at about 900 m depth. Additionally, the CMP-processed seismic image of the vertical component stands out by its high resolution. Sedimentary features are imaged in the near-surface Danian, as well as in the deeper Maastrichtian and Upper Campanian parts of the Chalk Group. Integration with borehole data suggests that changes in composition, in particular clay content, correlate with changes in reflectivity of the seismic data set. While the pure chalk in the Maastrichtian deposits shows rather low reflectivity, succession enriched in clay appear to be more reflective. The integration of the mentioned methods gives the opportunity to connect changes in facies to the elastic response of the Chalk Group in its natural environmental conditions.

  20. Multi-group transport methods for high-resolution neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K. A.; Smith, L. E.; Gesh, C. J.; Shaver, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. In these applications, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used to preserve as much information as possible about the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used modeling tool for this type of problem, but computational times for many problems can be prohibitive. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of neutron activation problems. Central to this work is the development of a method for generating multi-group neutron-photon cross-sections in a way that separates the discrete and continuum photon emissions so that the key signatures in neutron activation analysis (i.e., the characteristic line energies) are preserved. The mechanics of the cross-section preparation method are described and contrasted with standard neutron-gamma cross-section sets. These custom cross-sections are then applied to several benchmark problems. Multi-group results for neutron and photon flux are compared to MCNP results. Finally, calculated responses of high-resolution spectrometers are compared. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP. A detailed discussion of the potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach, in terms of accuracy, and computational efficiency, is provided. (authors)

  1. High School Students' Recommendations to Improve School Food Environments: Insights From a Critical Stakeholder Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Hughes, Alejandro G; Read, Margaret; Schwartz, Marlene B; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-11-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards. Students are most affected by efforts to improve the school food environment; yet, few studies directly include students. This study examined high school students' experiences of school meal reform to gain insight into implementation recommendations. We conducted 5 focus groups with high school students (N = 15) from high schools across 9 states. We also conducted follow-up interviews to further explore personal experiences. Focus groups and interview transcripts were coded and organized in Atlas.ti v7 by analysts, following principles of constant comparative analysis. Students reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and supported continued efforts to improve the food environment. Recommendations to improve the food environment included engaging students, focusing on the quality and palatability of meal items, moving toward scratch-cooking, and addressing cafeteria infrastructure. Students' recommendations point to opportunities where school districts, as well as local, state, and federal organizations can work to improve the school food environment. Their insights are directly relevant to USDA's recently released Local School Wellness Policy final rule, of which school meal standards are one provision. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Lisa A; Sherwood, Kelly L; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2007-10-25

    In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 +/- 4 yr) at 4-(n = 53) and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55). Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively) and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L). Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P consuming 151-410 microg/d of synthetic folate (2nd quartile of intake) did not differ from that of women consuming >410 microg/d (3rd and 4th quartile). Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151-410 microg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing RBC

  3. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr at 4-(n = 53 and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55. Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L. Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P P nd quartile of intake did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and 4th quartile. Conclusion Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151–410 μg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing

  4. Characterization of the fecal microbiome in different swine groups by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Je; Kim, Jinu; Lee, Jong-Soo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Hongik

    2014-08-01

    Swine have a complex microbial community within their gastrointestinal tract that plays a critical role in both health and disease. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used to identify the possible core microorganisms in the gut of swine groups that differ in meat quality and weight grades (level 1 as higher meat quality and level 2 as lower meat quality). Samples were taken from the rectum and/or stool from ten animals, DNA was extracted, and the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified. Two bacterial populations (Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes) dominated and were shared between the two groups. Significant differences between the groups were found at the genus level. The genera Lactobacillus and Oscillibacter were found in slightly higher proportions in the level 2 group (12.6 and 12.4% of the classified reads, respectively) than those of level 1 (9.6 and 7.7%, respectively). By contrast, the proportion of reads assigned to the genus Roseburia in the level 1 group (13.0%) was higher than that of level 2 (4.8%). The largest differences were related to the genera Clostridium, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia as core microorganisms. Moreover, two genera, Roseburia and Clostridium, related to level 1 produced linoleic acid or short chain fatty acids that might contribute to swine health and development. In conclusion, the presence of core bacteria in the swine gut is associated with meat quality with reduced body fat in swine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of dietary vitamin E on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Huang, Lina; Liang, Mengqing; Zheng, Keke; Wang, Xinxing

    2015-08-01

    A 3-month feeding experiment was conducted in an in-door seawater system to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E (Ve) on the sperm quality of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). D-α-tocopherol acetate was supplemented to the basal (control) diet (65.14 mg kg-1 Ve) to obtain low and high levels of dietary Ve (244.60 mg kg-1, LVe; 721.60 mg kg-1, HVe). Compared with the control, sperm concentration was significantly increased in Ve-supplemented groups (LVe and HVe); while relative sperm volume and testis-somatic index were significantly increased in group HVe only. Sperm motility duration was significantly longer in group HVe than in the control, but no significant difference was observed in percent motility among groups. Sperm size, the uniformity of mitochondrial size, and the integrity of mitochondria cristae and plasma membrane were improved by dietary Ve, especially in HVe. The content of Ve in testis and liver as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in sperm increased with dietary Ve. These results suggested that dietary Ve, especially at the high level (721.60 mg kg-1), significantly improved sperm concentration and motility duration and maintained normal sperm morphology of turbot.

