WorldWideScience

Sample records for high density jet

  1. Edge density profiles in high-performance JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.D.R.; Viaccoz, B.; Vince, J.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed electron density profiles of the scrape-off layer in high-performance JET plasmas (plasma current, I p nbi ∝17 MW) have been measured by means of a lithium beam diagnostic system featuring high spatial resolution [Kadota (1978)[. Measurements were taken over a period of several seconds, allowing examination of the evolution of the edge profile at a location upstream from the divertor target. The data clearly show the effects of the H-mode transition - an increase in density near the plasma separatrix and a reduction in density scrape-off length. The profiles obtained under various plasma conditions are compared firstly with data from other diagnostics, located elsewhere in the vessel, and also with the predictions of an 'onion-skin' model (DIVIMP), which used, as initial parameters, data from an array of probes located in the divertor target. (orig.)

  2. High density regimes and beta limits in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are first presented on the density limit in JET discharges with graphite (C), Be gettered graphite and Be limiters. There is a clear improvement in the case of Be limiters. The Be gettered phase showed no increase in the gas fueled density limit, except with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH), but, the limit changed character. During MARFE-formation, any further increase in density was prevented, leading to a soft density limit. The soft density limit was a function of input power and impurity content with a week dependence on q. Helium and pellet fuelled discharges exceeded the gas-fuelled global density limits, but essentially had the same edge limit. In the second part, results are presented of high β operation in low-B Double-Null (DN) X-point configurations with Be-gettered carbon target plates. The Troyon limit was reached during H-mode discharges and toroidal β values of 5.5% were obtained. At high beta, the sawteeth were modified and characterised by very rapid heat-waves and fishbone-like pre- and post-cursors with strongly ballooning character. 17 refs., 5 figs

  3. Jet Impingement Heat Transfer at High Reynolds Numbers and Large Density Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2010-01-01

    Jet impingement heat transfer from a round gas jet to a flat wall has been investigated numerically in a configuration with H/D=2, where H is the distance from the jet inlet to the wall and D is the jet diameter. The jet Reynolds number was 361000 and the density ratio across the wall boundary...... layer was 3.3 due to a substantial temperature difference of 1600K between jet and wall. Results are presented which indicate very high heat flux levels and it is demonstrated that the jet inlet turbulence intensity significantly influences the heat transfer results, especially in the stagnation region....... The results also show a noticeable difference in the heat transfer predictions when applying different turbulence models. Furthermore calculations were performed to study the effect of applying temperature dependent thermophysical properties versus constant properties and the effect of calculating the gas...

  4. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  5. Edge operational space for high density/high confinement ELMY H-modes in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Loarte, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how the proximity to the L-H threshold affects the confinement of ELMy H-modes at high density. The largest reduction in confinement at high density is observed at the transition from the Type I to the Type III ELMy regime. At medium plasma triangularity, δ≅0.3 (where δ is the average triangularity at the separatrix), JET experiments show that by increasing the margin above the L-H threshold power and maintaining the edge temperature above the critical temperature for the transition to Type III ELMs, it is possible to avoid the degradation of the pedestal pressure with density, normally observed at lower power. As a result, the range of achievable densities (both in the core and in the pedestal) is increased. At high power above the L-H threshold power the core density was equal to the Greenwald limit with H97≅0.9. There is evidence that a mixed regime of Type I and Type II ELMs has been obtained at this intermediate triangularity, possibly as a result of this increase in density. At higher triangularity, δ≅0.5, the power required to achieve similar results is lower. (author)

  6. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Kanayama, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extremely high-power-density atmospheric-pressure thermal plasma jet generated by the nitrogen-boosted effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Ryosuke; Nakano, Wataru; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effect of N2 addition to an atmospheric-pressure Ar thermal plasma jet (TPJ) on ultrarapid heating was investigated. With increasing N2 flow rate, a boost of arc voltage to ∼36 V was observed, which significantly improved heating characteristics. As a result, a drastic power density increase from 10 to 125 kW/cm2 was achieved with the addition of 2.0 L/min N2 to 3.0 L/min Ar. The results of optical emission analysis and heating characteristics evaluation implied that dissociation and recombination of N2 molecules and the high thermal transport property of nitrogen gas play important roles in the increase in TPJ power density. Furthermore, we obtained TPJ extension with N2 addition that reached 300 mm, and it showed spatial enhancement of heat transport characteristics.

  9. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwe, Greife [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  10. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  11. Investigation of the on-axis atom number density in the supersonic gas jet under high gas backing pressure by simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized deq in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  12. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D J; Clement, S; Gottardi, N; Gowers, C; Harbour, P; Loarte, A; Horton, L; Lingertat, J; Lowry, C G; Saibene, G; Stamp, M; Stork, D [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Coherence resonance in low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.

    2017-11-01

    Coherence resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a purely hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet whose variants can be found in many natural and engineering systems. This evidence comprises four parts: (i) the jet's response amplitude increases as the Reynolds number approaches the instability boundary under a constant noise amplitude; (ii) as the noise amplitude increases, the amplitude distribution of the jet response first becomes unimodal, then bimodal, and finally unimodal again; (iii) a distinct peak emerges in the coherence factor at an intermediate noise amplitude; and (iv) for a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate of the autocorrelation function exhibits a maximum at an intermediate noise amplitude, but for a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate decreases monotonically with increasing noise amplitude. It is clear that coherence resonance can provide valuable information about a system's nonlinearity even in the unconditionally stable regime, opening up new possibilities for its use in system identification and flow control. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  14. Study of the interaction of a 10 TW femtosecond laser with a high-density long-scale pulsed gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monot, P.; D'Oliveira, P.; Hulin, S.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Dobosz, S.; Auguste, T.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.; Andreev, N.E.; Lefebvre, E.

    2001-01-01

    A study on the interaction of a 10 TW, 60 fs, Ti-Sapphire laser with a high-density long-scale pulsed nitrogen gas jet is reported. Experimental data on the laser propagation are analyzed with the help of a ray-tracing model. The plasma dynamics is investigated by means of time-resolved shadowgraphy and time-integrated high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Shadowgrams show that the plasma does not expand during the first 55 ps, while x-ray spectra exhibit an unusual continuum-like structure attributed to hollow atoms produced by charge exchange process between bare nuclei expelled from the plasma and molecules of the surrounding gas. The interpretation of the results is supported by particle-in-cell simulations. The question of x-ray lasing is also examined using a hydrodynamic code to simulate the long lasting regime of recombination

  15. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  16. Long time-scale density peaking in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Becoulet, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how the proximity to the L-H threshold affects the confinement of ELMy H-modes at high density. The largest reduction in confinement at high density is observed at the transition from the Type I to the Type III ELMy regime. At medium plasma triangularity, δ≅0.3 (where δ is the average triangularity at the separatrix), JET experiments show that, by increasing the margin above the L-H threshold power and maintaining the edge temperature above the critical temperature for the transition to Type III ELMs, it is possible to avoid the degradation of the pedestal pressure with density, normally observed at lower power. As a result, the range of achievable densities (both in the core and in the pedestal) is increased. At high power above the L-H threshold power the core density was equal to the Greenwald limit with H97≅0.9. There is evidence that a mixed regime of Type I and Type II ELMs has been obtained at this intermediate triangularity, possibly as a result of this increase in density. At higher triangularity, δ≅0.5, the power required to achieve similar results is lower. (author)

  17. Probe initial parton density and formation time via jet quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2002-01-01

    Medium modification of jet fragmentation function due to multiple scattering and induced gluon radiation leads directly to jet quenching or suppression of leading particle distribution from jet fragmentation. One can extract an effective total parton energy loss which can be related to the total transverse momentum broadening. For an expanding medium, both are shown to be sensitive to the initial parton density and formation time. Therefore, one can extract the initial parton density and formation time from simultaneous measurements of parton energy loss and transverse momentum broadening. Implication of the recent experimental data on effects of detailed balance in parton energy loss is also discussed

  18. Multiple Jets at the LHC with High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Smillie, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a flexible Monte Carlo implementation of the perturbative framework of High Energy Jets, describing multi-jet events at hadron colliders. The description includes a resummation which ensures leading logarithmic accuracy for large invariant mass between jets, and is matched to tree......-level accuracy for multiplicities up to 4 jets. The resummation includes all-order hard corrections, which become important for increasing centre-of-mass energy of the hadronic collision. We discuss observables relevant for confronting the perturbative framework with 7 TeV data from the LHC, and the impact...

  19. A note on high Schmidt number laminar buoyant jets discharged horizontally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewan, A.; Arakeri, J.H.; Srinivasan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new model, developed for the integral analysis of high Schmidt number (or equivalently high Prandtl number) laminar buoyant jets discharged horizontally. This model assumes top-hat density profile across the inner core of jet and Gaussian velocity profile. Entrainment coefficient corresponding to pure laminar jet has been taken in the analysis. The prediction of the jet trajectory agree well with experimental data in the regions where the jet remains laminar

  20. Current density profile evolution in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubberfield, P.M.; Balet, B.; Campbell, D.; Challis, C.D.; Cordey, J.G.; O'Rourke, J.; Hammett, G.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Simulation studies have been made of the current density profile evolution in discharges where the bootstrap current is expected to be significant. The changes predicted in the total current profile have been confirmed by comparison with experimental results. (author) 8 refs., 6 figs

  1. LPWA using supersonic gas jet with tailored density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, O.; Bohlen, S.; Dale, J.; D'Arcy, R.; Dinter, M.; Erbe, J. H.; Indorf, G.; di Lucchio, L.; Goldberg, L.; Gruse, J. N.; Karstensen, S.; Libov, V.; Ludwig, K.; Martinez de La Ossa, A.; Marutzky, F.; Niroula, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Quast, M.; Schaper, L.; Schwinkendorf, J.-P.; Streeter, M.; Tauscher, G.; Weichert, S.; Palmer, C.; Horbatiuk, Taras

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators have been explored as a potential compact, reproducible source of relativistic electron bunches, utilising an electric field of many GV/m. Control over injection of electrons into the wakefield is of crucial importance in producing stable, mono-energetic electron bunches. Density tailoring of the target, to control the acceleration process, can also be used to improve the quality of the bunch. By using gas jets to provide tailored targets it is possible to provide good access for plasma diagnostics while also producing sharp density gradients for density down-ramp injection. OpenFOAM hydrodynamic simulations were used to investigate the possibility of producing tailored density targets in a supersonic gas jet. Particle-in-cell simulations of the resulting density profiles modelled the effect of the tailored density on the properties of the accelerated electron bunch. Here, we present the simulation results together with preliminary experimental measurements of electron and x-ray properties from LPWA experiments using gas jet targets and a 25 TW, 25 fs Ti:Sa laser system at DESY.

  2. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric laminar low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lendinez, Daniel; Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The stability of submerged laminar axisymmetric low-density jets has been investigated experimentally (Kyle & Sreenivasan 1993, Hallberg & Strykowski 2006) and with linear analysis (Jendoubi & Strykowski 1994, Coenen & Sevilla 2012, Coenen et al. 2017). These jets become globally unstable when the Reynolds number is larger than a certain critical value which depends on the density ratio and on the velocity profile at the injector outlet. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations using FreeFEM + + (Hecht 2012) with P1 elements for pressure and P2 for velocity and density are performed to complement the above mentioned studies. Density and velocity fields are analyzed at long time showing the unforced space-time evolution of nonlinear disturbances propagating along the jet. Using the Stuart-Landau model to fit the numerical results for the self-excited oscillations we have computed a neutral stability curve that shows good agreement with experiments and stability theory. Thanks to Spanish MINECO under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P and DPI2015-71901-REDT for financial support.

  3. High resolution 3D gas-jet characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgraf, Bjoern; Kaluza, Malte C.; Spielmann, Christian; Schnell, Michael; Saevert, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We present a tomographic characterization of gas jets employed for high-intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments where the shape can be non-symmetrically. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measured the phase shift for different directions through the neutral density distribution of the gas jet. From the recorded interferograms it is possible to retrieve 3-dimensional neutral density distributions by tomographic reconstruction based on the filtered back projections. We report on criteria for the smallest number of recorded interferograms as well as a comparison with the widely used phase retrieval based on an Abel inversion. As an example for the performance of our approach, we present the characterization of nozzles with rectangular openings or gas jets with shock waves. With our setup we obtained a spatial resolution of less than 60 μm for an Argon density as low as 2 x 10 17 cm -3 .

  4. Penetration of Liquid Jets into a High-velocity Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Louis J

    1950-01-01

    Data are presented showing the penetration characteristics of liquid jets directed approximately perpendicular to a high-velocity air stream for jet-nozzle-throat diameters from 0.0135 to 0.0625 inch, air stream densities from 0.0805 to 0.1365 pound per cubic foot, liquid jet velocities from 168.1 to 229.0 feet per second and a liquid jet density of approximately 62 pounds per cubic foot. The data were analyzed and a correlation was developed that permitted the determination of the penetration length of the liquid jet for any operation condition within the range of variables investigated.

  5. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Smillie, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss in detail the arising description of the soft, collinear and hard regions by examples in pure QCD jet-production.

  6. Gas jet structure influence on high harmonic generation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant-Jacob, James; Mills, Benjamin; Butcher, Thomas J.; Chapman, Richard T.; Brocklesby, William S.; Frey, Jeremy G.

    2011-01-01

    Gas jets used as sources for high harmonic generation (HHG) have a complex three-dimensional density and velocity profile. This paper describes how the profile influences the generation of extreme-UV light. As the position of the laser focus is varied along the jet flow axis, we show that the intensity of the output radiation varies by approximately three times, with the highest flux being observed when the laser is focused into the Mach disc. The work demonstrated here will aid in the optimi...

  7. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance

  8. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kye-Si, E-mail: kskwon@sch.ac.kr; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Hyun-Seok [Department of Electrical and Robot Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  9. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  10. Numerical study of free pulsed jet flow with variable density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)], E-mail: kriaawass@yahoo.fr; Cheikh, Habib Ben; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, 60 rue Juliot Curie Technopole de Chateau-Gombert 13453, Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2008-05-15

    In this work, we propose a numerical study of a free pulsed plane jet with variable density in unsteady and laminar modes. At the nozzle exit, the flow is characterized by a uniform temperature and submitted to a longitudinal and periodic velocity disturbance: u = u{sub 0}(1 + A sin({omega}t)). A finite difference method is performed to solve the equations governing this flow type. The discussion relates to the effect of the most significant parameters, such as the pulsation frequency and amplitude, on the flow characteristic fields. The effects of Reynolds and Galileo numbers was also examined. The results show that the pulsation affects the flow in the vicinity of the nozzle, and further, the results of the unsteady mode join those of the steady non-pulsed jet. The results state also that the Strouhal number has no influence on the flow mixture degree, whereas the amplitude of pulsation affects, in a remarkable way, the mixture and, consequently, the concentration core length.

