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Sample records for high dietary fructose

  1. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jiao, Rui-Qing; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2017-03-29

    High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), uric acid (UA) and methylglyoxal (MG). Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  2. High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG, free fatty acid (FFA, uric acid (UA and methylglyoxal (MG. Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption.

  3. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  4. High Dietary Fructose Intake on Cardiovascular Disease Related Parameters in Growing Rats.

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    Yoo, SooYeon; Ahn, Hyejin; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2016-12-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based on AIN-93G, n = 8), a high-fructose diet group (30Frc: fed regular diet with 30% fructose, n = 8), a high-fat diet group (45Fat: fed regular diet with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8) or a high fructose with high-fat diet group (30Frc + 45Fat, fed diet 30% fructose with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8). After an eight-week treatment period, the body weight, total-fat weight, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines, abdominal aortic wall thickness, and expressions of eNOS and ET-1 mRNA were analyzed. The result showed that total-fat weight was higher in the 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group ( p fructose consumption and high fat consumption in growing rats had similar negative effects on CVD-related parameters.

  5. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

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    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  6. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  7. Dietary cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry affects the development of dyslipidemia and insulin insensitivity associated with metabolic syndrome in high fructose fed rats

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    Effects of feeding cranberry, blueberry, and black raspberry powder on selected parameters of metabolic syndrome were investigated in 40 growing male Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were divided into five dietary treatments of 1) control AIN93G diet, 2) high fructose (65% by weight, HF) diet, and 3-5) ...

  8. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue upon sacrifice at age 119 days using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The intake of 15% high fructose corn syrup did not affect the rats' weight, only the rats on the high-fat diet gained significant weight. The rats in both diets had lower levels of leptin expression and high levels of fatty acid synthase in the brain, which were associated with high serum triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Fifteen percent high fructose corn syrup intake and the high-fat diet reduced leptin gene expression in the brain of Wistar rats, with differential effects on weight gain.

  9. Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Dumke, Kelly A; Goran, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Excess fructose consumption is hypothesized to be associated with risk for metabolic disease. Actual fructose consumption levels are difficult to estimate because of the unlabeled quantity of fructose in beverages. The aims of this study were threefold: 1) re-examine the fructose content in previously tested beverages using two additional assay methods capable of detecting other sugars, especially maltose, 2) compare data across all methods to determine the actual free fructose-to-glucose ratio in beverages made either with or without high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and 3) expand the analysis to determine fructose content in commonly consumed juice products. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fruit juice drinks that were either made with or without HFCS were analyzed in separate, independent laboratories via three different methods to determine sugar profiles. For SSBs, the three independent laboratory methods showed consistent and reproducible results. In SSBs made with HFCS, fructose constituted 60.6% ± 2.7% of sugar content. In juices sweetened with HFCS, fructose accounted for 52.1% ± 5.9% of sugar content, although in some juices made from 100% fruit, fructose concentration reached 65.35 g/L accounting for 67% of sugars. Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  11. Urinary fructose: a potential biomarker for dietary fructose intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, S A; Libuda, L; Shi, L; Retzlaff, A; Joslowski, G; Remer, T

    2010-11-01

    Recently, urinary fructose and sucrose excretion in 24-h urine have been established experimentally as new biomarkers for dietary sugar intake in adults. Our objective was to investigate 1) whether the fructose biomarker is also applicable in free-living children and 2) for what kind of sugar it is standing for. Intakes of added and total sugar (including additional sugar from fruit and fruit juices) were assessed by 3-day weighed dietary records in 114 healthy prepubertal children; corresponding 24-h urinary fructose excretion was measured photometrically. The associations between dietary sugar intakes and urinary fructose excretion were examined using linear regression models. To determine whether one of the two sugar variables may be better associated with the urinary biomarker, the statistical Pitman's test was used. Added and total sugar correlated significantly with urinary fructose, but the linear regression indicated a weak association between intake of added sugar and urinary log-fructose excretion (β=0.0026, R(2)=0.055, P=0.01). The association between total sugar intake and log-urinary fructose (β=0.0040, R(2)=0.181, Pestimation of total sugar intake than for the estimation of added dietary sugar intake in children. However, as excreted fructose stems almost exclusively from the diet (both from food-intrinsic and added intakes), it can be assumed that urinary fructose represents a potential biomarker for total dietary fructose intake, irrespective of its source.

  12. Dietary fructose augments ethanol-induced liver pathology.

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    Thomes, Paul G; Benbow, Jennifer H; Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kyle J; Jacobs, Carl; Donohue, Terrence M; Schrum, Laura W

    2017-05-01

    Certain dietary components when combined with alcohol exacerbate alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI). Here, we tested whether fructose, a major ingredient of the western diet, enhances the severity of ALI. We fed mice ethanol for 8 weeks in the following Lieber-DeCarli diets: (a) Regular (contains olive oil); (b) corn oil (contains corn oil); (c) fructose (contains fructose and olive oil) and (d) corn+fructose (contains fructose and corn oil). We compared indices of metabolic function and liver pathology among the different groups. Mice fed fructose-free and fructose-containing ethanol diets exhibited similar levels of blood alcohol, blood glucose and signs of disrupted hepatic insulin signaling. However, only mice given fructose-ethanol diets showed lower insulin levels than their respective controls. Compared with their respective pair-fed controls, all ethanol-fed mice exhibited elevated levels of serum ALT; the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-2; hepatic lipid peroxides and triglycerides. All the latter parameters were significantly higher in mice given fructose-ethanol diets than those fed fructose-free ethanol diets. Mice given fructose-free or fructose-containing ethanol diets each had higher levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes than controls. However, the level of the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly higher in livers of mice given fructose control and fructose-ethanol diets than in all other groups. Our findings indicate that dietary fructose exacerbates ethanol-induced steatosis, oxidant stress, inflammation and liver injury, irrespective of the dietary fat source, to suggest that inclusion of fructose in or along with alcoholic beverages increases the risk of more severe ALI in heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis.

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    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-12-01

    Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods. Body weight, water, and feed intake were measured throughout the study. At the end of the lactation period, blood was drawn to determine the fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in blood. Triglycerides and acetyl Co-A Carboxylase-1 (ACC1) levels in livers were analyzed, and insulin resistance was calculated. The energy intake of dams in the HFCS group was higher than in the fructose group, while weight gain was less in the HFCS group than in the fructose group. HFCS resulted in greater insulin resistance in dams, whereas free fructose had a robust effect on the fetal programming of insulin resistance. Free fructose and HFCS in the maternal diet increased blood and liver triglycerides and NEFA content in pups. Furthermore, fructose and HFCS exposure increased phosphorylated ACC1 as compared to maltodextrin and control, indicating greater fatty acid synthesis in pups and dams. Different types of added sugar in the maternal diet have different metabolic effects on the developmental programming of lipogenesis. Consequently, high fructose intake via processed foods may increase the risk for chronic diseases, and free fructose might contribute to developmental programming of chronic diseases more than bound fructose.

  14. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of high fructose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Suzen M; Fryhofer, Sandra Adamson; Osbahr, Albert J; Robinowitz, Carolyn B

    2009-12-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become an increasingly common food ingredient in the last 40 years. However, there is concern that HFCS consumption increases the risk for obesity and other adverse health outcomes compared to other caloric sweeteners. The most commonly used types of HFCS (HFCS-42 and HFCS-55) are similar in composition to sucrose (table sugar), consisting of roughly equal amounts of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in disaccharide form in sucrose. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharides in HFCS provide better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. Because the composition of HFCS and sucrose is so similar, particularly on absorption by the body, it appears unlikely that HFCS contributes more to obesity or other conditions than sucrose does. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the potentially differential effect of various sweeteners, particularly as they relate to health conditions such as obesity, which develop over relatively long periods of time. Improved nutrient databases are needed to analyze food consumption in epidemiologic studies, as are more strongly designed experimental studies, including those on the mechanism of action and relationship between fructose dose and response. At the present time, there is insufficient evidence to ban or otherwise restrict use of HFCS or other fructose-containing sweeteners in the food supply or to require the use of warning labels on products containing HFCS. Nevertheless, dietary advice to limit consumption of all added caloric sweeteners, including HFCS, is warranted.

  16. [Fructose and fructose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2016-10-01

    Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells. Here it is transformed enzymatically into fructose-1-phosphate and then, fructose-1,5-diphosphate, which splits further into glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate, entering the process of glycolysis, triglyceride and uric acid production. The prevalence of fructose intolerance varies strongly, depending on the method used. The leading symptoms of fructose intolerance are similar, but less severe than those of lactose intolerance. Multiple secondary symptoms can also occur. A symptom-based diagnosis of fructose intolerance is possible, but the gold standard is the H 2 breath test, though this is less accurate than in lactose testing. Measuring fructosaemia is costly, cumbersome and not widely used. Fructose intolerance increases intestinal motility and sensitivity, promotes biofilm formation and contributes to the development of gastrooesophageal reflux. Long-term use of fructose fosters the development of dental caries and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Its role in carcinogenesis is presently investigated. The cornerstone of dietary management for fructose intolerance is the individual reduction of fructose intake and the FODMAP diet, led by a trained dietetician. The newly introduced xylose-isomerase is efficient in reducing the symptoms of fructose intolerance. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(43), 1708-1716.

  17. Dietary phenolic acids reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

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    Ibitoye, Oluwayemisi B; Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2017-12-20

    This study investigated the influence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic acids on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Oral administration of the phenolic acids significantly reversed high-fructose diet-mediated increase in body mass index and blood glucose. Furthermore, phenolic acids restored high-fructose diet-mediated alterations in metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin). Similarly, elevated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered. Administration of phenolic acids restored High-fructose diet-mediated increase in the levels of lipid parameters and indices of atherosclerosis, cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. High-fructose diet-mediated decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and fragmented DNA) were significantly restored by the phenolic acids. The result of this study shows protective influence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  18. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

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    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  19. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  20. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  1. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  2. Short-term dietary supplementation with fructose accelerates gastric emptying of a fructose but not a glucose solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2014-01-01

    Short-term dietary glucose supplementation has been shown to accelerate the gastric emptying rate of both glucose and fructose solutions. The aim of this study was to examine gastric emptying rate responses to monosaccharide ingestion following short-term dietary fructose supplementation. The gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution containing 36 g of fructose and an equicaloric glucose solution containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate were measured in 10 healthy non-smoking men with and without prior fructose supplementation (water control) using a randomized crossover design. Gastric emptying rate was assessed for a period of 1 h using the [(13)C]breath test with sample collections at baseline and 10-min intervals following drink ingestion. Additionally, appetite ratings of hunger, fullness, and prospective food consumption were recorded at baseline and every 10 min using visual analog scales. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in significantly accelerated half-emptying time of a fructose solution (mean = 48, SD = 6 versus 58, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.037), whereas the emptying of a glucose solution remained unchanged (mean = 85, SD = 31 versus 78, SD = 27 min control; P = 0.273). Time of maximal emptying rate of fructose was also significantly accelerated following increased dietary fructose intake (mean = 33, SD = 6 versus 38, SD = 9 min control; P = 0.042), while it remained unchanged for glucose (mean = 45, SD = 14 versus 44, SD = 14 min control; P = 0.757). No effects of supplementation were observed for appetite measures. Three d of supplementation with 120 g/d of fructose resulted in an acceleration of gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose... partial enzymatic conversion of glucose (dextrose) to fructose using an insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme...

  4. Effect of dietary fructose on portal and systemic serum fructose levels in rats and in KHK−/− and GLUT5−/− mice

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    Patel, Chirag; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Douard, Veronique; Shah, Ami; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood fructose concentrations constitute the basis for organ dysfunction in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that diet-induced changes in blood fructose concentrations are regulated by ketohexokinase (KHK) and the fructose transporter GLUT5. Portal and systemic fructose concentrations determined by HPLC in wild-type mice fed for 7 days 0% free fructose were fructose levels, however, increased markedly in those fed isocaloric 20% fructose, causing significant hyperglycemia. Deletion of KHK prevented fructose-induced hyperglycemia, but caused dramatic hyperfructosemia (>1 mM) with reversed portal to systemic gradients. Systemic fructose in wild-type and KHK−/− mice changed by 0.34 and 1.8 mM, respectively, for every millimolar increase in portal fructose concentration. Systemic glucose varied strongly with systemic, but not portal, fructose levels in wild-type, and was independent of systemic and portal fructose in KHK−/−, mice. With ad libitum feeding for 12 wk, fructose-induced hyperglycemia in wild-type, but not hyperfructosemia in KHK−/− mice, increased HbA1c concentrations. Increasing dietary fructose to 40% intensified the hyperfructosemia of KHK−/− and the fructose-induced hyperglycemia of wild-type mice. Fructose perfusion or feeding in rats also caused duration- and dose-dependent hyperfructosemia and hyperglycemia. Significant levels of blood fructose are maintained independent of dietary fructose, KHK, and GLUT5, probably by endogenous synthesis of fructose. KHK prevents hyperfructosemia and fructose-induced hyperglycemia that would markedly increase HbA1c levels. These findings explain the hyperfructosemia of human hereditary fructosuria as well as the hyperglycemia of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:26316589

  5. Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Hyun-Young [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miyashita, Michio [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Simon Cho, B.H. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Harlan E. Moore Heart Research Foundation, 503 South Sixth Street, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Nakamura, Manabu T., E-mail: mtnakamu@illinois.edu [Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.

  6. Replacing dietary glucose with fructose increases ChREBP activity and SREBP-1 protein in rat liver nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hyun-Young; Miyashita, Michio; Simon Cho, B.H.; Nakamura, Manabu T.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fructose cause hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in part due to simultaneous induction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes in liver. We investigated the mechanism underlying the unique pattern of gene induction by dietary fructose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were meal-fed (4 h/d) either 63% (w/w) glucose or 63% fructose diet. After two weeks, animals were killed at the end of the last meal. Nuclear SREBP-1 was 2.2 times higher in fructose-fed rats than glucose-fed rats. Nuclear FoxO1 was elevated 1.7 times in fructose group, but did not reach significance (P = 0.08). Unexpectedly, no difference was observed in nuclear ChREBP between two groups. However, ChREBP DNA binding was 3.9x higher in fructose-fed animals without an increase in xylulose-5-phospate, a proposed ChREBP activator. In conclusion, the gene induction by dietary fructose is likely to be mediated in part by simultaneously increased ChREBP activity, SREBP-1 and possibly FoxO1 protein in nucleus.

  7. The effect of high dietary fructose on the kidney of adult albino rats and the role of curcumin supplementation: A biochemical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samraa H. Abdel-Kawi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Curcumin administration protected the kidney cells from fructose induced oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism of the kidney cells and its ability to act as a free radical scavenger.

  8. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  9. Dietary fructose in pregnancy induces hyperglycemia, hypertension, and pathologic kidney and liver changes in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Linda M Dairiki; Hammam, Olfat; Han, Xiaoyuan; Kouba, Erik; Tsao, Philip S; Wang, Bingyin

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia and hypertension is increasing along with associated morbidities to mother and offspring. The high fructose diet is a well-studied model that induces hyperglycemia and hypertension in male rodents, but may not affect females. We hypothesized that the physiologic stress of pregnancy may alter metabolic responses to dietary fructose. In this study female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two gestational dietary groups: (1) 60% carbohydrate standard rat chow (Pregnant-S-controls) and (2) 60% fructose enriched chow (Pregnant-F). Body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin were measured in pregnancy and during the post-partum period. Maternal organ weight and histological changes were also assessed after delivery. By midpregnancy Pregnant-F rats had increased weight, elevated blood pressure, higher fasting glucose, and elevated triglycerides compared with Pregnant-S rats. Both groups demonstrated elevated gestational insulin levels with signs of insulin resistance (increased HOMA-IR). Pregnant-F rats showed significant histopathologic hepatic steatosis and renal tubular changes characterized by tubular dilation and glomerulosclerosis. Our study provides a model in which dietary change during pregnancy can be examined. We demonstrate, moreover, that high dietary fructose ingestion in pregnant rats may result in profound systemic and pathologic changes not appreciated during routine pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Synbiotics Reduce Metabolic Effects Induced by Chronic Consumption of Dietary Fructose.

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    Chaudhari Archana Somabhai

    Full Text Available To assess protective efficacy of genetically modified Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN on metabolic effects induced by chronic consumption of dietary fructose.EcN was genetically modified with fructose dehydrogenase (fdh gene for conversion of fructose to 5-keto-D-fructose and mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (mtlK gene for conversion to mannitol, a prebiotic. Charles foster rats weighing 150-200 g were fed with 20% fructose in drinking water for two months. Probiotic treatment of EcN (pqq, EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh was given once per week 109 cells for two months. Furthermore, blood and liver parameters for oxidative stress, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia were estimated. Fecal samples were collected to determine the production of short chain fatty acids and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ production.EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK, EcN (pqq-fdh transformants were confirmed by restriction digestion and functionality was checked by PQQ estimation and HPLC analysis. There was significant increase in body weight, serum glucose, liver injury markers, lipid profile in serum and liver, and decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity in high-fructose-fed rats. However the rats treated with EcN (pqq-glf-mtlK and EcN (pqq-fdh showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation along with increase in serum and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. Restoration of liver injury marker enzymes was also seen. Increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFA demonstrated the prebiotic effects of mannitol and gluconic acid.Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of probiotic EcN producing PQQ and fructose metabolizing enzymes against the fructose induced hepatic steatosis suggesting that its potential for use in treating fructose induced metabolic syndrome.

  11. Excess free fructose, high-fructose corn syrup and adult asthma: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, Luanne R; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-05-01

    There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice - a high-fructose 100 % juice - are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diet soda and orange juice - a 100 % juice with a 1:1 fructose:glucose ratio - were included for comparison. Increasing intake of any combination of HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice was significantly associated with progressively higher asthma risk, plateauing at 5-7 times/week v. never/seldom, independent of potential confounders (hazard ratio 1·91, Pfructose:glucose ratios, and fructose malabsorption. Recommendations to reduce consumption may be inadequate to address asthma risk, as associations are evident even with moderate intake of these beverages, including apple juice - a 100 % juice. The juice reductions in the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 2009, and the plateauing/decreasing asthma prevalence (2010-2013), particularly among non-Hispanic black children, may be related. Further research regarding the consequences of fructose malabsorption is needed.

  12. Physiological handling of dietary fructose-containing sugars: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V C; Tappy, L

    2016-03-01

    Fructose has always been present in our diet, but its consumption has increased markedly over the past 200 years. This is mainly due to consumption of sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup in industrial foods and beverages. Unlike glucose, fructose cannot be directly used as an energy source by all cells of the human body and needs first to be converted into glucose, lactate or fatty acids in the liver, intestine and kidney. Because of this specific two-step metabolism, some energy is consumed in splanchnic organs to convert fructose into other substrates, resulting in a lower net energy efficiency of fructose compared with glucose. A high intake of fructose-containing sugars is associated with body weight gain in large cohort studies, and fructose can certainly contribute to energy imbalance leading to obesity. Whether fructose-containing foods promote obesity more than other energy-dense foods remains controversial, however. A short-term (days-weeks) high-fructose intake is not associated with an increased fasting glycemia nor to an impaired insulin-mediated glucose transport in healthy subjects. It, however, increases hepatic glucose production, basal and postprandial blood triglyceride concentrations and intrahepatic fat content. Whether these metabolic alterations are early markers of metabolic dysfunction or merely adaptations to the specific two-step fructose metabolism remain unknown.

  13. Health Implications of High-Fructose Intake and Current Research12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornas, Waleska C; de Lima, Wanderson G; Pedrosa, Maria L; Silva, Marcelo E

    2015-01-01

    Although fructose consumption has dramatically increased and is suspected to be causally linked to metabolic abnormalities, the mechanisms involved are still only partially understood. We discuss the available data and investigate the effects of dietary fructose on risk factors associated with metabolic disorders. The evidence suggests that fructose may be a predisposing cause in the development of insulin resistance in association with the induction of hypertriglyceridemia. Experiments in animals have shown this relation when they are fed diets very high in fructose or sucrose, and human studies also show this relation, although with conflicting results due to the heterogeneity of the studies. The link between increased fructose consumption and increases in uric acid also has been confirmed as a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may be causally related to the development of hypertension. Collectively, these results suggest a link between high fructose intake and insulin resistance, although future studies must be of reasonable duration, use defined populations, and improve comparisons regarding the effects of relevant doses of nutrients on specific endpoints to fully understand the effect of fructose intake in the absence of potential confounding factors. PMID:26567197

  14. Insulin Resistance Induced by a High Fructose Diet in Rats Due to Hepatic Disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Mazen, G.M.A.; Kelada, N.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    High consumption of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Therefore, this experiment was designed to evaluate the role of high fructose diet on metabolic syndrome in rats. The experimental animals were divided into two batches. The control batch received a control diet; the second batch was given a high-fructose diet as the sole source of carbohydrate. The rats were continued on the dietary regimen for 1, 2 and 3 months. After the experimental periods, fructose fed rats groups showed significant elevations in the levels of glucose, insulin sensitivity, liver function tests, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to their corresponding values in the rats fed normal diet. Moreover, liver lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations were remarkably increased in high-fructose-fed rats according to the time of administration (1, 2 and 3 months). On the other hand, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase I and II were significantly declined in this group. In conclusion, high fructose feeding raises liver dysfunction and causes the features of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance) in rats dependent on the time of administration due to different mechanisms which were discussed in this work according to available recent researches

  15. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Methods Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or ...

  16. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  17. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  18. Review of the role of refined dietary sugars (fructose and glucose) in the genesis of retinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Frances M; Fagan, Xavier J; Al-Qureshi, Salmaan

    2014-08-01

    This review examines the current evidence of the relationship between sugar consumption and the development of retinal and other eye diseases including diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and cataract. Sucrose is comprised of fructose and glucose. Sugar consumption has increased five-fold over the last century, with high quantities of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup found in processed food and soft drinks. This increased consumption is increasingly recognized as a central factor in the rapidly rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The body metabolizes fructose and glucose differently, with fructose appearing to have the greater propensity to contribute to the metabolic syndrome. This review examines the effect of high rates of dietary consumption of refined carbohydrates on the eye, including the effect of chronic hyperglycaemia on microvascular disease in diabetic retinopathy, and the pathophysiological changes in the retinal circulation in hypertensive retinopathy. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose

  20. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. Conclusions: On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust

  1. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

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    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose and surcose in types I and II diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantle, J.P.; Laine, D.C.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    To learn more about the metabolic effects of dietary fructose and sucrose, 12 type 1 and 12 type II diabetic subjects were fed three isocaloric (or isoenergic) diets for eight days each according to a randomized, crossover design. The three diets provided, respectively, 21% of the energy as fructose, 23% of the energy as sucrose, and almost all carbohydrate energy as starch. The fructose diet resulted in significantly lower one- and two-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels, overall mean plasma glucose levels, and urinary glucose excretion in both type I and type II subjects than did the starch diet. There were no significant differences between the sucrose and starch diets in any of the measures of glycemic control in either subject group. The fructose and sucrose diets did not significantly increase serum triglyceride values when compared with the starch diet, but both increased postprandial serum lactate levels. The authors conclude that short-term replacement of other carbohydrate sources in the diabetic diet with fructose will improve glycemic control, whereas replacement with sucrose will not aggravate glycemic control

  3. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets leads to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoprotein B concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not in those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, and sucrose suggest that high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable with that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments.

  4. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  5. The health implications of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M

    2010-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of arguments suggesting a link between obesity and fructose consumption is epidemiologic and does not establish cause and effect. The causes of obesity are well-known and involve the overconsumption of calories from all sources. Research employing a pure fructose model distorts the real-world situation of fructose consumption, which predominantly comes from sweeteners containing roughly equal proportions of glucose and fructose. The fructose hypothesis has the potential to distract us from further exploration and amelioration of known causes of obesity. Randomized prospective trials of metabolic consequences of fructose consumption at normal population levels and from sources typically found in the human diet such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup are urgently needed. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzymatic production of high fructose syrup from Agave tequilana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for producing high fructose syrup from the fructans contained in the head of the Agave tequilana Weber var. blue were determined and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of commercial corn syrup (Frudex-55®). Both syrups behave as Newtonian fluids and showed no significant ...

  8. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessie R. Wilburn; Jeffrey Bourquin; Andrea Wysong; Christopher L. Melby

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight ...

  9. Effect of Restriction of Foods with High Fructose Corn Syrup Content on Metabolic Indices and Fatty Liver in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena Del Rocio; López-Lemus, Hilda Lissette; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effect of restriction of foods with high fructose content in obese school children. In a clinical study, we selected 54 obese children 6 to 11 years old with high fructose consumption (>70 g/day) in order indicate dietary fructose restriction (glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin, IGFBP1, and RBP4 serum levels were collected. The group of children had 80% adherence and reported decreased fructose consumption (110 ± 38.6 to 11.4 ± 12.0 g/day) and also a significant decrease in caloric (2,384 ± 568 to 1,757 ± 387 kcal/day) and carbohydrate consumption (302 ± 80.4 to 203 ± 56.0 g/day). The severity of steatosis improved significantly after fructose restriction (p fructose foods with a decrease of caloric and carbohydrate intake at 6 weeks did not induce weight loss; however, triglyceride levels and hepatic steatosis decreased. Differences with other studies in regard to weight loss may be explained by adaptive changes on metabolic expenditure. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde from high fructose corn syrup and other carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmant, H H; Chundury, D D

    1981-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) was prepared from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), or crystalline D-fructose, in high yield and purity. A 95%-97% conversion of fructose to HMF was achieved using 25 mol% (based on fructose) boron trifluoride etherate catalyst in dimethyl sulphoxide, under a nitrogen atmosphere, a reaction temperature of 273 K, and 30 minutes reaction time. Inferior yields of HMF were obtained from glucose and starch.

  11. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  12. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose.

  13. Sucrose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, and Fructose, Their Metabolism and Potential Health Effects: What Do We Really Know?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose. PMID:23493540

  14. High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James M

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of ghrelin. However, when HFCS is compared with sucrose, the more commonly consumed sweetener, such differences are not apparent, and appetite and energy intake do not differ in the short-term. Longer-term studies on connections between HFCS, potential mechanisms, and body weight have not been conducted. The main objective of this review was to examine collective data on associations between consumption of HFCS and energy balance, with particular focus on energy intake and its regulation.

  15. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  16. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  17. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Bremer, Andrew A; Medici, Valentina; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Ito, Yasuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Chen, Guoxia; Fong, Tak Hou; Lee, Vivien; Menorca, Roseanne I; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The American Heart Association Nutrition Committee recommends women and men consume no more than 100 and 150 kcal of added sugar per day, respectively, whereas the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, suggests a maximal added sugar intake of 25% or less of total energy. To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of consuming glucose, fructose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at 25% of energy requirements (E) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PARTICIPANTS, DESIGN AND SETTING, AND INTERVENTION: Forty-eight adults (aged 18-40 yr; body mass index 18-35 kg/m(2)) resided at the Clinical Research Center for 3.5 d of baseline testing while consuming energy-balanced diets containing 55% E complex carbohydrate. For 12 outpatient days, they consumed usual ad libitum diets along with three servings per day of glucose, fructose, or HFCS-sweetened beverages (n = 16/group), which provided 25% E requirements. Subjects then consumed energy-balanced diets containing 25% E sugar-sweetened beverages/30% E complex carbohydrate during 3.5 d of inpatient intervention testing. Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve, fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations were measured. Twenty-four-hour triglyceride area under the curve was increased compared with baseline during consumption of fructose (+4.7 ± 1.2 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.0032) and HFCS (+1.8 ± 1.4 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.035) but not glucose (-1.9 ± 0.9 mmol/liter × 24 h, P = 0.14). Fasting LDL and apoB concentrations were increased during consumption of fructose (LDL: +0.29 ± 0.082 mmol/liter, P = 0.0023; apoB: +0.093 ± 0.022 g/liter, P = 0.0005) and HFCS (LDL: +0.42 ± 0.11 mmol/liter, P glucose (LDL: +0.012 ± 0.071 mmol/liter, P = 0.86; apoB: +0.0097 ± 0.019 g/liter, P = 0.90). Consumption of HFCS-sweetened beverages for 2 wk at 25% E increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease comparably with fructose and more than glucose in

  18. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeli Khosrow

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity and type 2 diabetes are occurring at epidemic rates in the United States and many parts of the world. The "obesity epidemic" appears to have emerged largely from changes in our diet and reduced physical activity. An important but not well-appreciated dietary change has been the substantial increase in the amount of dietary fructose consumption from high intake of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, a common sweetener used in the food industry. A high flux of fructose to the liver, the main organ capable of metabolizing this simple carbohydrate, perturbs glucose metabolism and glucose uptake pathways, and leads to a significantly enhanced rate of de novo lipogenesis and triglyceride (TG synthesis, driven by the high flux of glycerol and acyl portions of TG molecules from fructose catabolism. These metabolic disturbances appear to underlie the induction of insulin resistance commonly observed with high fructose feeding in both humans and animal models. Fructose-induced insulin resistant states are commonly characterized by a profound metabolic dyslipidemia, which appears to result from hepatic and intestinal overproduction of atherogenic lipoprotein particles. Thus, emerging evidence from recent epidemiological and biochemical studies clearly suggests that the high dietary intake of fructose has rapidly become an important causative factor in the development of the metabolic syndrome. There is an urgent need for increased public awareness of the risks associated with high fructose consumption and greater efforts should be made to curb the supplementation of packaged foods with high fructose additives. The present review will discuss the trends in fructose consumption, the metabolic consequences of increased fructose intake, and the molecular mechanisms leading to fructose-induced lipogenesis, insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia.

  19. Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacanoglu, C; Yildirim, N; Sadi, G; Pektas, M B; Akar, F

    2013-10-01

    Dietary intake of fructose and sucrose can cause development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The consequences of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commonly consumed form of fructose and glucose, have poorly been examined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether HFCS intake (10% and 20% beverages for 12 weeks) impacts vascular reactivity to insulin and endothelin-1 in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA/proteins levels in aorta of rats. At challenge, we tested the effectiveness of resveratrol (28-30 mg/kg body weight/day) on outcomes of HFCS feeding. HFCS (20%) diet feeding increased plasma triglyceride, VLDL, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels, but not body weights of rats. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation to insulin (10⁻⁹ to 3×10⁻⁶ M), and enhanced contraction to endothelin-1 (10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁸ M) were associated with decreased expression of IRS-1 and eNOS mRNA and protein, but increased expression of iNOS, in aortas of rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation restored many features of HFCS-induced disturbances, probably by regulating eNOS and iNOS production. In conclusion, dietary HFCS causes vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction through attenuating IRS-1 and eNOS expressions as well as increasing iNOS in rats. Resveratrol has capability to recover HFCS-induced disturbances. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal metabolomic responses of cultured HepG2 liver cells to high fructose and high glucose exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissen, John K; Hirahatake, Kristin M; Adams, Sean H; Fiehn, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    High fructose consumption has been implicated with deleterious effects on human health, including hyperlipidemia elicited through de novo lipogenesis. However, more global effects of fructose on cellular metabolism have not been elucidated. In order to explore the metabolic impact of fructose-containing nutrients, we applied both GC-TOF and HILIC-QTOF mass spectrometry metabolomic strategies using extracts from cultured HepG2 cells exposed to fructose, glucose, or fructose + glucose. Cellular responses were analyzed in a time-dependent manner, incubated in media containing 5.5 mM glucose + 5.0 mM fructose in comparison to controls incubated in media containing either 5.5 mM glucose or 10.5 mM glucose. Mass spectrometry identified 156 unique known metabolites and a large number of unknown compounds, which revealed metabolite changes due to both utilization of fructose and high-carbohydrate loads independent of hexose structure. Fructose was shown to be partially converted to sorbitol, and generated higher levels of fructose-1-phosphate as a precursor for glycolytic intermediates. Differentially regulated ratios of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine pathway intermediates in high fructose media indicated a diversion of carbon backbones away from energy metabolism. Additionally, high fructose conditions changed levels of complex lipids toward phosphatidylethanolamines. Patterns of acylcarnitines in response to high hexose exposure (10.5 mM glucose or glucose/fructose combination) suggested a reduction in mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

  1. Fructose and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy H

    2009-06-01

    A role for the increased intake of dietary fructose in general and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in particular in the current obesity epidemic has been proposed. Consumed fructose and glucose have different rates of gastric emptying, are differentially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, result in different endocrine profiles, and have different metabolic fates, providing multiple opportunities for the 2 saccharides to differentially affect food intake. The consequences of fructose and glucose on eating have been studied under a variety of experimental situations in both model systems and man. The results have been inconsistent, and the particular findings appear to depend on the timing of saccharide administration or ingestion relative to a test meal situation, whether the saccharides are administered as pure sugars or as components of a dietary preload, and the overall volume of the preload. These factors rather than intrinsic differences in the saccharides' ability to induce satiety appear to carry many of the differential effects on food intake that have been found. On balance, the case for fructose being less satiating than glucose or HFCS being less satiating than sucrose is not compelling.