  6. Working group II report: Production and dynamics of high brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main discussions of the Working Group on the Production and Dynamics of High Brightness Beams. The following topics are covered in this paper. Proposed new electron sources and needed research on existing sources is covered. The discussions on issues relating to the description of phase space on non-thermalized electron beam distributions and the theoretical modeling on non-thermalized electron beam distributions is presented. Finally, the present status of the theoretical modeling of beam transport in bends is given

  7. Density matrix renormalization group for a highly degenerate quantum system: Sliding environment block approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitteckert, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We present an infinite lattice density matrix renormalization group sweeping procedure which can be used as a replacement for the standard infinite lattice blocking schemes. Although the scheme is generally applicable to any system, its main advantages are the correct representation of commensurability issues and the treatment of degenerate systems. As an example we apply the method to a spin chain featuring a highly degenerate ground-state space where the new sweeping scheme provides an increase in performance as well as accuracy by many orders of magnitude compared to a recently published work.

  8. Segregation of the elements of the platinum group in a simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, H.; Banba, T.; Kamizono, H.; Kiriyama, Y.; Kumata, M.; Murakami, T.; Tashiro, S.

    1983-01-01

    Segregation of the elements of the platinum group occurred during vitrification of the borosilicate glass containing 20 wt% simulated high-level waste oxides. The segregated materials were composed of two crystalline phases: one was the solid solution of ruthenium and rhodium dioxides and the other was that of palladium and rhodium metals also with tellurium. The segregated materials were not distributed homogeneously throughout the glass: (i) on the surface of the glass, there occurred palladium, rhodium and tellurium alloy alone; and (ii) at the inner part of the glass, the agglomerates of the two phases were concentrated in one part and dispersed in the other

  9. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue upon sacrifice at age 119 days using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The intake of 15% high fructose corn syrup did not affect the rats' weight, only the rats on the high-fat diet gained significant weight. The rats in both diets had lower levels of leptin expression and high levels of fatty acid synthase in the brain, which were associated with high serum triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Fifteen percent high fructose corn syrup intake and the high-fat diet reduced leptin gene expression in the brain of Wistar rats, with differential effects on weight gain.

  10. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain

  11. Nutritional quality of dietary patterns of children: are there differences inside and outside school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Aliete dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To describe the dietary patterns of children inside and outside school and investigate their associations with sociodemographic factors and nutritional status. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study in which children of both sexes, aged 1-6 years, attending private and public daycare centers and preschools in Brazil, were evaluated (n = 2979. Demographic, socioeconomic and dietary data (weighed food records and estimated food records were collected. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis from 36 food groups. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified inside school, and three outside. Inside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated to low income and presented high nutritional quality. The "dual" pattern was associated with low income and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "snack" pattern was associated with children enrolled at private schools and with high intake of added sugar and glycemic load. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of added sugar and trans fat. Outside school, the "traditional" pattern was associated with high intake of saturated fat, trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. The "bread and butter" pattern was associated with high intake of trans fats and glycemic load, whereas the "snack" pattern was associated with overweight, private schools, high income, and high intake of trans fats, sodium, and total fiber. Conclusion: There are differences in the nutritional quality of dietary patterns inside and outside school, and heterogeneity in adherence to these patterns were observed across regions and socioeconomic classes.

  12. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  13. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e + e - interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs

  14. High Performance Platinum Group Metal Free Membrane Electrode Assemblies through Control of Interfacial Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Capuano, Christopher [Proton Energy Systems, Wallingford, CT (United States); Atanassov, Plamen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mukerjee, Sanjeev [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Hickner, Michael [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    The quantitative goal of this project was to produce a high-performance anion exchange membrane water electrolyzer (AEM-WE) completely free of platinum group metals (PGMs), which could operate for at least 500 hours with less than 50 microV/hour degradation, at 500 mA/cm2. To achieve this goal, work focused on the optimization of electrocatalyst conductivity, with dispersion and utilization in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) improved through refinement of deposition techniques. Critical factors were also explored with significant work undertaken by Northeastern University to further understand catalyst-membrane-ionomer interfaces and how they differ from liquid electrolyt