  11. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  12. Substructure of Highly Boosted Massive Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alon, Raz [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2012-10-01

    Modern particle accelerators enable researchers to study new high energy frontiers which have never been explored before. This realm opens possibilities to further examine known fields such as Quantum Chromodynamics. In addition, it allows searching for new physics and setting new limits on the existence of such. This study examined the substructure of highly boosted massive jets measured by the CDF II detector. Events from 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider were collected out of a total integrated luminosity of 5.95 fb$^{-1}$. They were selected to have at least one jet with transverse momentum above 400 GeV/c. The jet mass, angularity, and planar flow were measured and compared with predictions of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, and were found to be consistent with the theory. A search for boosted top quarks was conducted and resulted in an upper limit on the production cross section of such top quarks.

  13. Emission spectroscopy of highly ionized high-temperature plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belevtsev, A A; Chinnov, V F; Isakaev, E Kh [Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-01

    This paper deals with advanced studies on the optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure highly ionized high-temperature argon and nitrogen plasma jets generated by a powerful arc plasmatron. The emission spectra are taken in the 200-1000 nm range with a spectral resolution of {approx}0.01-0.02 nm. The exposure times are 6 x 10{sup -6}-2 x 10{sup -2} s, the spatial resolution is 0.02-0.03 mm. The recorded jet spectra are abundant in spectral lines originating from different ionization stages. In nitrogen plasmas, tens of vibronic bands are also observed. To interpret and process these spectra such that plasma characteristics can be derived, a purpose-developed automated processing system is applied. The use of a CCD camera at the spectrograph output allows a simultaneous recording of the spectral and chord intensity distributions of spectral lines, which can yet belong to the overlapped spectra of the first and second orders of interference. The modern optical diagnostic means and methods used permit the determination of spatial distributions of electron number densities and temperatures and evaluation of rotational temperatures. The radial profiles of the irradiating plasma components can also be obtained. Special attention is given to the method of deriving rotational temperatures using vibronic bands with an incompletely identified rotational structure.

  14. Scrape-off layer based modelling of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrass, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Vlases, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper gives a scrape-off layer based interpretation of the density limit in beryllated JET limiter discharges. In these discharges, JET edge parameters show a complicated time evolution as the density limit is approached and the limit is manifested as a non-disruptive density maximum which cannot be exceeded by enhanced gas puffing. The occurrence of Marfes, the manner of density control and details of recycling are essential elements of the interpretation. Scalings for the maximum density are given and compared with JET data. The relation to disruptive density limits, previously observed in JET carbon limiter discharges, and to density limits in divertor discharges is discussed. (author). 18 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  15. A study of the condensation of a high-velocity vapor jet on a coflowing turbulent liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, V. A.; Levin, A. A.

    A method for the experimental determination of the local value of the heat transfer coefficient under conditions of jet condensation is proposed which employs a heat balance expression in differential form. The method is used in an experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics of the condensation of a high-velocity coaxial jet of a slightly superheated (3 percent) steam on a coflowing cylindrical turbulent water jet. In the experiment, the relative velocities reach hundreds of m/s; the temperature nonequilibrium of the phases is high, as is the steam flow mass density during the initial contact; heat transfer between the phases is significant. The results can be used as the basis for determining experimental criterial dependences for jet condensation.

  16. Effect of PFC recycling conditions on JET pedestal density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesen, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Harting, D.; De la Luna, E.; Schmid, K.

    2016-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that the pedestal dynamics in type-I ELMy H-mode discharges is significantly affected by a change in the recycling conditions at the tungsten plasma-facing components (W-PFCs) after an ELM event. The integrated code JINTRAC has been employed to assess the impact of recycling conditions during type-I ELMs in JET ITER-like wall H-mode discharges. By employing a heuristic approach, a model to mimic the physical processes leading to formation and release (i.e. outgassing) of finite near-surface fuel reservoirs in W-PFCs has been implemented into the EDGE2D-EIRENE plasma-wall interaction code being part of JINTRAC. As main result it is shown, that a delay in the density pedestal build-up after an ELM event can be provoked by reduced recycling induced by depleted W-PFC particle near-surface reservoirs. However the pedestal temperature evolution is barely affected by the change in recycling parameters suggesting that the presented model is incomplete. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  17. Numerical analysis of jet impingement heat transfer at high jet Reynolds number and large temperature difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    was investigated at a jet Reynolds number of 1.66 × 105 and a temperature difference between jet inlet and wall of 1600 K. The focus was on the convective heat transfer contribution as thermal radiation was not included in the investigation. A considerable influence of the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet...... to about 100% were observed. Furthermore, the variation in stagnation point heat transfer was examined for jet Reynolds numbers in the range from 1.10 × 105 to 6.64 × 105. Based on the investigations, a correlation is suggested between the stagnation point Nusselt number, the jet Reynolds number......, and the turbulence intensity at the jet inlet for impinging jet flows at high jet Reynolds numbers. Copyright © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  18. An intermittency route to global instability in low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Meenatchidevi; Zhu, Yuanhang; Li, Larry K. B.

    2017-11-01

    Above a critical Reynolds number (Re), a low-density jet can become globally unstable, transitioning from a steady state (i.e. a fixed point) to a self-excited oscillatory state (i.e. a limit cycle) via a Hopf bifurcation. In this experimental study, we show that this transition can sometimes involve intermittency. When Re is just slightly above the critical point, intermittent bursts of high-amplitude periodic oscillations emerge amidst a background of low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. As Re increases further, these intermittent bursts persist longer in time until they dominate the overall dynamics, causing the jet to transition fully to a periodic limit cycle. We identify this as Type-II Pomeau-Manneville intermittency by quantifying the statistical distribution of the duration of the aperiodic fluctuations at the onset of intermittency. This study shows that the transition to global instability in low-density jets is not always abrupt but can involve an intermediate state with characteristics of both the initial fixed point and the final limit cycle. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).

  19. Measurement of OH density and air-helium mixture ratio in an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The absolute density of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The plasma jet is generated in room air by applying a pulsed high voltage onto a quartz tube with helium gas flow. The time-averaged OH density is 0.10 ppm near the quartz tube nozzle, decreasing away from the nozzle. OH radicals are produced from water vapour in the helium flow, which is humidified by water adsorbed on the inner surface of the helium line and the quartz tube. When helium is artificially humidified using a water bubbler, the OH density increases with humidity and reaches 2.5 ppm when the water vapour content is 200 ppm. Two-dimensional distribution of air-helium mixture ratio in the plasma jet is also measured using the decay rate of the LIF signal waveform which is determined by the quenching rate of laser-excited OH radicals. (paper)

  20. Probing virtual photon parton densities via γ*γ →jets at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, B.

    2000-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order calculation of jet production in γ*γ collisions from e + e - scattering in a region where the virtuality Q 2 of the probing virtual photon is small compared to the transverse jet energy. We make predictions for cross sections which suggest, that different parametrizations of virtual photon parton densities should be distinguishable by measurements of jet cross sections at LEP

  1. High density hydrogen research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The interest in the properties of very dense hydrogen is prompted by its abundance in Saturn and Jupiter and its importance in laser fusion studies. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the metallic form of hydrogen may be a superconductor at relatively high temperatures and/or exist in a metastable phase at ambient pressure. For ten years or more, laboratories have been developing the techniques to study hydrogen in the megabar region (1 megabar = 100 GPa). Three major approaches to study dense hydrogen experimentally have been used, static presses, shockwave compression, and magnetic compression. Static tchniques have crossed the megabar threshold in stiff materials but have not yet been convincingly successful in very compressible hydrogen. Single and double shockwave techniques have improved the precision of the pressure, volume, temperature Equation of State (EOS) of molecular hydrogen (deuterium) up to near 1 Mbar. Multiple shockwave and magnetic techniques have compressed hydrogen to several megabars and densities in the range of the metallic phase. The net result is that hydrogen becomes conducting at a pressure between 2 and 4 megabars. Hence, the possibility of making a significant amount of hydrogen into a metal in a static press remains a formidable challenge. The success of such experiments will hopefully answer the questions about hydrogen's metallic vs. conducting molecular phase, superconductivity, and metastability. 4 figures, 15 references

  2. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.

  3. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  4. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  5. Bayesian modeling of JET Li-BES for edge electron density profiles using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, Jakob; Brix, Mathias; Ghim, Young-Chul; JET Contributors Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A Bayesian model for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system has been developed to infer edge electron density profiles. The 26 spatial channels measure emission profiles with ~15 ms temporal resolution and ~1 cm spatial resolution. The lithium I (2p-2s) line radiation in an emission spectrum is calculated using a multi-state model, which expresses collisions between the neutral lithium beam atoms and the plasma particles as a set of differential equations. The emission spectrum is described in the model including photon and electronic noise, spectral line shapes, interference filter curves, and relative calibrations. This spectral modeling gets rid of the need of separate background measurements for calculating the intensity of the line radiation. Gaussian processes are applied to model both emission spectrum and edge electron density profile, and the electron temperature to calculate all the rate coefficients is obtained from the JET high resolution Thomson scattering (HRTS) system. The posterior distributions of the edge electron density profile are explored via the numerical technique and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplings. See the Appendix of F. Romanelli et al., Proceedings of the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2014, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

  6. Jets with ALICE. From vacuum to QCD at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leticia, Cunqueiro [University of Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions is expected to modify the yield and radiation pattern of jets relative to proton proton collisions. The study of medium-induced modifications in jets aims at the understanding of the detailed mechanisms of in medium energy loss of partons and of fundamental properties of QCD at high temperatures. ALICE measures jets in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions, where pp and p-Pb are conceived primarily as a reference for vacuum and cold nuclear effects respectively. The jet program comprises measurements like yields for different resolution R, intra-jet and inter-jet modifications via jet shapes and hadron-jet correlations, path length dependence of energy loss via jet flow v{sub 2}, hadrochemistry via jet constituent identification, flavour/mass hierarchy of energy loss via heavy flavour tagging etc. Several of the latest ALICE jet physics results are presented and discussed with emphasis on new studies on jet substructure and jet shapes.

  7. Large density amplification measured on jets ejected from a magnetized plasma gun

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gunsu S.; You, Setthivoine; Bellan, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of a large density amplification in the collimating plasma jet ejected from a coplanar coaxial plasma gun is reported. The jet velocity is ~30 km s^-1 and the electron density increases from ~10^20 to 10^(22–23) m^-3. In previous spheromak experiments, electron density of the order 10^(19–21) m^-3 had been measured in the flux conserver region, but no density measurement had been reported for the source gun region. The coplanar geometry of our electrodes permits direct observation...

  8. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Jets with ALICE: from vacuum to high-temperature QCD

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    ALICE measures jets in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions to study modifications of the jet fragmentation due to cold nuclear and hot QCD matter. In pp collisions ALICE has measured inclusive jet yields, the ratio of yields with different resolution R, a variety of jet shapes and the semi-inclusive rate of jets recoiling against a high transverse momentum hadron trigger. These measurements are compared to NLO calculations including hadronization corrections and to MC models. Jets in pp are primarily conceived as a vacuum reference for jet observables in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. In p-Pb collisions ALICE explores cold nuclear matter effects on jet yields, jet fragmentation and dijet acoplanarity. The hot and dense medium created in heavy-ion collisions is expected to modify the fragmentation of high energy partonic projectiles leading to changes in the energy and structure of the reconstructed jets with respect to pp jets. The study of modified jets aims at understanding the detailed mechanisms of in-medium energy...

  10. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  11. Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2 ω, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Cooper, M. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Moschella, J. J.; Schmidt-Petersen, M. T.; Butcher, C. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Andrews, S. D.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The study of laser-generated debris-free x-ray sources in an underdense plasma produced in a high-density linear gas-puff jet was carried out at the LLNL Titan laser (2 ω, 45 J, sub-ps) with an intensity in the 10 um focal spot of 7 x 1019 W/cm2. A linear nozzle with a fast valve was used for the generation of a clusters/gas jet. X-ray diagnostics for the spectral region of 0.7 - 9 keV include: two spectrometers and pinhole cameras, and 3 groups of fast filtered detectors. Electron beams were measured with the EPPS magnetic spectrometer (>1 MeV) and Faraday cups (>72 keV). Spectralon/spectrometer devices were also used to measure absorption of laser radiation in the jets. New results were obtained on: anisotropic generation of x-rays (laser to x-ray conversion coefficient was >1%) and characteristics of laser-generated electron beams; evolution of x-ray generation with the location of the laser focus in a cluster-gas jet, and observations of a strong x-ray flash in some focusing regimes. Non-LTE kinetic modeling was used to estimate plasma parameters. UNR work supported by the DTRA Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  13. The JET high frequency pellet injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, Alain; Dentan, M.; Whitehead, A.; Butcher, P.; Communal, D.; Faisse, F.; Gedney, J.; Gros, G.; Guillaume, D.; Hackett, L.; Hennion, V.; Homfray, D.; Lucock, R.; McKivitt, J.; Sibbald, M.; Portafaix, C.; Perin, J.P.; Reade, M.; Sands, D.; Saille, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm 3 ) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm 3 ) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable

  14. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  15. High ET jet cross sections at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the Σ E T cross section at √s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at √s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown

  16. Tickling a high speed round jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Vijay; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu; Siddavaram, Vikram; Alkislar, Mehmet

    2001-11-01

    We have experimentally studied the effect of tickling a Mach 0.9 round jet with a set of microjets.Two dimensional velocity field measurements with PIV show a significant reduction in the turbulent intensities in the developing region of the jet with the activation of the microjets.Quantitatively,the axial and normal turbulence intensities are reduced by about 15respectively;even a larger effect is found on the magnitude of the correlation of axial and normal fluctuation intensities with a reduction of almost 40possible with a mass flow rate of the microjets being only about one percent of the main jet mass flow rate and hence justifying the use of the term `tickling`.The above findings are difficult to explain on the basis of stability considerations since there is very little change in the mean profile.Physically,the observed effect could be due to the alteration of the large eddy structures,which are so natural to a round jet,by the presence of the microjets.Exact nature of this interaction may be clarified with three dimensional PIV studies.It is expected that the tickling of the jet done as presently could have a favourable reflection in the aeroacoustics characteristics of the main jet.