  2. HO-1 Upregulation Attenuates Adipocyte Dysfunction, Obesity, and Isoprostane Levels in Mice Fed High Fructose Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid Khitan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fructose metabolism is an unregulated metabolic pathway and excessive fructose consumption is known to activate ROS. HO-1 is a potent antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing ROS and isoprostanes. We examined whether the fructose-mediated increase in adipocyte dysfunction involves an increase in isoprostanes and that pharmacological induction of HO-1 would decrease both isoprostane levels and adipogenesis. Methods and Results. We examined the effect of fructose, on adipogenesis in human MSCs in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1. Fructose increased adipogenesis and the number of large lipid droplets while decreasing the number of small lipid droplets (P<0.05. Levels of heme and isoprostane in fructose treated MSC-derived adipocytes were increased. CoPP reversed these effects and markedly increased HO-1 and the Wnt signaling pathway. The high fructose diet increased heme levels in adipose tissue and increased circulating isoprostane levels (P<0.05 versus control. Fructose diets decreased HO-1 and adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. Induction of HO-1 by CoPP decreased isoprostane synthesis (P<0.05 versus fructose. Conclusion. Fructose treatment resulted in increased isoprostane production and adipocyte dysfunction, which was reversed by the increased expression of HO-1.

  3. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  4. Reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates metabolic factors associated with a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Herrera-Martínez, Julieta; Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-calorie avocado paste on lipid serum profile, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet. Thirty five male Wistar rats were randomly separated in five groups: Control group (ground commercial diet); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution (HHF group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with avocado pulp (HHF+A group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with reduced-calorie avocado paste (HHF+P group); and hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with a reduced-calorie avocado paste plus fiber (HHF+FP group). The A, P, and FP were supplemented at 2 g/kg/d. The study was carried out for seven weeks. Rats belonging to the HHF group exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels in serum as well as lower insulin sensitivity than the control group. Supplementation with reduced-calorie avocado paste showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (43.1%), low-density lipoprotein (45.4%), and triglycerides (32.8%) in plasma as well as elevated insulin sensitivity compared to the HHF group. Additionally, the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in the HHF-P group (39.8 and 35.1%, respectively). These results are likely due to biocompounds present in the reduced-calorie avocado paste, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and dietary fibre, which are capable of reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates the effects of a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

  5. High fructose intake fails to induce symptomatic adaptation but may induce intestinal carriers

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    Debra Heilpern

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose has several interactions in man, including intolerance and promotion of some diseases. However, fructose in fruits and in prebiotics may be associated with benefits. Adaptation to regular fructose ingestion as defined for lactose could support a beneficial rather than a deleterious effect. This study was undertaken to evaluate symptomatic response and potential underlying mechanisms of fecal bacterial change and breath hydrogen response to short term regular fructose supplementation. Forty-five participants were recruited for a 3 day recall diet questionnaire and a 50 g fructose challenge. Breath hydrogen was measured for 4.5 hrs and symptoms were recorded. Thirty-eight subjects provided stool samples for analysis by selective culture of 4 groups of bacteria, including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Intolerant subjects returned a second time 15 days later. Ten of these served as controls and 16 received 30 g fructose twice a day. Ten of the latter returned 27 days later, after stopping fructose for a third challenge test. Student’s paired, unpaired t-tests and Pearson correlations were used. Significance was accepted at P<0.05. After fructose rechallenge there were no significant reductions in symptoms scores in volunteers in either the fructose supplemented or non supplemented groups. However, total breath hydrogen was reduced between test 1 and test 2 (P=0.03 or test 3 (P=0.04 in the group given fructose then discontinued, compared with controls. There were no statistically significant changes in bacterial numbers between test 2 and 1. This study shows that regular consumption of high dose fructose does not follow the lactose model of adaptation. Observed changes in hydrogen breath tests raise the possibility that intestinal carriers of fructose may be induced potentially aggravating medical problems attributed to fructose.

  6. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Myphuong T; Frye, Reginald F; Rivard, Christopher J; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K; Segal, Mark S; Johnson, Richard J; Johnson, Julie A

    2012-05-01

    It is unclear whether high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared with sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- vs sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hours. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose-normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared with sucrose-sweetened beverages. Compared with sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of high fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MyPhuong T.; Frye, Reginald F.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K.; Segal, Mark S.; Johnson, Richard J.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is unclear whether high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared to sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- versus sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Materials/Methods Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hr. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Results Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared to sucrose-sweetened beverages. Conclusions Compared to sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. PMID:22152650

  8. Production of high fructose corn syrup Streptomyces sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, M; Prabhu, K A

    1978-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain exhibiting considerable glucose isomerase activity was isolated from soil. The cell free extract of the culture was able to convert glucose to fructose in a period of 48 ha and gave 40% conversion. With acid hydrolyzates of corn and bagasse as substrates, the cell-free extract gave glucose to fructose conversions of 39.8 and 29%, respectively.

  9. Health implications of fructose consumption: A review of recent data

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    Rizkalla Salwa W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews evidence in the context of current research linking dietary fructose to health risk markers. Fructose intake has recently received considerable media attention, most of which has been negative. The assertion has been that dietary fructose is less satiating and more lipogenic than other sugars. However, no fully relevant data have been presented to account for a direct link between dietary fructose intake and health risk markers such as obesity, triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in humans. First: a re-evaluation of published epidemiological studies concerning the consumption of dietary fructose or mainly high fructose corn syrup shows that most of such studies have been cross-sectional or based on passive inaccurate surveillance, especially in children and adolescents, and thus have not established direct causal links. Second: research evidence of the short or acute term satiating power or increasing food intake after fructose consumption as compared to that resulting from normal patterns of sugar consumption, such as sucrose, remains inconclusive. Third: the results of longer-term intervention studies depend mainly on the type of sugar used for comparison. Typically aspartame, glucose, or sucrose is used and no negative effects are found when sucrose is used as a control group. Negative conclusions have been drawn from studies in rodents or in humans attempting to elucidate the mechanisms and biological pathways underlying fructose consumption by using unrealistically high fructose amounts. The issue of dietary fructose and health is linked to the quantity consumed, which is the same issue for any macro- or micro nutrients. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ~10% of energy has no deleterious effect on lipid and glucose control and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. No fully relevant data account for a direct link between moderate dietary fructose

  10. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

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    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  11. Involvement of glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and signaling in rat visceral adipose tissue lipid metabolism after chronic stress combined with high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać, Biljana; Djordjevic, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Milutinović, Danijela Vojnović; Petrović, Snježana; Teofilović, Ana; Gligorovska, Ljupka; Preitner, Frederic; Tappy, Luc; Matić, Gordana

    2018-05-03

    Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes. Blood triglycerides and fatty acid composition were also measured to assess hepatic Δ9 desaturase activity. The results showed that fructose diet increased blood triglycerides and Δ9 desaturase activity. On the other hand, stress led to corticosterone elevation, glucocorticoid receptor activation and decrease in adipocyte size, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adipose tissue triglyceride lipase, FAT/CD36 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were increased, pointing to VAT lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis. The combination of stress and fructose diet was associated with marked stimulation of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA level and with increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein levels, suggesting a coordinated increase in hexose monophosphate shunt and de novo lipogenesis. It however did not influence the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, SREBP-1c and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein. In conclusion, our results showed that only combination of dietary fructose and stress increase glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and stimulates lipogenic enzyme expression suggesting that interaction between stress and fructose may be instrumental in promoting VAT expansion and dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high fructose corn syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Our laboratory has investigated two hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) The endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) Fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we demonstrated that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-hour plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans compared with consumption ...

  13. Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Noworolski, Susan M; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Korn, Natalie J; Wen, Michael J; Tai, Viva W; Jones, Grace M; Palii, Sergiu P; Velasco-Alin, Moises; Pan, Karen; Patterson, Bruce W; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Lustig, Robert H; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of sugar is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The conversion of fructose to fat in liver (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) may be a modifiable pathogenetic pathway. We determined the effect of 9 days of isocaloric fructose restriction on DNL, liver fat, visceral fat (VAT), subcutaneous fat, and insulin kinetics in obese Latino and African American children with habitual high sugar consumption (fructose intake >50 g/d). Children (9-18 years old; n = 41) had all meals provided for 9 days with the same energy and macronutrient composition as their standard diet, but with starch substituted for sugar, yielding a final fructose content of 4% of total kilocalories. Metabolic assessments were performed before and after fructose restriction. Liver fat, VAT, and subcutaneous fat were determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. The fractional DNL area under the curve value was measured using stable isotope tracers and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Insulin kinetics were calculated from oral glucose tolerance tests. Paired analyses compared change from day 0 to day 10 within each child. Compared with baseline, on day 10, liver fat decreased from a median of 7.2% (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5%-14.8%) to 3.8% (IQR, 1.7%-15.5%) (P fructose restriction decreased liver fat, VAT, and DNL, and improved insulin kinetics in children with obesity. These findings support efforts to reduce sugar consumption. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01200043. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High fructose diet feeding accelerates diabetic nephropathy in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kaoru; Suzuki, Yusuke; Muta, Kyotaka; Masuyama, Taku; Kakimoto, Kochi; Kobayashi, Akio; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the complications of diabetes and is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease. Fructose is a simple carbohydrate that is present in fruits and honey and is used as a sweetener because of its sweet taste. Fructose has been reported to have the potential to progress diabetes and DN in humans even though fructose itself does not increase postprandial plasma glucose levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of high fructose intake on the kidney of the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats which have renal lesions similar to those in DN patients and compared these with the effects in normal SD rats. This study revealed that a 4-week feeding of the high fructose diet increased urinary excretion of kidney injury makers for tubular injury and accelerated mainly renal tubular and interstitial lesions in the SDT rats but not in normal rats. The progression of the nephropathy in the SDT rats was considered to be related to increased internal uric acid and blood glucose levels due to the high fructose intake. In conclusion, high fructose intake exaggerated the renal lesions in the SDT rats probably due to effects on the tubules and interstitium through metabolic implications for uric acid and glucose.

  15. Challenging the Fructose Hypothesis: New Perspectives on Fructose Consumption and Metabolism123

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The field of sugar metabolism, and fructose metabolism in particular, has experienced a resurgence of interest in the past decade. The “fructose hypothesis” alleges that the fructose component common to all major caloric sweeteners (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, and fruit juice concentrates) plays a unique and causative role in the increasing rates of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This review challenges the fructose hypothesis by comparing normal U.S. levels and patterns of fructose intake with contemporary experimental models and looking for substantive cause-and-effect evidence from real-world diets. It is concluded that 1) fructose intake at normal population levels and patterns does not cause biochemical outcomes substantially different from other dietary sugars and 2) extreme experimental models that feature hyperdosing or significantly alter the usual dietary glucose-to-fructose ratio are not predictive of typical human outcomes or useful to public health policymakers. It is recommended that granting agencies and journal editors require more physiologically relevant experimental designs and clinically important outcomes for fructose research. PMID:23493541

  16. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Barbosa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80 and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60, after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G or fructose (F solutions (500 g/L, 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.05. Both supplementations in rats induced insulin resistance, as suggested by the higher Homeostasis Model Assessment Index. In contrast, mice showed significant decreases in triacylglycerol (G: 1.8 vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (G and F: 2.7 vs 2.5 mM, P < 0.05 after both monosaccharide supplementations. Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice, although belonging to the same family (Muridae, presented opposite responses to glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  17. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  18. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject's estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals consuming SSBs occurred independently of the relative

  19. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The energy overconsumption observed in individuals

  20. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate prevents murine dietary steatohepatitis caused by trans-fatty acid plus fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Maki; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Arai, Kumiko; Kusama, Hiromi; Uchiyama, Akira; Yamashina, Shunhei; Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2015-11-01

    Excess consumption of trans-fatty acid could increase the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, treatment targeting trans-fatty acid-induced NASH has not been examined. Here we focused on the influence of trans-fatty acid intake on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes, so we investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA), on trans-fatty acid-caused steatohepatitis using diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Elaidic acid (EA, trans-fatty acid) alone did not cause definitive liver injury. In contrast, EA plus low-dose fructose induced extensive apoptosis in hepatocytes with severe fat accumulation. EA plus fructose significantly increased ER stress markers such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while PBA significantly reduced this response. In vitro, EA promoted expression of GRP78 and phosphorylation of eIF2α in primary-cultured hepatocytes. EA also increased hepatocellular susceptibility to low-dose tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Treatment with PBA significantly reduced these responses. In conclusion, EA potentiates susceptibly to non-hazardous dose of fructose, and increases ER and oxidative stress. PBA improved steatohepatitis induced by EA plus fructose through amelioration of ER stress. Therefore, ER stress-targeted therapy using a chemical chaperone is a promising novel strategy for trans-fatty acid-induced steatohepatitis.

  1. Three months of high-fructose feeding fails to induce excessive weight gain or leptin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Tillman

    Full Text Available High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat. Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation.

  2. High D(+-Fructose Diet Adversely Affects Testicular Weight Gain in Weaning Rats—Protection by Moderate D(+-Glucose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high D(+-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+-fructose diet (80% D(+-fructose as part of the diet to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001 and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001 and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001 compared to the no D(+-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+-glucose was ã23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain.

  3. High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-12-01

    Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the United States has largely focused on calorically sweetened beverages and ignored other sources. We aimed to examine US consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. We used 2 estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar both overall and within certain food and beverage groups. Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared with total added sugar of 377 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1), accounting for 17% of total energy intake. Although food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of added sugar was consumed compared with 505 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (>100 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1)). Although increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health effect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked.

  4. Alpha lipoic acid attenuates high-fructose-induced pancreatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Senay; Ozmen, Ozlem; Cankara, Fatma Nihan; Yesilot, Sukriye; Bayram, Dilek; Genç Özdamar, Nilüfer; Kayan, Sümeyra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) causes several problems such as insulin resistance. The goal of the study was to investigate pancreatic damage induced by chronic HFCS consumption and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on pancreatic cells. Wistar Albino, 4-month-old, female rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly distributed into three groups, each containing eight rats. The study included an HFCS group, an HFCS + ALA-administered group and a control group (CON). The prepared 30% solution of HFCS (F30) (24% fructose, 28% dextrose) was added to the drinking water for 10 weeks. ALA treatment was begun 4 weeks after the first HFCS administration (100 mg/kg/oral, last 6 weeks). Rats were anaesthetised and euthanised by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last ALA administration. Blood samples for biochemical tests (amylase, lipase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT)) and tissue samples for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations (caspase-3, insulin and glucagon) were collected. Comparing the control and HFCS groups, serum glucose (150.92 ± 39.77 and 236.50 ± 18.28, respectively, p < 0.05), amylase (2165.00 ± 150.76 and 3027.66 ± 729.19, respectively, p < 0.01), lipase (5.58 ± 2.22 and 11.51 ± 2.74, respectively, p < 0.01) and pancreatic tissue MDA (0.0167 ± 0.004 and 0.0193 ± 0.006, respectively, p < 0.05) levels were increased, whereas tissue CAT (0.0924 ± 0.029 and 0.0359 ± 0.023, respectively, p < 0.05) activity decreased in the HFCS group significantly. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative and necrotic changes in Langerhans islet cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltration in pancreatic tissue in the HFCS group. Immunohistochemically there was a significant decrease in insulin (2.85 ± 0.37 and 0.87 ± 0.64, respectively, p < 0.001) and glucagon (2.71 ± 0.48 and 1.00 ± 0.75, respectively, p < 0.001) secreting cell scores, whereas a

  5. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Wright, A.J.; Veltien, A.A.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Tack, C.J.J.; Jones, J.G.; Heerschap, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced

  6. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  7. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  8. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Jessie R; Bourquin, Jeffrey; Wysong, Andrea; Melby, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs) in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years) participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1) EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2) (~600 kcal) and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2) EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3) CON: no exercise control. The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes) and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL × 360 minutes), respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL × 360 minutes) (P < 0.05). A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  9. High-fructose diet is as detrimental as high-fat diet in the induction of insulin resistance and diabetes mediated by hepatic/pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, M; Raji, L; Prabhu, D; Sathishkumar, C; Prabu, P; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet. Investigations include oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, histopathology by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining, mRNA expression by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blot, and caspase-3 activity by colorimetry. Rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets became glucose intolerant, insulin-resistant, and dyslipidemic. Compared to control animals, rats subjected to different combination of fat/fructose diets showed increased mRNA and protein expression of a battery of ER stress markers both in pancreas and liver. Transcription factors of β-cell function (INSIG1, SREBP1c and PDX1) as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis (FOXO1 and PEPCK) were adversely affected in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. The convergence of chronic ER stress towards apoptosis in pancreas/liver was also indicated by increased levels of CHOP mRNA & increased activity of both JNK and Caspase-3 in rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets. Our study exposes the experimental support in that high-fructose diet is equally detrimental in causing metabolic disorders.

  10. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Gail; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Weigle, David S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. Objective: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Results: Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Conclusion: Excessive

  11. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Excessive amounts of fructose, HFCS, and glucose from SSBs

  12. High lactic acid and fructose production via Mn2+-mediated conversion of inulin by Lactobacillus paracasei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Kaloyan; Popova, Luiza; Petrova, Penka

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus paracasei DSM 23505 is able to produce high amounts of lactic acid (LA) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of inulin. Aiming to obtain the highest possible amounts of LA and fructose, the present study is devoted to evaluate the impact of bivalent metal ions on the process of inulin conversion. It was shown that Mn 2+ strongly increases the activity of the purified key enzyme β-fructosidase. In vivo, batch fermentation kinetics revealed that the high Mn 2+ concentrations accelerated inulin hydrolysis by raise of the inulinase activity, and increased sugars conversion to LA through enhancement of the whole glycolytic flux. The highest LA concentration and yield were reached by addition of 15 mM Mn 2+ -151 g/L (corresponding to 40% increase) and 0.83 g/g, respectively. However, the relative quantification by real-time reverse transcription assay showed that the presence of Mn 2+ decreases the expression levels of fosE gene encoding β-fructosidase. Contrariwise, the full exclusion of metal ions resulted in fosE gene expression enhancement, blocked fructose transport, and hindered fructose conversion thus leading to huge fructose accumulation. During fed-batch with optimized medium and fermentation parameters, the fructose content reached 35.9% (w/v), achieving yield of 467 g fructose from 675 g inulin containing chicory flour powder (0.69 g/g). LA received in course of the batch fermentation and fructose gained by the fed-batch are the highest amounts ever obtained from inulin, thus disclosing the key role of Mn 2+ as a powerful tool to guide inulin conversion to targeted bio-chemicals.

  13. High-fructose diet during periadolescent development increases depressive-like behavior and remodels the hypothalamic transcriptome in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Constance S.; Burgado, Jillybeth; Kelly, Sean D.; Johnson, Zachary P.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2015-01-01

    Fructose consumption, which promotes insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, has increased by over 25% since the 1970s. In addition to metabolic dysregulation, fructose ingestion stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to elevations in glucocorticoids. Adolescents are the greatest consumers of fructose, and adolescence is a critical period for maturation of the HPA axis. Repeated consumption of high levels of fructose during adolescence has the potential to promote long-term dysregulation of the stress response. Therefore, we determined the extent to which consumption of a diet high in fructose affected behavior, serum corticosterone, and hypothalamic gene expression using a whole-transcriptomics approach. In addition, we examined the potential of a high-fructose diet to interact with exposure to chronic adolescent stress. Male Wistar rats fed the periadolescent high-fructose diet showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test in adulthood, irrespective of stress history. Periadolescent fructose-fed rats also exhibited elevated basal corticosterone concentrations relative to their chow-fed peers. These behavioral and hormonal responses to the high-fructose diet did not occur in rats fed fructose during adulthood only. Finally, rats fed the high-fructose diet throughout development underwent marked hypothalamic transcript expression remodeling, with 966 genes (5.6%) significantly altered and a pronounced enrichment of significantly altered transcripts in several pathways relating to regulation of the HPA axis. Collectively, the data presented herein indicate that diet, specifically one high in fructose, has the potential to alter behavior, HPA axis function, and the hypothalamic transcriptome in male rats. PMID:26356038

  14. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  15. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoue, Shirou; Uto, Hirofumi; Kumamoto, Ryo; Arima, Shiho; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nasu, Yuichiro; Takami, Yoichiro; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. → Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. → Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. → Regulation of the TGF-β1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-β1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-β1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result from altered metabolic gene expression

  16. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rat is more impaired in a steatotic liver induced by dietary fructose compared to dietary fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanoue, Shirou [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kumamoto, Ryo; Arima, Shiho; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nasu, Yuichiro; Takami, Yoichiro; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Sakiyama, Toshio; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Kagoshima University, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high fructose diet was less severe than that in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Liver regeneration was more impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet than in rats fed a high fat diet. {yields} Dysregulation of genes associated with metabolism may contribute to impairment of liver regeneration. {yields} Regulation of the TGF-{beta}1 level after partial hepatectomy may be impaired in rats fed a high fructose diet. -- Abstract: Hepatic steatosis (HS) has a negative effect on liver regeneration, but different pathophysiologies of HS may lead to different outcomes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fructose (66% fructose; H-fruc), high fat (54% fat; H-fat), or control chow diet for 4 weeks. Based on hepatic triglyceride content and oil red O staining, HS developed in the H-fruc group, but was less severe compared to the H-fat group. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthase and fructokinase were increased and those of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} were decreased in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat group. Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PHx) was evaluated by measuring the increase in postoperative liver mass and PCNA-positive hepatocytes, and was impaired in the H-fruc group compared to the H-fat and control groups on days 3 and 7. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-6 and hepatocyte growth factor did not change significantly after PHx. In contrast, serum TGF-{beta}1 levels were slightly but significantly lower in the control group on day 1 and in the H-fat group on day 3 compared to the level in each group on day 0, and then gradually increased. However, the serum TGF-{beta}1 level did not change after PHx in the H-fruc group. These results indicate that impairment of liver regeneration after PHx in HS is related to the cause, rather than the degree, of steatosis. This difference may result

  17. The Health Implications of Sucrose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, and Fructose: What Do We Really Know?

    OpenAIRE

    Rippe, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of arguments suggesting a link between obesity and fructose consumption is epidemiologic and does not establish cause and effect. The causes of obesit...

  18. Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated by HO-1-SIRT1 Module in Murine Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Sodhi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.We examined the effect of fructose, on hepatocyte lipid accumulation and fibrosis in murine hepatocytes and in mice fed a high fructose diet in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1, and SnMP, an inhibitor of HO activity. Fructose increased oxidative stress markers and decreased HO-1 and SIRT1 levels in hepatocytes (p<0.05. Further fructose supplementation increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels; CoPP negated this increase. Concurrent treatment with CoPP and SIRT1 siRNA in hepatocytes increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels suggesting that HO-1 is upstream of SIRT1 and suppression of SIRT1 attenuates the beneficial effects of HO-1. A high fructose diet increased insulin resistance, blood pressure, markers of oxidative stress and lipogenesis along with fibrotic markers in mice (p<0.05. Increased levels of HO-1 increased SIRT1 levels and ameliorated fructose-mediated lipid accumulation and fibrosis in liver along with decreasing vascular dysfunction (p<0.05 vs. fructose. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP.Taken together, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that HO-1 induction attenuates fructose-induced hepatic lipid deposition, prevents the development of hepatic fibrosis and abates

  19. Biocatalytic strategies for the production of high fructose syrup from inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Chauhan, Kanika; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2018-04-03

    The consumption of natural and low calorie sugars has increased enormously from the past few decades. To fulfil the demands, the production of healthy sweeteners as an alternative to sucrose has recently received considerable interest. Fructose is the most health beneficial and safest sugar amongst them. It is generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and has become an important food ingredient due its sweetening and various health promising functional properties. Commercially, high fructose syrup is prepared from starch by multienzymatic process. Single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin using inulinase has emerged as an alternate to the conventional approach to reduce complexity, time and cost. The present review, outlines the enzymatic strategies used for the preparation of high fructose syrup from inulin/inulin-rich plant materials in batch and continuous systems, and its conclusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  1. Effect of Long-Term Dietary Arginyl-Fructose (AF on Hyperglycemia and HbA1c in Diabetic db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hyoung Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that Amadori compounds exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering sucrose-induced hyperglycemia in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. In the present study we extended our recent findings to evaluate whether α-glucosidase inhibitor arginyl-fructose (AF lowers blood glucose level in diabetic db/db mice, a genetic model for type 2 diabetes. The db/db mice were randomly assigned to high-carbohydrate diets (66.1% corn starch with and without AF (4% in the diet for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, blood glucose level, and food intake were measured daily for 42 days. Dietary supplementation of AF resulted in a significant decrease of blood glucose level (p < 0.001 and body weight (p < 0.001. The level of HbA1c, a better indicator of plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time, was also significantly decreased for 6-week period (p < 0.001. Dietary treatment of acarbose® (0.04% in diet, a positive control, also significantly alleviated the level of blood glucose, HbA1c, and body weight. These results indicate that AF Maillard reaction product improves postprandial hyperglycemia by suppressing glucose absorption as well as decreasing HbA1c level.

  2. The protective role of low-concentration alcohol in high-fructose induced adverse cardiovascular events in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqi; Pan, Bo; Wang, Ying; Liu, Lingjuan; Huang, Xupei; Tian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice. From the results of hematoxylin-eosin staining, echocardiography, heart weight/body weight ratio and the expression of hypertrophic marker ANP, we found high-fructose result in myocardial hypertrophy and the low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy from happening. In addition, we observed low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit mitochondria swollen induced by high-fructose. The elevated levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol in high-fructose group were reduced by low concentration alcohol. Low expression levels of SIRT1 and PPAR-γ induced by high-fructose were significantly elevated when fed with low-concentration alcohol. The histone lysine 9 acetylation (acH3K9) level was decreased in PPAR-γ promoter in high-fructose group but elevated when intake with low concentration alcohol. The binding levels of histone deacetylase SIRT1 were increased in the same region in high-fructose group, while the low concentration alcohol can prevent the increased binding levels. Overall, our study indicates that low-concentration alcohol consumption could inhibit high-fructose related myocardial hypertrophy, cardiac mitochondria damaged and disorders of glucose-lipid metabolism. Furthermore, these findings also provide new insights into histone acetylation-deacetylation mechanisms of low-concentration alcohol treatment that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease induced by high-fructose

  3. The effects of resveratrol on hepatic oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome model induced by high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Demirtas, C; Bircan, F S; Pasaoglu, O T; Turkozkan, N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate probable protective effects of resveratrol treatment on hepatic oxidative events in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thirty-two male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, fructose, resveratrol, and fructose plus resveratrol. To induce MetS, fructose solution (20 % in drinking water) was used. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage. All treatments were given for 8 weeks. Serum lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels, liver total oxidant status (TOS) levels and paraoxonase (PON), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analyzed. Fructose-fed rats displayed statistically significant increases in TOS levels, and decreases in PON activity compared to the control group. Resveratrol treatment moderately prevented the decrease in liver PON activity caused by fructose. On the other hand, resveratrol, alone or in combination with fructose, did not change the TOS levels when compared to the fructose group. The SOD and CAT activities in all groups did not change. In this experimental design, high-fructose consumption led to elevated TOS levels and low PON activities. The resveratrol therapy shown beneficial effects on PON activity. However, it was found to behave like a prooxidant when administered together with fructose and alone in some parameters. Our results can inspire the development of new clinical therapy in patients with MetS (Tab. 2, Ref. 34).

  4. Fructose; a Hidden Threat for Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Incremental usage of the fructose derived from corn by processed-food manufacturers has become a crucial threat in terms of human health. Although it is known as fruit sugar, the most important source of dietary fructose is now, processed-food prepared by using high-fructose corn syrup. Basically, fructose is metabolized within liver and its energy load is equal to glucose. Nevertheless, it does not make up satiety and fullness. Therefore, fructose-rich foods and beverages can be consumed in large amount because the absence of satiety. Studies performed recently unveil a connection between amount of fructose consumed and metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The incidence of metabolic diseases which are already affecting more than half of the adults has been increasing among children. Moreover, these types of foods are generally consumed by children. Therefore, in order to reduce the frequency of metabolic disorders in all ages, the amount of fructose in processed-foods and beverages should also be taken into consideration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 343-346

  5. Effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction markers and inflammation in mice with high-fat and high-fructose consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. Objective: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Design: A diet intervention of spinach with or without nitrate was performed in mice. A high-fat and high-fructose diet was used to cause insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation in mice. The impacts of spinach nitrate on lipid profile, insulin resistance, markers of endothelial function, and inflammation were determined in mice. Results: Spinach nitrate improved the vascular endothelial function of the mice with high-fat and high-fructose consumption, as evidenced by the elevated plasma nitrite level, increased serum nitric oxide (NO level and decreased serum ET-1 level after spinach nitrate intervention. Spinach nitrate also reduced serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and elevated serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in the mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet. Mice receiving spinach with 60 mg/kg of nitrate (1.02±0.34 showed a significantly low homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index as compared with the model mice (2.05±0.58, which is indicating that spinach nitrate could effectively improve the insulin resistance. In addition, spinach nitrate remarkably decreased the elevated serum C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 levels induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet

  6. High Fructose Corn Syrup, Mercury, and Autism--Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature and research regarding the evidence linking high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), mercury, and the increased incidence of autism among the population in the United States. Results of review suggest that rigorous scientific studies need to be performed to conclusively identify the…

  7. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  8. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  9. High fructose feeding induces copper deficiency in Sprague-Dawley rats: A novel mechanism for obesity related fatty liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in ...

  10. Early adaptive response of the retina to a pro-diabetogenic diet: Impairment of cone response and gene expression changes in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Magalie; Pasquis, Bruno; Buteau, Bénédicte; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Dembele, Doulaye; Leclere, Laurent; Gambert-Nicot, Ségolène; Acar, Niyazi; Bron, Alain M; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Bretillon, Lionel

    2015-06-01

    The lack of plasticity of neurons to respond to dietary changes, such as high fat and high fructose diets, by modulating gene and protein expression has been associated with functional and behavioral impairments that can have detrimental consequences. The inhibition of high fat-induced rewiring of hypothalamic neurons induced obesity. Feeding rodents with high fructose is a recognized and widely used model to trigger obesity and metabolic syndrome. However the adaptive response of the retina to short term feeding with high fructose is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to characterize both the functional and gene expression changes in the neurosensory retina of Brown Norway rats fed during 3 and 8 days with a 60%-rich fructose diet (n = 16 per diet and per time point). Glucose, insulin, leptin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fructosamine were quantified in plasma (n = 8 in each group). Functionality of the inner retina was studied using scotopic single flash electroretinography (n = 8 in each group) and the individual response of rod and cone photoreceptors was determined using 8.02 Hz Flicker electroretinography (n = 8 in each group). Analysis of gene expression in the neurosensory retina was performed by Affymetrix genechips, and confirmed by RT-qPCR (n = 6 in each group). Elevated glycemia (+13%), insulinemia (+83%), and leptinemia (+172%) was observed after 8 days of fructose feeding. The cone photoreceptor response was altered at day 8 in high fructose fed rats (Δ = 0.5 log unit of light stimulus intensity). Affymetrix analysis of gene expression highlighted significant modulation of the pathways of eIF2 signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress, regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling, as well as mTOR signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed the down regulation of Crystallins, Npy, Nid1 and Optc genes after 3 days of fructose feeding, and up regulation of End2. Meanwhile, a trend

  11. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  12. High-yield production of pure tagatose from fructose by a three-step enzymatic cascade reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-08-01

    To produce tagatose from fructose with a high conversion rate and to establish a high-yield purification method of tagatose from the reaction mixture. Fructose at 1 M (180 g l -1 ) was converted to 0.8 M (144 g l -1 ) tagatose by a three-step enzymatic cascade reaction, involving hexokinase, plus ATP, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, phytase, over 16 h with a productivity of 9 g l -1 h -1 . No byproducts were detected. Tagatose was recrystallized from ethanol to a purity of 99.9% and a yield of 96.3%. Overall, tagatose at 99.9% purity was obtained from fructose with a yield of 77%. This is the first biotechnological production of tagatose from fructose and the first application of solvent recrystallization for the purification of rare sugars.