  17. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.W.

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work

  18. A computational study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Two commercially-available computational fluid dynamics codes, FIDAP (Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH) and FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Los Alamos, NM), were used to simulate the landing region of jets of highly viscous fluids impinging on flat surfaces. The volume-of-fluid method was combined with finite difference and finite element approaches to predict the jet behavior. Several computational models with varying degrees of physical realism were developed, and the results were compared with experimental observations. In experiments, the jet exhibited several complex behaviors. As soon as it exited the nozzle, the jet began to neck down and become narrower. When it impacted the solid surface, the jet developed an instability near the impact point and buckled to the side. This buckling became a spiraling motion, and the jet spiraled about the impact point. As the jet spiraled around, a cone-shaped pile was build up which eventually became unstable and slumped to the side. While all of these behaviors were occurring, air bubbles, or voids, were being entrapped in the fluid pool. The results obtained from the FLOW-3D models more closely matched the behavior of real jets than the results obtained from /the FIDAP models. Most of the FLOW-3D models predicted all of the significant jet behaviors observed in experiments: necking, buckling, spiraling, slumping, and void entrapment. All of the FIDAP models predicted that the jet would buckle relatively far from the point of impact, whereas the experimentally observed jet behavior indicates that the jets buckle much nearer the impact point. Furthermore, it was shown that FIDAP is incapable of incorporating heat transfer effects into the model, making it unsuitable for this work.

  19. Characterization of high speed synthetic jet actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikcilingis, Lucia

    Over the last 20 years, synthetic jets have been studied as a means for aerodynamic active flow control. Specifically, synthetic jets provide momentum transfer with zero-net mass flux, which has been proven to be effective for controlling flow fields. A synthetic jet is created by the periodic formation of vortex rings at its orifice due to the periodic motion of a piezoelectric disk(s). The present study seeks to optimize the performance of a synthetic jet actuator by utilizing different geometrical parameters such as disk thickness, orifice width and length, cavity height and cavity diameter, and different input parameters such as driving voltage and frequency. Two apparatuses were used with a cavity diameter of either 80 mm or 160 mm. Piezoelectric-based disks were provided by the Mide Corporation. Experiments were conducted using several synthetic jet apparatuses designed for various geometrical parameters utilizing a dual disk configuration. Velocity and temperature measurements were acquired at the center of the synthetic jet orifice using a temperature compensated hotwire and thermocouple probe. The disk(s) displacement was measured at the center of the disk with a laser displacement sensor. It was shown that the synthetic jets, having the 80 mm cavity diameter, are capable of exceeding peak velocities of 200 m/s with a relatively large orifice of dimensions AR = 12, hc* = 3, and hn* = 4. In addition, the conditions at which the disks were manufactured had minimal effect on the performance of the jet, except for the pair with overnight resting time as opposed to less than an hour resting time for the control units. Altering the tab style of the disks, where the tab allows the electrical circuit to be exposed for external power connection, showed that a thin fragile tab versus a tab of the same thickness as the disk has minimal effect on the performance but affects the durability of the disk due to the fragility or robustness of the tab. The synthetic jets

  20. High current density ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A high-current-density ion source with high total current is achieved by individually directing the beamlets from an electron bombardment ion source through screen and accelerator electrodes. The openings in these screen and accelerator electrodes are oriented and positioned to direct the individual beamlets substantially toward a focus point. 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  2. Photoionization and High Density Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.; Bautista, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results of calculations using the XSTAR version 2 computer code. This code is loosely based on the XSTAR v.1 code which has been available for public use for some time. However it represents an improvement and update in several major respects, including atomic data, code structure, user interface, and improved physical description of ionization/excitation. In particular, it now is applicable to high density situations in which significant excited atomic level populations are likely to occur. We describe the computational techniques and assumptions, and present sample runs with particular emphasis on high density situations.

  3. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  4. HIGH JET EFFICIENCY AND SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports on a growing body of observational evidence that many powerful lobe-dominated (FR II) radio sources likely have jets with high efficiency. This study extends the maximum efficiency line (jet power ∼25 times the thermal luminosity) defined in Fernandes et al. so as to span four decades of jet power. The fact that this line extends over the full span of FR II radio power is a strong indication that this is a fundamental property of jet production that is independent of accretion power. This is a valuable constraint for theorists. For example, the currently popular 'no-net-flux' numerical models of black hole accretion produce jets that are two to three orders of magnitude too weak to be consistent with sources near maximum efficiency.

  5. Analysis of High Speed Jets Produced by a Servo Tube Driven Liquid Jet Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaro, Rocco; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2017-11-01

    In today's healthcare environment many types of medication must be administered through the use of hypodermic needles. Although this practice has been in use for many years, drawbacks such as accidental needle stick injuries, transmission of deadly viruses and bio-hazardous waste are still present. This study focuses on improving a needle free technology known as liquid jet injection, through the implementation of a linear servo tube actuator for the construction of a fully closed loop liquid jet injection system. This device has the ability to deliver both micro- and macro- molecules, high viscosity fluids whilst providing real time control of the jet pressure profile for accurate depth and dispersion control. The experiments are conducted using a prototype that consists of a 3 kW servo tube actuator, coupled to a specially designed injection head allowing nozzle size and injection volume to be varied. The device is controlled via a high speed servo amplifier and FPGA. The high speed jets emanating from the injector are assessed via high speed photography and through the use of a force transducer. Preliminary results indicate that the system allows for accurate shaping of the jet pressure profile, making it possible to target different tissue depths/types accurately.

  6. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QCD predicts a phase transition between hadronic matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already the first round of experimental results at ...

  7. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  8. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sohbatzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chemical reactive species such as Oxygen, atomic Nitrogen and OH were measured using optical emission spectroscopy. Using a simple numerical model, we showed a HV with less rise time increases electron density, therefore a cold plasma jet can be produced with a minimal consumption electrical power

  9. High density operation in pulsator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueber, O.; Cannici, B.; Engelhardt, W.; Gernhardt, J.; Glock, E.; Karger, F.; Lisitano, G.; Mayer, H.M.; Meisel, D.; Morandi, P.

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of experiments at high electron densities (>10 14 cm -3 ) which have been achieved by pulsed gas inflow during the discharge. At these densities a regime is established which is characterized by βsub(p) > 1, nsub(i) approximately nsub(e), Tsub(i) approximately Tsub(e) and tausub(E) proportional to nsub(e). Thus the toroidal magnetic field contributes considerably to the plasma confinement and the ions constitute almost half of the plasma pressure. Furthermore, the confinement is appreciably improved and the plasma becomes impermeable to hot neutrals. (orig.) [de

  10. Recent results from a high Pt jet experiment at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormell, L.; Corcoran, M.; Dris, M.

    1979-04-01

    Some recent results from a two-arm calorimeter experiment performed at Fermilab are presented. The properties of high P/sub t/ jets produced in hydrogen from incident pions and protons were studied. These studies lead to several important results: the high P/sub t/ jet events observed are produced by parton--parton (quark or gluon) scattering, and therefore: an effective parton structure function for the pion and the internal transverse momentum of these partons could be measured. 16 references

  11. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  12. Decontamination using the high-pressure wet jet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, D.

    1985-01-01

    For decontaminating machine components, tools, instruments and scrap in nuclear plants the most varying decontamination procedures are used. At the nuclear power plant Wuergassen a mobile high-pressure wet jet unit, developed by Ernst Schmutz GmbH, was successfully used for the first time in extensive decontamination work. The recycling system integrated in the decontamination unit substantially reduces secondary waste, which is usually produced in large quantities by the dry jet method, and continually extracts the contaminated dirt thus guaranteeing full utilisation of the jet agent while preventing secondary contamination of the components to be treated. (orig.) [de

  13. High Multiplicity Searches at the LHC Using Jet Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Lisanti, Mariangela; /Princeton U.; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2012-04-24

    This article introduces a new class of searches for physics beyond the Standard Model that improves the sensitivity to signals with high jet multiplicity. The proposed searches gain access to high multiplicity signals by reclustering events into large-radius, or 'fat', jets and by requiring that each event has multiple massive jets. This technique is applied to supersymmetric scenarios in which gluinos are pair-produced and then subsequently decay to final states with either moderate quantities of missing energy or final states without missing energy. In each of these scenarios, the use of jet mass improves the estimated reach in gluino mass by 20% to 50% over current LHC searches.

  14. Turbulent viscosity and scale laws in turbulent jets with variable density; Viscosite turbulente et lois d`echelles dans les jets turbulents a masse volumique variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietri, L.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.; Fulachier, L. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phinomenes Hors Equilibre Equipe Turbulence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Turbulent flows with strong density variations, like helium jets in the ambient air, have specific properties linked with the difference of gas densities. This paper presents some experimental results of turbulence properties inside such flows: the Reynolds tensions and the associated turbulent viscosity, and some characteristics linked with the statistical properties of the different turbulence scales. These last results allows to show the complexity of such flows characterized by the influence of external parameters (Reynolds number, initial density ratio, initial momentum flux) that govern the evolution of these parameters inside the jet from the nozzle up to regions where similarity properties are reached. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  15. High density fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zezza, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    High storage density for spent nuclear fuel assemblies in a pool achieved by positioning fuel storage cells of high thermal neutron absorption materials in an upright configuration in a rack. The rack holds the cells at required pitch. Each cell carries an internal fuel assembly support, and most cells are vertically movable in the rack so that they rest on the pool bottom. Pool water circulation through the cells and around the fuel assemblies is permitted by circulation openings at the top and bottom of the cells above and below the fuel assemblies

  16. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  17. Double trouble at high density:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Palmqvist, Annemette; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals...... regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life...... history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels...

  18. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of the density and temperature gradients in the laser-heated gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Lee, R.W.; Auerbach, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the x-ray spectra produced by a 1.0TW, lambda/sub L/-0.53μm laser-irradiated gas jet. Plasmas produced by ionization of neon, argon and N 2 + SF 6 gases were included in those measurements. Plasma electron density and temperature gradients were obtained by comparison of measured spectra with those produced by computer modeling. Density gradients were also obtained using laser interferometry. The limitations of this technique for plasma diagnosis will be discussed

  20. Bayesian electron density inference from JET lithium beam emission spectra using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J.; Brix, M.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Contributors, JET

    2017-03-01

    A Bayesian model to infer edge electron density profiles is developed for the JET lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system, measuring Li I (2p-2s) line radiation using 26 channels with  ∼1 cm spatial resolution and 10∼ 20 ms temporal resolution. The density profile is modelled using a Gaussian process prior, and the uncertainty of the density profile is calculated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. From the spectra measured by the transmission grating spectrometer, the Li I line intensities are extracted, and modelled as a function of the plasma density by a multi-state model which describes the relevant processes between neutral lithium beam atoms and plasma particles. The spectral model fully takes into account interference filter and instrument effects, that are separately estimated, again using Gaussian processes. The line intensities are inferred based on a spectral model consistent with the measured spectra within their uncertainties, which includes photon statistics and electronic noise. Our newly developed method to infer JET edge electron density profiles has the following advantages in comparison to the conventional method: (i) providing full posterior distributions of edge density profiles, including their associated uncertainties, (ii) the available radial range for density profiles is increased to the full observation range (∼26 cm), (iii) an assumption of monotonic electron density profile is not necessary, (iv) the absolute calibration factor of the diagnostic system is automatically estimated overcoming the limitation of the conventional technique and allowing us to infer the electron density profiles for all pulses without preprocessing the data or an additional boundary condition, and (v) since the full spectrum is modelled, the procedure of modulating the beam to measure the background signal is only necessary for the case of overlapping of the Li I line with impurity lines.

  1. Systematic comparison between line integrated densities measured with interferometry and polarimetry at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Zilli, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Boboc, A.; Murari, A.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic comparison between the line integrated electron density derived from interferometry and polarimetry at JET has been carried out. For the first time the reliability of the measurements of the Cotton-Mouton effect has been analyzed for a wide range of main plasma parameters and the possibility to evaluate the electron density directly from polarimetric data has been studied. The purpose of this work is to recover the interferometric data with the density derived from the measured Cotton-Mouton effect, when the fringe jump phenomena occur. The results show that the difference between the line integrated electron density from interferometry and polarimetry is with one fringe (1.143x10 19 m -2 ) for more than 90% of the cases. It is possible to consider polarimetry as a satisfactory alternative method to interferometry to measure the electron density and it could be used to recover interferometric signal when a fringe jumps occurs, preventing difficulties for the real-time control of many experiments at the JET machine.

  2. Formation Criterion for Axisymmetric Synthetic Jets at High Stokes Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Broučková, Zuzana; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2012), s. 2012-2017 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * power spectral density * hot-wire anemometry Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2012 http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/1.J051649

  3. Real-time electron density measurements from Cotton-Mouton effect in JET machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time density profile measurements are essential for advanced fusion tokamak operation and interferometry is a proven method for this task. Nevertheless, as a consequence of edge localized modes, pellet injections, fast density increases, or disruptions, the interferometer is subject to fringe jumps, which produce loss of the signal preventing reliable use of the measured density in a real-time feedback controller. An alternative method to measure the density is polarimetry based on the Cotton-Mouton effect, which is proportional to the line-integrated electron density. A new analysis approach has been implemented and tested to verify the reliability of the Cotton-Mouton measurements for a wide range of plasma parameters and to compare the density evaluated from polarimetry with that from interferometry. The density measurements based on polarimetry are going to be integrated in the real-time control system of JET since the difference with the interferometry is within one fringe for more than 90% of the cases.

  4. High Energy Gamma-rays from FR I Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, M

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to Hubble and Chandra telescopes, some of the large scale jets in extragalactic radio sources are now being observed at optical and X-ray frequencies. For the FR I objects the synchrotron nature of this emission is surely established, although a lot of uncertainties--connected for example with the particle acceleration processes involved--remain. In this paper we study production of high energy gamma-rays in FR I kiloparsec-scale jets by inverse-Compton emission of the synchrotron-emitting electrons. We consider different origin of seed photons contributing to the inverse-Compton scattering, including nuclear jet radiation as well as ambient, stellar and circumstellar emission of the host galaxies. We discuss how future detections or non-detections of the evaluated gamma-ray fluxes can provide constraints on the unknown large scale jet parameters, i.e. the magnetic field intensity and the jet Doppler factor. For the nearby sources Centaurus A and M 87, we find measurable fluxes of TeV photons resulting...

  5. Studying the applicability of densities mixture unfolding for heavy ion jet spectra in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hackstock, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The results of a three months summer project from July 4th 2016 to September 23rd are presented in this summer student report.\\\\ The method presented in the paper\\footnote{\\url{http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900215000406}} on densities mixture unfolding by Nikolay Gagunashvili and its software implementation were studied. A mind map flowchart, plotting macros and documentation were produced and while an 18 fold performance boost trough parallelization could be achieved, the verdict on the applicability of this method for heavy ion jet spectra in the ALICE experiment remains inconclusive. This is mainly due to a lack of time and complexity of the method and its implementation.

  6. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  7. Jets in high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    From the experimental studies of high-energy hardon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions, by means of nuclear targets applied as detectors, it follows that particles are produced via intermediate objects created first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction. These objects, called generons, decay in flight into finally observed particles and resonances after their lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s. The jet structure of the outcome in nucleon-nucleon collisions is a simple and indispensable consequence of this particle production mechanism. The picture of the jet structure in the collision outcome observed in the CMS of the colliding nucleons depends on the energy of these nUcleons. New particle production scheme is proposed, which can be tested experimentally; corresponding simple relations between characteristics of colliding nucleons and of produced jets are proposed for a testing

  8. High-pt and jet physics from RHIC to LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estienne, M.

    2008-01-01

    The observation of the strong suppression of high-pt hadrons in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has motivated a large experimental program using hard probes to characterize the deconfined medium created. However, what can be denoted as 'leading particle' physics accessible at RHIC presents some limitations which motivate at higher energy the study of much more penetrating objects: jets. The gain in center-of-mass energy expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will definitively improve our understanding on how the energy is lost in the system, opening a major new window of study: the physics of jets on an event-by-event basis. We will concentrate on the expected performance for jet reconstruction in ALICE using the EMCal calorimeter.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of highly underexpanded transient gas jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorinen, V.; Yu, J.; Tirunagari, S.; Kaario, O.; Larmi, M.; Duwig, C.; Boersma, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) based on scale-selective implicit filtering are carried out in order to study the effect of nozzle pressure ratios on the characteristics of highly underexpanded jets. Pressure ratios ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 with Reynolds numbers of the order 75?000–140?000 are

  10. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...

  11. Manifold learning to interpret JET high-dimensional operational space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, B; Fanni, A; Pau, A; Sias, G; Murari, A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of visualization and exploration of JET high-dimensional operational space is considered. The data come from plasma discharges selected from JET campaigns from C15 (year 2005) up to C27 (year 2009). The aim is to learn the possible manifold structure embedded in the data and to create some representations of the plasma parameters on low-dimensional maps, which are understandable and which preserve the essential properties owned by the original data. A crucial issue for the design of such mappings is the quality of the dataset. This paper reports the details of the criteria used to properly select suitable signals downloaded from JET databases in order to obtain a dataset of reliable observations. Moreover, a statistical analysis is performed to recognize the presence of outliers. Finally data reduction, based on clustering methods, is performed to select a limited and representative number of samples for the operational space mapping. The high-dimensional operational space of JET is mapped using a widely used manifold learning method, the self-organizing maps. The results are compared with other data visualization methods. The obtained maps can be used to identify characteristic regions of the plasma scenario, allowing to discriminate between regions with high risk of disruption and those with low risk of disruption. (paper)

  12. The design of a new JET divertor for high triangularity and high current scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappuis, P. E-mail: philippe.chappuis@cea.fr; Damiani, C.; Guerin, C.; Hurd, F.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P.; Lorenz, A.; Pamela, J.; Peacock, A.; Portafaix, C.; Rapp, J.; Riccardo, V.; Rimini, F.; Saibene, G.; Salavy, J.F.; Sauce, Y.; Sartori, R.; Solano, E.; Thomas, E.; Thomas, P.; Tsitrone, E.; Valeta, M.P

    2003-09-01

    A new divertor (MKII-HP) has been designed to be implemented in JET as part of a possible enhancement programme of the JET facility (JET EP). The aim is to handle up to 40 MW of injected power for 10 s with plasma triangularities up to 0.5 while keeping enough flexibility for other scenarios. The divertor is shaped to optimise the wetting fraction without exposing sharp edges or metallic parts and the general design allows for high halo currents.

  13. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  14. The importance of calorimetry for highly-boosted jet substructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Evan [Brown U.; Freytsis, Marat [Oregon U.; Hinzmann, Andreas [Hamburg U.; Narain, Meenakshi [Brown U.; Thaler, Jesse [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Tran, Nhan [Fermilab; Vernieri, Caterina [Fermilab

    2017-09-25

    Jet substructure techniques are playing an essential role in exploring the TeV scale at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), since they facilitate the efficient reconstruction and identification of highly-boosted objects. Both for the LHC and for future colliders, there is a growing interest in using jet substructure methods based only on charged-particle information. The reason is that silicon-based tracking detectors offer excellent granularity and precise vertexing, which can improve the angular resolution on highly-collimated jets and mitigate the impact of pileup. In this paper, we assess how much jet substructure performance degrades by using track-only information, and we demonstrate physics contexts in which calorimetry is most beneficial. Specifically, we consider five different hadronic final states - W bosons, Z bosons, top quarks, light quarks, gluons - and test the pairwise discrimination power with a multi-variate combination of substructure observables. In the idealized case of perfect reconstruction, we quantify the loss in discrimination performance when using just charged particles compared to using all detected particles. We also consider the intermediate case of using charged particles plus photons, which provides valuable information about neutral pions. In the more realistic case of a segmented calorimeter, we assess the potential performance gains from improving calorimeter granularity and resolution, comparing a CMS-like detector to more ambitious future detector concepts. Broadly speaking, we find large performance gains from neutral-particle information and from improved calorimetry in cases where jet mass resolution drives the discrimination power, whereas the gains are more modest if an absolute mass scale calibration is not required.

  15. High-detail snapshots of rare gigantic jet lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In the ionosphere, more than 80 kilometers above Earth's surface, incoming radiation reacts with the thin air to produce highly charged ions, inducing an electric potential between the ionosphere and the surface. This charge difference is dissipated by a slow leak from the ionosphere during calm weather and reinvigorated by a charge built up near the surface during a thunderstorm. In 2001, however, researchers discovered gigantic jets (GJs), powerful lightning that arcs from tropospheric clouds up to the ionosphere, suggesting there may be an alternate path by which charge is redistributed. GJs are transient species, and little is known about how much charge they can carry, how they form, or how common they are. In a step toward answering these questions, Lu et al. report on two GJs that occurred near very high frequency (VHF) lightning detection systems, which track the development of lightning in three spatial dimensions, giving an indication of the generation mechanism. The researchers also measured the charge transfer in the two GJs through remote sensing of magnetic fields. They found that both jets originated from the development of otherwise normal intracloud lightning. The dissipation of the cloud's positively charged upper layer allowed the negative lightning channel to break through and travel up out of the top of the cloud to the ionosphere. The first jet, which occurred off the coast of Florida, leapt up to 80 kilometers, depositing 110 coulombs of negative charge in 370 milliseconds. The second jet, observed in Oklahoma, traveled up to 90 kilometers, raising only 10-20 coulombs in 300 milliseconds. Each new observation of gigantic jets such as these can provide valuable information toward understanding this novel atmospheric behavior. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047662, 2011)

  16. Effect of the relative shift between the electron density and temperature pedestal position on the pedestal stability in JET-ILW and comparison with JET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Saarelma, S.; Loarte, A.; Nunes, I.; Garzotti, L.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Drewelow, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lomanowski, B.; de la Luna, E.; Meneses, L.; Peterka, M.; Viola, B.; Giroud, C.; Maggi, C.; contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The electron temperature and density pedestals tend to vary in their relative radial positions, as observed in DIII-D (Beurskens et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056120) and ASDEX Upgrade (Dunne et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 14017). This so-called relative shift has an impact on the pedestal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and hence on the pedestal height (Osborne et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 063018). The present work studies the effect of the relative shift on pedestal stability of JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) baseline low triangularity (δ) unseeded plasmas, and similar JET-C discharges. As shown in this paper, the increase of the pedestal relative shift is correlated with the reduction of the normalized pressure gradient, therefore playing a strong role in pedestal stability. Furthermore, JET-ILW tends to have a larger relative shift compared to JET carbon wall (JET-C), suggesting a possible role of the plasma facing materials in affecting the density profile location. Experimental results are then compared with stability analysis performed in terms of the peeling-ballooning model and with pedestal predictive model EUROPED (Saarelma et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion). Stability analysis is consistent with the experimental findings, showing an improvement of the pedestal stability, when the relative shift is reduced. This has been ascribed mainly to the increase of the edge bootstrap current, and to minor effects related to the increase of the pedestal pressure gradient and narrowing of the pedestal pressure width. Pedestal predictive model EUROPED shows a qualitative agreement with experiment, especially for low values of the relative shift.

  17. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  18. Experimental study of stratified jet by simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Chen, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Stratified flows with small density difference commonly exist in geophysical and engineering applications, which often involve interaction of turbulence and buoyancy effect. A combined particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) system is developed to measure the velocity and density fields in a dense jet discharged horizontally into a tank filled with light fluid. The illumination of PIV particles and excitation of PLIF dye are achieved by a dual-head pulsed Nd:YAG laser and two CCD cameras with a set of optical filters. The procedure for matching refractive indexes of two fluids and calibration of the combined system are presented, as well as a quantitative analysis of the measurement uncertainties. The flow structures and mixing dynamics within the central vertical plane are studied by examining the averaged parameters, turbulent kinetic energy budget, and modeling of momentum flux and buoyancy flux. At downstream, profiles of velocity and density display strong asymmetry with respect to its center. This is attributed to the fact that stable stratification reduces mixing and unstable stratification enhances mixing. In stable stratification region, most of turbulence production is consumed by mean-flow convection, whereas in unstable stratification region, turbulence production is nearly balanced by viscous dissipation. Experimental data also indicate that at downstream locations, mixing length model performs better in mixing zone of stable stratification regions, whereas in other regions, eddy viscosity/diffusivity models with static model coefficients represent effectively momentum and buoyancy flux terms. The measured turbulent Prandtl number displays strong spatial variation in the stratified jet.

  19. Magnetosheath High-Speed Jets: Coupling Bow Shock Processes to the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, H.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetosheath high-speed jets (HSJs) - dynamic pressure enhancements typically of 1 Earth radius in size - are the most common dayside transient. They impact the magnetopause many times per hour, especially during intervals of low interplanetary magnetic field cone-angle. Upon impact they cause large amplitude yet localized magnetopause indentations, and can couple to global dynamics by driving magnetospheric waves that alter radiation belt electron populations, and by affecting subsolar magnetopause reconnection. Previous observational studies have provided considerable insight into properties of the HSJs. Similarly, recent hybrid simulations have demonstrated the formation of jets downstream of the quasi-parallel shock with properties resembling the observed ones. Yet these studies were based on differing definitions of transients, have used varying terminology, methodology, data sets/simulations, and yielded, not unexpectedly, differing results on origin and characteristics of jets. In this talk we will present the first results towards a more unified understanding of these jets from a dedicated International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team. In particular, we compare the three selection criteria used in the recent observational statistical studies: (i) high dynamic pressure in the Sun-Earth direction with respect to the solar wind; (ii) enhancement of the total dynamic pressure with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma; (iii) enhancement of density with respect to the ambient plasma. We apply these criteria to global kinetic simulations and compare what structures they pick out. Consequently, we can effectively demonstrate where the different criteria agree and where they disagree.

  20. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  1. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  2. Peripheral Circulatory Features during High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kontorovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study of peripheral circulatory features during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. The main specific features of peripheral circulation and oxygen transport during HFJV are formulated on the basis of a study of cardiac output (impedance cardiography, peripheral vascular resistance, peripheral vascular blood filling (photoplethysmogram analysis, adaptive peripheral blood flow reactions (spectral analysis of peripheral vascular pulsation. HFJV gives rise to the peculiar pattern of peripheral hemodynamics and tissue gas exchange, which is characterized by higher oxygen uptake without a decrease in mixed venous blood saturation, with normal extraction coefficient and preserved low peripheral vascular resistance. During HFJV, unlike traditional ventilation, the main peripheral hemodynamic feature is the increased capillary bed blood volume caused by the blood flow involvement of reserve capillaries under control of volume (parasympathetic regulation of adaptive peripheral hemodynamic reactions. Key words: high-frequency jet ventilation, oxygen transport, peripheral hemodynamics.