  13. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  15. Activation of Kupffer Cells Is Associated with a Specific Dysbiosis Induced by Fructose or High Fat Diet in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ferrere

    Full Text Available The increase consumption of fructose in diet is associated with liver inflammation. As a specific fructan substrate, fructose may modify the gut microbiota which is involved in obesity-induced liver disease. Here, we aimed to assess whether fructose-induced liver damage was associated with a specific dysbiosis, especially in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD. To this end, four groups of mice were fed with normal and HFD added or not with fructose. Body weight and glucose sensitivity, liver inflammation, dysbiosis and the phenotype of Kupffer cells were determined after 16 weeks of diet. Food intake was increased in the two groups of mice fed with the HFD. Mice fed with HFD and fructose showed a higher infiltration of lymphocytes into the liver and a lower inflammatory profile of Kupffer cells than mice fed with the HFD without fructose. The dysbiosis associated with diets showed that fructose specifically prevented the decrease of Mouse intestinal bacteria in HFD fed mice and increased Erysipelotrichi in mice fed with fructose, independently of the amount of fat. In conclusion, fructose, used as a sweetener, induced a dysbiosis which is different in presence of fat in the diet. Consequently, the activation of Kupffer cells involved in mice model of HFD-induced liver inflammation was not observed in an HFD/fructose combined diet. These data highlight that the complexity of diet composition could highly impact the development of liver lesions during obesity. Specific dysbiosis associated with the diet could explain that the progressions of liver damage are different.

  16. The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Ramazan; Gozel, Nevzat; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Yiğit, İrem Pembegül; Dogukan, Ayhan; Telceken, Hafize; Üçer, Özlem; Kemeç, Zeki; Kaman, Dilara; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2018-05-31

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of M. pruriens administration on metabolic parameters, oxidative stress and kidney nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways in high-fructose fed rats. Male rats (n = 28) were divided into 4 groups as control, M. pruriens, fructose, and M. pruriens plus fructose. All rats were fed a standard diet supplemented or no supplemented with M. pruriens (200 mg/kg/d by gavage). Fructose was given in drinking water for 8 weeks. High fructose consumption led to an increase in the serum level of glucose, triglyceride, urea and renal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Although M. pruriens treatment reduced triglyceride and MDA levels, it did not affect other parameters. M. pruriens supplementation significantly decreased the expression of NF-ҡB and decreased expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in the kidney. This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Pathophysiological mechanism and treatment by traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2018-04-01

    Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data. This review focuses on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and uric acid (UA) production, two unique features of fructolysis different from glucose glycolysis. High level of DNL and UA production can result in insulin resistance, the key pathological event in developing MetS, mostly through oxidative stress and inflammation. Some other pathologies like the disturbance in brain and gut microbiota in the development of fructose-induced MetS in the past years, are also discussed. In management of MetS, TCM is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicine with a complete theory system and substantial herbal remedies. TCMs against MetS or MetS components, including Chinese patent medicines, TCM compound formulas, single TCM herbs and active compounds of TCM herbs, are reviewed on their effects and molecular mechanisms. TCMs with hypouricemic activity, which specially target fructose-induced MetS, are highlighted. And new technologies and strategies (such as high-throughput assay and systems biology) in this field are further discussed. In summary, fructose-induced MetS is a multifactorial disorder with the underlying complex mechanisms. Current clinical and pre-clinical evidence supports the potential of TCMs in management of MetS. Additionally, TCMs may show some advantages against complex MetS as their holistic feature through multiple target actions. However, further work is needed to confirm the effectivity and safety of TCMs

  18. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetri, Laura H; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Yerian, Lisa M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) equivalent for 1-16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow or mice with trans fats or HFCS omitted. Cage racks were removed from western diet mice to promote sedentary behavior. By 16 wk, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necroinflammatory changes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels increased, as did liver TNF-alpha and procollagen mRNA, indicating an inflammatory and profibrogenic response to injury. Glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose developed within 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Plasma insulin, resistin, and leptin levels increased in a profile similar to that seen in patients with NASH. The individual components of this diet contributed to the phenotype independently; isocaloric replacement of trans fats with lard established that trans fats played a major role in promoting hepatic steatosis and injury, whereas inclusion of HFCS promoted food consumption, obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Combining risk factors for the metabolic syndrome by feeding mice trans fats and HFCS induced histological features of NASH in the context of a metabolic profile similar to patients with this disease. Because dietary trans fats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluation.

  19. ZrFsy1, a high-affinity fructose/H+ symporter from fructophilic yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Leandro

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast than can grow at very high sugar concentrations. We have identified an ORF encoding a putative fructose/H(+ symporter in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome database. Heterologous expression of this ORF in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null and subsequent kinetic characterization of its sugar transport activity showed it is a high-affinity low-capacity fructose/H(+ symporter, with Km 0.45 ± 0.07 mM and Vmax 0.57 ± 0.02 mmol h(-1 (gdw(-1. We named it ZrFsy1. This protein also weakly transports xylitol and sorbose, but not glucose or other hexoses. The expression of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii is higher when the cells are cultivated at extremely low fructose concentrations (<0.2% and on non-fermentable carbon sources such as mannitol and xylitol, where the cells have a prolonged lag phase, longer duplication times and change their microscopic morphology. A clear phenotype was determined for the first time for the deletion of a fructose/H(+ symporter in the genome where it occurs naturally. The effect of the deletion of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii cells is only evident when the cells are cultivated at very low fructose concentrations, when the ZrFsy1 fructose symporter is the main active fructose transporter system.

  20. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  1. High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor

    2008-12-01

    The annual American Society for Nutrition Public Information Committee symposium for 2007 titled "High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS): Everything You Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" served as a platform to address the controversy surrounding HFCS. Speakers from academia and industry came together to provide up-to-date information on this food ingredient. The proceedings from the symposium covered 1) considerable background on what HFCS is and why it is used as a food ingredient, 2) the contribution HFCS makes to consumers' diets, and 3) the latest research on the metabolic effects of HFCS. The data presented indicated that HFCS is very similar to sucrose, being about 55% fructose and 45% glucose, and thus, not surprisingly, few metabolic differences were found comparing HFCS and sucrose. That said, HFCS does contribute to added sugars and calories, and those concerned with managing their weight should be concerned about calories from beverages and other foods, regardless of HFCS content.

  2. A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshee, Richard A; Storey, Maureen L; Allison, David B; Glinsmann, Walter H; Hein, Gayle L; Lineback, David R; Miller, Sanford A; Nicklas, Theresa A; Weaver, Gary A; White, John S

    2007-01-01

    The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S. population. The Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy convened an expert panel to discuss the published scientific literature examining the relationship between consumption of HFCS or "soft drinks" (proxy for HFCS) and weight gain. The authors conducted original analysis to address certain gaps in the literature. Evidence from ecological studies linking HFCS consumption with rising BMI rates is unreliable. Evidence from epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials is inconclusive. Studies analyzing the differences between HFCS and sucrose consumption and their contributions to weight gain do not exist. HFCS and sucrose have similar monosaccharide compositions and sweetness values. The fructose:glucose (F:G) ratio in the U.S. food supply has not appreciably changed since the introduction of HFCS in the 1960s. It is unclear why HFCS would affect satiety or absorption and metabolism of fructose any differently than would sucrose. Based on the currently available evidence, the expert panel concluded that HFCS does not appear to contribute to overweight and obesity any differently than do other energy sources. Research recommendations were made to improve our understanding of the association of HFCS and weight gain.

  3. Sugar or high fructose corn syrup-what should nurses teach patients and families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Dalby, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    There is lack of consensus in the lay literature to support consumption of table sugar as a preferred sweetener when compared to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The purpose of this study was to search the literature for evidence to determine the health effects of consumption of table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS on blood glucose, lipid levels, obesity, and appetite as well as to make recommendations for patient and family teaching of those at risk for developing negative health outcomes, including coronary heart disease. Nursing and health-related databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Health and Wellness were searched for research articles, which were compared and evaluated for purpose, sample size, procedure, findings, and level of evidence. Five studies that met inclusion criteria were evaluated. No difference was found in changes in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, or appetite between table sugar consumption and HFCS consumption. When only fructose was consumed, lipid levels were significantly increased. The evidence suggests that fructose, found in both table sugar and HFCS, has a negative effect on health outcomes. Clinicians should teach patients and families that all sugar consumption should be closely monitored and kept below the 40 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Immobilization of Recombinant Glucose Isomerase for Efficient Production of High Fructose Corn Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qun; Xu, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong-Xu; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23.8 mM min -1 . The fructose concentration still retained above 55% after the immobilized glucose isomerase was reused for 10 cycles, and more than 85% of its initial activity was reserved even after 15 recycles of usage at temperature of 90 °C. The results highlighted the immobilized glucose isomerase as a potential biocatalyst for HFCS-55 production.

  5. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (Ptriglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the liver was increased as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rats drinking sucrose, but not HFCS-55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A high-fructose diet induces changes in pp185 phosphorylation in muscle and liver of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ueno

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Insulin stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity of its receptor resulting in the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp185, which contains insulin receptor substrates IRS-1 and IRS-2. These early steps in insulin action are essential for the metabolic effects of insulin. Feeding animals a high-fructose diet results in insulin resistance. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying this effect is unknown. In the present study, we determined the levels and phosphorylation status of the insulin receptor and pp185 (IRS-1/2 in liver and muscle of rats submitted to a high-fructose diet evaluated by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Feeding fructose (28 days induced a discrete insulin resistance, as demonstrated by the insulin tolerance test. Plasma glucose and serum insulin and cholesterol levels of the two groups of rats, fructose-fed and control, were similar, whereas plasma triacylglycerol concentration was significantly increased in the rats submitted to the fructose diet (P<0.05. There were no changes in insulin receptor concentration in the liver or muscle of either group. However, insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation was reduced to 72 ± 4% (P<0.05 in the liver of high-fructose rats. The IRS-1 protein levels were similar in both liver and muscle of the two groups of rats. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in insulin-induced pp185 (IRS-1/2 phosphorylation, to 83 ± 5% (P<0.05 in liver and to 77 ± 4% (P<0.05 in muscle of the high-fructose rats. These data suggest that changes in the early steps of insulin signal transduction may have an important role in the insulin resistance induced by high-fructose feeding.

  7. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corn syrup is chemically similar to table sugar. Controversy exists, however, about whether the body handles high- ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  8. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Allison M.; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study ...

  9. The fetal programming of dietary fructose and saturated fat on hepatic quercetin glucuronidation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Phase II biotransformation of flavonoids generates bioactive metabolites in vivo. However, data on the effect of environmental and physiological factors and fetal programming on phase II pathways toward flavonoids are limited. We examined the effect of parental exposure to a diet high in s...

  10. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  11. Divergent effects of glucose and fructose on hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softic, Samir; Gupta, Manoj K; Wang, Guo-Xiao; Fujisaka, Shiho; O'Neill, Brian T; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Willoughby, Jennifer; Harbison, Carole; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Cohen, David E; Kahn, C Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Overconsumption of high-fat diet (HFD) and sugar-sweetened beverages are risk factors for developing obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Here we have dissected mechanisms underlying this association using mice fed either chow or HFD with or without fructose- or glucose-supplemented water. In chow-fed mice, there was no major physiological difference between fructose and glucose supplementation. On the other hand, mice on HFD supplemented with fructose developed more pronounced obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatomegaly as compared to glucose-supplemented HFD mice, despite similar caloric intake. Fructose and glucose supplementation also had distinct effects on expression of the lipogenic transcription factors ChREBP and SREBP1c. While both sugars increased ChREBP-β, fructose supplementation uniquely increased SREBP1c and downstream fatty acid synthesis genes, resulting in reduced liver insulin signaling. In contrast, glucose enhanced total ChREBP expression and triglyceride synthesis but was associated with improved hepatic insulin signaling. Metabolomic and RNA sequence analysis confirmed dichotomous effects of fructose and glucose supplementation on liver metabolism in spite of inducing similar hepatic lipid accumulation. Ketohexokinase, the first enzyme of fructose metabolism, was increased in fructose-fed mice and in obese humans with steatohepatitis. Knockdown of ketohexokinase in liver improved hepatic steatosis and glucose tolerance in fructose-supplemented mice. Thus, fructose is a component of dietary sugar that is distinctively associated with poor metabolic outcomes, whereas increased glucose intake may be protective.

  12. No difference between high-fructose and high-glucose diets on liver triacylglycerol or biochemistry in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard D; Stephenson, Mary C; Crossland, Hannah; Cordon, Sally M; Palcidi, Elisa; Cox, Eleanor F; Taylor, Moira A; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Macdonald, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Diets high in fructose have been proposed to contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We compared the effects of high-fructose and matched glucose intake on hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and other liver parameters. In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 32 healthy but centrally overweight men to groups that received either a high-fructose or high-glucose diet (25% energy). These diets were provided during an initial isocaloric period of 2 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period, and then again during a hypercaloric 2-week period. The primary outcome measure was hepatic level of TAG, with additional assessments of TAG levels in serum and soleus muscle, hepatic levels of adenosine triphosphate, and systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. During the isocaloric period of the study, both groups had stable body weights and concentrations of TAG in liver, serum, and soleus muscle. The high-fructose diet produced an increase of 22 ± 52 μmol/L in the serum level of uric acid, whereas the high-glucose diet led to a reduction of 23 ± 25 μmol/L (P fructose diet also produced an increase of 0.8 ± 0.9 in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, whereas the high-glucose diet produced an increase of only 0.1 ± 0.7 (P = .03). During the hypercaloric period, participants in the high-fructose and high-glucose groups had similar increases in weight (1.0 ± 1.4 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg; P = .29) and absolute concentration of TAG in liver (1.70% ± 2.6% vs 2.05% ± 2.9%; P = .73) and serum (0.36 ± 0.75 vs 0.33 ± 0.38 mmol/L; P = .91), and similar results in biochemical assays of liver function. Body weight changes were associated with changes in liver biochemistry and concentration of TAGs. In the isocaloric period, overweight men who were on a high-fructose or a high-glucose diet did not develop any significant changes in hepatic concentration of TAGs or serum levels of liver enzymes. However, in the hypercaloric period

  13. Energy Expenditure and Hormone Responses in Humans After Overeating High-Fructose Corn Syrup Versus Whole-Wheat Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mostafa; Bonfiglio, Susan; Schlögl, Mathias; Vinales, Karyne L; Piaggi, Paolo; Venti, Colleen; Walter, Mary; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the dietary source of carbohydrates, either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or complex carbohydrates, affects energy expenditure (EE) measures, appetitive sensations, and hormones during 24 hours of overfeeding. Seventeen healthy participants with normal glucose regulation had 24-hour EE measures and fasting blood and 24-hour urine collection during four different 1-day diets, including an energy-balanced diet, fasting, and two 75% carbohydrate diets (5% fat) given at 200% of energy requirements with either HFCS or whole-wheat foods as the carbohydrate source. In eight volunteers, hunger was assessed with visual analog scales the morning after the diets. Compared with energy balance, 24-hour EE increased 12.8% ± 6.9% with carbohydrate overfeeding (P < 0.0001). No differences in 24-hour EE or macronutrient utilization were observed between the two high-carbohydrate diets; however, sleeping metabolic rate was higher after the HFCS diet (Δ = 35 ± 48 kcal [146 ± 200 kJ]; P = 0.01). Insulin, ghrelin, and triglycerides increased the morning after both overfeeding diets. Urinary cortisol concentrations (82.8 ± 35.9 vs. 107.6 ± 46.9 nmol/24 h; P = 0.01) and morning-after hunger scores (Δ = 2.4 ± 2.0 cm; P = 0.01) were higher with HFCS overfeeding. The dietary carbohydrate source while overeating did not affect 24-hour EE, but HFCS overconsumption may predispose individuals to further overeating due to increased glucocorticoid release and increased hunger the following morning. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Islam; Poulose, Ninu; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[ 14 C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20-30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J; Tucker, K L

    2016-03-07

    There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free fructose (EFF) and HFCS, contributes to fructose reactivity in the gastrointestinal tract and intestinal in situ formation of enFruAGEs, which once absorbed, travel beyond the intestinal boundaries to other tissues and promote inflammation. In separate studies, the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products has been associated with joint inflammation in RA. Objective of this study was to assess the association between EFF beverages intake and non-age, non-wear and tear-associated arthritis in US young adults. In this cross sectional study of 1209 adults aged 20-30y, (Nutrition and Health Examination Surveys 2003-2006) exposure variables were high EFF beverages, including HFCS sweetened soft drinks, and any combination of HFCS sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks (FD) and apple juice, referred to as tEFF. Analyses of diet soda and diet FD were included for comparison. The outcome was self-reported arthritis. Rao Scott Ҳ(2) was used for prevalence differences and logistic regression for associations, adjusted for confounders. Young adults consuming any combination of high EFF beverages (tEFF) ⩾5 times/week (but not diet soda) were three times as likely to have arthritis as non/low consumers (odds ratios=3.01; p⩽0.021; 95% confidence intervals=1.20-7.59), independent of all covariates, including physical activity, other dietary factors, blood glucose and smoking. EFF beverage intake is significantly associated with arthritis in US adults aged 20-30 years, possibly due to the

  16. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  17. Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Latulippe, Marie E.; Skoog, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provid...

  18. Effect of L-Carnitine on Skeletal Muscle Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Rats Fed High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchamoorthy Rajasekar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, alterations in lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in rat tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (CAR on lipid accumulation and peroxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats fed high-fructose diet. Fructose-fed animals (60 g/100 g diet displayed decreased glucose/insulin (G/I ratio and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120 indicating the development of insulin resistance. Rats showed alterations in the levels of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids in skeletal muscle. The condition was associated with oxidative stress as evidenced by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, and aldehydes along with depletion of both enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of CAR (300 mg/kg/day to fructose-fed rats alleviated the effects of fructose. These rats showed near-normal levels of the parameters studied. The effects of CAR in this model suggest that CAR supplementation may have some benefits in patients suffering from insulin resistance.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Phyllanthus amarus Against High Fructose Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putakala, Mallaiah; Gujjala, Sudhakara; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a characteristic feature of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that the high-fructose consumption is a potential and important factor responsible for the rising incidence of IR. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAE) on IR and oxidative stress in high-fructose (HF) fed male Wistar rats. HF diet (66% of fructose) and PAAE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 60 days. Fructose-fed rats showed weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypoadiponectinemia (P diet significantly ameliorated all these alterations. Regarding hepatic antioxidant status, higher lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, lower reduced glutathione levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, and the histopathological changes like mild to severe distortion of the normal architecture as well as the prominence and widening of the liver sinusoids observed in the HF diet-fed rats were significantly prevented by PAAE treatment. These findings indicate that PAAE is beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity and attenuating metabolic syndrome and hepatic oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats.

  20. Fructose Malabsorption in Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Leroi, Anne-Marie; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Levesque, Hervé; Ménard, Jean-François; Ducrotte, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The deleterious effect of fructose, which is increasingly incorporated in many beverages, dairy products, and processed foods, has been described; fructose malabsorption has thus been reported in up to 2.4% of healthy subjects, leading to digestive clinical symptoms (eg, pain, distension, diarrhea). Because digestive involvement is frequent in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we hypothesized that fructose malabsorption could be responsible for intestinal manifestations in these patients. The aims of this prospective study were to: determine the prevalence of fructose malabsorption, in SSc; predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing fructose malabsorption; and assess the outcome of digestive symptoms in SSc patients after initiation of standardized low-fructose diet. Eighty consecutive patients with SSc underwent fructose breath test. All SSc patients also completed a questionnaire on digestive symptoms, and a global symptom score (GSS) was calculated. The prevalence of fructose malabsorption was as high as 40% in SSc patients. We also observed a marked correlation between the presence of fructose malabsorption and: higher values of GSS score of digestive symptoms (P = 0.000004); and absence of delayed gastric emptying (P = 0.007). Furthermore, in SSc patients with fructose malabsorption, the median value of GSS score of digestive symptoms was lower after initiation of standardized low-fructose diet (4 before vs. 1 after; P = 0.0009). Our study underscores that fructose malabsorption often occurs in SSc patients. Our findings are thus relevant for clinical practice, highlighting that fructose breath test is a helpful, noninvasive method by: demonstrating fructose intolerance in patients with SSc; and identifying the group of SSc patients with fructose intolerance who may benefit from low-fructose diet. Interestingly, because the present series also shows that low-fructose diet resulted in a marked decrease of gastrointestinal

  1. NFKB activity decreased in BALB/c mice with high fat diet and fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur'aini, Farida Dewi; Rahayu, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose leads to obesity due to lipid accumulation. The excessive lipid causes hypertrophy in the adipocytes which lead to cell death. Consequently, dead adipocytes will produce adipokines, which cause macrophages and lymphocytes to infiltrate into the adipose tissue, elevating pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through NFκB activity. Elicited soybeans extract (ESE) with bacteria and light contain Glyceollin and Isoflavones, which inhibit the activation of NFKB and reduce plasma cholesterol levels by upregulating cholesterol metabolism. This study aimed to analyze the effect of ESE against the relative number of CD4+ NFκB+ cells in BALB/c mice spleen after administrated by high-fat diet food and fructose (HFD) for 20 weeks. Mice were given orally with ESE after administrated by HFD at dose 78 mg/kgBW (D1), 104 mg/kgBW (D2), and 130 mg/kgBW (D3) for 4 weeks. This study also used positive control (HFD mice model without ESE treatment) and normal mice. Identification of NFKB activation was conducted using Flowcytometry analytical methods. Our result indicated that ESE could decrease significantly activation of NFκB in CD4 cell compare than positive control. The optimum dose that can decrease the relative number of CD4+ NFκB+ cells is dose 3.

  2. Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii (Stapf) Diels leaves halt high-fructose induced metabolic syndrome: Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Aliyu, H; Tanimu, M A; Muhammad, R M; Ibitoye, O B

    2016-11-04

    Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii is widely used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Seventy male rats were randomized into seven groups. All rats were fed with high-fructose diet for 9 weeks except groups A and C rats, which received control diet. In addition to the diet treatment, groups A and B rats received distilled water for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week of the experimental period. Rats in groups C-F orally received 400, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii respectively, while group G received 300mg/kg bodyweight of metformin for 3 weeks starting from the seventh week. There was significant (phigh-fructose diet-mediated increase in body weight, body mass index, abdominal circumference, blood glucose, insulin, leptin and insulin resistance by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, high-fructose diet-mediated decrease in adiponectin was reversed by the extract. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiac index and coronary artery index were significantly lowered by the extract, while high-fructose diet mediated decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by the extract. Tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels increased significantly in high-fructose diet-fed rats, which were significantly reversed by the extract. High-fructose mediated-decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reduced were significantly reversed by aqueous leaf extract of D. cumminsii. Conversely, elevated levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were significantly lowered by the

  3. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  4. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  5. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to high-fructose diet in the period from weaning to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glban, Alhadi M; Vasiljević, Ana; Veličković, Nataša; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Blagojević, Duško; Matić, Gordana; Nestorov, Jelena

    2015-08-30

    Increased fructose consumption correlates with rising prevalence of various metabolic disorders, some of which were linked to oxidative stress. The relationship between fructose consumption and oxidative stress is complex and effects of a fructose-rich diet on the young population have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fructose diet applied in the period from weaning to adulthood induces oxidative stress in the liver, thus contributing to induction or aggravation of metabolic disturbances in later adulthood. To that end we examined the effects of high-fructose diet on expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, markers of lipid peroxidation and protein damage in the liver as the main fructose metabolizing tissue. High-fructose diet increased only SOD2 (mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase) activity, with no effect on other antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation or accumulation of damaged proteins in the liver. The results show that fructose-induced metabolic disturbances could not be attributed to oxidative stress, at least not at young age. The absence of oxidative stress in the liver observed herein implies that young organisms are capable of maintaining redox homeostasis when challenged by fructose-derived energy overload. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructosemia; Fructose intolerance; Fructose aldolase B-deficiency; Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase deficiency ... B. This substance is needed to break down fructose. If a person without this substance eats fructose ...

  7. Carrot juice ingestion attenuates high fructose-induced circulatory pro-inflammatory mediators in weanling Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Raja Gopal Reddy, Mooli; Pappu, Pranati; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, plays a vital role not only in energy homeostasis, but also in the development and/or progression of various metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), via several factors and mechanisms, including inflammation. This study tested, whether carrot juice administration affected the adipose tissue development and its inflammatory status in a high fructose diet-induced rat model. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed either control or high fructose diet of AIN-93G composition with or without carrot juice ingestion for an 8 week period. Administration of carrot juice did not affect the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RPWAT), which was corroborated with unaltered expression of genes involved in adipogenic and lipogenic pathways. However, it significantly reduced the high fructose diet-induced elevation of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) (P ≤ 0.05), macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (P ≤ 0.01) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P ≤ 0.05) levels. Carrot juice administration attenuated the high fructose diet-induced elevation of levels of circulatory FFA and pro-inflammatory mediators; MCP1 and hsCRP without affecting the adiposity and cell size of visceral fat depot; RPWAT. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  9. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-03-17

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  10. Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

  11. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Andrie, Mohamad; Warditiani, Ni Kadek; Siswanto, Eka; Pramono, Suwidjiyo; Lukitaningsih, Endang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by high-fructose-fat diet containing 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 gb.wt. 55 days. The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day. Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre– and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. Results: The purified extract and andrographolide significantly (PAndrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. PMID:22701250

  12. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.

  13. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  14. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  15. Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John S

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (common table sugar) first introduced to the food and beverage industry in the 1970s. It is not meaningfully different in composition or metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. HFCS was widely embraced by food formulators, and its use grew between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, principally as a replacement for sucrose. This was primarily because of its sweetness comparable with that of sucrose, improved stability and functionality, and ease of use. Although HFCS use today is nearly equivalent to sucrose use in the United States, we live in a decidedly sucrose-sweetened world: >90% of the nutritive sweetener used worldwide is sucrose. Here I review the history, composition, availability, and characteristics of HFCS in a factual manner to clarify common misunderstandings that have been a source of confusion to health professionals and the general public alike. In particular, I evaluate the strength of the popular hypothesis that HFCS is uniquely responsible for obesity. Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide.

  16. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Allison M; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6) received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  17. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Meyers

    Full Text Available The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6 received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  18. High fructose consumption in pregnancy alters the perinatal environment without increasing metabolic disease in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineker, Christopher; Kerr, Paul M; Nguyen, Patricia; Bloor, Ian; Astbury, Stuart; Patel, Nikhil; Budge, Helen; Hemmings, Denise G; Plane, Frances; Symonds, Michael E; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal carbohydrate intake is one important determinant of fetal body composition, but whether increased exposure to individual sugars has long-term adverse effects on the offspring is not well established. Therefore, we examined the effect of fructose feeding on the mother, placenta, fetus and her offspring up to 6 months of life when they had been weaned onto a standard rodent diet and not exposed to additional fructose. Dams fed fructose were fatter, had raised plasma insulin and triglycerides from mid-gestation and higher glucose near term. Maternal resistance arteries showed changes in function that could negatively affect regulation of blood pressure and tissue perfusion in the mother and development of the fetus. Fructose feeding had no effect on placental weight or fetal metabolic profiles, but placental gene expression for the glucose transporter GLUT1 was reduced, whereas the abundance of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 was raised. Offspring born to fructose-fed and control dams were similar at birth and had similar post-weaning growth rates, and neither fat mass nor metabolic profiles were affected. In conclusion, raised fructose consumption during reproduction results in pronounced maternal metabolic and vascular effects, but no major detrimental metabolic effects were observed in offspring up to 6 months of age.

  19. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  20. Dietary sardine protein lowers insulin resistance, leptin and TNF-α and beneficially affects adipose tissue oxidative stress in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

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    Madani, Zohra; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Ait Yahia, Dalila

    2012-02-01

    The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective

  1. Microcirculatory effects of zinc on fructose-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, R C; Barros, C M M R; Boa, B C S; Bouskela, E

    2016-04-01

    Fructose is a major dietary component directly related to vascular dysfunction and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Zinc is considered a non-pharmacological alternative for treating diabetes due to its antioxidant and hyperglycemia-lowering effects in diabetic animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc supplementation on the microcirculatory parameters of fructose-fed hamsters. Male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution for 60 days, whereas control animals were fed drinking water alone. Their microcirculatory function was evaluated using cheek pouch preparation, as well as their blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Their microcirculatory responses to acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent vasodilator) and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent vasodilator) as well as the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by 30 min of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) were noted. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was significantly increased in control animals with high zinc supplementation compared to the groups without zinc supplementation. Zinc was able to protect against plasma leakage induced by I/R in all control and fructose-fed groups, although the microvascular permeability was higher in animals fed drinking water substituted by 10% fructose solution compared to those fed filtered drinking water alone. Our results indicate that dietary zinc supplementation can improve microvascular dysfunction by increasing endothelial-dependent dilatation and reducing the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by I/R in fructose-fed animals. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  3. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).

  4. Liver-Specific Activation of AMPK Prevents Steatosis on a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Woods

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a key role in integrating metabolic pathways in response to energy demand. We identified a mutation in the γ1 subunit (γ1D316A that leads to activation of AMPK. We generated mice with this mutation to study the effect of chronic liver-specific activation of AMPK in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from these mice have reduced gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis, but there is no effect on fatty acid oxidation compared to cells from wild-type mice. Liver-specific activation of AMPK decreases lipogenesis in vivo and completely protects against hepatic steatosis when mice are fed a high-fructose diet. Our findings demonstrate that liver-specific activation of AMPK is sufficient to protect against hepatic triglyceride accumulation, a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of activating AMPK in the liver to combat NAFLD and potentially other associated complications (e.g., cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children. © 2013 The Author. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Ram?rez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Gardu?o-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hern?ndez, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant ...

  7. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  10. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  11. α-Amyrin attenuates high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Pankaj; Reeta, K H; Maulik, Subir Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of α-amyrin (a pentacyclic triterpene) on high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into different groups. The control group was fed normal rat chow diet. The HFD group was fed HFD (60%; w/w) for 42 days. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, orally, once daily) was used as a standard drug. α-Amyrin was administered in 3 doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, orally, once daily along with HFD). Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were estimated. Changes in blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were measured. Hepatic oxidative stress as well as messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) were analyzed. A significant increase in systolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides and a significant decrease in HDL-C were observed in HFD rats as compared with control rats. Glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also significantly impaired with HFD. α-Amyrin prevented these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic oxidative stress as well as micro- and macrovesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes caused by HFD were also attenuated by α-amyrin. α-Amyrin preserved the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of PPAR-α, which was reduced in HFD group. This study thus demonstrates that α-amyrin attenuates HFD-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

  12. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  13. Partial purification and characterization of exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 for preparation of high-fructose syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Dhaliwal, Rajesh; Puri, Munish

    2007-05-01

    An extracellular exoinulinase (2,1-beta-D fructan fructanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.7), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose, was purified 23.5-fold by ethanol precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-100 gel permeation from a cell-free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. The partially purified enzyme exhibited considerable activity between pH 5 to 6, with an optimum pH of 5.5, while it remained stable (100%) for 3 h at the optimum temperature of 50 degrees C. Mn2+ and Ca2+ produced a 2.4-fold and 1.2-fold enhancement in enzyme activity, whereas Hg2+ and Ag2+ completely inhibited the inulinase. A preparation of the partially purified enzyme effectively hydrolyzed inulin, sucrose, and raffinose, yet no activity was found with starch, lactose, and maltose. The enzyme preparation was then successfully used to hydrolyze pure inulin and raw inulin from Asparagus racemosus for the preparation of a high-fructose syrup. In a batch system, the exoinulinase hydrolyzed 84.8% of the pure inulin and 86.7% of the raw Asparagus racemosus inulin, where fructose represented 43.6 mg/ml and 41.3 mg/ml, respectively.