  3. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Laboratory astrophysics with high energy and high power lasers: from radiative shocks to young star jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory astrophysics are a rapidly developing domain of the High Energy Density Physics. It aims to recreate at smaller scales physical processes that astronomical telescopes have difficulties observing. We shall approach, in this thesis, three major subjects: 1) Jets ejected from young stars, characterized by an important collimation degree and ending with a bow shock; 2) Radiative shocks in which radiation emitted by the shock front itself plays a dominant role in its structure and 3) Accretion shocks in magnetic cataclysmic variables whose important cooling factor allows them to reach stationarity. From the conception to experimental realization, we shall attempt to reproduce in laboratory each of these processes by respecting the scaling laws linking both situations (experimental and astrophysical) established beforehand. The implementation of a large array of visible and X-ray diagnostics will finally allow to completely characterize them and calculate the dimensionless numbers that validate the astrophysical relevance. (author) [fr

  5. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  6. Real-time control of the current density and pressure profiles in Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Litaudon, X.; Joffrin, E.; Laborde, L.; Zabeo, L.; Crisanti, F.; Riva, M.; Felton, R.; Murari, A.; Tala, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to ultimately control internal transport barriers during advanced operation scenarios, new algorithms using a truncated singular value decomposition of a linearized model operator have been implemented in the JET real-time controller, with the potentiality of retaining the distributed nature of plasma parameter profiles. First experiments using the simplest, lumped-parameter, version of this technique have been dedicated to the feedback control of the current density profile in a negative shear plasma using three heating and current drive actuators, namely neutral beam injection (NBI), ion cyclotron resonant frequency heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). Successful control of the safety factor profile has been achieved on the time scale of the current redistribution time, first during an extended preheat phase with only LHCD as actuator and, then, in quasi steady-state conditions during the main heating phase of a discharge, using the three heating and current drive actuators

  7. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, P. W.; Finlay, C. C.; Hollerbach, R.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field, the secular variation, provide information on the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for its generation. The very latest high-resolution observations from ESA's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high-latitude localised in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we explain this feature with a localised, nonaxisymmetric, westwards jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km/yr, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. The current accelerating phase may be a part of a longer term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastwards and westwards movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  8. States of high energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O 16 and S 32 incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O 16 on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dσdN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dσdE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations

  9. Physics of high performance JET plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB ''Gas Box'' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling ''Wind Tunnel'' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in

  10. Physics of high performance jet plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB 'Gas Box' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling 'Wind Tunnel' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in such

  11. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  12. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  13. High-repetition-rate laser-proton acceleration from a condensed hydrogen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obst, Lieselotte; Zeil, Karl; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Rehwald, Martin; Sommer, Philipp; Brack, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Goede, Sebastian; Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; MacDonald, Michael; Schumaker, William; Glenzer, Siegfried [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applications of laser-accelerated protons demand a stable source of energetic particles at high repetition rates. We present the results of our experimental campaign in cooperation with MEC/SLAC at the 10Hz Ti:Sa laser Draco of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), employing a pure condensed hydrogen jet as a renewable target. Draco delivers pulses of 30 fs and 5 J at 800 nm, focused to a 3 μm spot by an F/2.5 off-axis parabolic mirror. The jet's nominal electron density is approximately 30 times the critical density and its thickness is 2 μm, 5 μm or 10 μm, depending on the applied aperture on the source. Ion diagnostics reveal mono-species proton acceleration in a solid angle of at least +/-45 with respect to the incoming laser beam, with maximum energies of around 5 MeV. The expanding jet could be monitored on-shot with a temporally synchronized probe beam perpendicular to the pump laser axis. Recorded probe images resemble those of z-pinch experiments with metal wires and indicate an m=0 instability in the plasma.

  14. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are screened, and short range (high momentum) interactions are weak, leading to an ideal gas equation .... I will briefly touch on 'soft physics' ..... thermodynamic concepts to describe multi-particle production has a long history beginning with ...

  15. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  16. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Jet and Leading Hadron Production in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Jet tomography has become a powerful tool for the study of properties of dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I will discuss recent progresses in the phenomenological study of jet quenching, including momentum, colliding energy and nuclear size dependence of single hadron suppression, modification of dihadron correlations and the soft hadron distribution associated with a quenched jet

  18. Confinement properties of JET plasmas with different temperature and density profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.L.; Balet, B.; Bhatnagar, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The confinement properties of plasmas with substantially different temperature and density profiles have been analysed. The effects of fast particles and energy pedestals on the overall confinement of plasma energy in limiter (L-mode) and X-point (L- and H-modes) discharges heated by NBI or ICRF or both are determined. The importance of the bootstrap current when such energy pedestals are formed is noted. Using sets of consistent experimental data, including ion temperature profile measurements, the local transport properties are compared in the L- and H-phases of a single null X-point medium density NBI heated discharge, the ''enhanced'' confinement phase of a limiter high density pellet-fuelled and ICRF heated discharge, the hot-ion phase of a double null X-point low density NBI heated discharge and the hot-ion and H-phases of a double null X-point low density high temperature NBI heated discharge. (author)

  19. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems which are addressed in this work. Models are developed for jet expansion, primary breakup of the jet and secondary fragmentation of melt droplets resulting from violent effervescence of dissolved gas. The jet expansion model is based on a general relation for bubble growth which includes both inertia-controlled and diffusion-controlled growth phases. The jet expansion model is able to predict the jet void fraction, jet radius as a function of axial distance from the pressure vessel, bubble size and bubble pressure. The number density of gas bubbles in the melt, which is a basic parameter in the model, was determined experimentally and is about 10 8 per m 3 of liquid. The primary breakup of the jet produces a spray of droplets, about 2-3 mm in diameter. Parametric calculations for a TMLB' reactor accident sequence show that the corium jet is disrupted within a few initial jet diameters from the reactor vessel and that the radius of corium spray at the level of the reactor cavity floor is in the range of 0.8 to 2.6 m. (orig./HP)

  20. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  1. Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... in the particle fluid. For nuclear densities above 2 to 3 rho(0), where rho(0) is the equilibrium nuclear density, the resulting magnetic field turns out to be rather huge, of the order of 10(17) Gauss....

  2. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  3. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-07-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  4. QCD jet evolution at high and low scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jan-Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The formation of jets of hadrons is a basic manifestation of the strong interaction as explored in and measured by high-energy physics collider experiments. Jets appear as narrow cones of particles that yield energy deposits in the calorimeters of the detectors. Invoking Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - the underlying theory of the strong interaction and one of the four fundamental forces of nature - leads to predictions and models, which describe the initiation, evolution and hadronization of jets. Good precision and quality of theoretical results and approaches to jet physics are necessary and thus vital for the successful accomplishment of the challenges in elementary particle physics, the current (e.g. proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron) as well as the upcoming ones (e.g. proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). In this thesis various aspects of the eld of QCD jet physics are addressed, all of which under the common denominator of validating and improving the simulations computed by Monte Carlo event generators, in particular that of SHERPA, which has been developed in Dresden. Therefor the following questions were investigated, and, respective results have been achieved: - The method of merging tree-level matrix elements with parton showers has been critically verified against other merging approaches for inclusive gauge boson production at Tevatron and LHC energies. Also, the genesis of dibosons has been studied in comparison to next-to-leading order predictions in the strong coupling and other Monte Carlo generator approaches. These studies triggered improvements of the method of SHERPA, and, finally, important results have been derived, proving its relevance for ongoing and future experimental analyses. In its present form this method hence exhibits a very modern, state-of-the-art, approach to multijet production and evolution in high-energy particle collisions. - A new shower model based on QCD colour dipoles and their

  5. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  6. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  7. High-intensity laser-accelerated ion beam produced from cryogenic micro-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M., E-mail: maxence.gauthier@stanford.edu; Kim, J. B.; Curry, C. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Göde, S.; Propp, A.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Aurand, B.; Willi, O. [Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (Germany); Goyon, C.; Hazi, A.; Pak, A.; Ruby, J.; Williams, G. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kerr, S. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1R1 (Canada); Ramakrishna, B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rödel, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We report on the successful operation of a newly developed cryogenic jet target at high intensity laser-irradiation. Using the frequency-doubled Titan short pulse laser system at Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we demonstrate the generation of a pure proton beam a with maximum energy of 2 MeV. Furthermore, we record a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 1.1 MeV in the proton spectrum emitted in the laser forward direction suggesting an alternative acceleration mechanism. Using a solid-density mixed hydrogen-deuterium target, we are also able to produce pure proton-deuteron ion beams. With its high purity, limited size, near-critical density, and high-repetition rate capability, this target is promising for future applications.

  8. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF DG TAU'S RADIO JET: A HIGHLY COLLIMATED THERMAL OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, C.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52240 (United States); Guedel, M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ray, T. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Section, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skinner, S. L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. C. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size of 42 AU (0.''35) extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral index {alpha} = +0.46 {+-} 0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find that our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7'' from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.

  9. Probing the parton densities of virtual photons with the reaction γ*γ → jets at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order calculation of jet production in γ * γ collisions from e + e - scattering in a region where the virtuality Q 2 of the probing virtual photon is small compared to the transverse jet energy. The calculation is based on the phase-space slicing method. The initial state singularity of the virtual photon is factorized into the structure function of the virtual photon, using the MS-bar factorization scheme for virtual photons. Numerical results are presented for LEP2 conditions. The perturbative stability of the pure direct virtual photon approach is compared to that of including resolved virtual photons in different regions of Q 2 . We make predictions for cross sections which suggest that different parametrizations of virtual photon parton densities should be distinguishable by measurements of jet cross sections at LEP

  10. Development of internal transport barrier scenarios at ITER-relevant high triangularity in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimini, F.G.; Becoulet, M.; Giovannozzi, E.; Lomas, P.J.; Tudisco, O.; Alper, B.; Crisanti, F.; Baar, M. de; Luna, E. de La; Vries, P. de; Ekedahl, A.; Hawkes, N.; Huysmans, G.; Litaudon, X.; Parail, V.; Saibene, G.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Zastrow, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The development of scenarios characterized by H-mode confinement and internal transport barriers (ITBs) in high triangularity, δ ∼ 0.4-0.5, discharges is of particular interest for ITER advanced tokamak operation. Previous JET experiments have shown that high triangularity favours H-modes which are ELM-free or develop type I edge localized mode (ELM) activity, which inhibits long lasting ITBs. The recent experiments reported here concentrate on integrated optimization of edge and core conditions. The stability of the edge pedestal was controlled using gas injection, deuterium or light impurities, and plasma current ramps. Both methods yield more ITB-friendly edge pedestal conditions, varying from small type I to type III ELMs and, in extreme cases, resulting in L-mode. In parallel, the conditions for triggering and sustaining ITBs encompassing a large proportion of the plasma volume (outer ITBs) were optimized, as opposed to less performing ITBs located closer to the plasma centre (inner ITB). These plasmas have deeply reversed target current profiles with q min ∼ 3 and a narrow inner ITB, located typically at a small normalized radius ρ E , at q 95 = 7.5, H 89 β N ∼ 3.5-4 and ∼60% of the Greenwald density limit. In summary, a high triangularity scenario has been developed, which combines the desirable characteristics of controlled edge, long lasting wide ITBs and high performance at density higher than the low triangularity JET scenarios

  11. Trajectory of a synthetic jet issuing into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Baidya, Rio; de Silva, Charitha; Marusic, Ivan; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic jets are zero-net-mass-flux actuators that can be used in a range of flow control applications. For several pulsed/synthetic jet in cross-flow applications the variation of the jet trajectory in the mean flow with jet and boundary layer parameters is important. This trajectory will provide an indication of the penetration depth of the pulsed/synthetic jet into a boundary layer. Trajectories of a synthetic jet in a turbulent boundary layer are measured for a range of actuation parameters in both low- and high Reynolds numbers (up to Reτ = 13000). The important parameters influencing the trajectory are determined from these measurements. The Reynolds number of the boundary layer is shown to only have a small effect on the trajectory. In fact, the critical parameters are found to be the Strouhal number of the jet based on jet dimensions as well as the velocity ratio of the jet (defined as a ratio between peak jet velocity and the freestream velocity). An expression for the trajectory of the synthetic (or pulsed) jet is derived from the data, which (in the limit) is consistent with known expressions for the trajectory of a steady jet in a cross-flow. T.B. and B.G. are grateful to the support from the ERC (Grant Agreement No. 277472) and the EPSRC (Grant ref. no. EP/L006383/1).

  12. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.

    1986-01-01

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. High temperature L- and H-mode confinement in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balet, B.; Boyd, D.A.; Campbell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The energy confinement properties of low density, high ion temperature L- and H-mode plasmas are investigated. For L-mode plasmas it is shown that, although the global confinement is independent of density, the energy confinement in the central region is significantly better at low densities than at higher densities. The improved confinement appears to be associated with the steepness of the density gradient. For the H-mode phase, although the confinement at the edge is dramatically improved, which is once again associated with the steep density gradient in the edge region, the central confinement properties are essentially the same as for the standard L-mode. The results are compared in a qualitative manner with the predictions of the ion temperature gradient instability theory and appear to be in disagreement with some aspects of this theory. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs

  14. Acceptance test procedure for High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of the acceptance test is to demonstrate a combined system. This includes associated tools and equipment necessary to perform cleaning in the 105 K East Basin (KE) for achieving optimum reduction in the level of contamination/dose rate on canisters prior to removal from the KE Basin and subsequent packaging for disposal. Acceptance tests shall include necessary hardware to achieve acceptance of the cleaning phase of canisters. This acceptance test procedure will define the acceptance testing criteria of the high pressure water jet cleaning fixture. The focus of this procedure will be to provide guidelines and instructions to control, evaluate and document the acceptance testing for cleaning effectiveness and method(s) of removing the contaminated surface layer from the canister presently identified in KE Basin. Additionally, the desired result of the acceptance test will be to deliver to K Basins a thoroughly tested and proven system for underwater decontamination and dose reduction. This report discusses the acceptance test procedure for the High Pressure Water Jet

  15. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    High-energy-density capacitors that are compact and light-weight are extremely valuable in a number of critical DoD systems that include portable field equipment, pulsed lasers, detection equipment...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fondelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  17. Prototype of a high speed pellet launcher for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Kupschus, P.; Helm, J.; Flory, D.; Zacchia, F.

    1989-01-01

    JET is planning to build a high speed prototype pellet injector cap0able of delivering single D 2 -ice pellets, one per plasma pulse, with a velocity of up to 5 kms -1 . The prototype will be based on a 2-stage gun system which is presently being developed at JET using a test stand. One gun of the teststand will be transformed into the prototype used at the torus. Earlier tests have shown that D 2 -ice pellets can only sustain peak accelerations of 5x10 6 ms -2 without breaking and that they suffer from an erosion effect in the barrel limiting the pellet velocity to about 2.7 kms -1 . Results are presented proving that these problems can be overcome by accelerating the ice in a protective sabot (cartridge). With this method velocities of up to 3.8 kms -1 have been obtained. The sabot technique, however, requires a separation of the sabot from the pellet before this is injected into the plasma. Three possible separation methods are described and experimental results of one of them are presented. Also improvements of the gun are discussed which allow to operate the gun by remote control. (author). 5 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  19. On Combining High and Low Q2 Information on the Polarized Parton Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot; Stamenov, Dimiter B.

    2000-01-01

    We draw attention to some problems in the combined use of high-Q 2 deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data and low-Q 2 hyperon β-decay data in the determination of the polarized parton densities. We explain why factorization schemes like the JET or AB schemes are the simplest in which to study the implications of the DIS parton densities for the physics of the low-Q 2 region. (author)

  20. Active Control of High-Speed Free Jets Using High-Frequency Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja

    Control of aerodynamic noise generated by high-performance jet engines continues to remain a serious problem for the aviation community. Intense low frequency noise produced by large-scale coherent structures is known to dominate acoustic radiation in the aft angles. A tremendous amount of research effort has been dedicated towards the investigation of many passive and active flow control strategies to attenuate jet noise, while keeping performance penalties to a minimum. Unsteady excitation, an active control technique, seeks to modify acoustic sources in the jet by leveraging the naturally-occurring flow instabilities in the shear layer. While excitation at a lower range of frequencies that scale with the dynamics of large-scale structures, has been attempted by a number of studies, effects at higher excitation frequencies remain severely unexplored. One of the major limitations stems from the lack of appropriate flow control devices that have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in turbulent flows, especially at higher speeds. To this end, the current study seeks to fulfill two main objectives. First, the design and characterization of two high-frequency fluidic actuators (25 and 60 kHz) are undertaken, where the target frequencies are guided by the dynamics of high-speed free jets. Second, the influence of high-frequency forcing on the aeroacoustics of high-speed jets is explored in some detail by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 (Re D = 5 x 105) free jet flow field. Subsequently, these findings are directly compared to the results of steady microjet injection experiments performed in the same rig and to prior jet noise control studies, where available. Finally, limited acoustic measurements were also performed by implementing the nominally 25 kHz actuators on jets at higher Mach numbers, including shock containing jets, and elevated temperatures. Using lumped element modeling as an initial guide, the current

  1. Controlling laser-induced jet formation for bioprinting mesenchymal stem cells with high viability and high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad; Pages, Emeline; Ducom, Alexandre; Fontaine, Aurelien; Guillemot, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Laser-assisted bioprinting is a versatile, non-contact, nozzle-free printing technique which has demonstrated high potential for cell printing with high resolution. Improving cell viability requires determining printing conditions which minimize shear stress for cells within the jet and cell impact at droplet landing. In this context, this study deals with laser-induced jet dynamics to determine conditions from which jets arise with minimum kinetic energies. The transition from a sub-threshold regime to jetting regime has been associated with a geometrical parameter (vertex angle) which can be harnessed to print mesenchymal stem cells with high viability using slow jet conditions. Finally, hydrodynamic jet stability is also studied for higher laser pulse energies which give rise to supersonic but turbulent jets. (paper)

  2. High Accuracy Positioning using Jet Thrusters for Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi ChenHuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadcopter is equipped with four additional jet thrusters on its horizontal plane and vertical to each other in order to improve the maneuverability and positioning accuracy of quadcopter. A dynamic model of the quadcopter with jet thrusters is derived and two controllers are implemented in simulation, one is a dual loop state feedback controller for pose control and another is an auxiliary jet thruster controller for accurate positioning. Step response simulations showed that the jet thruster can control the quadcopter with less overshoot compared to the conventional one. Over 10s loiter simulation with disturbance, the quadcopter with jet thruster decrease 85% of RMS error of horizontal disturbance compared to a conventional quadcopter with only a dual loop state feedback controller. The jet thruster controller shows the possibility for further accurate in the field of quadcopter positioning.

  3. High pT jet production in pp collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskola, K.J.; Wang, X.N.

    1995-01-01

    Production rates of large p T jets in pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies are studied using the next-to-leading order calculation of S. D. Ellis, Z. Zunszt and D. Soper. The computed inclusive one-jet cross sections are compared against the CERN and Fermilab jet data from p bar p and pp collisions. The dependence of the results on the choice of the parton distributions and renormalization/factorization scales is investigated

  4. High-density limit of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, E.

    1983-01-01

    By means of a formal expansion of the partition function presumably valid at large baryon densities, the propagator of the quarks is expressed in terms of the gluon propagator. This result is interpreted as implying that correlations between quarks and gluons are unimportant at high enough density, so that a kind of mean-field approximation gives a very accurate description of the physical system

  5. High kinetic energy plasma jet generation and its injection into the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.V.; Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Abramova, K.B.; Sklyarova, E.M.; Tolstyakov, S.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Progress in the theoretical and experimental development of the plasma jet source and injection of hydrogen plasma and neutral gas jets into the Globus-M spherical tokamak is discussed. An experimental test bed is described for investigation of intense plasma jets that are generated by a double-stage plasma gun consisting of an intense source for neutral gas production and a conventional pulsed coaxial accelerator. A procedure for optimizing the accelerator parameters so as to achieve the maximum possible flow velocity with a limited discharge current and a reasonable length of the coaxial electrodes is presented. The calculations are compared with experiment. Plasma jet parameters, among them pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc, were measured. Plasma jets with densities of up to 10 22 m -3 , total numbers of accelerated particles (1-5) x 10 19 , and flow velocities of 50-100 km s -1 were successfully injected into the plasma column of the Globus-M tokamak. Interferometric and Thomson scattering measurements confirmed deep jet penetration and a fast density rise ( 19 to 1 x 10 19 ) did not result in plasma degradation

  6. High density data recording for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDeusen, A.L.; Crist, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and AlliedSignal Aerospace have collaboratively developed a high density data monitoring system for beam diagnostic activities. The 128 channel data system is based on a custom multi-channel high speed digitizer card for the VXI bus. The card is referred to as a Modular Input VXI (MIX) digitizer. Multiple MIX cards are used in the complete system to achieve the necessary high channel density requirements. Each MIX digitizer card also contains programmable signal conditioning, and enough local memory to complete an entire beam scan without assistance from the host processor

  7. Cavitation induced by high speed impact of a solid surface on a liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Tinguely, Marc; Rouvinez, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    A solid surface may suffer from severe erosion if it impacts a liquid jet at high speed. The physics behind the erosion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of a gun bullet on a laminar water jet with the help of a high speed camera. The bullet has a flat front and 11 mm diameter, which is half of jet diameter. The impact speed was varied between 200 and 500 ms-1. Immediately after the impact, a systematic shock wave and high speed jetting were observed. As the compression waves reflect on the jet boundary, a spectacular number of vapour cavities are generated within the jet. Depending on the bullet velocity, these cavities may grow and collapse violently on the bullet surface with a risk of cavitation erosion. We strongly believe that this transient cavitation is the main cause of erosion observed in many industrial applications such as Pelton turbines.

  8. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  9. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  10. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  11. Effects of rocket jet on stability and control at high Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David E , Jr

    1958-01-01

    Paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the jet-interference effects which may occur at high jet static-pressure ratios and high Mach numbers. Tests were made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.86.

  12. Aerodynamic and acoustic environment of a highly supersonic hot jet; Environnement aerodynamique et acoustique d'un jet chaud et fortement supersonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnier, J.; Gely, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), Dept. DSNA, 92 - Chatillon (France); Foulon, H. [CEAT, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the context of the spatial launchers, the prediction of noise radiated by highly supersonic hot jets is generally made from empirical methods. More recently, simulation methods based on computational fluid dynamics have been developed. In the two cases, in order to specify the parameters of the computer codes, it is necessary to know the actual aerodynamic and acoustic data of the flow. In the MARTEL facilities of CNES, ONERA has carried out tests with a 1200 m/s hot jet, free or impinging on a large plate. Acoustic near field and aerodynamic configuration of the free jet and of the wall jet have been characterized by measurements. Particularly, the supersonic core length and the location of the sound power peak on the jet axis have been determined. Other measurements, made with anemometers and wind cocks in the vicinity of the jet and of the plate, have allowed to characterize the drive of the ambient air by the jet. (authors)

  13. Cryogenic Impinging Jets Subjected to High Frequency Transverse Acoustic Forcing in a High Pressure Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    impingement sheet – Probably due to a impingement point physically moving Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA# 16333 22...AIAA-92- 0458 30th ASM 7. N. Bremond and E. Villermaux, “Atomization by jet impact”, J. Fluid Mech 2006, vol.549, 273-306 8. W.E. Anderson, H. M. Ryan...Sheets formed by Impinging Jets in High Pressure Environments,” AIAA-2004-3526 40th ASM 11. X. Chen, D. Ma, and V. Yang, “Mechanism Study of Impact Wave

  14. High throughput nonparametric probability density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Jacobs, Donald

    2018-01-01

    In high throughput applications, such as those found in bioinformatics and finance, it is important to determine accurate probability distribution functions despite only minimal information about data characteristics, and without using human subjectivity. Such an automated process for univariate data is implemented to achieve this goal by merging the maximum entropy method with single order statistics and maximum likelihood. The only required properties of the random variables are that they are continuous and that they are, or can be approximated as, independent and identically distributed. A quasi-log-likelihood function based on single order statistics for sampled uniform random data is used to empirically construct a sample size invariant universal scoring function. Then a probability density estimate is determined by iteratively improving trial cumulative distribution functions, where better estimates are quantified by the scoring function that identifies atypical fluctuations. This criterion resists under and over fitting data as an alternative to employing the Bayesian or Akaike information criterion. Multiple estimates for the probability density reflect uncertainties due to statistical fluctuations in random samples. Scaled quantile residual plots are also introduced as an effective diagnostic to visualize the quality of the estimated probability densities. Benchmark tests show that estimates for the probability density function (PDF) converge to the true PDF as sample size increases on particularly difficult test probability densities that include cases with discontinuities, multi-resolution scales, heavy tails, and singularities. These results indicate the method has general applicability for high throughput statistical inference.

  15. Effects of local high-frequency perturbation on a turbulent boundary layer by synthetic jet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Qian-Min; Liu, Pei-qing; Qu, Qiu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the local high-frequency perturbation effects of a synthetic jet injection on a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Parameters of the synthetic jet are designed to force a high-frequency perturbation from a thin spanwise slot in the wall. In the test locations downstream of the slot, it is found that skin-friction is reduced by the perturbation, which is languishingly evolved downstream of the slot with corresponding influence on the near-wall regeneration mechanism of turbulent structures. The downstream slot region is divided into two regions due to the influence strength of the movement of spanwise vortices generated by the high-frequency perturbation. Interestingly, the variable interval time average technique is found to be disturbed by the existence of the spanwise vortices’ motion, especially in the region close to the slot. Similar results are obtained from the analysis of the probability density functions of the velocity fluctuation time derivatives, which is another indirect technique for detecting the enhancement or attenuation of streamwise vortices. However, both methods have shown consistent results with the skin-friction reduction mechanism in the far-away slot region. The main purpose of this paper is to remind researchers to be aware of the probable influence of spanwise vortices’ motion in wall-bounded turbulence control. (paper)

  16. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. High density implosion experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Nelson, M.B.; Lerche, R.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Ress, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    Deuterium filled glass microballoons are used as indirectly driven targets for implosion experiments at the Nova Laser Fusion Facility. High levels of laser precision were required to achieve fuel densities and convergences to an ignition scale hot spot. (AIP) copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  19. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  20. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  1. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been developed to calculate the expansion and fragmentation of a corium jet, due to the evolution of dissolved gas, during a postulated core meltdown accident. Parametric calculations have been performed for a PWR high pressure accident scenario. Jet breakup occurs within a few jet diameters from the RPV. The diameter of the fragmented jet at the level of the reactor cavity floor is predicted to be 40-130 times the discharge diameter. Particles generated by fragmentation of corium melt are predicted to be in the 30-150 μm size range

  2. Numerical study of the interaction between two laminar and coaxial plane jets with variable density in an ambient fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges E-mail: lepalec@unimeca.univ-mrs.fr; Bournot, Philippe

    2003-07-01

    In this work, we intend to solve the equations governing two laminar isothermal or non-isothermal coaxial plane jets with variable density in an ambient fluid at rest in order to study the initial conditions influence (i.e. the nozzles ejection conditions) on the jet characteristic parameters. A finite difference method is developed to solve the dimensionless Navier-Stokes and energy equations resulting from some assumptions. The discussion about the results relates primarily to the concentration core length according to the nozzles thicknesses ratios. The influences of the gas velocity and temperature resulting from the external nozzle are also examined. This made it possible to deduce correlations of practical use between these parameters in order to apply them in engineering processes.

  3. Development of internal transport barrier scenarios at ITER-relevant high triangularity in Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimini, F.G.; Becoulet, M.; Ekedahl, A.; Huysmans, G.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Giovannozzi, E.; Tudisco, O.; Crisanti, F. [Association Euratol/ENEA/CNR sulla Fusione, Frascali, Rome (Italy); Lomas, P.J.; Alper, B.; Hawkes, N.; Parail, V.; Zastrow, K.D. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Baar, M. de; Vries, P. de [Association Euratom-Fom, TEC Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); La Luna, E. de [Association Euratom-Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Saibene, G. [EFDA CSU, Garching (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The development of ITB s(Internal Transport Barrier) scenarios in high triangularity discharges is of particular interest for ITER advanced tokamak operation. Previous JET experiments have shown that high triangularity favours ELM (Edge Localized Mode)-Free or type I ELMs, which inhibit long lasting ITBs. The recent experiments reported here concentrate on integrated optimisation of edge and core conditions. Edge pedestal was controlled using gas injection, Deuterium or light impurities, and plasma current ramps. Both methods yield more ITB-friendly edge pedestal conditions, varying from small type I to type III ELMs and, in extreme cases, to L-mode edge. In parallel, the conditions for triggering and sustaining a wide ITB were optimised. This plasmas have deeply reversed target current profiles with g{sub min} 3. A narrow inner ITB, located in the reversed shear region, is routinely observed. Large radius ITBs are only triggered when the input power exceeds 20-22 MW, but they do not usually survive the transition into H-mode. The best results, in terms of sustained high performance, have been obtained with Neon injection: a wide ITB is triggered during the phase with L-mode edge and survives into H-mode for about 2 s at H{sub 89}{beta}{sub N} {approx} 3.5 and {approx} 60% of the Greenwald density limit. In summary, a high triangularity scenario has been developed, which combines the desirable I characteristics of controlled edge, long lasting wide ITBs and high performance at density higher than the low triangularity JET scenarios. (authors)

  4. Water experiment of high-speed, free-surface, plane jet along concave wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Ida, Mizuho; Kato, Yoshio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kazuhiro; Kukita, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), an intense 14 MeV neutron beam will be generated in the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flowing along concave wall in vacuum. As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the IFMIF, the stability of the plane liquid jet flow was studied experimentally with water in a well-defined channel geometry for non-heating condition. A two-dimensional double-reducer nozzle being newly proposed for the IFMIF target successfully provided a high-speed (≤ 17 m/s) stable water jet with uniform velocity distribution at the nozzle exit without flow separation in the nozzle. The free surface of the jet was covered by two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional waves, the size of which did not change much over the tested jet length of ∼130 mm. The jet velocity profile changed around the nozzle exit from uniform to that of free-vortex flow where the product of the radius of stream line and local velocity is constant in the jet thickness. The jet thickness increased immediately after exiting the nozzle because of the velocity profile change. The predicted jet thickness by a modified one-dimensional momentum model agreed with the data well. (author)

  5. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  6. Jet physics in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizides, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is one of the experiments currently prepared for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, starting operation end of 2007. ALICE is dedicated to the research on nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, which addresses the properties of strongly interacting matter under varying conditions of high density and temperature. The conditions provided at the LHC allow significant qualitative improvement with respect to previous studies. In particular, energetic probes, light quarks and gluons, will be abundantly produced. These probes might be identified by their fragmentation into correlated particles, so called jets, of high enough energy to allow full reconstruction of jet properties; even in the underlying heavy-ion environment. Understanding the dependence of high-energy jet production and fragmentation influenced by the dense medium created in the collision region is an open field of active research. Generally, one expects energy loss of the probes due to medium-induced gluon radiation. It is suggested that hadronization products of these, rather soft gluons may be contained within the jet emission cone, resulting in a modification of the characteristic jet fragmentation, as observed via longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions with respect to the direction of the initial parton, as well as of the multiplicity distributions arising from the jet fragmentation. Particle momenta parallel to the jet axis are softened (jet quenching), while transverse to it increased (transverse heating). The present thesis studies the capabilities of the ALICE detectors to measure these jets and quantifies obtainable rates and the quality of jet reconstruction, in both proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In particular, it is addressed whether modification of the jet fragmentation can be detected within the high-particle-multiplicity environment of central lead-lead collisions. (orig.)