  14. Added fructose as a principal driver of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a public health crisis

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Subramonian, Ashwin M; O’Keefe, James H

    2017-01-01

    Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty liver disease. Considering that there is no requirement for added sugars in the diet, dietary guidelines should recommend reducing the intake of adde...

  15. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is this what’s for dinner?

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    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the U.S. has largely focused on calorically-sweetened beverages, ignoring other sources. Objective To examine U.S. consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. Design We used two estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake in Individuals (1989–1991) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar, including: (a) overall trends, and (b) within certain food and beverage groups. Results Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared to total added sugar of 377 kcal/person/d, accounting for 17% of total energy intake. While food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal/person/d in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal/person/d of added sugar was consumed compared to 505 kcal/person/d of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (over 100 kcal/person/d). Conclusion While increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health affect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked. PMID:19064537

  16. Effects of ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol on high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. γ-Oryzanol (OZ), the ferulic acid (FA) ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic syndrome parameters. Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations) for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG) content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions. In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect. OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD.

  17. Effects of ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol on high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Wang

    Full Text Available The high morbidity of metabolic dysfunction diseases has heightened interest in seeking natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. γ-Oryzanol (OZ, the ferulic acid (FA ester with phytosterols, mainly present in rice bran has been shown to improve markers of metabolic syndrome. This study investigates the effects of FA and OZ on alleviating high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD-induced metabolic syndrome parameters.Male SD rats were fed with a regular rodent diet, HFFD, or HFFD supplemented with 0.05% FA or 0.16% OZ (equimolar concentrations for 13 weeks. Food intake, organ indices, serum lipid profiles, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR index and cytokine levels were analyzed. The mechanisms were further investigated in oleic acid-stimulated HepG2 cells by analyzing triglyceride (TG content and lipogenesis-related gene expressions.In the in vivo study, FA and OZ exhibited similar effects in alleviating HFFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and IR. However, only OZ treatment significantly decreased liver index and hepatic TG content, lowered serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6, and increased serum concentration of adiponectin. In the in vitro assay, only OZ administration significantly inhibited intracellular TG accumulation and down-regulated expression of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase-1, which might facilitate OZ to enhance its hepatoprotective effect.OZ is more effective than FA in inhibiting hepatic fat accumulation and inflammation. Thus, FA and OZ could be used as dietary supplements to alleviate the deleterious effects of HFFD.

  18. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  19. Soft drink consumption and obesity: it is all about fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the review is to suggest that fructose, a component of both sucrose (common sugar) and high fructose corn syrup, should be of concern to both healthcare providers and the public. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased steadily over the past century and with this increase has come more and more reports associating their use with the risk of overweight, diabetes and cardiometabolic disease. In a meta-analysis of the relationship between soft drink consumption and cardiometabolic risk, there was a 24% overall increased risk comparing the top and bottom quantiles of consumption. Several factors might account for this increased risk, including increased carbohydrate load and increased amounts of dietary fructose. Fructose acutely increases thermogenesis, triglycerides and lipogenesis as well as blood pressure, but has a smaller effect on leptin and insulin release than comparable amounts of glucose. In controlled feeding studies, changes in body weight, fat storage and triglycerides are observed as well as an increase in inflammatory markers. The present review concludes on the basis of the data assembled here that in the amounts currently consumed, fructose is hazardous to the cardiometabolic health of many children, adolescents and adults.

  20. Modulation of hepatic inflammation and energy-sensing pathways in the rat liver by high-fructose diet and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veličković, Nataša; Teofilović, Ana; Ilić, Dragana; Djordjevic, Ana; Vojnović Milutinović, Danijela; Petrović, Snježana; Preitner, Frederic; Tappy, Luc; Matić, Gordana

    2018-05-29

    High-fructose consumption and chronic stress are both associated with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Recently, disturbed activity of energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was recognized as mediator between nutrient-induced stress and inflammation. Thus, we analyzed the effects of high-fructose diet, alone or in combination with chronic stress, on glucose homeostasis, inflammation and expression of energy sensing proteins in the rat liver. In male Wistar rats exposed to 9-week 20% fructose diet and/or 4-week chronic unpredictable stress we measured plasma and hepatic corticosterone level, indicators of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, hepatic inflammation (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, Toll-like receptor 4, NLRP3, activation of NFκB, JNK and ERK pathways) and levels of energy-sensing proteins AMPK, SIRT1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α). High-fructose diet led to glucose intolerance, activation of NFκB and JNK pathways and increased intrahepatic IL-1β, TNFα and inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 on Ser 307 . It also decreased phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio and increased SIRT1 expression. Stress alone increased plasma and hepatic corticosterone but did not influence glucose tolerance, nor hepatic inflammatory or energy-sensing proteins. After the combined treatment, hepatic corticosterone was increased, glucose tolerance remained preserved, while hepatic inflammation was partially prevented despite decreased AMPK activity. High-fructose diet resulted in glucose intolerance, hepatic inflammation, decreased AMPK activity and reduced insulin sensitivity. Chronic stress alone did not exert such effects, but when applied together with high-fructose diet it could partially prevent fructose-induced inflammation, presumably due to increased hepatic glucocorticoids.

  1. Tartary buckwheat flavonoids ameliorate high fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress associated with the insulin signaling and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Hou, Zuoxu; Yi, Ruokun; Wang, Zhongming; Sun, Peng; Li, Guijie; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of a purified tartary buckwheat flavonoid fraction (TBF) on insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress in mice fed high fructose in drinking water (20%) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that continuous administration of TBF dose-dependently improved the insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in high fructose-fed mice. TBF treatment also reversed the reduced level of insulin action on the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the insulin-resistant liver. Furthermore, TBF was found to exert high antioxidant capacity as it acts as a shield against oxidative stress induced by high fructose by restoring the antioxidant status, and modulating nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation to the nucleus with subsequently up-regulated antioxidative enzyme protein expression. Histopathological examinations revealed that impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues were effectively restored in high fructose-fed mice following TBF treatment. Our results show that TBF intake is effective in preventing the conversion of high fructose-induced insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress in mice by improving the insulin signaling molecules and the Nrf2 signal pathway in the liver.

  2. Hepatic FGF21 mediates sex differences in high-fat high-fructose diet-induced fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukijrungroat, Natsasi; Khamphaya, Tanaporn; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Songserm, Thaweesak; Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon

    2017-08-01

    The role of gender in the progression of fatty liver due to chronic high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD) has not been studied. The present investigation assessed whether HFFD induced hepatic perturbations differently between the sexes and examined the potential mechanisms. Male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or HFFD for 12 wk. Indexes of liver damage and hepatic steatosis were analyzed biochemically and histologically together with monitoring changes in hepatic gene and protein expression. HFFD induced a higher degree of hepatic steatosis in females, with significant increases in proteins involved in hepatic lipogenesis, whereas HFFD significantly induced liver injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress only in males. Interestingly, a significant increase in hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) protein expression was observed in HFFD-fed males but not in HFFD-fed females. Ovarian hormone deprivation by itself led to a significant reduction in FGF21 with hepatic steatosis, and HFFD further aggravated hepatic fat accumulation in OVX rats. Importantly, estrogen replacement restored hepatic FGF21 levels and reduced hepatic steatosis in HFFD-fed OVX rats. Collectively, our results indicate that male rats are more susceptible to HFFD-induced hepatic inflammation and that the mechanism underlying this sex dimorphism is mediated through hepatic FGF21 expression. Our findings reveal sex differences in the development of HFFD-induced fatty liver and indicate the protective role of estrogen against HFFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  4. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS.

  5. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

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    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS, the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05. There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or apolipoprotein B (Apo B. We conclude that (1 when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2 There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  6. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  7. The Impact of Fructose on Renal Function and Blood Pressure

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    Marek Kretowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is a sugar present in sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, and fruits. Fructose intake has increased markedly in the last two centuries, primarily due to increased intake of added sugars. Increasing evidence suggests that the excessive intake of fructose may induce fatty liver, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and kidney disease. These studies suggest that excessive intake of fructose might have an etiologic role in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiorenal disease.

  8. Treating fructose-induced metabolic changes in mice with high-intensity interval training: insights in the liver, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Bargut, Thereza L; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the metabolism of humans. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 wk one of the following diets: control (C; 5% of total energy from fructose) or fructose (F; 55% of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional 8-wk period, the groups were divided into nontrained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT. At the end of the experiment, fructose consumption in the F-NT group led to a high systolic blood pressure, high plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance with glucose intolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity. We also observed liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and diminished gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α and fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5; irisin) in this F-NT group. These results were accompanied by decreased gene expressions of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (markers of mitochondrial biogenesis), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (markers of β-oxidation). HIIT improved all of these data in the C-HIIT and F-HIIT groups. In conclusion, in mice fed a fructose diet, HIIT improved body mass, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and plasma triglycerides. Liver, WAT, and skeletal muscle were positively modulated by HIIT, indicating HIIT as a coadjutant treatment for diseases affecting these tissues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in mice fed a fructose-rich diet and the resulting severe negative effect on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and skeletal muscle, which reduced the expression of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, irisin) and

  9. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

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    Azizollaah Zargaraan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42 (42% fructose and HFCS-55 (55% fructose and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and soft drink industries. Using a glucose isomerase, the starch in corn can be efficiently converted into glucose and then to various amounts of fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose produces a 50:50 molar mixture of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in sucrose bonded together. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharide in HFCS provides better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. The development of these inexpensive, sweet corn-based syrups made it profitable to replace sucrose (sugar and simple sugars with HFCS in our diet. In the present study, the replacement of sucrose with HFCS and its effect on the functionality and organoleptic properties of different food products were reviewed.

  10. Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Rey, María Amanda; Carasi, Paula; Serradell, María de Los Ángeles; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2017-05-17

    Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri ( L. kefiri ) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w / v ) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri . Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri , being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders.

  11. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

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    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  12. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function wh...

  13. High fructose consumption induces DNA methylation at PPARα and CPT1A promoter regions in the rat liver

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    Ohashi, Koji [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Munetsuna, Eiji [Department of Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan); Yamada, Hiroya, E-mail: hyamada@fujita-hu.ac.jp [Department of Hygiene, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan); Ando, Yoshitaka [Department of Joint Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine, Fujita Health University Hospital, Toyoake (Japan); Yamazaki, Mirai; Taromaru, Nao; Nagura, Ayuri; Ishikawa, Hiroaki [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Suzuki, Koji [Department of Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Teradaira, Ryoji [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Hashimoto, Shuji [Department of Hygiene, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    DNA methylation status is affected by environmental factors, including nutrition. Fructose consumption is considered a risk factor for the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia. However, the pathogenetic mechanism by which fructose consumption leads to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Based on observations that epigenetic modifications are closely related to induction of metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is caused by epigenetic alterations. Male SD rats were designated to receive water or 20% fructose solution for 14 weeks. mRNA levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was analyzed using Real-time PCR. Restriction digestion and real-time PCR (qAMP) was used for the analysis of DNA methylation status. Hepatic lipid accumulation was also observed by fructose intake. Fructose feeding also significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status, and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome induced by fructose relates to DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • No general consensus has been reached regarding the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of fructose-induced diseases. • Significant increase in hepatic total methylation level was observed after fructose-supplemented feeding. • Fructose feeding significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. • qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. • Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status in rat liver.

  14. High fructose consumption induces DNA methylation at PPARα and CPT1A promoter regions in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Koji; Munetsuna, Eiji; Yamada, Hiroya; Ando, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Mirai; Taromaru, Nao; Nagura, Ayuri; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Koji; Teradaira, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation status is affected by environmental factors, including nutrition. Fructose consumption is considered a risk factor for the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia. However, the pathogenetic mechanism by which fructose consumption leads to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Based on observations that epigenetic modifications are closely related to induction of metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is caused by epigenetic alterations. Male SD rats were designated to receive water or 20% fructose solution for 14 weeks. mRNA levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was analyzed using Real-time PCR. Restriction digestion and real-time PCR (qAMP) was used for the analysis of DNA methylation status. Hepatic lipid accumulation was also observed by fructose intake. Fructose feeding also significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status, and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome induced by fructose relates to DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • No general consensus has been reached regarding the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of fructose-induced diseases. • Significant increase in hepatic total methylation level was observed after fructose-supplemented feeding. • Fructose feeding significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. • qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. • Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status in rat liver.

  15. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

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    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  16. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  17. Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Lucan, Sean C

    2015-03-01

    Data from animal experiments and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of diabetes mellitus and related metabolic derangements that raise cardiovascular (CV) risk. Added fructose in particular (eg, as a constituent of added sucrose or as the main component of high-fructose sweeteners) may pose the greatest problem for incident diabetes, diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities, and CV risk. Conversely, whole foods that contain fructose (eg, fruits and vegetables) pose no problem for health and are likely protective against diabetes and adverse CV outcomes. Several dietary guidelines appropriately recommend consuming whole foods over foods with added sugars, but some (eg, recommendations from the American Diabetes Association) do not recommend restricting fructose-containing added sugars to any specific level. Other guidelines (such as from the Institute of Medicine) allow up to 25% of calories as fructose-containing added sugars. Intake of added fructose at such high levels would undoubtedly worsen rates of diabetes and its complications. There is no need for added fructose or any added sugars in the diet; reducing intake to 5% of total calories (the level now suggested by the World Health Organization) has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in humans and decrease the prevalence of diabetes and the metabolic derangements that often precede and accompany it. Reducing the intake of added sugars could translate to reduced diabetes-related morbidity and premature mortality for populations. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced glycation endproducts form during ovalbumin digestion in the presence of fructose: Inhibition by chlorogenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Caccavello, Russell

    2017-07-01

    One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effects is through intestinal formation and absorption of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation endproducts via the Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin (OVA) to test the hypothesis that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of a ubiquitous food protein under model physiological conditions. OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370nm, Emission: λ 440nm. AGE adducts formed between fructose and OVA, evidenced by the peptide fractions (fructose-AGE formation on a ubiquitous dietary protein under model physiological conditions. Our study also suggests ways to decrease the damage: enteral fructose-AGE formation may be partially inhibited by co-intake of beverages, fruits and vegetables with concentrations of phenolics high enough to serve as anti-glycation agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

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    Adam Jurgoński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex. The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  20. Fructose: it's "alcohol without the buzz".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Robert H

    2013-03-01

    What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet. Fructose is found in fruit, does not generate an insulin response, and is very sweet. Fructose consumption has increased worldwide, paralleling the obesity and chronic metabolic disease pandemic. Sugar (i.e., fructose-containing mixtures) has been vilified by nutritionists for ages as a source of "empty calories," no different from any other empty calorie. However, fructose is unlike glucose. In the hypercaloric glycogen-replete state, intermediary metabolites from fructose metabolism overwhelm hepatic mitochondrial capacity, which promotes de novo lipogenesis and leads to hepatic insulin resistance, which drives chronic metabolic disease. Fructose also promotes reactive oxygen species formation, which leads to cellular dysfunction and aging, and promotes changes in the brain's reward system, which drives excessive consumption. Thus, fructose can exert detrimental health effects beyond its calories and in ways that mimic those of ethanol, its metabolic cousin. Indeed, the only distinction is that because fructose is not metabolized in the central nervous system, it does not exert the acute neuronal depression experienced by those imbibing ethanol. These metabolic and hedonic analogies argue that fructose should be thought of as "alcohol without the buzz."

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianning He

    Full Text Available The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1 SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12 were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD, high animal fat diet (HAFD, and high fructose diet (HFruD. MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9.4 T scanner after 8 weeks on the diet. 1H spectra were acquired using point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from two 1 mm3 boxes on each side of inguinal mammary gland with no cancers, lymph nodes, or lymph ducts. High spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS images were also acquired from nine 1-mm slices. A combination of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions was used to fit the spectra. The percentages of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, and saturated fatty acids (SFA were calculated from each fitted spectrum. Water and fat peak height images (maps were generated from HiSS data. The results showed that HAFD mice had significantly lower PUFA than both LFD (p < 0.001 and HFruD (p < 0.01 mice. The mammary lipid quantity calculated from 1H spectra was much larger in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.03 but similar to HFruD mice (p = 0.10. The average fat signal intensity over the mammary glands calculated from HiSS fat maps was ~60% higher in HAFD mice than in LFD (p = 0.04 mice. The mean or median of calculated parameters for the HFruD mice were between those for LFD and HAFD mice. Therefore, PRESS spectroscopy and HiSS MRI demonstrated water and fat composition changes in mammary glands due to a Western diet, which was low in potassium, high in sodium, animal fat, and simple carbohydrates. Measurements of PUFA with MRI could be used to evaluate cancer risk, improve cancer detection and diagnosis, and guide preventative

  2. Goat Milk Kefir Supplemented with Porang Glucomannan Improves Lipid Profile and Haematological Parameter in Rat Fed High Fat and High Fructose Diet

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    Nurliyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diet with a high fat and high sugar is associated with an increased incindence of the metabolic syndrome. Kefir has been known as a natural probiotic, while glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus tuber was demonstrated as prebiotic in vivo. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used adjuvant nutritional therapy for metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with porang glucomannan on the lipid profile and haematological parameters in rats fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF diet.

  3. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trigonella foenum-graecum water extract improves insulin sensitivity and stimulates PPAR and γ gene expression in high fructose-fed insulin-resistant rats

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    Abbas Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of trigonella foenum-graecum extract on insulin resistance in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. At least three mechanisms are involved, including direct insulin-like effect, increase in adiponectin levels, and PPARγ protein expression.

  5. Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease.

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    Basaranoglu, Metin; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Sentürk, Hakan

    2013-02-28

    We aimed to investigate whether increased consumption of fructose is linked to the increased prevalence of fatty liver. The prevalence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is 3% and 20% in nonobese and obese subjects, respectively. Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory condition and obesity-related cytokines such as interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α may play important roles in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Additionally, the prevalence of NASH associated with both cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was reported to be high among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without obesity. Our research group previously showed that consumption of fructose is associated with adverse alterations of plasma lipid profiles and metabolic changes in mice, the American Lifestyle-Induced Obesity Syndrome model, which included consumption of a high-fructose corn syrup in amounts relevant to that consumed by some Americans. The observation reinforces the concerns about the role of fructose in the obesity epidemic. Increased availability of fructose (e.g., high-fructose corn syrup) increases not only abnormal glucose flux but also fructose metabolism in the hepatocyte. Thus, the anatomic position of the liver places it in a strategic buffering position for absorbed carbohydrates and amino acids. Fructose was previously accepted as a beneficial dietary component because it does not stimulate insulin secretion. However, since insulin signaling plays an important role in central mechanisms of NAFLD, this property of fructose may be undesirable. Fructose has a selective hepatic metabolism, and provokes a hepatic stress response involving activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and subsequent reduced hepatic insulin signaling. As high fat diet alone produces obesity, insulin resistance, and some degree of fatty liver with minimal inflammation and no fibrosis, the fast food diet which includes fructose and fats produces

  6. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hereditaire fructose-intolerantie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumping, Lynne; Waterham, Hans R.; Kok, Irene; van Hasselt, Peter M.; Visser, Gepke

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a rare metabolic disease affecting fructose metabolism. After ingestion of fructose, patients may present with clinical symptoms varying from indefinite gastrointestinal symptoms to life-threatening hypoglycaemia and hepatic failure. A 13-year-old boy was

  9. Beneficiary effect of Commiphora mukul ethanolic extract against high fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Bellamkonda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was proposed to elucidate the effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin elthanolic extract treatment on alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in rats fed with high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: two of these groups (group C and C+CM were fed with standard pellet diet and the other two groups (group F and F+CM were fed with high fructose (66 % diet. C. mukul suspension in 5% Tween-80 in distilled water (200 mg/kg body weight/day was administered orally to group C+CM and group F+CM. At the end of 60-day experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were assayed. C. mukul treatment completely prevented the fructose-induced increased body weight, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance observed in group F decreased significantly with C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. The alterations observed in the activities of enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms and contents of hepatic tissue lipids in group F rats were significantly restored to near normal values by C. mukul treatment in group F+CM. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that C. mukul treatment is effective in preventing fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia while attenuating the fructose induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms by the extract which was further supported by histopathological results from liver samples which showed regeneration of the hepatocytes. This study suggests that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  10. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  11. Antiobesity and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Ibervillea sonorae in mice fed a high-fat diet with fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  12. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  13. Fructose malabsorption and intolerance: effects of fructose with and without simultaneous glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Marie E; Skoog, Suzanne M

    2011-08-01

    Concern exists that increasing fructose consumption, particularly in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, is resulting in increasing rates of fructose intolerance and aggravation of clinical symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Most clinical trials designed to test this hypothesis have used pure fructose, a form not commonly found in the food supply, often in quantities and concentrations that exceed typical fructose intake levels. In addition, the amount of fructose provided in tests for malabsorption, which is thought to be a key cause of intolerance, often exceeds the normal physiological absorption capacity for this sugar. To help health professionals accurately identify and treat this condition, this article reviews clinical data related to understanding fructose malabsorption and intolerance (i.e., malabsorption that manifests with symptoms) relative to usual fructose and other carbohydrate intake. Because simultaneous consumption of glucose attenuates fructose malabsorption, information on the fructose and glucose content of foods, beverages, and ingredients representing a variety of food categories is provided.

  14. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Nguyen, Von; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M

    2007-02-01

    Fructose has been implicated in obesity, partly due to lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. Most work has examined effects of pure fructose, rather than high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the most commonly consumed form of fructose. This study examined effects of beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose (Suc), when consumed with mixed meals, on blood glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and appetite. Thirty lean women were studied on two randomized 2-d visits during which HFCS- and Suc-sweetened beverages were consumed as 30% of energy on isocaloric diets during day 1 while blood was sampled. On day 2, food was eaten ad libitum. Subjects rated appetite at designated times throughout visits. No significant differences between the two sweeteners were seen in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin (P > 0.05). The within-day variation in all four items was not different between the two visits (P > 0.05). Net areas under the curve were similar for glucose, insulin, and leptin (P > 0.05). There were no differences in energy or macronutrient intake on day 2. The only appetite variable that differed between sweeteners was desire to eat, which had a higher area under the curve the day after Suc compared with HFCS. These short-term results suggest that, when fructose is consumed in the form of HFCS, the measured metabolic responses do not differ from Suc in lean women. Further research is required to examine appetite responses and to determine if these findings hold true for obese individuals, males, or longer periods.

  15. Prenatal Metformin Therapy Attenuates Hypertension of Developmental Origin in Male Adult Offspring Exposed to Maternal High-Fructose and Post-Weaning High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Widespread consumption of a Western diet, comprised of highly refined carbohydrates and fat, may play a role in the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can take origin from early life. Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes. We examined whether prenatal metformin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose plus post-weaning high-fat diets-induced hypertension of developmental origins via regulation of nutrient sensing signals, uric acid, oxidative stress, and the nitric oxide (NO pathway. Gestating Sprague–Dawley rats received regular chow (ND or chow supplemented with 60% fructose diet (HFR throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were onto either the ND or high-fat diet (HFA from weaning to 12 weeks of age. A total of 40 male offspring were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HFR/ND, ND/HFA, HFR/HFA, and HFR/HFA+metformin. Metformin (500 mg/kg/day was administered via gastric gavage for three weeks during the pregnancy period. Combined maternal HFR plus post-weaning HFA induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which prenatal metformin therapy prevented. The protective effects of prenatal metformin therapy on HFR/HFA-induced hypertension, including downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system, decrease in uric acid level, and reduction of oxidative stress. Our results highlighted that the programming effects of metformin administered prenatally might be different from those reported in adults, and that deserves further elucidation.

  16. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  17. Effect of the fructose and glucose concentration on the rheological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of fructose and glucose content on the rheological behavior of syrups. Initially, high fructose syrup from the fructans present in leaves, bases and head of Agave tequilana Weber blue was obtained. Then, its contents of moisture, ash, fructose, glucose and direct and total ...

  18. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  19. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  20. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  1. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  2. Oxidative Inactivation of Liver Mitochondria in High Fructose Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats: Effect of Glycyrrhizin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Rajarshi; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in the present world. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid saponin of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate the primary complications and hepatocellular damage in rats with the syndrome. In this study, we have explored metabolic syndrome-induced changes in liver mitochondrial function and effect of glycyrrhizin against the changes. Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks. The rats were then treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight) by single intra-peritoneal injection. After 2 weeks of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed to collect liver tissue. Elevated mitochondrial ROS, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl, and decreased reduced glutathione content indicated oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. Loss of mitochondrial inner membrane cardiolipin was observed. Mitochondrial complex I activity did not change but complex IV activity decreased significantly. Mitochondrial MTT reduction ability, membrane potential, phosphate utilisation and oxygen consumption decreased in metabolic syndrome. Reduced mitochondrial aconitase activity and increased aconitase carbonyl content suggested oxidative damage of the enzyme. Elevated Fe(2+) ion level in mitochondria might be associated with increased ROS generation in metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizin effectively attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress and aconitase degradation, and improved electron transport chain activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impact of Fish Oil Supplementation and Interruption of Fructose Ingestion on Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis of Rats Drinking Different Concentrations of Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Paola M.; Motta, Katia; Barbosa, Amanda M.; Besen, Matheus H.; da Silva, Julia S.; Nunes, Everson A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Continuous fructose consumption may cause elevation of circulating triacylglycerol. However, how much of this alteration is reverted after the removal of fructose intake is not known. We explored this question and compared the efficacy of this approach with fish oil supplementation. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), fructose (F) (water intake with 10% or 30% fructose for 9 weeks), fish oil (FO), and fructose/fish oil (FFO). Fish oil was supplemented only for the last 33 days of fructose ingestion. Half of the F group remained for additional 8 weeks without fructose ingestion (FR). Results. Fructose ingestion reduced food intake to compensate for the increased energy obtained through water ingestion, independent of fructose concentration. Fish oil supplementation exerted no impact on these parameters, but the removal of fructose from water recovered both ingestion behaviors. Plasma triacylglycerol augmented significantly during the second and third weeks (both fructose groups). Fish oil supplementation did not attenuate the elevation in triacylglycerol caused by fructose intake, but the interruption of sugar consumption normalized this parameter. Conclusion. Elevation in triacylglyceridemia may be recovered by removing fructose from diet, suggesting that it is never too late to repair improper dietary habits. PMID:28929113

  4. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after ...

  5. Genetic disorder in carbohydrates metabolism: hereditary fructose intolerance associated with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păcurar, Daniela; Leşanu, Gabriela; Dijmărescu, Irina; Ţincu, Iulia Florentina; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Orăşeanu, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) has been associated with several genetic and immune disorders, but association between CD and hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is extremely rare. HFI is an autosomal recessive disease caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase). We report the case of a 5-year-old boy suffering from CD, admitted with an initial diagnosis of Reye's-like syndrome. He presented with episodic unconsciousness, seizures, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function. The patient has been on an exclusion diet for three years, but he still had symptoms: stunting, hepatomegaly, high transaminases, but tissue transglutaminase antibodies were negative. Liver biopsy showed hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial damage. The dietary history showed an aversion to fruits, vegetables and sweet-tasting foods. The fructose tolerance test was positive, revealing the diagnostic of hereditary fructose intolerance. Appropriate dietary management and precautions were recommended. The patient has been symptom-free and exhibited normal growth and development until 10 years of age.

  6. The role of fructose transporters in diseases linked to excessive fructose intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2013-01-01

    Fructose intake has increased dramatically since humans were hunter-gatherers, probably outpacing the capacity of human evolution to make physiologically healthy adaptations. Epidemiological data indicate that this increasing trend continued until recently. Excessive intakes that chronically increase portal and peripheral blood fructose concentrations to >1 and 0.1 mm, respectively, are now associated with numerous diseases and syndromes. The role of the fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 in causing, contributing to or exacerbating these diseases is not well known. GLUT5 expression seems extremely low in neonatal intestines, and limited absorptive capacities for fructose may explain the high incidence of malabsorption in infants and cause problems in adults unable to upregulate GLUT5 levels to match fructose concentrations in the diet. GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose effects on intestinal electrolyte transporters, hepatic uric acid metabolism, as well as renal and cardiomyocyte function, may play a role in fructose-induced hypertension. Likewise, GLUT2 may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by facilitating the uptake of fructose. Finally, GLUT5 may play a role in the atypical growth of certain cancers and fat tissues. We also highlight research areas that should yield information needed to better understand the role of these GLUTs in fructose-induced diseases. PMID:23129794

  7. Properties of a novel thermostable glucose isomerase mined from Thermus oshimai and its application to preparation of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) is used in vitro to convert d-glucose to d-fructose, which is capable of commercial producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To manufacture HFCS at elevated temperature and reduce the cost of enriching syrups, novel refractory GIs from Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum (TxGI), Thermus oshimai (ToGI), Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (GtGI) and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (TsGI) were screened via genome mining approach. The enzymatic characteristics research showed that ToGI had higher catalytic efficiency and superior thermostability toward d-glucose among the screened GIs. Its optimum temperature reached 95°C and could retain more than 80% of initial activity in the presence of 20mM Mn 2+ at 85°C for 48h. The K m and k cat /K m values for ToGI were 81.46mM and 21.77min -1 mM -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the maximum conversion yield of 400g/L d-glucose to d-fructose at 85°C was 52.16%. Considering its excellent high thermostability and ameliorable application performance, ToGI might be promising for realization of future industrial production of HFCS at elevated temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  9. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day -1 ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Whole cell immobilization of refractory glucose isomerase using tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as crosslinker for preparation of high fructose corn syrup at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Wang, Teng; Liu, Zi-Jian; Jin, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Jia; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2018-04-04

    Glucose isomerase (GI) responsible for catalyzing the isomerization from d-glucose to d-fructose, was an important enzyme for producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). In a quest to prepare HFCS at elevated temperature and facilitate enzymatic recovery, an effective procedure for whole cell immobilization of refractory Thermus oshimai glucose isomerase (ToGI) onto Celite 545 using tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP) as crosslinker was established. The immobilized biocatalyst showed an activity of approximate 127.3 U/(g·immobilized product) via optimization in terms of cells loading, crosslinker concentration and crosslinking time. The pH optimum of the immobilized biocatalyst was displaced from pH 8.0 of native enzyme to neutral pH 7.0. Compared with conventional glutaraldehyde (GLU)-immobilized cells, it possessed the enhanced thermostability with 70.1% residual activity retaining after incubation at 90°C for 72 h. Moreover, the THP-immobilized biocatalyst exhibited superior operational stability, in which it retained 85.8% of initial activity after 15 batches of bioconversion at 85°C. This study paved a way for reducing catalysis cost for upscale preparation of HFCS with higher d-fructose concentration. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement and characterization of a hyperthermophilic glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and its application in production of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Jian-Feng; Jin, Li-Qun; Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Xu, Jian-Miao; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Cheng, Xin-Ping; Mao, Bao-Xing; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-08-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an alternative of liquid sweetener to sucrose that is isomerized by commercial glucose isomerase (GI). One-step production of 55 % HFCS by thermostable GI has been drawn more and more attentions. In this study, a new hyperthermophilic GI from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus CCSD1 (TEGI) was identified by genome mining, and then a 1317 bp fragment encoding the TEGI was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). To improve the activity of TEGI, two amino acid residues, Trp139 and Val186, around the active site and substrate-binding pocket based on the structural analysis and molecular docking were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. The specific activity of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was 2.3-fold and the value of k cat/K m was 1.86-fold as compared to the wild type TEGI, respectively. Thermostability of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T at 90 °C for 24 h showed 1.21-fold extension than that of wild type TEGI. During the isomerization of glucose to fructose, the yield of fructose could maintain above 55.4 % by mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T as compared to 53.8 % by wild type TEGI at 90 °C. This study paved foundation for the production of 55 % HFCS using the thermostable TEGI.

  12. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. Results: An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H2O drinking water; (2) mock: H2O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Conclusion: Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake

  13. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H 2 O drinking water; (2) mock: H 2 O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake, inflammatory reaction and the

  14. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, Carla R; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; O'Dea, Kerin; Gentili, Sheridan

    2017-07-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning. Plasma levels of free fatty acids remained elevated in young adulthood, but consumption of a control diet following weaning appeared to ameliorate most other effects of perinatal exposure to a maternal high-sugar diet. Guidelines for maternal nutrition should advise limiting consumption of fructose-containing sugars, and it is particularly important that these recommendations include maternal nutrition during lactation. Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% (w/v) beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9) fatty acid content was elevated at weaning, and was most pronounced in sucrose offspring exposed during both the prenatal and

  15. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholestrol, and apolipoprotein-b in young men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee has recommended that added sugar consumption be limited to 100-150 kcal/d, it has been reported that long-term sugar intakes as high as 25-50% of energy do not have adverse effects on metabolic syndrome components in human subjects. The object...