  7. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  8. Fantoni’s Tracheostomy using Catheter High Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Török

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown previously that conventional ventilation delivered through a long cuffed endotracheal tube is associated with a high flow-resistance and frequent perioperative complications. Aim: We attempted to supersede the conventional ventilation by high-frequency jet ventilation through a catheter (HFJV-C and assess safety of the procedure. Material and methods: Using a translaryngeal tracheostomy kit, we performed a translaryngeal (Fantoni tracheostomy (TLT. Subsequently, we introduced a special 2-way prototype ventilatory catheter into the trachea via the TLT under bronchoscopic control. Satisfactory HFJV-C ventilation through the catheter was achieved in 218 patients. Results: There were no significant adverse effects on vital signs observed in the cohort during the study. The pH, SpO2, PaO2, and PaCO2 did not change significantly following the HFJV-C. The intrinsic PEEPi measured in trachea did not exceed 4—5 cm H2O during its application, which was significantly less than during the classical ventilation via the endotracheal tube fluctuating between 12 and 17 cm H2O. No serious medical complications occurred. Conclusion: The HFJV during Fantoni’s tracheostomy using the catheter HFJV-C proved to be a safe and effective method of lung ventilation at the intensive care unit. Key words: Translaryngeal tracheostomy, HFJV via catheter.

  9. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  10. Studies on Impingement Effects of Low Density Jets on Surfaces — Determination of Shear Stress and Normal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.

  11. Sub-millisecond electron density profile measurement at the JET tokamak with the fast lithium beam emission spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réfy, D. I.; Brix, M.; Gomes, R.; Tál, B.; Zoletnik, S.; Dunai, D.; Kocsis, G.; Kálvin, S.; Szabolics, T.; JET Contributors

    2018-04-01

    Diagnostic alkali atom (e.g., lithium) beams are routinely used to diagnose magnetically confined plasmas, namely, to measure the plasma electron density profile in the edge and the scrape off layer region. A light splitting optics system was installed into the observation system of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic at the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak, which allows simultaneous measurement of the beam light emission with a spectrometer and a fast avalanche photodiode (APD) camera. The spectrometer measurement allows density profile reconstruction with ˜10 ms time resolution, absolute position calculation from the Doppler shift, spectral background subtraction as well as relative intensity calibration of the channels for each discharge. The APD system is capable of measuring light intensities on the microsecond time scale. However ˜100 μs integration is needed to have an acceptable signal to noise ratio due to moderate light levels. Fast modulation of the beam up to 30 kHz is implemented which allows background subtraction on the 100 μs time scale. The measurement covers the 0.9 background subtraction, the relative calibration, and the comprehensive error calculation, runs a Bayesian density reconstruction code, and loads results to the JET database. The paper demonstrates the capability of the APD system by analyzing fast phenomena like pellet injection and edge localized modes.

  12. Experimental and numerical study on density stratification erosion phenomena with a vertical buoyant jet in a small vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Satoshi, E-mail: abe.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • This paper shows results of a small scale experiment and CFD analyses on a density stratification erosion with a vertical buoyant jet. • The particle image velocimetry (PIV) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with a multiport rotating valve were applied. • Two typical well-used RANS models were applied. • The simulated stratification erosion was in agreement with the experimental result, which suggested that the turbulence mixing occurred only in the jet impinging region. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project to investigate thermal hydraulic phenomena in a reactor containment vessel during a severe accident. The hydrogen distribution in the vessel is one of significant safety issues in discussing a potential of hydrogen combustion in the containment. Density stratification and its break-up are important phenomena affecting the hydrogen distribution. This paper focuses on a density stratification erosion and break-up mechanism with a vertical buoyant jet promoting the turbulent helium transport. Small scale experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were carried out for investigating this phenomena. In the experiment, a rectangular vessel made with acrylic plates with a width of 1.5 m, a length of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m was used for visualizing flow field with particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system with a multiport rotating valve was applied for measuring gaseous concentration at 20 elevation points. In CFD analysis with OpenFOAM, two typical well-used turbulence models were used: low-Reynolds number type k–ε model and SST k–ω model, with a turbulence model modification to consider the buoyant effect in the stratification. As a result, the stratification erosion in the CFD analyses with the modified turbulence model agreed well with the experimental data, indicating importance of the turbulence damping by the buoyant effect.

  13. Experimental and numerical study on density stratification erosion phenomena with a vertical buoyant jet in a small vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper shows results of a small scale experiment and CFD analyses on a density stratification erosion with a vertical buoyant jet. • The particle image velocimetry (PIV) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with a multiport rotating valve were applied. • Two typical well-used RANS models were applied. • The simulated stratification erosion was in agreement with the experimental result, which suggested that the turbulence mixing occurred only in the jet impinging region. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project to investigate thermal hydraulic phenomena in a reactor containment vessel during a severe accident. The hydrogen distribution in the vessel is one of significant safety issues in discussing a potential of hydrogen combustion in the containment. Density stratification and its break-up are important phenomena affecting the hydrogen distribution. This paper focuses on a density stratification erosion and break-up mechanism with a vertical buoyant jet promoting the turbulent helium transport. Small scale experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were carried out for investigating this phenomena. In the experiment, a rectangular vessel made with acrylic plates with a width of 1.5 m, a length of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m was used for visualizing flow field with particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) system with a multiport rotating valve was applied for measuring gaseous concentration at 20 elevation points. In CFD analysis with OpenFOAM, two typical well-used turbulence models were used: low-Reynolds number type k–ε model and SST k–ω model, with a turbulence model modification to consider the buoyant effect in the stratification. As a result, the stratification erosion in the CFD analyses with the modified turbulence model agreed well with the experimental data, indicating importance of the turbulence damping by the buoyant effect.

  14. Framatome offers new high density Cadminox racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Framatome have developed a new material called Cadminox for use in high density spent fuel storage racks. It is claimed that Cadminox will remain stable stable in pond storage when racks submerged in boronated water are irradiated by the spent fuel they contain. A brief description of the storage module is given, including the aseismic bearing device which minimises loads on pond walls, racks and fuel assemblies. (UK)

  15. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, ...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  16. The car parking problem at high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Bonadeo, H.

    1989-04-01

    The radial distribution functions of random 1-D systems of sequential hard rods have been studied in the range of very high densities. It is found that as the number of samples rejected before completion increases, anomalies in the pairwise distribution functions arise. These are discussed using analytical solutions for systems of three rods and numerical simulations with twelve rods. The probabilities of different spatial orderings with respect to the sequential order are examined.

  17. High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee

    2002-01-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.

  18. High-$p_T$ multi-jet final states at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The increase of the centre-of-mass energy of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to 13 TeV has opened up a new energy regime. Final states including high-momentum multi-jet signatures often dominate beyond standard model phenomena, in particular decay products of new heavy particles. While the potential di-photon resonance currently receives a lot of attention, multi-jet final states pose strong constraints on what physics model an observation could actually be described with. In this presentation, the latest results of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations in high transverse momentum multi-jet final states are summarised. This includes searches for heavy resonances and new phenomena in the di-jet mass spectrum, di-jet angular distributions, and the sum of transverse momenta in different event topologies. Furthermore, results on leptoquark pair production will be shown. A particular focus is laid on the different background estimation methods.

  19. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  20. Jet reconstruction at high-energy electron-positron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boronat, M.; Fuster, J.; Garcia, I.; Vos, M. [IFIC (CSIC/UVEG), Valencia (Spain); Roloff, P.; Simoniello, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    In this paper we study the performance in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions of classical e{sup +}e{sup -} jet reconstruction algorithms, longitudinally invariant algorithms and the recently proposed Valencia algorithm. The study includes a comparison of perturbative and non-perturbative jet energy corrections and the response under realistic background conditions. Several algorithms are benchmarked with a detailed detector simulation at √(s) = 3 TeV. We find that the classical e{sup +}e{sup -} algorithms, with or without beam jets, have the best response, but they are inadequate in environments with non-negligible background. The Valencia algorithm and longitudinally invariant k{sub t} algorithms have a much more robust performance, with a slight advantage for the former. (orig.)

  1. The JET high temperature in-vessel inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Businaro, T.; Cusack, R.; Calbiati, L.; Raimondi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The JET In-vessel Inspection System (IVIS) has been enhanced for operation under the following nominal conditions: vacuum vessel at 350 degC; vacuum vessel evacuated (∼10 -9 mbar); radiation dose during D-T phase 10 rads. The target resolution of the pictures is 2 mm at 5 m distance and tests on radiation resistance of the IVIS system are being carried out. Since June 1988, the new system is installed in the JET machine and the first inspections of the intire vessel at 250 degC have been satisfactory done. (author). 3 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.W.; Ma, C.F.; Yu, J.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to characterize the boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids. The effects of noncondensable gases and surface aging on boiling curves were considered. The present study focused on the effects of jet parameters (jet exit velocity, radial distance from the stagnation point and nozzle diameter) and fluid subcooling on incipient boiling superheat and superheat excursion, as well as the physical mechanism of boiling hysteresis. Results show that the incipient boiling superheat decreases only with fluid subcooling regardless of jet parameters, and that the superheat excursion increases with nozzle diameter and radial distance from the stagnation point and decreasing jet exit velocity and fluid subcooling. Boiling hysteresis occurs due to deactivation of vapor embryos within larger cavities. Three anomalous phenomena at boiling inception are recorded and discussed in terms of irregular activation of vapor embryos

  3. Influences of hydrodynamic conditions, nozzle geometry on appearance of high submerged cavitating jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on visualization results of highly-submerged cavitating water jet obtained with digital camera, the influences of related parameters such as: injection pressure, nozzle diameter and geometry, nozzle mounting (for convergent / divergent flow, cavitation number and exit jet velocity, were investigated. In addition, the influence of visualization system position was also studied. All the parameters have been found to be of strong influence on the jet appearance and performance. Both hydro-dynamical and geometrical parameters are playing the main role in behavior and intensity of cavitation phenomenon produced by cavitating jet generator. Based on our considerable previous experience in working with cavitating jet generator, the working conditions were chosen in order to obtain measurable phenomenon. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35046

  4. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  5. Study of high-$p_T$ hadron-jet correlations in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Křížek, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Jets provide unique probes of the medium created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. Here, the observed jet quenching phenomena in central collisions prove that jets are sensitive to interesting properties of strongly-coupled matter. In addition, jet production in elementary processes, such as pp collisions, is well understood within the framework of perturbative QCD, providing a rigorous theoretical basis for jet quenching calculations. We report the measurement of semi-inclusive p T spectra of charged particle jets that recoil from a high- p T hadron trigger in Pb–Pb and pp collisions at √ s NN = 2 : 76 TeV and √ s = 7 TeV, respectively. In this analysis, the copious yield of uncorrelated trigger hadron-jet matchings in central Pb–Pb collisions is removed by calculating the difference between two spectra corresponding to disjoint trigger hadron p T ranges. This procedure does not impose any fragmentation bias on the recoil jet population, which is thus collinear and infrared safe

  6. EXTREMELY BROAD RADIO RECOMBINATION MASER LINES TOWARD THE HIGH-VELOCITY IONIZED JET IN CEPHEUS A HW2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Serra, I.; Patel, N.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Baez-Rubio, A.; Thum, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first detection of the H40α, H34α, and H31α radio recombination lines (RRLs) at millimeter wavelengths toward the high-velocity ionized jet in the Cepheus A HW2 star-forming region. From our single-dish and interferometric observations, we find that the measured RRLs show extremely broad asymmetric line profiles with zero-intensity line widths of ∼1100 km s -1 . From the line widths, we estimate a terminal velocity for the ionized gas in the jet of ≥500 km s -1 , consistent with that obtained from the proper motions of the HW2 radio jet. The total integrated line-to-continuum flux ratios of the H40α, H34α, and H31α lines are 43, 229, and 280 km s -1 , clearly deviating from LTE predictions. These ratios are very similar to those observed for the RRL masers toward MWC349A, suggesting that the intensities of the RRLs toward HW2 are affected by maser emission. Our radiative transfer modeling of the RRLs shows that their asymmetric profiles could be explained by maser emission arising from a bi-conical radio jet with a semi-opening angle of 18 deg., electron density distribution varying as r -2.11 , and turbulent and expanding wind velocities of 60 and 500 km s -1 .