  17. Effect of homeopathic preparations of Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica on gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and high fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinta, Raveendar; Nair, K R Janardanan; Khurana, Anil; Nayak, Debadatta; Kumar, Alok; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy is a holistic method of treatment that uses microdoses of natural substances originating from plants, minerals, or animal parts. Syzygium jambolanum and Cephalandra indica are used in homeopathy for treatment of type-2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for such effects are not known. Homeopathic preparations of S. jambolanum and C. indica in mother tincture, 6c and 30c were used to examine the molecular mechanism of antidiabetic effects in the skeletal muscle of rats with high fat and fructose-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus. After 30 days treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and insulin signaling molecules in the skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) were measured. Diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in serum insulin and lipid profile as well as low levels of insulin receptor (IR), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), p-Akt(ser473) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) protein expression (p Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Timothy R H; Gentili, Sheridan; Sarr, Ousseynou; Toop, Carla R; Sloboda, Deborah M

    2013-11-01

    Fructose is an increasingly common constituent of the Westernized diet due to cost and production efficiencies. Although an integral component of our pre-industrial revolution diet, over the past two decades human and animal studies have highlighted that excessive fructose intake appears to be associated with adverse metabolic effects. Excessive intake of fructose is the combined result of increased total energy consumption and increased portion sizes of foods, which often incorporate the fructose-containing sugars sucrose and high-fructose corn-syrup (HFCS). The adverse metabolic effects following excessive fructose consumption have become a hot topic in mainstream media and there is now rigorous scientific debate regarding periods of exposure, dosage levels, interactive effects with other sugars and fats and mechanisms underlying the actions of fructose. There is still a degree of controversy regarding the extent to which sugars such as sucrose and HFCS have contributed to the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, an increasing number of infants are being exposed to sugar-sweetened food and beverages before birth and during early postnatal life, highlighting the importance of determining the long-term effects of this perinatal exposure on the developing offspring. There are limited human observational and controlled studies identifying associations of excessive sweetened food and beverage consumption with poor pregnancy outcomes. Animal research has demonstrated an increased incidence of gestational diabetes as well as altered maternal, fetal and offspring metabolic function, although the long-term effects and the mechanism underlying these perturbations are ill defined. This review aims to understand the role of early life fructose exposure in modifying postnatal risk of disease in the offspring, focusing on fructose intake during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  20. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.; Lin, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca2+ transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca2+ absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca2+ transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca2+ transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca2+ and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:23571713

  1. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  2. Polyphenolic compounds of red wine: relationship with the antioxidant properties and effects on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Majo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists have observed that a diet rich in polyphenolic compounds may provide a positive effects due to their antioxidant properties. Red wine is an excellent source of polyphenolic compounds. Objective of this work is a review of the polyphenolic compounds of red wine. The first study evaluates the antioxidant properties of Sicilian red wines in relationship with their polyphenolic composition; the second investigates the corrective offects of some phenolic molecules on the metabolic syndrome induced in high-fructose fed rats.

  3. Production of fructose-containing syrup with enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwiig-Nielsen, B

    1981-01-01

    A review on enzymic processes used for production of fructose- high syrup from starch including liquefaction by alpha-amylase, saccharification by amyloglucosidase, and isomerization with glucose isomerase.

  4. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Glucose or -Fructose Diet Cause Changes of the Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders in Mice without Body Weight Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Ho Do

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available High fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota have been linked to intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia, which is related to metabolic disorders. However, the influence of a high-glucose (HGD or high-fructose (HFrD diet on gut microbiota is largely unknown. We performed changes of gut microbiota in HGD- or HFrD-fed C57BL/6J mice by 16S rRNA analysis. Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin-induced metabolic disorders were evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance test, gut permeability, Western blot and histological analysis. We found that the HGD and HFrD groups had comparatively higher blood glucose and endotoxin levels, fat mass, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance without changes in bodyweight. The HGD- and HFrD-fed mice lost gut microbial diversity, characterized by a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and a markedly increased proportion of Proteobacteria. Moreover, the HGD and HFrD groups had increased gut permeability due to alterations to the tight junction proteins caused by gut inflammation. Hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation were also markedly increased in the HGD and HFrD groups. High levels of glucose or fructose in the diet regulate the gut microbiota and increase intestinal permeability, which precedes the development of metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation, and lipid accumulation, ultimately leading to hepatic steatosis and normal-weight obesity.

  6. Clinical Research Strategies for Fructose Metabolism12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Maren R.; Bantle, John P.; Havel, Peter J.; Parks, Elizabeth; Klurfeld, David M.; Teff, Karen; Maruvada, Padma

    2014-01-01

    Fructose and simple sugars are a substantial part of the western diet, and their influence on human health remains controversial. Clinical studies in fructose nutrition have proven very difficult to conduct and interpret. NIH and USDA sponsored a workshop on 13–14 November 2012, “Research Strategies for Fructose Metabolism,” to identify important scientific questions and parameters to be considered while designing clinical studies. Research is needed to ascertain whether there is an obesogenic role for fructose-containing sugars via effects on eating behavior and energy balance and whether there is a dose threshold beyond which these sugars promote progression toward diabetes and liver and cardiovascular disease, especially in susceptible populations. Studies tend to fall into 2 categories, and design criteria for each are described. Mechanistic studies are meant to validate observations made in animals or to elucidate the pathways of fructose metabolism in humans. These highly controlled studies often compare the pure monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Other studies are focused on clinically significant disease outcomes or health behaviors attributable to amounts of fructose-containing sugars typically found in the American diet. These are designed to test hypotheses generated from short-term mechanistic or epidemiologic studies and provide data for health policy. Discussion brought out the opinion that, although many mechanistic questions concerning the metabolism of monosaccharide sugars in humans remain to be addressed experimentally in small highly controlled studies, health outcomes research meant to inform health policy should use large, long-term studies using combinations of sugars found in the typical American diet rather than pure fructose or glucose. PMID:24829471

  7. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals....

  8. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  9. Lower Doses of Fructose Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Gao, Chenfei; Wang, Mingming; Tran, Phuongmai; Mai, Nancy; Finley, John W; Heymsfield, Steven B; Greenway, Frank L; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David; Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, William D; Laine, Roger A

    2017-05-04

    Epidemiological studies indicate that the increased consumption of sugars including sucrose and fructose in beverages correlate with the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in humans. A few reports suggest that fructose extends lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Anopheles gambiae, fructose, glucose, or glucose plus fructose also extended lifespan. New results presented here suggest that fructose extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) wild type (N2). C. elegans were fed standard laboratory food source (E. coli OP50), maintained in liquid culture. Experimental groups received additional glucose (111 mM), fructose (55 mM, 111 mM, or 555 mM), sucrose (55 mM, 111 mM, or 555 mM), glucose (167 mM) plus fructose (167 mM) (G&F), or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, 333 mM). In four replicate experiments, fructose dose-dependently increased mean lifespan at 55 mM or 111 m Min N2, but decreased lifespan at 555 mM (P Glucose reduced lifespan (P fructose (555 mM), glucose (111 mM), and sucrose (55 mM, 111 mM, and 555 mM). Here we report a biphasic effect of fructose increasing lifespan at lower doses and shortening lifespan at higher doses with an inverse effect on IFD. In view of reports that fructose increases lifespan in yeast, mosquitoes and now nematodes, while decreasing fat deposition (in nematodes) at lower concentrations, further research into the relationship of fructose to lifespan and fat accumulation in vertebrates and mammals is indicated.

  10. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States. PMID:22866961

  11. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  12. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-08-06

    The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  13. A Novel Production Method for High-Fructose Glucose Syrup from Sucrose-Containing Biomass by a Newly Isolated Strain of Osmotolerant Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2016-04-28

    One osmotolerant strain from among 44 yeast isolates was selected based on its growth abilities in media containing high concentrations of sucrose. This selected strain, named SKENNY, was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions and partial D1/D2 large-subunit domains of the 26S ribosomal RNA. SK-ENNY was utilized to produce high-fructose glucose syrup (HFGS) from sucrose-containing biomass. Conversion rates to HFGS from 310-610 g/l of pure sucrose and from 75-310 g/l of sugar beet molasses were 73.5-94.1% and 76.2-91.1%, respectively. In the syrups produced, fructose yields were 89.4-100% and 96.5-100% and glucose yields were 57.6-82.5% and 55.3-79.5% of the theoretical values for pure sucrose and molasses sugars, respectively. This is the first report of employing M. guilliermondii for production of HFGS from sucrose-containing biomass.

  14. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  16. Ameliorating effects of goby fish protein hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet-induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and deterioration of kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Rim; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jemil, Ines; Daoued, Ines; Hamden, Khaled; Kallel, Choumous; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem; Boualga, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef; Karra-Châabouni, Maha

    2015-12-05

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of undigested goby fish (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) muscle proteins (UGP) and their hydrolysates on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed rats. HFFD induced hyperglycemia, manifested by a significant increase in the levels of glucose and glycogen as well as α-amylase activity when compared to normal rats. The administration of GPHs to HFFD-fed rats significantly decreased α-amylase activity and the contents of blood glucose and hepatic glycogen. By contrast, the UGP increased the glucose metabolic disorders in HFFD-fed rats. Furthermore, HFFD-fed rats showed oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione (GSH) levels and increased concentration of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the daily gavage of UGP and GPHs improved the redox status in liver and kidney of HFFD-rats by ameliorating or reversing the above-mentioned changes. Moreover, GPHs exhibited a renal protective role by reversing the HFFD-induced decease of uric acid and increase of creatinine levels in serum and preventing some HFFD-induced changes in kidney architecture. The results demonstrate that GPHs contain bioactive peptides that possess significant hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties, and ameliorate renal damage in rats fed hypercaloric diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. (Apocynaceae) palliates hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Hussaini, A A; Nafiu, B Y; Ibitoye, O B

    2017-02-23

    Hunteria umbellata is used in the management and treatment of diabetes and obesity in Nigeria. This study evaluates the effect of aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata on insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomized into seven groups (A-G). Control (group A) and group C rats received control diet for nine weeks while rats in groups B, D - G were placed on high-fructose diet for 9 weeks. In addition to the diets, groups C - F rats orally received 400, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata for 3 weeks starting from 6th - 9th week. High-fructose diet (when compared to control rats) mediated a significant (phigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased significantly. Levels of proinflammatory factor, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and 8 were also increased by the high fructose diet. Moreover, it mediated decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and level of glutathione reduced. Conversely, levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl and fragmented DNA were elevated. Aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata significantly ameliorated the high fructose diet-mediated alterations. From this study, it is concluded that aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidants abilities as evident from its capability to extenuate insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Papaya Seed Extract (Carica papaya Linn. on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT 4 Expression of Skeletal Muscle Tissue in Diabetic Mice Induced by High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyani Diah Wulansari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany surveys show that papaya seeds are widely used as herbs for the management of some diseases such as abdominal discomfort, pain, malaria, diabetes, obesity, and infection. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of papaya seed extract on GLUT4 expression on skeletal muscle tissue of DM type II model induced by high fructose diet. This study used 24 animals, divided into 4 groups of negative control group, treated with papaya seed extract 100 mg / kgBB, 200 mg / kgBW and 300 mg / kgBW, was adapted for 14 days then induced by fructose solution 20% Orally with a dose of 1.86 grams / kgBB for 56 days. The treatment group was given papaya seed extract in accordance with the dose of each group for 14 days. GDP levels was measured using a spectrophotometer. Skeletal muscle tissue is used on the gastrocnemius part. GLUT4 expression was measured through a Immunoreactive Score (IRS method with immunohistochemical staining using GLUT4 polyclonal antibodies. Comparative test results showed that there were significant differences between groups (p <0.05 in final GDP variables and GLUT4 expression. Pearson correlation test results show that the value p = 0.001, meaning there is a significant relationship between GLUT4 expression with final GDP levels. The result of simple linear regression analysis showed that p = 0,000 (<0,05, meaning that dose of papaya seed extract had a significant influence on GLUT4 expression.

  19. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of stevia on synaptic plasticity and NADPH oxidase level of CNS in conditions of metabolic disorders caused by fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavushyan, V A; Simonyan, K V; Simonyan, R M; Isoyan, A S; Simonyan, G M; Babakhanyan, M A; Hovhannisyian, L E; Nahapetyan, Kh H; Avetisyan, L G; Simonyan, M A

    2017-12-19

    Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system. We suggest a novel concept of efficiency of Stevia leaves for treatment of central diabetic neuropathy. By in vivo extracellular studies induced spike activity of hippocampal neurons during high frequency stimulation of entorhinal cortex, as well as neurons of basolateral amygdala to high-frequency stimulation of the hippocampus effects of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant evaluated in synaptic activity in the brain of fructose-enriched diet rats. In the conditions of metabolic disorders caused by fructose, antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana was assessed by measuring the NOX activity of the hippocampus, amygdala and spinal cord. In this study, the characteristic features of the metabolic effects of dietary fructose on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and basolateral amygdala and the state of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) oxidative system of these brain formations are revealed, as well as the prospects for development of multitarget and polyfunctional phytopreparations (with adaptogenic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, nootropic activity) from native raw material of Stevia rebaudiana. Stevia modulates degree of expressiveness of potentiation/depression (approaches but fails to achieve the norm) by shifting the percentage balance in favor of depressor type of responses during high-frequency stimulation, indicating its adaptogenic role in plasticity of neural networks. Under the action of fructose an increase (3-5 times) in specific quantity of total fraction of NOX

  1. An investigation into the fructose block associated with the brewing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of fructose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2036 is via a biphasic transport system, in which the first component is a high affinity, low capacity, dry weight, proton symport which does not transport glucose and is independant of the maltose proton symport. The presence of glucose has no effect on the uptake of fructose via the symport. The stoichiometry of uptake is one proton per molecule of fructose. Maltose and ethanol non-competitively inhibit fructose uptake via the proton symport. The second component is a lower affinity, higher capacity facilitated diffusion system which transports both glucose and fructose. Glucose uptake is monophasic and has the highest affinity, Km = 1.3 mM, of all sugars for this transport system. In the fermentations containing glucose and fructose together, glucose competitively inhibits fructose uptake causing preferential utilization of glucose over fructose. The methods of experimentation then include the use of tritium-labelled glucose and 14 C-labelled fructose. Ethanol non-competitively inhibits glucose uptake of the facilitated diffusion system. A consequence of slower fructose utilization results in residual fructose concentrations remaining at the end of fermentation when sucrose adjuncts are used, hence causing the 'fructose block'. Amelioration of the 'fructose block' is multifaceted. The residual fructose concentrations in wort for the last three days of fermentation are inversely proportional to the pitching rate

  2. Fructose malabsorption in people with and without gout: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Caitlin; Fanning, Niamh; Drake, Jill; Frampton, Christopher; Gearry, Richard B; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    Higher fructose intake has been associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Some individuals malabsorb fructose in the small intestine. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of fructose malabsorption and the effects of gout and fructose malabsorption on serum urate in people with and without gout. A total of 100 people with gout (cases) were age and gender matched with one control without gout. After a low fructose diet, fructose malabsorption was measured using a hydrogen and methane breath test with a 35g fructose load. In a subgroup of 35 cases and 35 controls, serum urate response to the fructose load over 240 minutes was measured. There was no significant difference in the rate of fructose malabsorption between cases and controls (48% vs. 52%; p = 0.67). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SEM) serum urate cumulative incremental concentration from baseline-240 minutes (iAUC 0-240 ) compared to controls 0.97 (0.56) vs. 4.78 (0.55); p gout. Allopurinol inhibits the increase in serum urate induced by a fructose load suggesting that people with gout receiving allopurinol may not need to restrict dietary intake of fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sesamol ameliorates high-fat and high-fructose induced cognitive defects via improving insulin signaling disruption in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Sun, Yali; Qiao, Qinglian; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Wentong; Ren, Bo; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xuebo

    2017-02-22

    Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0.05%, w/v) and standard diet, HFFD, and HFFD with sesamol supplementation. Morris water maze tests demonstrated that sesamol improved HFFD-elicited learning and memory loss. Sesamol was also found to attenuate neuron damage in HFFD-fed mice. Importantly, sesamol treatment up-regulated brain insulin signaling by stimulating IRS-1/AKT as well as ERK/CREB/BDNF pathways; meanwhile it down-regulated neuronal death signaling GSK3β and JNK. Moreover, sesamol also normalized mRNA expressions of neurotrophins including BDNF and NT-3, as well as expressions of mitochondrial metabolic and biogenesis related genes Sirt1 and PGC1α. Consistently, sesamol also reversed high-glucose-induced oxidized cellular status, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, insulin signaling inhibition and cell death in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Taken together, the current study proved that sesamol reduced western-diet-induced cognitive defects in a mouse model by inhibiting insulin resistance, normalizing mitochondrial function and cell redox status, and improving IRS/AKT cell surviving and energy metabolism regulating signaling. This compelling evidence indicated that sesamol is a potential nutritional supplement to prevent unhealthy-diet-induced learning and memory loss.

  4. The role of fructose in metabolism and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrez, Bérénice; Qiao, Liang; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Fructose consumption has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. The principal form has been in the form of high-fructose corn syrup found in soft drinks and processed food. The effect of excessive fructose consumption on human health is only beginning to be understood. Fructose has been confirmed to induce several obesity-related complications associated with the metabolic syndrome. Here we present an overview of fructose metabolism and how it contrasts with that of glucose. In addition, we examine how excessive fructose consumption can affect de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and reactive oxygen species production. Fructose can also induce a change in the gut permeability and promote the release of inflammatory factors to the liver, which has potential implications in increasing hepatic inflammation. Moreover, fructose has been associated with colon, pancreas, and liver cancers, and we shall discuss the evidence for these observations. Taken together, data suggest that sustained fructose consumption should be curtailed as it is detrimental to long-term human health.

  5. Lactose and Fructose Intolerance in Turkish Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Ozlem; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Comba, Atakan; Eren, Esra; Caltepe, Gonul

    2016-05-08

    To investigate the prevalence of lactose and fructose intolerance in children with chronic abdominal pain. Hydrogen breath tests were done to detect lactose and fructose malabsorption in 86 children with chronic abdominal pain (44 irritable bowel syndrome, 24 functional abdominal pain and 17 functional abdominal pain syndrome as per Rome III criteria) presenting to a Pediatric Gastroentreology department. 14 (16.3%) of patients were diagnosed with lactose intolerance and 11 (12.8%) with fructose intolerance. Lactose and fructose intolerance in children can lead to chronic abdominal pain and symptoms improve with dietary modifications.

  6. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Deborah M.; Li, Minglan; Patel, Rachna; Clayton, Zoe E.; Yap, Cassandra; Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies. PMID:24864200

  7. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

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    Deborah M. Sloboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies.

  8. Lipocalin-2 in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Disease

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    Jessica Lambertz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The intake of excess dietary fructose most often leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Fructose is metabolized mainly in the liver and its chronic consumption results in lipogenic gene expression in this organ. However, precisely how fructose is involved in NAFLD progression is still not fully understood, limiting therapy. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2 is a small secreted transport protein that binds to fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids, retinol, and pheromones. LCN2 regulates lipid and energy metabolism in obesity and is upregulated in response to insulin. We previously discovered that LCN2 has a hepatoprotective effect during hepatic insult, and that its upregulation is a marker of liver damage and inflammation. To investigate if LCN2 has impact on the metabolism of fructose and thereby arising liver damage, we fed wild type and Lcn2−/− mice for 4 or 8 weeks on diets that were enriched in fructose either by adding this sugar to the drinking water (30% w/v, or by feeding a chow containing 60% (w/w fructose. Body weight and daily intake of food and water of these mice was then measured. Fat content in liver sections was visualized using Oil Red O stain, and expression levels of genes involved in fat and sugar metabolism were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We found that fructose-induced steatosis and liver damage was more prominent in female than in male mice, but that the most severe hepatic damage occurred in female mice lacking LCN2. Unexpectedly, consumption of elevated fructose did not induce de novo lipogenesis or fat accumulation. We conclude that LCN2 acts in a lipid-independent manner to protect the liver against fructose-induced damage.

  9. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

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    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  10. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet.

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    Wan, Wenting; Li, Hongxiang; Xiang, Jiamei; Yi, Fan; Xu, Lijia; Jiang, Baoping; Xiao, Peigen

    2018-01-01

    Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM) on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1) a standard diet, (2) HFD, (3) HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4) HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg). After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo . Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm . Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2 , Fh , and Mdh2 . In addition, the lipid

  12. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1 a standard diet, (2 HFD, (3 HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4 HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg. After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo. Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm. Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2, Fh, and Mdh2. In addition, the lipid

  13. High Fructose/High Fat Diets Mediate Changes in Protein Carbonyl Content in the Rat Brain With and Without Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of diets rich in fat or fructose have been correlated to a rise in type-2 diabetes and obesity. These diet-induced physiological changes have been shown previously to cause an increase in responsiveness to air pollutants such as ozone (03). 03 is a pervasive air p...

  14. A study of spin-lattice relaxation rates of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries using high-T c SQUID-based NMR in ultralow magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Pei-Che

    2017-08-01

    We study the concentration dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rates, T 1 -1, of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries by using high-T c SQUID-based NMR at magnetic fields of ˜97 μT. The detected NMR signal, Sy (T Bp), is fitted to [1 - exp(-T Bp/T 1)] to derive T 1 -1, where Sy (T Bp) is the strength of the NMR signal, T Bp is the duration of pre-polarization and T 1 -1 is the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It was found that T 1 -1 increases as the sugar concentrations increase. The increased T 1 -1 is due to the presence of more molecules in the surroundings, which increases the spin-lattice interaction and in turn enhances T 1 -1. The T 1 -1 versus degrees Brix curve provides a basis for determining unknown Brix values for cherries as well as other fruits.

  15. Effects of salicylic acid-induced wine rich in anthocyanins on metabolic parameters and adipose insulin signaling in high-fructose fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; de Rosas, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J; Ponce, María Teresa; Martinez, Liliana; Miatello, Roberto M; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of Syrah red wine treated with salicylic acid (RW SA) and its control red wine (RW) on metabolic parameters, systolic blood pressure and adipose tissue insulin signaling in high-fructose (F) fed rats. Grape treated with SA increased the anthocyanin (ANTs) levels in RW. F induced increased systolic blood pressure, dislipidemia and insulin resistance (HOMA:IR). F rats treated with RW significantly prevented these alterations while RW SA partially attenuated triglycerides levels and HOMA:IR without modifications in HDL cholesterol levels. F impaired the adipose tissue response to insulin. Supplementation with RW and RW SA partially attenuated these alterations. Rats supplemented with RW SA had lesser beneficial effects on metabolic alterations than control RW, while both RW and RW SA attenuated altered adipose response to insulin. More studies are necessary to deeply evaluate the effect on SA-induced RW rich in ANTs levels on metabolic alterations associated to MetS.

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Raji, Hikmat O; Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Adigun, Nurudeen S; Giwa, Oluwayemisi B; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Oladiji, Adenike T

    2016-03-30

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract was evaluated in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout were induced in rats using high-fructose diet. High-fructose diet-fed rats were administered 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight of H. sabdariffa extract for 3 weeks, starting from week 7 of high-fructose diet treatment. High-fructose diet significantly (P Hibiscus extract. Overall, aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa palliates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative rout in high-fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.

  18. Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum K68 and Fruit-Vegetable Ferment along with High Fat-Fructose Diet Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome in Rats with Insulin Resistance

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    Hui-Yu Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum K68 (isolated from fu-tsai and fruit-vegetable ferment (FVF have been tested for antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties in a rat model of insulin resistance, induced by chronic high fat-fructose diet. Fifty rats were equally assigned into control (CON, high fat-fructose diet (HFFD, HFFD plus K68, HFFD plus FVF, and HFFD plus both K68 and FVF (MIX groups. Respective groups were orally administered with K68 (1×109 CFU/0.5 mL or FVF (180 mg/kg or MIX for 8 weeks. We found that HFFD-induced increased bodyweights were prevented, and progressively increased fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were reversed (P<0.01 by K68 and FVF treatments. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and HOMA-IR values were controlled in supplemented groups. Furthermore, dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs with HFFD, was significantly (P<0.01 attenuated with MIX. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, were controlled (P<0.01 by K68, FVF, and MIX treatments. Moreover, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were substantially (P<0.01 restored by all treatments. Experimental evidences demonstrate that K68 and FVF may be effective alternative medicine to prevent HFFD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, possibly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies.

  19. High Levels of Dietary Supplement Vitamins A, C and E are Absorbed in the Small Intestine and Protect Nutrient Transport Against Chronic Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Edouard I.; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.; Howell, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined nutrient transport in the intestines of mice exposed to chronic low-LET 137Cs gamma rays. The mice were whole-body irradiated for 3 days at dose rates of 0, 0.13 and 0.20 Gy/h, for total dose delivery of 0, 9.6 or 14.4 Gy, respectively. The mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E. Our results showed that nutrient transport was perturbed by the chronic irradiation conditions. However, no apparent alteration of the macroscopic intestinal structures of the small intestine were observed up to day 10 after initiating irradiation. Jejunal fructose uptake measured in vitro was strongly affected by the chronic irradiation, whereas uptake of proline, carnosine and the bile acid taurocholate in the ileum was less affected. D-glucose transport did not appear to be inhibited significantly by either 9.6 or 14.4 Gy exposure. In the 14.4 Gy irradiated groups, the diet supplemented with high levels of vitamins A, C and E increased intestinal transport of fructose compared to the control diet (day 10; t test, P = 0.032), which correlated with elevated levels of vitamins A, C and E in the plasma and jejunal enterocytes. Our earlier studies with mice exposed acutely to 137Cs gamma rays demonstrated significant protection for transport of fructose, glucose, proline and carnosine. Taken together, these results suggest that high levels of vitamins A, C and E dietary supplements help preserve intestinal nutrient transport when intestines are irradiated chronically or acutely with low-LET gamma rays. PMID:26484399

  20. Adding glucose to food and solutions to enhance fructose absorption is not effective in preventing fructose-induced functional gastrointestinal symptoms: randomised controlled trials in patients with fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, C J; Ross, L A; Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2017-02-01

    In healthy individuals, the absorption of fructose in excess of glucose in solution is enhanced by the addition of glucose. The present study aimed to assess the effects of glucose addition to fructose or fructans on absorption patterns and genesis of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with functional bowel disorders. Randomised, blinded, cross-over studies were performed in healthy subjects and functional bowel disorder patients with fructose malabsorption. The area-under-the-curve (AUC) was determined for breath hydrogen and symptom responses to: (i) six sugar solutions (fructose in solution) (glucose; sucrose; fructose; fructose + glucose; fructan; fructan + glucose) and (ii) whole foods (fructose in foods) containing fructose in excess of glucose given with and without additional glucose. Intake of fermentable short chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs; fermentable, oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) was controlled. For the fructose in solution study, in 26 patients with functional bowel disorders, breath hydrogen was reduced after glucose was added to fructose compared to fructose alone [mean (SD) AUC 92 (107) versus 859 (980) ppm 4 h -1 , respectively; P = 0.034). Glucose had no effect on breath hydrogen response to fructans (P = 1.000). The six healthy controls showed breath hydrogen patterns similar to those with functional bowel disorders. No differences in symptoms were experienced with the addition of glucose, except more nausea when glucose was added to fructose (P = 0.049). In the fructose in foods study, glucose addition to whole foods containing fructose in excess of glucose in nine patients with functional bowel disorders and nine healthy controls had no significant effect on breath hydrogen production or symptom response. The absence of a favourable response on symptoms does not support the concomitant intake of glucose with foods high in either fructose or fructans in patients with functional bowel disorders. © 2016 The British Dietetic

  1. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

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    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  2. Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism. What Can We Learn from Them?

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    Christel Tran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are rare conditions. Three inborn errors are known in the pathway of fructose metabolism; (1 essential or benign fructosuria due to fructokinase deficiency; (2 hereditary fructose intolerance; and (3 fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. In this review the focus is set on the description of the clinical symptoms and biochemical anomalies in the three inborn errors of metabolism. The potential toxic effects of fructose in healthy humans also are discussed. Studies conducted in patients with inborn errors of fructose metabolism helped to understand fructose metabolism and its potential toxicity in healthy human. Influence of fructose on the glycolytic pathway and on purine catabolism is the cause of hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis and hyperuricemia. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provided new understandings into pathogenesis for these frequent diseases.

  3. Glucose and Fructose to Platform Chemicals: Understanding the Thermodynamic Landscapes of Acid-Catalysed Reactions Using High-Level ab Initio Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Kim, Taijin; Low, John; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-12-28

    Molecular level understanding of acid-catalysed conversion of sugar molecules to platform chemicals such as hydroxy-methyl furfural (HMF), furfuryl alcohol (FAL), and levulinic acid (LA) is essential for efficient biomass conversion. In this paper, the high-level G4MP2 method along with the SMD solvation model is employed to understand detailed reaction energetics of the acid-catalysed decomposition of glucose and fructose to HMF. Based on protonation free energies of various hydroxyl groups of the sugar molecule, the relative reactivity of gluco-pyranose, fructo-pyranose and fructo-furanose are predicted. Calculations suggest that, in addition to the protonated intermediates, a solvent assisted dehydration of one of the fructo-furanosyl intermediates is a competing mechanism, indicating the possibility of multiple reaction pathways for fructose to HMF conversion in aqueous acidic medium. Two reaction pathways were explored to understand the thermodynamics of glucose to HMF; the first one is initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH group and the second one through an enolate intermediate involving acyclic intermediates. Additionally, a pathway is proposed for the formation of furfuryl alcohol from glucose initiated by the protonation of a C2–OH position, which includes a C–C bond cleavage, and the formation of formic acid. The detailed free energy landscapes predicted in this study can be used as benchmarks for further exploring the sugar decomposition reactions, prediction of possible intermediates, and finally designing improved catalysts for biomass conversion chemistry in the future.

  4. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprotein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (Pprotein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. High-intensity interval training has beneficial effects on cardiac remodeling through local renin-angiotensin system modulation in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Sá, Guilherme; Dos Santos Neves, Vívian; de Oliveira Fraga, Shyrlei R; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Barbosa-da-Silva, Sandra

    2017-11-15

    HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effects on cardiac remodeling and local RAS (renin-angiotensin system) in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets still need to be fully addressed. Sixty male C57BL/6 mice (12weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, control (C), High-fat (HF), or High-fructose diet (HRU) and were monitored for eight weeks before being submitted to the HIIT. Each group was randomly assigned to 2 subgroups, one subgroup was started on a 12-week HIIT protocol (T=trained group), while the other subgroup remained non-exercised (NT=not-trained group). HIIT reduced BM and systolic blood pressure in high-fat groups, while enhanced insulin sensitivity after high-fat or high-fructose intake. Moreover, HIIT reduced left ventricular hypertrophy in HF-T and HFRU-T. Notably, HIIT modulated key factors in the local left ventricular renin-angiotensin-system (RAS): reduced protein expression of renin, ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme), and (Angiotensin type 2 receptor) AT2R in HF-T and HFRU-T groups but reduced (Angiotensin type 1 receptor) AT1R protein expression only in the high-fat trained group. HIIT modulated ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor axis. ACE2 mRNA gene expression was enhanced in HF-T and HFRU-T groups, complying with elevated Mas (Mas proto-oncogene, G protein-coupled receptor) receptor mRNA gene expression after HIIT. This study shows the effectiveness of HIIT sessions in producing improvements in insulin sensitivity and mitigating LV hypertrophy, though hypertension was controlled only in the high-fat-fed submitted to HIIT protocol. Local RAS system in the heart mediates these findings and receptor MAS seems to play a pivotal role when it comes to the amelioration of cardiac structural and functional remodeling due to HIIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

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    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  8. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA, which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men, but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL. In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  9. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Calabria, Donato; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2017-04-18

    There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  10. Temporal Effects of High Dietary Zinc on the Histological Changes Produced in White Leghorn Cocks

    OpenAIRE

    Eltohamy, Magda Mohammed; Takahara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masao; 高原, 斉; 岡本, 正夫

    1980-01-01

    Effects of high dietary Zn on histological changes of the endocrine glands were investigated in White Leghorn cocks. Cocks received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed normal testicular development. In the groups received 3000 and 4000 ppm dietary Zn, the inhibitory effects in the testes suggested impaired production and/or release of adenohypophysial gonadotrophic hormone. Adenohypophysis of the group received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed an increase in PAS-positive materials of the basophils, while ad...

  11. A mathematical analysis of adaptations to the metabolic fate of fructose in essential fructosuria subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R J; Musante, Cynthia J

    2018-04-17

    Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. The only reported symptom of EF is the appearance of fructose in the urine following either oral or intravenous fructose administration. Here we develop and use a mathematical model to investigate the adaptations to altered fructose metabolism in people with EF. Firstly, the model is calibrated to fit available data in normal healthy subjects. Then, to mathematically represent EF subjects we systematically implement metabolic adaptations such that model simulations match available data for this phenotype. We hypothesize that these modifications represent the major metabolic adaptations present in these subjects. This modeling approach suggests that several other aspects of fructose metabolism, beyond hepatic KHK deficiency, are altered and contribute to the etiology of this benign condition. Specifically, we predict that fructose absorption into the portal vein is altered, peripheral metabolism is slowed, renal re-absorption of fructose is mostly ablated and that alternate pathways for hepatic metabolism of fructose are up-regulated. Moreover, these findings have implications for drug discovery and development, suggesting that the therapeutic targeting of fructose metabolism could lead to unexpected metabolic adaptations, potentially due to a physiological response to high fructose conditions.

  12. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  13. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

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    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Hereditary fructose intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ...

  15. Uric Acid Stimulates Fructokinase and Accelerates Fructose Metabolism in the Development of Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Cicerchi, Christina; Li, Nanxing; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Ishimoto, Takuji; Le, Myphuong; Garcia, Gabriela E.; Thomas, Jeffrey B.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Hunter, Brandi; Schreiner, George; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive dietary fructose intake may have an important role in the current epidemics of fatty liver, obesity and diabetes as its intake parallels the development of these syndromes and because it can induce features of metabolic syndrome. The effects of fructose to induce fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, however, vary dramatically among individuals. The first step in fructose metabolism is mediated by fructokinase (KHK), which phosphorylates fructose to fructose-1-phosphate; intracellular uric acid is also generated as a consequence of the transient ATP depletion that occurs during this reaction. Here we show in human hepatocytes that uric acid up-regulates KHK expression thus leading to the amplification of the lipogenic effects of fructose. Inhibition of uric acid production markedly blocked fructose-induced triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism whereby uric acid stimulates KHK expression involves the activation of the transcription factor ChREBP, which, in turn, results in the transcriptional activation of KHK by binding to a specific sequence within its promoter. Since subjects sensitive to fructose often develop phenotypes associated with hyperuricemia, uric acid may be an underlying factor in sensitizing hepatocytes to fructose metabolism during the development of fatty liver. PMID:23112875

  16. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  17. Betanin reduces the accumulation and cross-links of collagen in high-fructose-fed rat heart through inhibiting non-enzymatic glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Tan, Chang; Wang, Yiheng; Yang, Shaobin; Tan, Dehong

    2015-02-05

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has antioxidant properties would be protective against fructose-induced diabetic cardiac fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fructose water solution (30%) was accessed freely, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was administered by intra-gastric gavage continuously for 60 d. Rats were sacrificed after overnight fast. The rat blood and left ventricle were collected. In vitro antiglycation assay in bovine serum albumin/fructose system was also performed. In rats treated only with fructose, levels of plasma markers: glucose, insulin, HOMA and glycated hemoglobin rised, left ventricle collagen accumulated and cross-linked, profibrotic factor-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein expression increased, and soluble collagen decreased, compared with those in normal rats, showing fructose induces diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with betanin antagonized the changes of these parameters, demonstrating the antifibrotic role of betanin in the selected diabetic models. In further mechanistic study, betanin decreased protein glycation indicated by the decreased levels of protein glycation reactive intermediate (methylglyoxal), advanced glycation end product (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), antagonized oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation elicited by fructose feeding, suggesting inhibition of glycation, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB activation may be involved in the antifibrotic mechanisms. Betanin also showed anitglycative effect in BSA/fructose system, which supported that anitglycation was involved in betanin's protective roles in vivo. Taken together, the potential for using betanin as an auxillary therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy deserves to be explored further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  19. Environmental stimulation rescues maternal high fructose intake-impaired learning and memory in female offspring: Its correlation with redistribution of histone deacetylase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kay L H; Wu, Chih-Wei; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Chao, Yung-Mei; Hung, Chun-Ying; Wu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Siang-Ru; Tsai, Pei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-04-01

    Impairment of learning and memory has been documented in the later life of offspring to maternal consumption with high energy diet. Environmental stimulation enhances the ability of learning and memory. However, potential effects of environmental stimulation on the programming-associated deficit of learning and memory have not been addressed. Here, we examined the effects of enriched-housing on hippocampal learning and memory in adult female offspring rats from mother fed with 60% high fructose diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation. Impairment of spatial learning and memory performance in HFD group was observed in offspring at 3-month-old. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was decreased in the offspring. Moreover, the HFD group showed an up-regulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in the nuclear fractions of hippocampal neurons. Stimulation to the offspring for 4weeks after winning with an enriched-housing environment effectively rescued the decrease in cognitive function and hippocampal BDNF level; alongside a reversal of the increased distribution of nuclear HDAC4. Together these results suggest that later life environmental stimulation effectively rescues the impairment of hippocampal learning and memory in female offspring to maternal HFD intake through redistributing nuclear HDAC4 to increase BDNF expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphological and functional changes in the enterocyte induced by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Wetterberg, L L

    1991-01-01

    In the presence of 10-50 mM-fructose, enterocytes of organ-cultured pig intestinal-mucosal explants fail to glycosylate correctly their newly synthesized microvillar enzymes, and instead degrade them [Danielsen (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13726-13729]. In the present work, this degradation was shown....... Thus the stack of Golgi cisternae was condensed and devoid of dilated rims, and the secretion of a non-glycosylated protein, apolipoprotein A-1, was almost completely blocked in the presence of fructose, showing that transport through the secretory pathway is disturbed even for proteins unaffected...... by the defective glycosylation. The microvilli of the brush-border membrane were markedly shortened (by about 40%) in the presence of fructose, and incorporation of newly made actin into the microvillar cytoskeleton was similarly decreased. By affecting membrane glycoprotein synthesis, the common dietary sugar...

  1. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane.—Patel, C., Douard, V., Yu, S., Gao, N., Ferraris, R. P. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption. PMID:26071406

  2. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  3. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  4. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne-Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Raymond; Rise, Frode

    2015-05-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [(14) C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [(14) C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of (14) C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve terminals, [(14) C]fructose-labeled glutamate, GABA, and aspartate, indicating uptake of fructose into nerve terminals and oxidative fructose metabolism in these structures. This was supported by high expression of hexokinase 1, which channels fructose into glycolysis, and whose activity was similar with fructose or glucose as substrates. By contrast, the fructose-specific ketohexokinase was weakly expressed. The fructose transporter Glut5 was expressed at only 4% of the level of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3, suggesting transport across plasma membranes of brain cells as the limiting factor in removal of extracellular fructose. The genes encoding aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, enzymes of the polyol pathway that forms glucose from fructose, were expressed in rat neocortex. These results point to fructose being transported into neocortical cells, including nerve terminals, and that it is metabolized and thereby detoxified primarily through hexokinase activity. We asked how the brain handles fructose, which may react spontaneously with proteins to form 'advanced glycation end products' and trigger inflammation. Neocortical cells took up and metabolized extracellular fructose oxidatively in vivo, and isolated nerve terminals did so in vitro. The low expression of fructose transporter Glut5 limited uptake of extracellular fructose. Hexokinase was a main pathway for fructose metabolism, but ketohexokinase (which leads to glyceraldehyde formation) was

  5. Effects of Mucuna pruriens on Free Fatty Acid Levels and Histopathological Changes in the Brains of Rats Fed a High Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Bekir; Sarı, Aysel; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Ulu, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate free fatty acid levels and histopathological changes in the brain of rats fed a high fructose diet (HFrD) and to evaluate the effects of Mucuna pruriens, known to have antidiabetic activity, on these changes. The study comprised 28 mature female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups, each included 7 rats. Group 1: control; group 2: fed an HFrD; group 3: fed normal rat chow and M. pruriens; group 4: fed an HFrD and M. pruriens for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were decapitated, blood and brain tissues were obtained. Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were measured. Free fatty acid levels were measured in 1 cerebral hemisphere of each rat and histopathological changes in the other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between 2 independent groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative continuous data between more than 2 independent groups. Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (p pruriens could have therapeutic effects on free fatty acid metabolism and local inflammatory responses in the brains of rats fed an HFrD. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p water group (p glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  7. Gallic Acid Alleviates Hypertriglyceridemia and Fat Accumulation via Modulating Glycolysis and Lipolysis Pathways in Perirenal Adipose Tissues of Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ameliorative effect of gallic acid (GA on hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation in perirenal adipose tissues of high-fructose diet (HFD-induced diabetic rats. The previous results showed that orally administered GA (30 mg/kg body weight for four weeks significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG in HFD rats. GA also markedly decreased the perirenal adipose tissues weight of HFD rats in present study (p < 0.05. Western blot assay indicated that GA restored expression of insulin signaling-related proteins, such as insulin receptor (IR, protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ, and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4 in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. Moreover, GA enhanced expression of glycolysis-related proteins, such as phosphofructokinase (PFK and pyruvate kinase (PK, and increased the expression of lipolysis-related proteins, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, which is involved in lipolysis in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. This study revealed that GA may alleviate hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation through enhancing glycolysis and lipolysis pathways in perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of GA in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM complications.

  8. Imoxin attenuates high fructose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in renal epithelial cells via downregulation of protein kinase R pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Jaspreet; Mangali, Suresh Babu; Bhat, Audesh; Dhar, Indu; Udumula, Mary Priyanka; Dhar, Arti

    2018-02-11

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase, is a key inducer of inflammation, insulin resistance, and glucose homeostasis in obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that PKR can respond to metabolic stress in mice as well as in humans. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high fructose (HF) in cultured renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) derived from rat kidney and to investigate whether inhibition of PKR could prevent any deleterious effects of HF in these cells. PKR expression was determined by immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. Oxidative damage and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. HF-treated renal cells developed a significant increase in PKR expression. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis was also observed in HF-treated cultured renal epithelial cells. All these effects of HF were attenuated by a selective PKR inhibitor, imoxin (C16). In conclusion, our study demonstrates PKR induces oxidative stress and apoptosis, is a significant contributor involved in vascular complications and is a possible mediator of HF-induced hypertension. Inhibition of PKR pathway can be used as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah OZCAN SINIR

    Full Text Available Abstract High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is one of the most used sweeteners in the food industry. Health concerns regarding the consumption of HFCS-containing foods have developed in parallel with the increasing amount of people who become overweight. This study was conducted to investigate whether HFCS-containing peach nectar (pn-HFCS consumption has more detrimental effects on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters compared with sucrose-containing peach nectar (pn-sucrose. Fifty-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and were fed (A pn-HFCS + ad libitum chow, (B pn-sucrose + ad libitum chow and (C only ad libitum chow for 7 months. The percentage change in body weight (PCBW, body mass index (BMI, and Lee index were calculated, and serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were measured. The PCBW, BMI, Lee index, serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were insignificant among the three groups. We can suggest that peach nectar consumption resulted in more energy intake than the control and since pn-HFCS group consumed more chow than the pn-sucrose group. The results show that long term daily HFCS or sucrose consumption in peach nectar is not associated with weight gain and does not stimulate metabolic changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

  10. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a murine model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by use of a high-fat/fructose diet and sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Joanna K; Hopkins, Laurence J; Reynolds, Gary M; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Armstrong, Matthew J; Shaw, Jean C; Houlihan, Diarmaid D; Lalor, Patricia F; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Hübscher, Stefan G; Newsome, Philip N

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is increasingly prevalent, strongly associated with nonalcoholic liver disease, and a risk factor for numerous cancers. Here, we describe the liver-related consequences of long-term diet-induced obesity. Mice were exposed to an extended obesity model comprising a diet high in trans-fats and fructose corn syrup concurrent with a sedentary lifestyle. Livers were assessed histologically using the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (Kleiner system). Mice in the American Lifestyle-Induced Obesity Syndrome (ALIOS) model developed features of early nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at 6 months (mean NAFLD activity score = 2.4) and features of more advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at 12 months, including liver inflammation and bridging fibrosis (mean NAFLD activity score = 5.0). Hepatic expression of lipid metabolism and insulin signaling genes were increased in ALIOS mice compared with normal chow-fed mice. Progressive activation of the mouse hepatic stem cell niche in response to ALIOS correlated with steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation. Hepatocellular neoplasms were observed in 6 of 10 ALIOS mice after 12 months. Tumors displayed cytological atypia, absence of biliary epithelia, loss of reticulin, alteration of normal perivenular glutamine synthetase staining (absent or diffuse), and variable α-fetoprotein expression. Notably, perivascular tumor cells expressed hepatic stem cell markers. These studies indicate an adipogenic lifestyle alone is sufficient for the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic stem cell activation, and hepatocarcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the fructose and glucose concentration on the rheological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Luis Montañez Soto

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Key words: High fructose syrups, viscosity, rheological behavior, Newtonian fluids. ... shear rate; ºBrix, soluble solids %; K, consistency index; n, flow behavior index. ... the correlations between rheological measurements and.

  13. Effect of the fructose and glucose concentration on the rheological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jose Luis Montañez Soto

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Key words: High fructose syrups, viscosity, rheological behavior, Newtonian fluids. ... demanded by the pharmaceuticals, food and beverage industries due to its ... determine the preferred quality by the consumer through.

  14. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  15. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  16. The response of male and female rats to a high-fructose diet during adolescence following early administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous calyx extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K G; Chivandi, E; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Erlwanger, K H

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is linked to the consumption of fructose-rich diets. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions perinatally can cause epigenetic changes that programme an individual to predispose or protect them from the development of metabolic diseases later. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) reportedly has anti-obesity and hypocholesterolaemic properties in adults. We investigated the impact of neonatal intake of HS on the programming of metabolism by fructose. A total of 85 4-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups. The control group (n=27, 12 males, 15 females) received distilled water at 10 ml/kg body weight. The other groups received either 50 mg/kg (n=30, 13 males, 17 females) or 500 mg/kg (n=28, 11 males, 17 females) of an HS aqueous calyx extract orally till postnatal day (PND) 14. There was no intervention from PND 14 to PND 21 when the pups were weaned. The rats in each group were then divided into two groups; one continued on a normal diet and the other received fructose (20% w/v) in their drinking water for 30 days. The female rats that were administered with HS aqueous calyx extract as neonates were protected against fructose-induced hypertriglyceridaemia and increased liver lipid deposition. The early administration of HS resulted in a significant (P⩽0.05) increase in plasma cholesterol concentrations with or without a secondary fructose insult. In males, HS prevented the development of fructose-induced hypercholesterolaemia. The potential beneficial and detrimental effects of neonatal HS administration on the programming of metabolism in rats need to be considered in the long-term well-being of children.

  17. Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of Fructose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well-established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose-induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy–dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD. PMID:28273805

  18. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and general health status of adolescent Sprague Dawley rats supplemented with Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous calyx extracts as neonates followed by a high-fructose diet post-weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K G; Lembede, B W; Chivandi, E; Erlwanger, K

    2018-02-01

    High-fructose diets (HFD) can cause oxidative damage to tissues including erythrocyte cell membranes. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has protective antioxidant properties. Rats were used to investigate whether the consumption of HS by neonates would result in long-term effects on their erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) and general health when later fed a high-fructose diet post-weaning through adolescence. Eighty of four-day-old Sprague Dawley rat pups were divided randomly into three treatment groups. The controls (n = 27) received distilled water at 10 ml/kg b. w, while the other groups received either 50 mg/kg (n = 28) or 500 mg/kg (n = 25) of an HS aqueous calyx extract orally till post-natal day 14. The rats in each group were weaned and divided into two subgroups; one continued on normal rat chow, and the other received fructose (20% w/v) in their drinking water for 30 days. Blood was collected in heparinised tubes and added to serially diluted (0.0-0.85%) phosphate-buffered saline to determine the EOF. Clinical markers of health status were determined with an automated chemical analyser. HS extracts did not programme metabolism in the growing rats to alter their general health and EOF in response to the HFD. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  20. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  1. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine or metabolic effects of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Kearney, Monica L; Kanaley, Jill A

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ≤355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ∼28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages.

  3. Efficient and environmental-friendly dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in water under high pressure of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motokucho, Suguru; Morikawa, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Noordover, Bart A.J.

    2016-01-01

    To develop reaction systems of chemical conversion of biomass, fructose was heated in an aqueous medium under pressurized CO2, which caused in situ generation of carbonic acid. It gave 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) as a dehydration product in good yields. The maximum yield of HMF was 92% in the

  4. Fructose consumption: Recent results and their potential implications

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to acquiring a better understanding of foods that may have intrinsic health benefits, increasing our knowledge of dietary components that may adversely impact health and wellness, and the levels of consumption at which these adverse effects may occur, should also be an important priority for the Foods for Health initiative. This review discusses the evidence that additional research is needed to determine the adverse effects of consuming added sugars containing fructose. Current g...

  5. (p-ClPhSe)2 stimulates carbohydrate metabolism and reverses the metabolic alterations induced by high fructose load in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Chagas, Pietro M; Velasquez, Daniela; Prado, Vinicius C; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2017-09-01

    The modern life leads to excess consumption of food rich in fructose; however, the long-term changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism could lead to metabolic dysfunction in humans. The present study evaluated the in vitro insulin-mimetic action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe) 2 . The second aim of this study was to investigate if (p-ClPhSe) 2 reverses metabolic dysfunction induced by fructose load in Wistar rats. The insulin-mimetic action of (p-ClPhSe) 2  at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM was determined in slices of rat skeletal muscle. (p-ClPhSe) 2  at a concentration of 50 μM stimulated the glucose uptake by 40% in skeletal muscle. A dose-response curve revealed that (p-ClPhSe) 2  at a dose of 25 mg/kg reduced (∼20%) glycemia in rats treated with fructose (5 g/kg, i.g.). The administration of fructose impaired the liver homeostasis and (p-ClPhSe) 2 (25 mg/kg) protected against the increase (∼25%) in the G-6-Pase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities and reduced the triglyceride content (∼25%) in the liver. (p-ClPhSe) 2 regulated the liver homeostasis by stimulating hexokinase activity (∼27%), regulating the TCA cycle activity (increased the ATP and citrate synthase activity (∼15%)) and increasing the glycogen levels (∼67%). In conclusion, (p-ClPhSe) 2 stimulated carbohydrate metabolism and reversed metabolic dysfunction in rats fed with fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  7. Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Serum Samples following Curcuma longa Extract Supplementation in High-Fructose and Saturated Fat Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Fabrice; Shintu, Laetitia; Rakotoniaina, Zo; Tchiakpe, Léopold; Deyris, Valérie; Hiol, Abel; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We explored, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and fatty acids profiling, the effects of a common nutritional complement, Curcuma longa, at a nutritionally relevant dose with human use, administered in conjunction with an unbalanced diet. Indeed, traditional food supplements have been long used to counter metabolic impairments induced by unbalanced diets. Here, rats were fed either a standard diet, a high level of fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet, a diet common to western countries and that certainly contributes to the epidemic of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, or a HFS diet with a Curcuma longa extract (1% of curcuminoids in the extract) for ten weeks. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) on the serum NMR profiles and fatty acid composition (determined by GC/MS) showed a clear discrimination between HFS groups and controls. This discrimination involved metabolites such as glucose, amino acids, pyruvate, creatine, phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, ketone bodies and glycoproteins as well as an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and a decrease of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although the administration of Curcuma longa did not prevent the observed increase of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels, discriminating metabolites were observed between groups fed HFS alone or with addition of a Curcuma longa extract, namely some MUFA and n-3 PUFA, glycoproteins, glutamine, and methanol, suggesting that curcuminoids may act respectively on the fatty acid metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and alcohol oxidation. Curcuma longa extract supplementation appears to be beneficial in these metabolic pathways in rats. This metabolomic approach highlights important serum metabolites that could help in understanding further the metabolic mechanisms leading to IR.

  8. Regulatory landscape of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis and its modulation by PPARγ activation in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Luca; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Altomare, Alessandra; Marinello, Cristina; Saethang, Thammakorn; Carini, Marina; Payne, D Michael; Pisitkun, Trairak; Aldini, Giancarlo; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    The AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress (AROS) axis is involved in the onset and progression of metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fructose diet (HFD). PPARγ activation is known to modulate metabolic syndrome; however a systems-level investigation looking at the protective effects of PPARγ activation as related to the AROS axis has not been performed. The aim of this work is to simultaneously characterize multiple molecular parameters within the AROS axis, using samples taken from different body fluids and tissues of a rat model of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome, in the presence or absence of a PPARγ agonist, Rosiglitazone (RGZ). Rats were fed with 60% HFD for the first half of the treatment duration (21 days) then continued with either HFD alone or HFD plus RGZ for the second half. Rats receiving HFD alone showed metabolic syndrome manifestations including hypertension, dyslipidemia, increased glucose levels and insulin resistance, as well as abnormal kidney and inflammatory parameters. Systolic blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose levels, plasma creatinine, and albuminuria were significantly improved in the presence of RGZ. The following molecular parameters of the AROS axis were significantly upregulated in our rat model: carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in urine and liver; carboxyethyl lysine (CEL) in urine; advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in plasma; receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in liver and kidney; advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in plasma; and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) in plasma, liver, and kidney. Conversely, with RGZ administration, the upregulation of AOPP and AGEs in plasma, CML and CEL in urine, RAGE in liver as well as HNE in plasma and liver was significantly counteracted/prevented. Our data demonstrate (i) the systems-level regulatory landscape of HFD-induced metabolic syndrome involving multiple molecular parameters, including HNE, AGEs and their receptor RAGE, and (ii) attenuation of metabolic syndrome by

  9. Increased utilization of fructose has a positive effect on the development of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiajing Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid proliferation and Warburg effect make cancer cells consume plenty of glucose, which induces a low glucose micro-environment within the tumor. Up to date, how cancer cells keep proliferating in the condition of glucose insufficiency still remains to be explored. Recent studies have revealed a close correlation between excessive fructose consumption and breast cancer genesis and progression, but there is no convincing evidence showing that fructose could directly promote breast cancer development. Herein, we found that fructose, not amino acids, could functionally replace glucose to support proliferation of breast cancer cells. Fructose endowed breast cancer cells with the colony formation ability and migratory capacity as effective as glucose. Interestingly, although fructose was readily used by breast cancer cells, it failed to restore proliferation of non-tumor cells in the absence of glucose. These results suggest that fructose could be relatively selectively employed by breast cancer cells. Indeed, we observed that a main transporter of fructose, GLUT5, was highly expressed in breast cancer cells and tumor tissues but not in their normal counterparts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the fructose diet promoted metastasis of 4T1 cells in the mouse models. Taken together, our data show that fructose can be used by breast cancer cells specifically in glucose-deficiency, and suggest that the high-fructose diet could accelerate the progress of breast cancer in vivo.

  10. Fructose and cardiometabolic disorders: the controversy will, and must, continue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wiernsperger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review updates the current knowledge on the question of whether high fructose consumption is harmful or not and details new findings which further pushes this old debate. Due to large differences in its metabolic handling when compared to glucose, fructose was indeed suggested to be beneficial for the diet of diabetic patients. However its growing industrial use as a sweetener, especially in soft drinks, has focused attention on its potential harmfulness, possibly leading to dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome and even diabetes. Many new data have been generated over the last years, confirming the lipogenic effect of fructose as well as risks of vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Fructose exerts various direct effects in the liver, affecting both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and resulting in non-alcoholic steatotic hepatitis, a well known precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Hepatic metabolic abnormalities underlie indirect peripheral metabolic and vascular disturbances, for which uric acid is possibly the culprit. Nevertheless major caveats exist (species, gender, source of fructose, study protocols which are detailed in this review and presently prevent any firm conclusion. New studies taking into account these confounding factors should be undertaken in order to ascertain whether or not high fructose diet is harmful.

  11. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  12. Fructose production by Zymomonas mobilis in fed-batch culture with minimal sorbitol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edye, L A; Johns, M R; Ewings, K N

    1989-08-01

    Fed-batch cultures of Zymomonas mobilis (UQM 2864), a mutant unable to metabolise fructose, grown on diluted sugar cane syrup (200 g/l sucrose) achieved yields of 90.5 g/l fructose and 48.3 g/l ethanol with minimal sorbitol formation and complete utilization of the substrate. The effect of inoculum size on sorbitol formation in the batch stage of fed-batch fermentation are reported. Fermentation of sucrose (350 g/l) supplemented with nutrients yielded 142 g/l fructose and 76.5 g/l ethanol. Some fructose product loss at high fructose concentrations was observed. The fed-batch fermentation process offers a method for obtaining high concentrations of fructose and ethanol from sucrose materials. (orig.).

  13. Selected Phytochemicals and Culinary Plant Extracts Inhibit Fructose Uptake in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yurim; Lim, Yeni; Kwon, Oran

    2015-09-18

    This study compared the ability of nine culinary plant extracts containing a wide array of phytochemicals to inhibit fructose uptake and then explored the involvement of intestinal fructose transporters and phytochemicals for selected samples. The chemical signature was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Inhibition of [(14)C]-fructose uptake was tested by using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Then, the relative contribution of the two apical-facing intestinal fructose transporters, GLUT2 and GLUT5, and the signature components for fructose uptake inhibition was confirmed in naive, phloretin-treated and forskolin-treated Caco-2 cells. HPLC/MS analysis of the chemical signature revealed that guava leaf contained quercetin and catechin, and turmeric contained curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and dimethoxycurcumin. Similar inhibition of fructose uptake (by ~50%) was observed with guava leaf and turmeric in Caco-2 cells, but with a higher contribution of GLUT2 for turmeric and that of GLUT5 for guava leaf. The data suggested that, in turmeric, demethoxycurcumin specifically contributed to GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, and curcumin did the same to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, but GLUT2 inhibition was more potent. By contrast, in guava leaf, catechin specifically contributed to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, and quercetin affected both GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, resulting in the higher contribution of GLUT5. These results suggest that demethoxycurcumin is an important contributor to GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition for turmeric extract, and catechin is the same to GLUT5-mediated fructose uptake inhibition for guava leaf extract. Quercetin, curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin contributed to both GLUT5- and GLUT2-mediated fructose uptake inhibition, but the contribution to GLUT5 inhibition was higher than the contribution to GLUT2 inhibition.

  14. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonamjot Deol

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD. They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36, diabetes (Igfbp1, inflammation (Cd63, mitochondrial function (Pdk4 and cancer (H19 were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  15. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deol, Poonamjot; Evans, Jane R; Dhahbi, Joseph; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Han, Diana S; Spindler, Stephen; Sladek, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in the U.S. has led to extensive research into potential contributing dietary factors, especially fat and fructose. Recently, increased consumption of soybean oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been proposed to play a causal role in the epidemic. Here, we designed a series of four isocaloric diets (HFD, SO-HFD, F-HFD, F-SO-HFD) to investigate the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fat, as well as fructose, on obesity and diabetes. C57/BL6 male mice fed a diet moderately high in fat from coconut oil and soybean oil (SO-HFD, 40% kcal total fat) showed statistically significant increases in weight gain, adiposity, diabetes, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance compared to mice on a diet consisting primarily of coconut oil (HFD). They also had fatty livers with hepatocyte ballooning and very large lipid droplets as well as shorter colonic crypt length. While the high fructose diet (F-HFD) did not cause as much obesity or diabetes as SO-HFD, it did cause rectal prolapse and a very fatty liver, but no balloon injury. The coconut oil diet (with or without fructose) increased spleen weight while fructose in the presence of soybean oil increased kidney weight. Metabolomics analysis of the liver showed an increased accumulation of PUFAs and their metabolites as well as γ-tocopherol, but a decrease in cholesterol in SO-HFD. Liver transcriptomics analysis revealed a global dysregulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes in SO-HFD versus HFD livers, most notably in the Cyp3a and Cyp2c families. Other genes involved in obesity (e.g., Cidec, Cd36), diabetes (Igfbp1), inflammation (Cd63), mitochondrial function (Pdk4) and cancer (H19) were also upregulated by the soybean oil diet. Taken together, our results indicate that in mice a diet high in soybean oil is more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in fructose or coconut oil.

  16. Competitive binding assay for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.; Uyeda, K.

    1986-01-01

    A new direct assay method for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate has been developed based on competitive binding of labeled and unlabeled fructose 2,6-P 2 to phosphofructokinase. Phosphofructokinase (0.5-1.3 pmol promoter) is incubated with saturating concentrations (5.0-5.5 pmol) of fructose 2,6[2- 32 P]P 2 and samples containing varying concentrations of fructose 2,6-P 2 . The resulting stable binary complex is retained on nitrocellulose filters with a binding efficiency of up to 70%. Standard curves obtained with this assay show strict linearity with varying fructose 2,6-P 2 in the range of 0.5 to 45 pmol, which exceeds the sensitivity of most of the previously described assay methods. Fructose 2,6-P 2 , ATP, and high concentrations of phosphate interfere with this assay. However, the extent of this inhibition is negligible since their tissue contents are one-half to one-tenth that examined. The new assay is simple, direct, rapid, and does not require pretreatment

  17. Fructose Induced Endotoxemia in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical studies of fructose-induced NAFLD, endotoxin appears to play an important role. We retrospectively examined samples from three pediatric cohorts (1 to investigate whether endotoxemia is associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis; (2 to evaluate postprandial endotoxin levels in response to fructose beverage in an acute 24-hour feeding challenge, and (3 to determine the change of fasting endotoxin amounts in a 4-week randomized controlled trial comparing fructose to glucose beverages in NAFLD. We found that adolescents with hepatic steatosis had elevated endotoxin levels compared to obese controls and that the endotoxin level correlated with insulin resistance and several inflammatory cytokines. In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals as compared to healthy children. Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks. In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process. Further studies are needed to determine if manipulation of the microbiome or other methods of endotoxin reduction would be useful as a therapy for pediatric NAFLD.

  18. Dietary health behaviour and beliefs among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of six healthy dietary behaviours and associated factors in university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. In a cross-sectional survey, we used a self-administered questionnaire (largely based on the European Health and Behaviour Survey) among 19503 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, Standard deviation=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 27 universities in 26 countries. Results indicated that for a total of six healthy dietary behaviours, overall, students scored a mean of 2.8 healthy dietary behaviours. More female than male students indicated healthy dietary behaviours. In multivariate linear regression among men and women, living in an upper middle income or high income country, dieting to lose weight, the high importance of dietary health benefits, high non-organized religious activity, high physical activity and currently a non-tobacco user were associated with the healthy dietary behaviour index. The study found a high prevalence of relatively poor dietary healthy behaviours.

  19. Fructose: It’s “Alcohol Without the Buzz”123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet. Fructose is found in fruit, does not generate an insulin response, and is very sweet. Fructose consumption has increased worldwide, paralleling the obesity and chronic metabolic disease pandemic. Sugar (i.e., fructose-containing mixtures) has been vilified by nutritionists for ages as a source of “empty calories,” no different from any other empty calorie. However, fructose is unlike glucose. In the hypercaloric glycogen-replete state, intermediary metabolites from fructose metabolism overwhelm hepatic mitochondrial capacity, which promotes de novo lipogenesis and leads to hepatic insulin resistance, which drives chronic metabolic disease. Fructose also promotes reactive oxygen species formation, which leads to cellular dysfunction and aging, and promotes changes in the brain’s reward system, which drives excessive consumption. Thus, fructose can exert detrimental health effects beyond its calories and in ways that mimic those of ethanol, its metabolic cousin. Indeed, the only distinction is that because fructose is not metabolized in the central nervous system, it does not exert the acute neuronal depression experienced by those imbibing ethanol. These metabolic and hedonic analogies argue that fructose should be thought of as “alcohol without the buzz.” PMID:23493539

  20. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P 80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

  1. Effects of Restricted Fructose Access on Body Weight and Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Senador

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fructose diet is known to produce cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies. The objective was to determine whether the timing of high fructose (10% liquid solution intake affect the metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. Male C57BL mice with radiotelemetric probes were divided into four groups: (1 24 h water (control; (2 24 h fructose (F24; (3 12 h fructose during the light phase (F12L; (4 12 h fructose during the dark phase (F12D. All fructose groups had higher fluid intake. Body weight was increased in mice on restricted access with no difference in total caloric intake. Fasting glycemia was higher in groups with restricted access. F24 mice showed a fructose-induced blood pressure increase during the dark period. Blood pressure circadian rhythms were absent in F12L mice. Results suggest that the timing of fructose intake is an important variable in the etiology of cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies produced by high fructose consumption.

  2. Oxymatrine attenuates hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed with high fructose diet through inhibition of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Pparα).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-juan; Shi, Lei; Song, Guang-yao; Zhang, He-fang; Hu, Zhi-juan; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Dong-hui

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of oxymatrine, a monomer isolated from the medicinal plant Sophora flavescens Ait, on the hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) rats and to explore the potential mechanism. Rats were fed with high fructose diet for 8 weeks to establish the NAFLD model, then were given oxymatrine treatment (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg, respectively) for another 8 weeks. Body weight gain, liver index, serum and liver lipids, and histopathological evaluation were measured. Enzymatic activity and gene expression of the key enzymes involved in the lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were assayed. The results showed that oxymatrine treatment reduced body weight gain, liver weight, liver index, dyslipidemia, and liver triglyceride level in a dose dependant manner. Importantly, the histopathological examination of liver confirmed that oxymatrine could decrease the liver lipid accumulation. The treatment also decreased the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzymatic activity and increased the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) enzymatic activity. Besides, oxymatrine treatment decreased the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1(Srebf1), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), and acetyl CoA carboxylase (Acc), and increased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Pparα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (Cpt1a), and acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) in high fructose diet induced NAFLD rats. These results suggested that the therapeutic effect of oxymatrine on the hepatic steatosis in high fructose diet induced fatty liver rats is partly due to down-regulating Srebf1 and up-regulating Pparα mediated metabolic pathways simultaneously. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, D W [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Duvnjak, Z [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-01

    A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

  4. Silymarin ameliorates fructose induced insulin resistance syndrome by reducing de novo hepatic lipogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Prem; Singh, Vishal; Jain, Manish; Rana, Minakshi; Khanna, Vivek; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu

    2014-03-15

    High dietary fructose causes insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), primarily due to simultaneous induction of genes involved in glucose, lipid and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The present study evaluates effect of a hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (SYM) on fructose-induced metabolic abnormalities in the rat and also assessed the associated thrombotic complications. Wistar rats were kept on high fructose (HFr) diet throughout the 12-week study duration (9 weeks of HFr feeding and subsequently 3 weeks of HFr plus SYM oral administration [once daily]). SYM treatment significantly reduced the HFr diet-induced increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α/β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, liver X receptor (LXR)-β, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PPARγ genes in rat liver. SYM also reduced HFr diet mediated increase in plasma triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), total nitrite and pro-inflammatory cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]) levels. Moreover, SYM ameliorated HFr diet induced reduction in glucose utilization and endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, SYM significantly reduced platelet activation (adhesion and aggregation), prolonged ferric chloride-induced blood vessel occlusion time and protected against exacerbated myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI-RP) injury. SYM treatment prevented HFr induced mRNA expression of hepatic PGC-1α/β and also its target transcription factors which was accompanied with recovery in insulin sensitivity and reduced propensity towards thrombotic complications and aggravated MI-RP injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fructose-induced increases in expression of intestinal fructolytic and gluconeogenic genes are regulated by GLUT5 and KHK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Gao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Marked increases in fructose consumption have been tightly linked to metabolic diseases. One-third of ingested fructose is metabolized in the small intestine, but the underlying mechanisms regulating expression of fructose-metabolizing enzymes are not known. We used genetic mouse models to test the hypothesis that fructose absorption via glucose transporter protein, member 5 (GLUT5), metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein in brain 11a (Rab11a)-dependent endosomes are required for the regulation of intestinal fructolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes. Fructose feeding increased the intestinal mRNA and protein expression of these enzymes in the small intestine of adult wild-type (WT) mice compared with those gavage fed with lysine or glucose. Fructose did not increase expression of these enzymes in the GLUT5 knockout (KO) mice. Blocking intracellular fructose metabolism by KHK ablation also prevented fructose-induced upregulation. Glycolytic hexokinase I expression was similar between WT and GLUT5- or KHK-KO mice and did not vary with feeding solution. Gavage feeding with the fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase enzyme expression, suggesting that signaling occurs before the hydrolysis of fructose to three-carbon compounds. Impeding GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane using intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice impaired fructose-induced upregulation. KHK expression was uniformly distributed along the villus but was localized mainly in the basal region of the cytosol of enterocytes. The feedforward upregulation of fructolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes specifically requires GLUT5 and KHK and may proactively enhance the intestine's ability to process anticipated increases in dietary fructose concentrations. PMID:26084694

  6. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted 67 Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of 67 Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of 67 Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of 67 Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate

  7. Fructose, Glucocorticoids and Adipose Tissue: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, Balázs; Marcolongo, Paola; Gamberucci, Alessandra; Varga, Viola; Bánhegyi, Gábor; Benedetti, Angiolo; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-04-26

    The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Fructose induced neurogenic hypertension mediated by overactivation of p38 MAPK to impair insulin signaling transduction caused central insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Lin, Yu-Te; Ho, Wen-Yu; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lai, Chi-Cheng; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Liu, Chun-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of complications related to hypertension, and reports have indicated that insulin levels may be associated with blood pressure (BP). Fructose intake has recently been reported to promote insulin resistance and superoxide formation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether fructose intake can enhance superoxide generation and impair insulin signaling in the NTS and subsequently elevate BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Treatment with fructose for 4 weeks increased the BP, serum fasting insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and triglyceride levels and reduced the serum direct high-density lipoprotein level in the fructose group. The Tempol treatment recovered the fructose-induced decrease in nitric oxide production in the NTS. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses further showed that fructose increased the p38- and fructose-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 S307 ) and suppressed Akt S473 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Similarly, fructose was able to impair insulin sensitivity and increase insulin levels in the NTS. Fructose intake also increased the production of superoxide in the NTS. The results of this study suggest that fructose might induce central insulin resistance and elevate BP by enhancing superoxide production and activating p38 phosphorylation in the NTS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic fructose intake accelerates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the presence of essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lírio, Layla Mendonça; Forechi, Ludimila; Zanardo, Tadeu Caliman; Batista, Hiago Martins; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Mill, José Geraldo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim

    2016-01-01

    The growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome has been related to the increased use of fructose by the food industry. In fact, the use of fructose as an ingredient has increased in sweetened beverages, such as sodas and juices. We thus hypothesized that fructose intake by hypertensive rats would have a worse prognosis in developing metabolic disorder and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Wistar and SHR rats aged 6weeks were given water or fructose (10%) for 6weeks. Blood glucose was measured every two weeks, and insulin and glucose sensitivity tests were assessed at the end of the follow-up. Systolic blood pressure was measure by plethysmography. Lean mass and abdominal fat mass were collected and weighed. Liver tissue was analyzed to determine interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis. Fasting glucose increased in animals that underwent a high fructose intake, independent of blood pressure levels. Also, insulin resistance was observed in normotensive and mostly in hypertensive rats after fructose intake. Fructose intake caused a 2.5-fold increase in triglycerides levels in both groups. Fructose intake did not change lean mass. However, we found that fructose intake significantly increased abdominal fat mass deposition in normotensive but not in hypertensive rats. Nevertheless, chronic fructose intake only increased fat deposition and fibrosis in the liver in hypertensive rats. We demonstrated that, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, fructose intake increased triglycerides and abdominal fat deposition, and caused insulin resistance. However, hypertensive rats that underwent fructose intake also developed interstitial fat deposition and fibrosis in liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Review of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder with hereditary determinism, clinically manifested on terms of fructose intake. Untreated, hereditary fructose intolerance may result in renal and hepatic failure. Unfortunately, there are no formal diagnostic and surveillance guidelines for this disease. If identified and treated before the occurrence of permanent organ damage, patients can improve their symptoms and self-rated health. Implementation and adherence to a strict fructose free diet is often difficult, but not impossible.

  11. The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Iizuka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase, fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase, and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase. ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome.

  12. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model....... FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed...

  13. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls ha...

  14. Determinants of the use of dietary supplements among secondary and high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Karolina; Zielińska, Monika; Ciecierska, Anna; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    All over the world, including Poland, the sale of dietary supplements is increasing. More and more often, people including children and youths, use dietary supplements on their own initiative and without any medical indications or knowledge in this field. Analysis of the conditions of using the dietary supplements with vitamins and minerals among secondary school and high school students in Poland. The study included 396 students aged 13-18 years (249 girls and 147 boys). Authors’ questionnaire was used to evaluate the intake of dietary supplements. The use of cluster analysis allowed to distinguish groups of students with similar socio-demographic characteristics and the frequency of use of dietary supplements. In the studied population of students three clusters were created that significantly differed in socio-demographic characteristics. In cluster 1 and 2, were mostly students who used dietary supplements (respectively, 56% of respondents and 100%). In cluster 1 there were mostly students coming from rural areas and small city, with a worse financial situation, mainly boys (56%), while cluster 2 was dominated by girls (81%) living in a big city, coming from families with a good financial situation and who were more likely to be underweight (28.8%). In cluster 3 there were mostly older students (62%), not taking dietary supplements. In comparison to cluster 2, they had lower frequency of breakfast consumption (55% vs. 69%), but higher frequency of the consumption of soft drinks, fast-food, coffee as well as salt use at the table. The results show that the use of dietary supplements in adolescence is a common phenomenon and slightly conditioned by eating behaviors. This unfavorable habit of common dietary supplements intake observed among students indicates the need for education on the benefits and risks of the supplements usage.

  15. Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: revealing fructose-induced changes in mice urinary metabolic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Collino, Massimo; Chiazza, Fausto; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    This study exploits the information potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography configured with a parallel dual secondary column-dual detection by mass spectrometry and flame ionization (GC×2GC-MS/FID) to study changes in urinary metabolic signatures of mice subjected to high-fructose diets. Samples are taken from mice fed with normal or fructose-enriched diets provided either in aqueous solution or in solid form and analyzed at three stages of the dietary intervention (1, 6, and 12 weeks). Automated Untargeted and Targeted fingerprinting for 2D data elaboration is adopted for the most inclusive data mining of GC×GC patterns. The UT fingerprinting strategy performs a fully automated peak-region features fingerprinting and combines results from pre-targeted compounds and unknowns across the sample-set. The most informative metabolites, with statistically relevant differences between sample groups, are obtained by unsupervised multivariate analysis (MVA) and cross-validated by multi-factor analysis (MFA) with external standard quantitation by GC-MS. Results indicate coherent clustering of mice urine signatures according to dietary manipulation. Notably, the metabolite fingerprints of mice fed with liquid fructose exhibited greater derangement in fructose, glucose, citric, pyruvic, malic, malonic, gluconic, cis-aconitic, succinic and 2-keto glutaric acids, glycine acyl derivatives (N-carboxy glycine, N-butyrylglycine, N-isovaleroylglycine, N-phenylacetylglycine), and hippuric acid. Untargeted fingerprinting indicates some analytes which were not a priori pre-targeted which provide additional insights: N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl glutamine, malonyl glycine, methyl malonyl glycine, and glutaric acid. Visual features fingerprinting is used to track individual variations during experiments, thereby extending the panorama of possible data elaboration tools. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. Efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from concentrated aqueous fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Hansen, Thomas; Woodley, John; Riisager, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the HCl-catalysed microwave-assisted dehydration of highly concentrated aqueous fructose (27 wt %) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) revealed a significant increase in the fructose conversion rate over the conventional heated systems. Water, being the most benign solvent and therefore...

  17. Effect of fructose consumption on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diet-intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Schene, Merle R; Holman, Rebecca; Romijn, Johannes A; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-12-01

    High fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to several features of metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, but to our knowledge, no previous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled diet-intervention studies in nondiabetic subjects to determine the effect of fructose on insulin sensitivity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials on the basis of predetermined eligibility criteria. Two investigators independently performed the study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Results were pooled with the use of the generic inverse-variance method with random effects weighting and were expressed as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. Twenty-nine articles that described 46 comparisons in 1005 normal-weight and overweight or obese participants met the eligibility criteria. An energy-matched (isocaloric) exchange of dietary carbohydrates by fructose promoted hepatic insulin resistance (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.91; P = 0.04) but had no effect on fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: -0.79 pmol/L; 95% CI: -6.41, 4.84 pmol/L; P = 0.78), the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: 0.13; 95% CI: -0.07, 0.34; P = 0.21), or glucose disposal rates under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: 20.41, 0.41; P = 1.00). Hypercaloric fructose (∼25% excess of energy compared with that of the weight-maintenance control diet) raised fasting plasma insulin concentrations (MD: 3.38 pmol/L; 95% CI: 0.03, 6.73 pmol/L; P fructose consumption, in isocaloric exchange or in hypercaloric supplementation, promotes the development of hepatic insulin resistance in nondiabetic adults without affecting peripheral or muscle insulin sensitivity. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to assess whether real

  18. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  19. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara; Pedersen, Henrik D; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure volume measurements, and intramyocardial lipid accumulation was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Cardiac AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels were measured by Western blotting. Finally, an ischemia-reperfusion study was performed after 56 wk of feeding. FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed significant intramyocardial lipid accumulation, and cardiac hypertrophy became pronounced between 24 and 36 wk of feeding. FFFRs showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction during unstressed conditions, but their hearts were much more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion and had a decreased level of phosphorylated AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications.

  20. Intracellular uptake of 123I-boronophenylalanine-fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, K. S.; Choi, T. H.; Choi, C. Y.; Jung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been used in malignant glioma or melanoma uptake for BNCT. We labeled BPA with 123 I for in vivo quantitation of BPA in BNCT, and tumor imaging with gamma camera. We investigated the amino acid BPA as a boron delivery agent fro BNCT. As the free amino acid, BPA has a limited solubility at physiological pH, which makes it unsuitable for IV or IP injection. Recent studies of the chemistry of BPA have yielded a method of solubilizing BPA at neutral pH using fructose, a common fruit sugar. The use of BPA-fructose has significantly improved high uptake compared to BPA alone in melanoma

  1. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-

  2. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  3. The Effects of Fructose-Containing Sugars on Weight, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors When Consumed at up to the 90th Percentile Population Consumption Level for Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA and World Health Organization (WHO have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010. Sucrose (SUC and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20–60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01, a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05 and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001. However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05, LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05, SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05 and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05 were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05. These data suggest that: (1 when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO; (2 changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest.

  4. Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiome Are Differentially Affected in Mice Fed a Western-Style Diet or Drinking Water Supplemented with Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynets, Valentina; Louis, Sandrine; Pretz, Dominik; Lang, Lisa; Ostaff, Maureen J; Wehkamp, Jan; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function. Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Barrier function was studied with the use of permeability tests, and endotoxin, mucus thickness, and gene expressions were measured. Results: The WSD increased body weight gain but not endotoxin translocation compared with the CD. In contrast, high fructose intake increased endotoxin translocation 2.6- and 3.8-fold in the groups fed the CD + fructose and WSD + fructose, respectively, compared with the CD group. The WSD + fructose treatment also induced a loss of mucus thickness in the colon (-46%) and reduced defensin expression in the ileum and colon. The lactulose:mannitol ratio in the WSD + fructose mice was 1.8-fold higher than in the CD mice. Microbiota analysis revealed that fructose, but not the WSD, increased the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio by 88% for CD + fructose and 63% for WSD + fructose compared with the CD group. Bifidobacterium abundance was greater in the WSD mice than in the CD mice (63-fold) and in the WSD + fructose mice than in the CD + fructose mice (330-fold). Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake behaviors in adulthood: A birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Williams, Gail; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a wide range of chronic medical conditions including obesity, other metabolic events and eating disorders. However, little is known about the association between childhood maltreatment and high dietary fat intake. This study addresses the extent to which co-occurring and specific forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment are associated with self-reported high dietary fat intake in adulthood and whether there is a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction in predicting this association. The study also examines the association between age at substantiation of maltreatment, number of childhood maltreatment substantiations and high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. The data were from a prospective Australian pre-birth mother-child dyads study, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. The study followed 7223 mother-child dyads following the birth of a live, singleton baby at the Mater hospital. Recruitment was early in pregnancy, and then follow-ups at 3-5days postpartum and again when the child was 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years of age. The data were linked to agency-substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment 0-14 years. This study extended the data linkage to 3766 (47.4% female) participants who had complete data on dietary fat intake behaviors at the 21-year follow-up. Consecutive logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals for high dietary fat intake for multiple and specific forms of childhood maltreatment, as well as age at and number of childhood maltreatment substantiations. Finally, a gender-childhood maltreatment interaction term was used to predict the outcome. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, substantiated childhood maltreatment including physical abuse were associated with high dietary fat intake-related behaviors. Similarly, substantiation of childhood maltreatment between the ages of 5 and 14 years was significantly

  6. Effects of high-fat diet and fructose-rich diet on obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in the WBN/Kob-Leprfa rat, a new model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Junichi; Takagi, Yoshiichi; Wakabayashi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Yuki; Watanabe, Ayaka; Nagakubo, Dai; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2017-06-10

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are occurring at epidemic-like rates, and these epidemics appear to have emerged largely from changes in daily diet. In the present study, we compared effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and fructose-rich diet (FRD) in WBN/Kob-Lepr fa (WBKDF) rats that spontaneously develop obesity, dyslipidemia and T2DM. After a 4-week feeding of each diet, WBKDF-HFD and WBKDF-FRD rats exhibited aggravated obesity and dyslipidemia compared with WBKDF rats fed standard diet (STD). In contrast, hyperglycemia developed in WBKDF-STD rats was significantly inhibited in WBKDF-FRD rats, but not in WBKDF-HFD rats. The present study demonstrated that the 4-week feeding of HFD and FRD caused diet-induced obesity with a distinct phenotype in the glucose metabolism in WBKDF rats.

  7. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose from D-fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekany, Gyula; Lundt, Inge; Niedermaier, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose was efficiently prepared from D-fructose via regiospecific 1,5-anhydro ring formation of 2,3-O-isopropylidene-1-O-methyl(tolyl)sulfonyl-D-fructopyranose and subsequent deprotection.......1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose was efficiently prepared from D-fructose via regiospecific 1,5-anhydro ring formation of 2,3-O-isopropylidene-1-O-methyl(tolyl)sulfonyl-D-fructopyranose and subsequent deprotection....

  8. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRUCTOSE CONTENT OF A NORMAL KUWAITI DIET AND THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Al-Salem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This project investigates the prevalence of fructose intake in a normal Kuwaiti diet. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in Kuwait has been on the rise in the last 2 decades; at the moment just over 74 percent of the population is overweight or obese, according to the World Health Organization. Fructose intake has recently received considerable negative media attention, as the use of high fructose corn syrups has become more widely used. Fructose intake has been believed to be linked with a rise in Metabolic Syndrome and an increase in obesity. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ∼10% of total energy has no harmful effect on lipids and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. In this study 60 adult participants filled out a two day detailed food diary including quantities. The diaries were then analyzed by a dietitian using the USDA nutrient database and the Food Processor program version 9.9.0, and the total fructose intake per day of the normal Kuwaiti diet was calculated. In addition a 24- hour urine collection for fructose was measured to correlate the results with the food diaries. Once the results were tabulated and verified, a mean fructose intake of 27.9 grams was calculated, ranging in daily fructose intakes from 2.8 g to 101.6g per day. In conclusion the results showed an average daily intake of 27.9 grams of fructose, which is lower than the estimated moderate intake therefore, cannot be the major cause of metabolic syndrome or obesity in Kuwait.

  10. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  11. High dietary zinc feeding promotes persistence of multi-resistant E. coli in the swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesinski, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Pieper, Robert; Kalisch, Martin; Bednorz, Carmen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2018-01-01

    High levels of zinc oxide are used frequently as feed additive in pigs to improve gut health and growth performance and are still suggested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. However, we have recently described an increase of multi-resistant E. coli in association to zinc feeding in piglets. This previous study focused on clonal diversity of E. coli, observing the effect on multi-resistant strains by chance. To shed further light into this highly important topic and falsify our previous findings, we performed a zinc pig feeding trial where we specifically focused on in-depth analysis of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. Under controlled experimental conditions, piglets were randomly allocated to a high dietary zinc (zinc group) and a background zinc feeding group (control group). At different ages samples were taken from feces, digesta, and mucosa and absolute E. coli numbers were determined. A total of 2665 E. coli isolates were than phenotypically tested for antimicrobial resistance and results were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration testing for random samples. In piglets fed with high dietary zinc, we detected a substantial increase of multi-resistant E. coli in all gut habitats tested, ranging from 28.9-30.2% multi-resistant E. coli compared to 5.8-14.0% in the control group. This increase was independent of the total number of E. coli. Interestingly, the total amount of the E. coli population decreased over time. Thus, the increase of the multi-resistant E. coli populations seems to be linked with persistence of the resistant population, caused by the influence of high dietary zinc feeding. In conclusion, these findings corroborate our previous report linking high dietary zinc feeding of piglets with the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli and therefore question the feeding of high dietary zinc oxide as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters.

  12. Heritable transmission of stress resistance by high dietary glucose in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tauffenberger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is a major energy source and is a key regulator of metabolism but excessive dietary glucose is linked to several disorders including type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiac dysfunction. Dietary intake greatly influences organismal survival but whether the effects of nutritional status are transmitted to the offspring is an unresolved question. Here we show that exposing Caenorhabditis elegans to high glucose concentrations in the parental generation leads to opposing negative effects on fecundity, while having protective effects against cellular stress in the descendent progeny. The transgenerational inheritance of glucose-mediated phenotypes is dependent on the insulin/IGF-like signalling pathway and components of the histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylase complex are essential for transmission of inherited phenotypes. Thus dietary over-consumption phenotypes are heritable with profound effects on the health and survival of descendants.

  13. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  14. Chronic psychological stress and high-fat high-fructose diet disrupt metabolic and inflammatory gene networks in the brain, liver, and gut and promote behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth; Bekhbat, Mandakh; Houser, Madelyn C; Chang, Jianjun; Walker, Douglas I; Jones, Dean P; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia M P; Barnum, Christopher J; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between chronic psychological stress, development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and behavioral impairment in obesity are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of mild chronic psychological stress on metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral profiles in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that (1) high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF) and psychological stress would synergize to mediate the impact of inflammation on the central nervous system in the presence of behavioral dysfunction, and that (2) HFHF and stress interactions would impact insulin and lipid metabolism. C57Bl/6 male mice underwent a combination of HFHF and two weeks of chronic psychological stress. MetS-related conditions were assessed using untargeted plasma metabolomics, and structural and immune changes in the gut and liver were evaluated. Inflammation was measured in plasma, liver, gut, and brain. Our results show a complex interplay of diet and stress on gut alterations, energetic homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and plasma insulin levels. Psychological stress and HFHF diet promoted changes in intestinal tight junctions proteins and increases in insulin resistance and plasma cholesterol, and impacted the RNA expression of inflammatory factors in the hippocampus. Stress promoted an adaptive anti-inflammatory profile in the hippocampus that was abolished by diet treatment. HFHF increased hippocampal and hepatic Lcn2 mRNA expression as well as LCN2 plasma levels. Behavioral changes were associated with HFHF and stress. Collectively, these results suggest that diet and stress as pervasive factors exacerbate MetS-related conditions through an inflammatory mechanism that ultimately can impact behavior. This rodent model may prove useful for identification of possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets to treat metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  16. Manifestations of Renal Impairment in Fructose-induced Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratoeva, Kameliya; Stoyanov, George S; Merdzhanova, Albena; Radanova, Mariya

    2017-11-07

    Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS. Methods We used a model of high-fructose diet in male Wistar rats with 35% glucose-fructose corn syrup in drinking water over a duration of 16 weeks. The experimental animals were divided into two groups: control and high-fructose drinking (HFD). Serum samples were obtained from both groups for laboratory study, and the kidneys were extracted for observation via light microscopy examination. Results All HFD rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased levels of CRP and UA (when compared to the control group), and oxidative stress with high levels of malondialdehyde and low levels of reduced glutathione. The kidneys of the HFD group revealed a significant increase in kidney weight in the absence of evidence of renal dysfunction and electrolyte disturbances. Under light microscopy, the kidneys of the HFD group revealed amyloid deposits in Kimmelstiel-Wilson-like nodules and the walls of the large caliber blood vessels, early-stage atherosclerosis with visible ruptures and scarring, hydropic change (vacuolar degeneration) in the epithelial cells covering the proximal tubules, and increased eosinophilia in the distant tubules when compared to the control group. Conclusion Under the conditions of a fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, high serum UA and CRP correlate to the development of early renal disorders without a clinical manifestation of renal dysfunction. These

  17. Dietary B vitamin needs of strains of pigs with high and moderate lean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahly, T S; Williams, N H; Lutz, T R; Ewan, R C; Swenson, S G

    2007-01-01

    Ten sets of 5 littermate pigs from each of 2 genetic strains were utilized to determine the impact of the dietary concentration of 5 B vitamins (riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, cobalamin, and folacin) on growth from 9 to 28 kg of BW in pigs with high or moderate capacity for lean growth. All pigs (penned individually) were reared via a segregated, early weaning scheme, so that the lean growth potential of each strain could be expressed. The basal diet provided the 5 test vitamins at concentrations of total and estimated bioavailability equivalent to a minimum of 100 and 70%, respectively, of their estimated requirements (NRC, 1998) for 5- to 10-kg pigs. At a BW of 9 +/- 0.9 kg, pigs within each litter were allotted to the basal diet supplemented with sources of the 5 test vitamins equivalent to an additional 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400% (bioavailable) of the NRC requirements. Pigs from the high lean strain consumed less feed (P vitamin concentrations were increased. However, the dietary B vitamin concentrations needed to optimize G:F were greater (P 470% of NRC, 1998) vs. moderate (270%) lean strain. Based on these data, the dietary needs for 1 or more of the 5 B vitamins are greater than current NRC (1998) estimates, particularly in pigs expressing a high rate of lean tissue growth. The greater need for these vitamins is not associated with greater dietary energy intake or body energy accretion rate but is potentially due to shifts in the predominant metabolic pathways.

  18. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban

  19. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Snijder, M.B.; Schene, A.H.; Lok, A.; Vries, J.H. de; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  20. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; De Vries, Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  1. Metabolic impacts of high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Madani; Fjære, Even; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been linked to metabolic diseases. Yet, the effects of high exposure to dietary POPs remain unclear. We therefore investigated whether elevated exposure to POPs provided by whale meat supplementation could contribute to insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice...... were fed control (C) or very high-fat diet (VHF) containing low or high levels of POPs (VHF+POPs) for eight weeks. To elevate the dietary concentrations of POPs, casein was replaced by whale meat containing high levels of pollutants. Feeding VHF+POPs induced high POP accumulation in the adipose tissue...... of mice. However, compared with VHF-fed mice, animals fed VHF+POPs had improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and reduced body weight. Levels of ectopic fat in skeletal muscles and liver were reduced in mice fed VHF+POPs. These mice also gained less adipose tissue and had a tendency...

  2. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-06-01

    The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6-8 weeks. Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35-0.61. P intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  4. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  5. Fructose-fed streptozotocin-injected rat: an alternative model for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel D; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to develop an alternative non-genetic rat model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (190.56 ± 23.60 g) were randomly divided into six groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Fructose-10 (FR10), Fructose-20 (FR20), Fructose-30 (FR30) and Fructose-40 (FR40) and were fed a normal rat pellet diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. During this period, the two control groups received normal drinking water whilst the fructose groups received 10, 20, 30 and 40% fructose in drinking water ad libitum, respectively. After two weeks of dietary manipulation, all groups except the NC group received a single injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg b.w.) dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.4). The NC group received only a vehicle buffer injection (i.p.). One week after the STZ injection, animals with non-fasting blood glucose levels > 300 mg/dl were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after the STZ injection, the animals in FR20, FR30 and FR40 groups were eliminated from the study due to the severity of diabetes and the FR10 group was selected for the remainder of the 11 weeks experimental period. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher fluid intake, blood glucose, serum lipids, liver glycogen, liver function enzymes and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and significantly (p < 0.05) lower body weight, oral glucose tolerance, number of pancreatic β-cells and pancreatic β-cell functions (HOMA-β) of FR10 group demonstrate that the 10% fructose-fed followed by 40 mg/kg of BWSTZ injected rat can be a new and alternative model for T2D.

  6. Cytoprotection by fructose and other ketohexoses during bile salt-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeid, I M; Bronk, S F; Fesmier, P J; Gores, G J

    1997-01-01

    Toxic bile salts cause hepatocyte necrosis at high concentrations and apoptosis at lower concentrations. Although fructose prevents bile salt-induced necrosis, the effect of fructose on bile salt-induced apoptosis is unclear. Our aim was to determine if fructose also protects against bile salt-induced apoptosis. Fructose inhibited glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC)-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum inhibition of 72% +/- 10% at 10 mmol/L. First, we determined if fructose inhibited apoptosis by decreasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intracellular pH (pHi). Although fructose decreased ATP to effects, alterations in the expression of bcl-2, or metal chelation, we next determined if the poorly metabolized ketohexoses, tagatose and sorbose, also inhibited apoptosis; unexpectedly, both ketohexoses inhibited apoptosis. Because bile salt-induced apoptosis and necrosis are inhibited by fructose, these data suggest that similar processes initiate bile salt-induced hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. In contrast, acidosis, which inhibits necrosis, potentiates apoptosis. Thus, ketohexose-sensitive pathways appear to initiate both bile salt-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, whereas dissimilar, pH-sensitive, effector mechanisms execute these two different cell death processes.

  7. High Dietary Fat Selectively Increases Catalase Expression within Cardiac Mitochondria*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindler, Paul M.; Plafker, Scott M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Kinter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One consequence of obesity is dyslipidemia characterized by high blood triglycerides. It has been proposed that oxidative stress, driven by utilization of lipids for energy, contributes to these diseases. The effects of oxidative stress are mitigated by an endogenous antioxidant enzyme network, but little is known about its response to high fat utilization. Our experiments used a multiplexed quantitative proteomics method to measure antioxidant enzyme expression in heart tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. This experiment showed a rapid and specific up-regulation of catalase protein, with subsequent assays showing increases in activity and mRNA. Catalase, traditionally considered a peroxisomal protein, was found to be present in cardiac mitochondria and significantly increased in content and activity during high fat feeding. These data, coupled with the fact that fatty acid oxidation enhances mitochondrial H2O2 production, suggest that a localized catalase increase is needed to consume excessive mitochondrial H2O2 produced by increased fat metabolism. To determine whether the catalase-specific response is a common feature of physiological conditions that increase blood triglycerides and fatty acid oxidation, we measured changes in antioxidant expression in fasted versus fed mice. Indeed, a similar specific catalase increase was observed in mice fasted for 24 h. Our findings suggest a fundamental metabolic process in which catalase expression is regulated to prevent damage while preserving an H2O2-mediated sensing of diet composition that appropriately adjusts insulin sensitivity in the short term as needed to prioritize lipid metabolism for complete utilization. PMID:23204527

  8. Liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect induced by high dietary copper in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cao, Huabin; Su, Rongsheng; Guo, Jianying; Li, Chengmei; Pan, Jiaqiang; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an important trace mineral in the diet of poultry due to its biological activity. However, limited information is available concerning the effects of high copper on mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, 72 broilers were used to investigate the effects of high dietary copper on liver mitochondrial dysfunction and electron transport chain defect. Birds were fed with different concentrations [11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of copper/kg dry matter (DM)] of copper from tribasic copper chloride (TBCC). The experiment lasted for 60 d. Liver tissues on d 60 were subjected to histopathological observation. Additionally, liver mitochondrial function was recorded on d 12, 36, and 60. Moreover, a site-specific defect in the electron transport chain in liver mitochondria was also identified by using various chemical inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration. The results showed different degrees of degeneration, mitochondrial swelling, and high-density electrons in hepatocytes. In addition, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) in liver mitochondria increased at first and then decreased in high-dose groups. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation velocity in treated groups was higher than that in control group, which were magnified by inhibiting electron transport at Complex IV. The results indicated that high dietary copper could decline liver mitochondrial function in broilers. The presence of a site-specific defect at Complex IV in liver mitochondria may be responsible for liver mitochondrial dysfunction caused by high dietary copper. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  10. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  11. Formation of Fructose-Mediated Advanced Glycation End Products and Their Roles in Metabolic and Inflammatory Diseases12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Its consumption has increased in parallel with MetS. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved via the Maillard reaction. Fructose has not been a main focus of glycation research because of the difficulty in measuring its adducts, and, more importantly, because although it is 10 times more reactive than glucose, its plasma concentration is only 1% of that of glucose. In this focused review, I summarize exogenous and endogenous fructose metabolism, fructose glycation, and in vitro, animal, and human data. Fructose is elevated in several tissues of diabetic patients where the polyol pathway is active, reaching the same order of magnitude as glucose. It is plausible that the high reactivity of fructose, directly or via its metabolites, may contribute to the formation of intracellular AGEs and to vascular complications. The evidence, however, is still unconvincing. Two areas that have been overlooked so far and should be actively explored include the following: 1) enteral formation of fructose AGEs, generating an inflammatory response to the receptor for AGEs (which may explain the strong association between fructose consumption and asthma, chronic bronchitis, and arthritis); and 2) inactivation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase by a fructose-mediated increase in methylglyoxal flux (perpetuating lipogenesis, fatty liver, and insulin resistance). If proven correct, these mechanisms would put the fructose-mediated Maillard reaction in the limelight again as a contributing factor in chronic inflammatory diseases and MetS. PMID:28096127

  12. Formation of Fructose-Mediated Advanced Glycation End Products and Their Roles in Metabolic and Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Its consumption has increased in parallel with MetS. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved via the Maillard reaction. Fructose has not been a main focus of glycation research because of the difficulty in measuring its adducts, and, more importantly, because although it is 10 times more reactive than glucose, its plasma concentration is only 1% of that of glucose. In this focused review, I summarize exogenous and endogenous fructose metabolism, fructose glycation, and in vitro, animal, and human data. Fructose is elevated in several tissues of diabetic patients where the polyol pathway is active, reaching the same order of magnitude as glucose. It is plausible that the high reactivity of fructose, directly or via its metabolites, may contribute to the formation of intracellular AGEs and to vascular complications. The evidence, however, is still unconvincing. Two areas that have been overlooked so far and should be actively explored include the following: 1) enteral formation of fructose AGEs, generating an inflammatory response to the receptor for AGEs (which may explain the strong association between fructose consumption and asthma, chronic bronchitis, and arthritis); and 2) inactivation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase by a fructose-mediated increase in methylglyoxal flux (perpetuating lipogenesis, fatty liver, and insulin resistance). If proven correct, these mechanisms would put the fructose-mediated Maillard reaction in the limelight again as a contributing factor in chronic inflammatory diseases and MetS. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. [Study of the dietary preferences and the social-psychological factors that affect the dietary behaviors of high school and university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the correlation among dietary intake, dietary preferences, and social-psychological factors in the youth and to examine the factors that affect such dietary behaviors as snacking, skipping breakfast, and taking a biased nutrition. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions on multiple items such as dietary behaviors, psychosocial stress, dietary externalization, information and consciousness about health. The survey was conducted on 1,056 high school students and 1,323 university students in Japan. As a result of the factor analysis among the groups of male/female and high school/university students, relationships were found between the items of "preferences for snacking" and "snack food intakes" among all these groups. Those who like sweets and snacks tended to snack between lunch and dinner or after dinner by themselves more often than those who do not. In contrast to men, intermediate correlations were found between the item of "a meal as a diversion" and each of the items of "snack food intake," "preferences for fried foods/sautéed foods/meat dishes," and "preferences for snacking," among women who do not live alone, regardless of their being high school or university students. The item of "stress over human relationships/academic performance" was shown to have similarly weak correlations with the items of "reasons for skipping breakfast" and "nutrition intake" in the groups of male and female high school students. The less they value nutrition intake, the more they tend to be conscious of stress over human relationships/academic performance.

  14. Necrotic enteritis challenge and high dietary sodium level affect odorant composition or emission from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Swick, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). On d 33, while challenge did not lead to higher mortality, it reduced feed intake by 5.48% (P litter moisture and litter headspace concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (P litter moisture (P litter headspace concentration of sulfur compounds and phenol (P litter flux of some additional odorants, which included 2,3-butanedione (P broiler farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Federica; Senese, Rosalba; Lasala, Pasquale; Ziello, Angela; Mazzoli, Arianna; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Liverini, Giovanna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Iossa, Susanna

    2017-03-24

    Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases.

  16. Early Life Fructose Exposure and Its Implications for Long-Term Cardiometabolic Health in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Feng, Qianyun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Xiao, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear that maternal nutrition can strongly influence the susceptibility of adult offspring to cardiometabolic disease. For decades, it has been thought that excessive intake of fructose, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and foods, has been linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in various populations. These deleterious effects of excess fructose consumption in adults are well researched, but limited data are available on the long-term effects of high fructose exposure during gestation, lactation, and infancy. This review aims to examine the evidence linking early life fructose exposure during critical periods of development and its implications for long-term cardiometabolic health in offspring.

  17. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's ( Heterocephalus glaber ) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Self-assembled block copolymer photonic crystal for selective fructose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyub, Omar B; Ibrahim, Michael B; Briber, Robert M; Kofinas, Peter

    2013-08-15

    The use of one-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated from a self-assembled lamellar block copolymer as a sensitive and selective fructose sensor is investigated. The polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) films are functionalized with 2-(bromomethyl)phenylboronic acid. The boronic acid moiety confined within the lamellar morphology can reversibly bind to sugars such as fructose, imparting the photonic properties of the PS-b-P2VP film. The films exhibit a detection limit of 500 μM in water and 1mM in phosphate buffered saline. Exposure to a 50 mM solution of fructose invokes a highly visible color change from blue to orange. The films are also able to selectively recognize and respond to fructose in competitive studies in the presence of glucose, mannose and sucrose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enantioselective synthesis of tetrafluorinated ribose and fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linclau, Bruno; Boydell, A James; Timofte, Roxana S; Brown, Kylie J; Vinader, Victoria; Weymouth-Wilson, Alexander C

    2009-02-21

    A perfluoroalkylidene lithium mediated cyclisation approach for the enantioselective synthesis of a tetrafluorinated aldose (ribose) and of a tetrafluorinated ketose (fructose), both in the furanose and in the pyranose form, is described.

  1. SGLT5 Reabsorbs Fructose in the Kidney but Its Deficiency Paradoxically Exacerbates Hepatic Steatosis Induced by Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ueda, Otoya; Shimada, Hideaki; Kito, Aki; Kakefuda, Mami; Kawase, Yosuke; Wada, Naoko A.; Goto, Chisato; Fukushima, Naoshi; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Honda, Kiyofumi; King, George L.; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive fructose intake is epidemiologically linked with dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, the mechanisms regulating plasma fructose are not well known. Cells transfected with sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SGLT5), which is expressed exclusively in the kidney, transport fructose in vitro; however, the physiological role of this transporter in fructose metabolism remains unclear. To determine whether SGLT5 functions as a fructose transporter in vivo, we established a line of mic...

  2. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men.

  3. d-Fructose-Decorated Poly(ethylene imine) for Human Breast Cancer Cell Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph; Pröhl, Michael; Czaplewska, Justyna A; Fritzsche, Carolin; Preußger, Elisabeth; Schubert, Ulrich S; Traeger, Anja; Gottschaldt, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The high affinity of GLUT5 transporter for d-fructose in breast cancer cells has been discussed intensely. In this contribution, high molar mass linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) is functionalized with d-fructose moieties to combine the selectivity for the GLUT5 transporter with the delivery potential of PEI for genetic material. The four-step synthesis of a thiol-group bearing d-fructose enables the decoration of a cationic polymer backbone with d-fructose via thiol-ene photoaddition. The functionalization of LPEI is confirmed by 2D NMR techniques, elemental analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Importantly, a d-fructose decoration of 16% renders the polymers water-soluble and eliminates the cytotoxicity of PEI in noncancer L929 cells, accompanied by a reduced unspecific cellular uptake of the genetic material. In contrast, the cytotoxicity as well as the cell specific uptake is increased for triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Therefore, the introduction of d-fructose shows superior potential for cell targeting, which can be assumed to be GLUT5 dependent. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight ( p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass ( p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass ( p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content ( p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  5. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  6. High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R

    2011-02-01

    Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR). However, to date, data from IR-exposed human populations are not available. We examined the intakes of these B vitamins and their food sources in relation to the frequency of chromosome translocations as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, in eighty-two male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semi-quantitative FFQ. Translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation whole-chromosome painting. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95 % CI, adjusted for age and occupational and lifestyle factors. We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0·02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  7. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  8. Fructose suppresses uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen as a result of the induction of oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Sasaki, Shunichi; Okamoto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kuwayama, Kaori; Narumi, Katsuya; Iseki, Ken

    2017-03-01

    A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration. Single administration of fructose suppressed the function of ileal uric acid excretion and had no effect on the function of renal uric acid excretion. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) predominantly contributes to intestinal excretion of uric acid as an active homodimer. Single administration of fructose decreased BCRP homodimer level in the ileum. Moreover, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), recovered the suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion and the Bcrp homodimer level in the ileum of rats that received single administration of fructose. Single administration of fructose decreases in BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the suppression the function of ileal uric acid excretion. The suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion by single administration of fructose is caused by the activation of Nox. The results of our study provide a new insight into the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (Pfructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sympathetic overactivity precedes metabolic dysfunction in a fructose model of glucose intolerance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Katia De; Senador, Danielle D.; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of high levels of fructose in humans and animals leads to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. There are questions as to the role of the autonomic changes in the time course of fructose-induced dysfunction. C57/BL male mice were given tap water or fructose water (100 g/l) to drink for up to 2 mo. Groups were control (C), 15-day fructose (F15), and 60-day fructose (F60). Light-dark patterns of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR), and their respective variabilities were measured. Plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and glucose tolerance were quantified. Fructose increased systolic AP (SAP) at 15 and 60 days during both light (F15: 123 ± 2 and F60: 118 ± 2 mmHg) and dark periods (F15: 136 ± 4 and F60: 136 ± 5 mmHg) compared with controls (light: 111 ± 2 and dark: 117 ± 2 mmHg). SAP variance (VAR) and the low-frequency component (LF) were increased in F15 (>60% and >80%) and F60 (>170% and >140%) compared with C. Cardiac sympatho-vagal balance was enhanced, while baroreflex function was attenuated in fructose groups. Metabolic parameters were unchanged in F15. However, F60 showed significant increases in plasma glucose (26%), cholesterol (44%), triglycerides (22%), insulin (95%), and leptin (63%), as well as glucose intolerance. LF of SAP was positively correlated with SAP. Plasma leptin was correlated with triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Results show that increased sympathetic modulation of vessels and heart preceded metabolic dysfunction in fructose-consuming mice. Data suggest that changes in autonomic modulation may be an initiating mechanism underlying the cluster of symptoms associated with cardiometabolic disease. PMID:22319048

  11. Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopher, A.; Lapidot, A.; Vaisman, N.; Mandel, H.

    1990-01-01

    An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-[U- 13 C]fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of 13 C NMR spectra of plasma glucose. Significantly lower values (∼3-fold) for fructose conversion to glucose were obtained for the HFI patients as compared to the controls. A quantitative determination of the metabolic pathways of fructose conversion to glucose was derived from 13 C NMR measurement of plasma [ 13 C]glucose isotopomer populations. The finding of isotopomer populations of three adjacent 13 C atoms at glucose C-4 ( 13 C 3 - 13 C 4 - 13 C 5 ) suggests that there is a direct pathway from fructose, by-passing fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The metabolism of fructose by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity accounts for only ∼50% of the total amount of hepatic fructose conversion to glucose. In view of the marked decline by 67% in synthesis of glucose from fructose in HFI subjects found in this study, the extent of [ 13 C]glucose formation from a trace amount of [U- 13 C]fructose infused into the patient can be used as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic test for inherent faulty fructose metabolism

  12. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-Term Fructose Feeding Induces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus of Young and Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigliano, Luisa; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Crescenzo, Raffaella; Cancelliere, Rosa; Iannotta, Lucia; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The drastic increase in the consumption of fructose encouraged the research to focus on its effects on brain physio-pathology. Although young and adults differ largely by their metabolic and physiological profiles, most of the previous studies investigated brain disturbances induced by long-term fructose feeding in adults. Therefore, we investigated whether a short-term consumption of fructose (2 weeks) produces early increase in specific markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of young and adult rats. After the high-fructose diet, plasma lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were found significantly increased in parallel with hippocampus inflammation, evidenced by a significant rise in TNF-alpha and glial fibrillar acidic protein concentrations in both the young and adult groups. The fructose-induced inflammatory condition was associated with brain oxidative stress, as increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitro-tyrosine were detected in the hippocampus. The degree of activation of the protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and insulin receptor substrate 1 pathways found in the hippocampus after fructose feeding indicates that the detrimental effects of the fructose-rich diet might largely depend on age. Mitochondrial function in the hippocampus, together with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha content, was found significantly decreased in fructose-treated adult rats. In vitro studies with BV-2 microglial cells confirmed that fructose treatment induces TNF-alpha production as well as oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that unbalanced diet, rich in fructose, may be highly deleterious in young people as in adults and must be strongly discouraged for the prevention of diet-associated neuroinflammation and neurological diseases.

  14. Wood blocks as a carrier for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells used in the production of fructose and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenette, Maryse

    1993-10-01

    The selective conversion of glucose to a product more easily separated from fructose would reduce the fructose separation problem and reduce costs of fructose purification. The production of a valuable byproduct would make the process even more profitable. Accordingly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 39859 was immobilized onto small cubes of wood in order to produce highly enriched fructose syrup from synthetic glucose/fructose mixtures, through the selective fermentation of glucose. The kinetics of growth and byproduct ethanol production rates were measured. Tests were conducted to assess the influence of substrate and product concentration on production rates, and appropriate rate equations were proposed as a design basis for continuous immobilized reactors. The growth and ethanol production rates were found to be inhibited linearly by both substrate and product concentrations. A maximum ethanol productivity of 21.9 g/l/h was attained from a feed containing 10 wt % glucose and 10 wt % fructose. The ethanol concentration was 29.6 g/l, glucose conversion was 78%, and fructose yield was 99%, resulting in a fructose to glucose ratio of 2.7. At lower ethanol productivity levels, the fructose/glucose ratio increases, as does the ethanol concentration in the effluent. Addition of oleic acid, a known anaerobic growth factor, increased the productivity by 13%. Ethanol productivity peaked at 32.6[degree]C and approached 0 near 44[degree]C. Batch fermentation productivity was not high due to low biomass concentration leaving the reactor. Addition of yeast extract or active biomass increased productivity substantially. The immobilized cell bioreactor was also used to produce sorbitol continuously from fructose. 124 refs., 28 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Antibiotics protect against fructose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice: role of endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergheim, Ina; Weber, Synia; Vos, Miriam; Krämer, Sigrid; Volynets, Valentina; Kaserouni, Seline; McClain, Craig J; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2008-06-01

    Consumption of refined carbohydrates in soft drinks has been postulated to be a key factor in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to test the effects of ad libitum access to different sugars consumed in drinking water on hepatic fat accumulation. For 8 weeks, C57BL/J6 mice had free access to solutions containing 30% glucose, fructose, sucrose, or water sweetened with artificial sweetener (AS) or plain water. Body weight, caloric intake, hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Total caloric intake and weight gain were highest in mice exposed to glucose. In contrast, hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly higher in mice consuming fructose compared to all other groups. Moreover, endotoxin levels in portal blood and lipid peroxidation as well as TNFalpha expression were significantly higher in fructose fed mice than in all other groups. Concomitant treatment of fructose fed mice with antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin B and neomycin) markedly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in fructose fed mice. These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only lead to liver damage through overfeeding but also may be directly pro-inflammatory by increasing intestinal translocation of endotoxin.

  16. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Dhar

    Full Text Available The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH, proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  17. Increased methylglyoxal formation with upregulation of renin angiotensin system in fructose fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Dhar, Arti; Wu, Lingyun; Desai, Kaushik M

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is attributed to a high carbohydrate diet, containing mainly high fructose corn syrup and sucrose. More than two thirds of diabetic patients have hypertension. Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl generated during glucose and fructose metabolism, and a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Plasma methylglyoxal levels are increased in hypertensive rats and diabetic patients. Our aim was to examine the levels of methylglyoxal, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a high fructose diet (60% of total calories) for 4 months. The thoracic aorta and kidney were used for molecular studies, along with cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). HPLC, Western blotting and Q-PCR were used to measure methylglyoxal and reduced glutathione (GSH), proteins and mRNA, respectively. Fructose treated rats developed a significant increase in blood pressure. Methylglyoxal level and protein and mRNA for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, adrenergic α1D receptor and renin were significantly increased, whereas GSH levels were decreased, in the aorta and/or kidney of fructose fed rats. The protein expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and NF-κB were also significantly increased in the aorta of fructose fed rats. MG treated VSMCs showed increased protein for angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, and α1D receptor. The effects of methylglyoxal were attenuated by metformin, a methylglyoxal scavenger and AGEs inhibitor. In conclusion, we report a strong association between elevated levels of methylglyoxal, RAGE, NF-κB, mediators of the renin angiotensin system and blood pressure in high fructose diet fed rats.

  18. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  19. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  20. Practical Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Forsyth, Adrienne; Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Nicoll, Amanda J; Ryan, Marno; Sood, Siddharth; Roberts, Stuart K; Tierney, Audrey C

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges. The Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition classification system was used to grade these principles. Five key dietary recommendations were developed: 1) follow traditional dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet; 2) limit excess fructose consumption and avoid processed foods and beverages with added fructose; 3) PUFAs, especially long-chain omega-3 rich foods and MUFAs, should replace SFAs in the diet; 4) replace processed food, fast food, commercial bakery goods, and sweets with unprocessed foods high in fiber, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds; and 5) avoid excess alcohol consumption. Improving diet quality may reduce the incidence and progression of NAFLD and associated risk factors. Many of the benefits are likely to result from the collective effect of dietary patterns. High-quality research-in particular, randomized clinical trials assessing dietary interventions that focus on liver-specific endpoints-are needed as a priority. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention switching after dietary brain 5-HT challenge in high impulsive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, C Rob; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2007-09-01

    High levels of impulsivity have adverse effects on performance in cognitive tasks, particularLy in those tasks that require high attention investment. Furthermore, both animal and human research has indicated that reduced brain serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with increases in impulsive behaviour or decreased inhibition ability, but the effects of 5-HT challenge have not yet been investigated in subjects vulnerable to impulsivity. The present study aimed to investigate whether subjects with high trait impulsivity perform worse than low impulsive subjects in a task switching paradigm in which they have to rapidly shift their attention between two response rules, and to investigate the influence of a 5-HT enhancing diet. Healthy subjects with high ( n = 19) and low (n = 18) trait impulsivity scores participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. All subjects performed the attention switch task in the morning following breakfast containing either tryptophan-rich alpha-lactalbumin (4.8 g/100 g TRP) or placebo protein (1.4 g/100 g TRP). Whereas there were no baseline differences between high and low impulsive subjects in task switching abilities, high impulsive subjects made significantly more switch errors and responded slower after dietary 5-HT stimulation, whereas no dietary effects were found on task switching performance in low-impulsive subjects. The deterioration in task switching performance induced by the 5-HT enhancing diet in high impulsive subjects was suggested to be established by general arousal/attention-reducing effects of 5-HT, which might have a larger impact in high impulsive subjects due to either different brain circuitry involved in task switching in this group or lower baseline arousal levels.

  2. Long-term excess fat and/or fructose ingestion causes changes in small artery K+ transporter expression and function with effects on blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Salomonsson, M.; Sørensen, C. M.

    + channels, Na/K-ATPase, and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are crucial determinants of resistance artery tone. Only scarce information is available on the role of K+ transporters in pathophysiological mechanisms induced by long-term feeding of laboratory rats with either high-fat, high-fructose or high-fat/high-fructose...... diet. HYPOTHESIS: A 28-week diet consisting of high-fat or high-fructose, or both, will lead to changes in K+ transporter expression and function, which will be linked with changes in blood pressure, arterial smooth muscle function, endothelial function and passive structural/mechanical properties....... METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (4 weeks) were randomized into 4 diet groups receiving a diet with normal chow (CTR, N=19), high-fat chow (60% saturated fat, FAT, N=18), high-fructose (10% in drinking water; FRUC, N=15), or a combination of fat/fructose (FAT/FRUC, N=15) for 28 weeks. Systolic blood...

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Antibody-Directed Glucocorticoid Targeting to CD163 in M2-type Macrophages Attenuates Fructose-Induced Liver Inflammatory Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pia; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Etzerodt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Increased consumption of high-caloric carbohydrates contributes substantially to endemic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in humans, covering a histological spectrum from fatty liver to steatohepatitis. Hypercaloric intake and lipogenetic effects of fructose and endotoxin-driven activation...... changes in rats on a high-fructose diet. The diet induced severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like changes within a few weeks but the antibody-drug conjugate strongly reduced inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrosis, and glycogen deposition. Non-conjugated dexamethasone or dexamethasone...... seems to be a promising approach for safe treatment of fructose-induced liver inflammation....

  5. The ecologic validity of fructose feeding trials: Supraphysiological feeding of fructose in human trials requires careful consideration when drawing conclusions on cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian L Choo; Vivian L Choo; John L Sievenpiper; John L Sievenpiper; John L Sievenpiper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Select trials of fructose overfeeding have been used to implicate fructose as a driver of cardiometabolic risk.Objective: We examined temporal trends of fructose dose in human controlled feeding trials of fructose and cardiometabolic risk.Methods: We combined studies from eight meta-analyses on fructose and cardiometabolic risk to assess the average fructose dose used in these trials. Two types of trials were identified: 1) substitution trials, in which energy from fructose was e...

  6. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Lee C; Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-11-01

    Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for > or =median compared with or =median compared with food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons.

  7. High dietary antioxidant intakes are associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Martin R; Sigurdson, Alice J; Sampson, Laura A; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary antioxidants may protect against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous sources, including ionizing radiation (IR), but data from IR-exposed human populations are limited. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between the frequency of chromosome translocations, as a biomarker of cumulative DNA damage, and intakes of vitamins C and E and carotenoids in 82 male airline pilots. Design: Dietary intakes were estimated by using a self-administered semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Translocations were scored by using fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant and inverse associations were observed between translocation frequency and intakes of vitamin C, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food (P food; total vitamin C or E from food and supplements; or vitamin C or E or multivitamin supplements. The adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) for ≥median compared with food: 0.27 (0.14, 0.55). Conclusion: High combined intakes of vitamins C and E, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin from food, or a diet high in their food sources, may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons. PMID:19793852

  8. Dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines in high-temperature cooked meat and fish in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Jinap, S; Ang, S J; Abdul-Hamid, A; Hajeb, P; Lioe, H N; Zaidul, I S M

    2010-08-01

    The intake of heterocyclic amines is influenced by the amount and type of meat and fish ingested, frequency of consumption, cooking methods, cooking temperature, and duration of cooking. In this study, the dietary intake of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia and their main sources were investigated. Forty-two samples of meat and fish were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector to determine the concentration of the six predominant heterocyclic amines, namely: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline(MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Dietary intake data were obtained using a food-frequency questionnaire when interviewing 600 Malaysian respondents. The level of total heterocyclic amines in food samples studies ranged from not detected to 38.7 ng g(-1). The average daily intake level of heterocyclic amine was 553.7 ng per capita day(-1). The intake of PhIP was the highest, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. The results reveal that fried and grilled chicken were the major dietary source of heterocyclic amines in Malaysia. However, the heterocyclic amine intake by the Malaysian population was lower than those reported from other regions.

  9. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA and triglyceride (TG levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36, and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors. Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt, AMPK activity (P-AMPK, MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1. These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation.

  10. Effect of fructose or starch on copper-67 absorption and excretion by the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, M.; Holbrook, J.; Scholfield, D.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with 67 Cu were conducted with copper-deficient or supplemented rats fed fructose or starch in an effort to investigate the effects of different dietary carbohydrates and inadequate copper intake on the absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of copper. After being fed their diets for 5 wk, they were killed at 8, 24, 48 and 96 h following the intubation of their respective copper-supplemented diets extrinsically labeled with 67 Cu. Only at 48 and 96 h following the intubation of 67 Cu, the gastrointestinal (GI) contents of rats fed the copper-deficient fructose diet exhibited higher radioactivity than rats fed the copper-deficient starch diet. Although not always significant, this apparent retention of copper in GI contents was accompanied by decreased whole-body radioactivity and depressed urinary excretion. The cumulative excretion of 67 Cu via feces over the 96-h period of collection was similar for both groups of copper-deficient rats, regardless of whether the dietary carbohydrate was fructose or starch. The data suggest that the more severe copper deficiency is related to the sustained higher level of radioactivity in the GI contents. This increased retention of 67 Cu in GI contents suggests impaired absorption of copper

  11. SGLT5 Reabsorbs Fructose in the Kidney but Its Deficiency Paradoxically Exacerbates Hepatic Steatosis Induced by Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ueda, Otoya; Shimada, Hideaki; Kito, Aki; Kakefuda, Mami; Kawase, Yosuke; Wada, Naoko A.; Goto, Chisato; Fukushima, Naoshi; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Honda, Kiyofumi; King, George L.; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Although excessive fructose intake is epidemiologically linked with dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, the mechanisms regulating plasma fructose are not well known. Cells transfected with sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SGLT5), which is expressed exclusively in the kidney, transport fructose in vitro; however, the physiological role of this transporter in fructose metabolism remains unclear. To determine whether SGLT5 functions as a fructose transporter in vivo, we established a line of mice lacking the gene encoding SGLT5. Sodium-dependent fructose uptake disappeared in renal brush border membrane vesicles from SGLT5-deficient mice, and the increased urinary fructose in SGLT5-deficient mice indicated that SGLT5 was the major fructose reabsorption transporter in the kidney. From this, we hypothesized that urinary fructose excretion induced by SGLT5 deficiency would ameliorate fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. To test this hypothesis we compared SGLT5-deficient mice with wild-type mice under conditions of long-term fructose consumption. Paradoxically, however, fructose-induced hepatic steatosis was exacerbated in the SGLT5-deficient mice, and the massive urinary fructose excretion was accompanied by reduced levels of plasma triglycerides and epididymal fat but fasting hyperinsulinemia compared with fructose-fed wild-type mice. There was no difference in food consumption, water intake, or plasma fructose between the two types of mice. No compensatory effect by other transporters reportedly involved in fructose uptake in the liver and kidney were indicated at the mRNA level. These surprising findings indicated a previously unrecognized link through SGLT5 between renal fructose reabsorption and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:23451068

  12. The sweet path to metabolic demise: fructose and lipid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Mark A.; Samuel, Varman T.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies link fructose consumption with metabolic disease, an association attributable in part to fructose mediated lipogenesis. The mechanisms governing fructose-induced lipogenesis and disease remain debated. Acutely, fructose increases de novo lipogenesis through the efficient and uninhibited action of Ketohexokinase and Aldolase B, which yields substrates for fatty-acid synthesis. Chronic fructose consumption further enhances the capacity for hepatic fructose metabolism via activation of several key transcription factors (i.e. SREBP1c and ChREBP), which augment expression of lipogenic enzymes, increasing lipogenesis, further compounding hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. Hepatic insulin resistance develops from diacylglycerol-PKCε mediated impairment of insulin signaling and possibly additional mechanisms. Initiatives that decrease fructose consumption and therapies that block fructose mediated lipogenesis are needed to avert future metabolic pandemics. PMID:27387598

  13. Association of fructose consumption and components of metabolic syndrome in human studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mansourian, Marjan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current corpus of human studies to determine the association of various doses and durations of fructose consumption on metabolic syndrome. We searched human studies in PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar databases. We searched for the following keywords in each paper: metabolic syndrome x, insulin resistance, blood glucose, blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, lipoproteins, HDL, cholesterol, LDL, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertens*, waist circumference, and fructose, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, or sugar. Overall, 3102 articles were gathered. We excluded studies on natural fructose content of foods, non-clinical trials, and trials in which fructose was recommended exclusively as sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup. Overall, 3069 articles were excluded. After review by independent reviewers, 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fructose consumption was positively associated with increased fasting blood sugar (FBS; summary mean difference, 0.307; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.149-0.465; P = 0.002), elevated triglycerides (TG; 0.275; 95% CI, 0.014-0.408; P = 0.002); and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 0.297; 95% CI, 0.144-0.451; P = 0.002). The corresponding figure was inverse for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-0.267; 95% CI, -0.406 to -0.128; P = 0.001). Significant heterogeneity existed between studies, except for FBS. After excluding studies that led to the highest effect on the heterogeneity test, the association between fructose consumption and TG, SBP, and HDL became non-significant. The results did not show any evidence of publication bias. No missing studies were identified with the trim-and-fill method. Fructose consumption from industrialized foods has significant effects on most components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg ( P  fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P  fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P  fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178  μ mol /24 hrs P  fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Della Pepa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content.

  16. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  17. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  18. Predictors of response to a low-FODMAP diet in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders and lactose or fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Olesen, S S; Materna, A; Drewes, A M

    2017-04-01

    Diets low in fermentable sugars (low-FODMAP diets) are increasingly adopted by patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), but outcome predictors are unclear. To identify factors predictive of an efficacious response to a low-FODMAP diet in FGID patients with fructose or lactose intolerance thereby gaining insights into underlying mechanisms. Fructose and lactose breath tests were performed in FGID patients to determine intolerance (positive symptom score) and malabsorption (increased hydrogen or methane concentrations). Patients with fructose or lactose intolerance consumed a low-FODMAP diet and global adequate symptom relief was assessed after 6-8 weeks and correlated with pre-diet clinical symptoms and breath test results. A total of 81% of 584 patients completing the low-FODMAP diet achieved adequate relief, without significant differences between FGID subgroups or types of intolerance. Univariate analysis yielded predictive factors in fructose intolerance (chronic diarrhoea and pruritus, peak methane concentrations and fullness during breath tests) and lactose intolerance (peak hydrogen and methane concentrations and flatulence during breath tests). Using multivariate analysis, symptom relief was independently and positively predicted in fructose intolerance by chronic diarrhoea [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals): 2.62 (1.31-5.27), P = 0.007] and peak breath methane concentrations [1.53 (1.02-2.29), P = 0.042], and negatively predicted by chronic nausea [0.33 (0.16-0.67), P = 0.002]. No independent predictive factors emerged for lactose intolerance. Adequate global symptom relief was achieved with a low-FODMAP diet in a large majority of functional gastrointestinal disorders patients with fructose or lactose intolerance. Independent predictors of a satisfactory dietary outcome were only seen in fructose intolerant patients, and were indicative of changes in intestinal host or microbiome metabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  20. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  1. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  2. Production of the potential sweetener 5-ketofructose from fructose in fed-batch cultivation with Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Elena; Schöpping, Marie; Rohr, Katja; Siemen, Anna; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Deppenmeier, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2018-07-01

    Sweeteners improve the dietary properties of many foods. A candidate for a new natural sweetener is 5-ketofructose. In this study a fed-batch process for the production of 5-ketofructose was developed. A Gluconobacter oxydans strain overexpressing a fructose dehydrogenase from G. japonicus was used and the sensory properties of 5-ketofructose were analyzed. The compound showed an identical sweet taste quality as fructose and a similar intrinsic sweet threshold concentration of 16.4 mmol/L. The production of 5-ketofructose was characterized online by monitoring of the respiration activity in shake flasks. Pulsed and continuous fructose feeding was realized in 2 L stirred tank reactors and maximum fructose consumption rates were determined. 5-Ketofructose concentrations of up to 489 g/L, product yields up to 0.98 g 5-KF /g fructose and space time yields up to 8.2 g/L/h were reached highlighting the potential of the presented process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Serlie, Mireille J.