  7. ICRF power-deposition profiles and heating in monster sawtooth and peaked-density profile discharges in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Taroni, A.; Ellis, J.J.; Jacquinot, J.; Stuart, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we compare experimental results of electron and ion-heating in discharges that feature monster sawtooth with those in pellet-produced peaked-density profile discharges which were heated with ICRF. Also we carry out a comprehensive analysis of ICRF-heated peaked-density profile discharges by a transport code to simulate the evolution of JET discharges and to provide an insight into the improved heating and confinement found in these discharges. In this analysis, the ICRF power-deposition profile in the minority-heating scenario is computed by the ray-tracing code BRAYCO that self-consistently takes the finite antenna geometry, its radiation spectrum and the hot-plasma damping into account. The power delivered to ions and electrons is calculated based on Stix model. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs

  8. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    Staged combustion is one design approach in a gas turbine engine to reduce pollutant emission levels. In axially staged combustion, portions of the air and fuel are injected downstream of a lean premixed low NOx primary combustion zone. The gas residence time at elevated temperatures is decreased resulting in lower thermal NOx, and the reduced oxygen and high temperature vitiated primary zone flow further help to reduce pollutant emissions and quickly complete combustion. One implementation of axially staged combustion is transverse fuel jet injection. An important consideration for staged combustion systems, though, is how the primary and secondary combustion zones can couple through the acoustic resonances of the chamber. These couplings can lead to additional source terms that pump energy into the resonant acoustic field and help sustain the high-amplitude combustor pressure oscillations. An understanding of these couplings is important so that it may be possible to design a secondary combustion system that provides inherent damping to the combustor system. To systematically characterize the coupling of a reacting jet in unsteady crossflow in detail, the effects of an an unsteady pressure flowfield and an unsteady velocity flowfield are separately investigated. An optically accessible resonant combustion chamber was designed and built as part of this work to generate a standing wave unsteady vitiated crossflow at a chamber pressure of 0.9 MPa. The location of transverse jet injection corresponds to one of two locations, where one location is the pressure node and the other location the pressure anti-node of the resonant chamber acoustic mode. The injection location is optically accessible, and the dynamic interactions between the transverse jet flow and the 1st and 2nd axial combustor modes are measured using 10 kHz OH-PLIF and 2D PIV. This document analyzes five test cases: two non-reacting jets and three reacting jets. All cases correspond to jet injection

  9. High-Power-Density, High-Energy-Density Fluorinated Graphene for Primary Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Li/CFx is one of the highest-energy-density primary batteries; however, poor rate capability hinders its practical applications in high-power devices. Here we report a preparation of fluorinated graphene (GFx with superior performance through a direct gas fluorination method. We find that the so-called “semi-ionic” C-F bond content in all C-F bonds presents a more critical impact on rate performance of the GFx in comparison with sp2 C content in the GFx, morphology, structure, and specific surface area of the materials. The rate capability remains excellent before the semi-ionic C-F bond proportion in the GFx decreases. Thus, by optimizing semi-ionic C-F content in our GFx, we obtain the optimal x of 0.8, with which the GF0.8 exhibits a very high energy density of 1,073 Wh kg−1 and an excellent power density of 21,460 W kg−1 at a high current density of 10 A g−1. More importantly, our approach opens a new avenue to obtain fluorinated carbon with high energy densities without compromising high power densities.

  10. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  11. High Density Lipoprotein and it's Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels do not predict functionality and composition of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). Traditionally, keeping levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) down and HDL-C up have been the goal of patients to prevent atherosclerosis that can lead to coronary vascular disease(CVD). People think about the HDL present in their cholesterol test, but not about its functional capability. Up to 65% of cardiovascular death cannot be prevented by putative LDL-C lowering agents. It well explains the strong interest in HDL increasing strategies. However, recent studies have questioned the good in using drugs to increase level of HDL. While raising HDL is a theoretically attractive target, the optimal approach remains uncertain. The attention has turned to the quality, rather than the quantity, of HDL-C. An alternative to elevations in HDL involves strategies to enhance HDL functionality. The situation poses an opportunity for clinical chemists to take the lead in the development and validation of such biomarkers. The best known function of HDL is the capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and deliver cholesterol to the liver for excretion, thereby playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from CVD.This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL functions and their relationship to CVD. HDL as a therapeutic target is the new frontier with huge potential for positive public health implications.

  12. Cryogenic Impinging Jets Subjected to High Frequency Transverse Acoustic Forcing in a High Pressure Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    generated by a Fluke 292 arbitrary waveform generator. The signal generator was then fed to two Trek PZD2000A high- voltage amplifiers that drove two...Processes of Impinging Jet Injectors,” NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, vol. 2, N94-23042, 1993, pp.69-74. 8 Li, R., and Ashgriz...Instability,” NASA SP-194, 1972 V. Appendix A Figure A1. Instantaneous images of an acoustic cycle for the PAN 5 condition. A large group of

  13. ICRF power-deposition profiles, heating and confinement of monster sawtooth and peaked-density profile discharges in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.P.; Taroni, A.; Ellis, J.J.; Jacquinot, J.; Start, D.F.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance heating of monster sawtooth (period greater than the energy confinement time) and pellet-fueled peaked-density profiles in limiter discharges of JET Tokamak are studied. The monster sawtooth is a characteristic JET regime which is related to fast ions generated during the minority ion heating. In the ICRF heating of peaked-density profile discharges, we find typically the T i0 is higher roughly by a factor of 2 and T e0 roughly by 35% at a fixed P TOT /n e0 when compared to non-peaked profile cases. Here, T e0 and T i0 are central electron and ion temperatures, respectively, n e0 is the central electron density and P TOT is the total input power. The ion heating is improved in the pellet case, in part, due to a higher collisionality between the background ions and the energetic minority, but more significantly by a reduction of local ion energy transport in the central region. The transport-code simulation of these discharges reveals that there is a reduction of both χ e and χ i in the central region of the plasma in the ICRF heated peaked-profile discharges where χ e and χ i are the electron and ion heat conductivities, respectively. The improvement of confinement is not explained quantitatively by any of the existing η i -driven turbulence theories as the n i parameter (η i = d ln T i /d ln n i where T i is the ion temperature and n i is the ion density), instead of dropping below the critical value, remains above it for most of the duration of the improved confinement phase. The physical mechanism(s) that plays a role in this improvement is not yet clear. (author)

  14. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  15. High - velocity water jet impact on concrete samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádr, V.; Uhlář, R.; Hlaváč, L. M.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef; Hela, R.; Bodnárová, L.; Kaličinský, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 43-48 ISSN 2067-3809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : water jet * concrete * depth of penetration * disintegration volume Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2009-4/ACTA-2009-4-08.pdf

  16. Jet Engines as High-Capacity Vacuum Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large diffuser operations envelope and long run times possible. Jet engine driven ejector/diffuser system combines two turbojet engines and variable-area-ratio ejector in two stages. Applications in such industrial proesses as handling corrosive fumes, evaporation of milk and fruit juices, petroleum distillation, and dehydration of blood plasma and penicillin.

  17. High-resolution time-resolved Experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manera, Annalisa; Bardet, Philippe; Petrov, Victor

    2018-03-29

    Fluid jets interacting with a stratified layer play an important role in the safety of several reactor designs. In the containment of nuclear power plants, fluid jets dominate the transport and mixing of gaseous species and consequent hydrogen distribution in case of a severe accident. The mixing phenomena in the containment are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and low momentum injection plumes. Mixing near the postulated break is initially dominated by high flow velocities. Plumes with moderate flow velocities are instead relevant in the break compartment during the long-term pressurization phase, or in any of the apertures between two connected compartments if the mass flows are sufficiently high and the density differences between efflux and ambient are sufficiently low. Phenomena of interest include free plumes (as produced by the efflux from the break compartment in a larger room or directly from a break flow), wall plumes (such those produced by low mass flows through inter-compartment apertures), and propagating stratification fronts in the ambient (for any stably stratified conditions). These phenomena have been highly ranked about nuclear reactor design, especially regarding of safety protocols. During a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario, the interaction between the cold ECCS injection plume and the stratified fluid present in the cold (or hot) leg is important in order to determine the temperature at the time-dependent temperature at the inlet of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the potential to cause a thermal shock on the RPV wall. In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), core channels are typically hydro-dynamically isolated so that there exists a considerable temperature variation at the exit of adjacent fuel assemblies. All the above phenomena are characterized by the interaction of buoyant jets with the stratified flow. In stratified layers baroclinic forces create significant redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and

  18. High Z neoclassical transport: Application and limitation of analytical formulae for modelling JET experimental parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breton, S.; Casson, F. J.; Bourdelle, C.; Angioni, C.; Belli, E.; Camenen, Y.; Citrin, J.; Garbet, X.; Sarazin, Y.; Sertoli, M.; JET Contributors,

    2018-01-01

    Heavy impurities, such as tungsten (W), can exhibit strongly poloidally asymmetric density profiles in rotating or radio frequency heated plasmas. In the metallic environment of JET, the poloidal asymmetry of tungsten enhances its neoclassical transport up to an order of magnitude, so that

  19. Removal of salt from high-level waste tanks by density-driven circulation or mechanical agitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two high-level waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant are to be retired in the tank replacement/waste transfer program. The salt-removal portion of this program requires dissolution of about 19 million liters of salt cake. Steam circulation jets were originally proposed to dissolve the salt cake. However, the jets heated the waste tank to 80 to 90 0 C. This high temperature required a long cooldown period before transfer of the supernate by jet, and increased the risk of stress-corrosion cracking in these older tanks. A bench-scale investigation at the Savannah River Laboratory developed two alternatives to steam-jet circulation. One technique was density-driven circulation, which in bench tests dissolved salt at the same rate as a simulated steam circulation jet but at a lower temperature. The other technique was mechanical agitation, which dissolved the salt cake faster and required less fresh water than either density-driven circulation or the simulated steam circulation jet. Tests in an actual waste tank verified bench-scale results and demonstrated the superiority of mechanical agitation

  20. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Alexander; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik, OeAW (Germany); Orth, Herbert [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The universal detector PANDA will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). It will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimised. Most of the gas load will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. As the detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. General parameters of the NEG-film, its outgassing behaviour, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The results of the studies on the PANDA-interaction region are presented.

  1. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimized. Most of the gas load, of course will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. Since the PANDA detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore, the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. The outgassing behavior, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The status of the studies of the interaction region will be presented. (author)

  2. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  3. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  4. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  5. Direct fabrication of high-resolution three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds using electrohydrodynamic hot jet plotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chuang; Dong, Jingyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the direct three-dimensional (3D) fabrication of polymer scaffolds with sub-10 µm structures using electrohydrodynamic jet (EHD-jet) plotting of melted thermoplastic polymers. Traditional extrusion-based fabrication approaches of 3D periodic porous structures are very limited in their resolution, due to the excessive pressure requirement for extruding highly viscous thermoplastic polymers. EHD-jet printing has become a high-resolution alternative to other forms of nozzle deposition-based fabrication approaches by generating micro-scale liquid droplets or a fine jet through the application of a large electrical voltage between the nozzle and the substrate. In this study, we successfully apply EHD-jet plotting technology with melted biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone, or PCL) for the fabrication of 2D patterns and 3D periodic porous scaffold structures in potential tissue engineering applications. Process conditions (e.g. electrical voltage, pressure, plotting speed) have been thoroughly investigated to achieve reliable jet printing of fine filaments. We have demonstrated for the first time that the EHD-jet plotting process is capable of the fabrication of 3D periodic structures with sub-10 µm resolution, which has great potential in advanced biomedical applications, such as cell alignment and guidance. (paper)

  6. Newtonian liquid jet impaction on a high-speed moving surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, B.; Green, S.I.; Davy, M.H.; Eadie, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied experimentally the interaction of a liquid jet with a moving surface. ► Decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash. ► The Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. ► The jet impingement angle had only a small effect on the splash. ► Increasing the surface roughness substantially decreased the splash threshold. - Abstract: In the railroad industry a friction modifying agent may be applied to the rail or wheel in the form of a liquid jet. In this mode of application the interaction between the high-speed liquid jet and a fast moving surface is important. Seven different Newtonian liquids with widely varying shear viscosities were tested to isolate the effect of viscosity from other fluid properties. Tests were also done on five surfaces of different roughness heights to investigate the effects of surface roughness. High-speed video imaging was employed to scrutinize the interaction between the impacting jet and the moving surface. For all surfaces, decreasing the Reynolds number reduced the incidence of splash and consequently enhanced the transfer efficiency. At the elevated Weber numbers of the testing, the Weber number had a much smaller impact on splash than the Reynolds number. The ratio of the surface velocity to the jet velocity has only a small effect on the splash, whereas increasing the roughness-height-to-jet-diameter ratio substantially decreased the splash threshold.

  7. DETECTING RELATIVISTIC X-RAY JETS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, Kathryn [Department of Statistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Siemiginowska, Aneta; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lee, N. P.; Harris, D. E.; Schwartz, D. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Stawarz, Łukasz [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244, Kraków (Poland); Stein, Nathan [Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 400 Jon M. Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6340 (United States); Stampoulis, Vasileios; Dyk, David A. van [Statistics Section, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 (United Kingdom); Wardle, J. F. C. [Department of Physics, MS 057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Donato, Davide [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio, E-mail: kathrynmckeough@g.harvard.edu [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20124, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-10

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift ( z  ≥ 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 <  z  < 2.9) quasars. The data set includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p -value upper bounds on the significance that an X-ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional six marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of three quasars and in the background of one quasar that suggest the existence of unresolved X-ray jets. The dependence of the X-ray to radio luminosity ratio on redshift is a potential diagnostic of the emission mechanism, since the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB) is thought to be redshift dependent, whereas in synchrotron models no clear redshift dependence is expected. We find that the high-redshift jets have X-ray to radio flux ratios that are marginally inconsistent with those from lower redshifts, suggesting that either the X-ray emissions are due to the IC/CMB rather than the synchrotron process, or that high-redshift jets are qualitatively different.

  8. Free stream turbulence and density ratio effects on the interaction region of a jet in a cross flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, C. E.; Foss, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Jets of low temperature air are introduced into the aft sections of gas turbine combustors for the purpose of cooling the high temperature gases and quenching the combustion reactions. Research studies, motivated by this complex flow field, have been executed by introducing a heated jet into the cross stream of a wind tunnel. The investigation by Kamotani and Greber stands as a prime example of such investigations and it serves as the principal reference for the present study. The low disturbance level of the cross stream, in their study and in similar research investigations, is compatible with an interest in identifying the basic features of this flow field. The influence of the prototypes' strongly disturbed cross flow is not, however, made apparent in these prior investigations.

  9. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  10. A free Hg jet system for use in a high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Haseroth, H; Kirk, Harold G; Lettry, Jacques; McDonald, Kirk T; Rennich, Mark; Simos, Nikolaos; Titus, P; Tsang, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mercury jet system that is suitable for insertion into the 15cm diameter bore of a high-field solenoid magnet. The device features a hermetically sealed primary containment volume which is enclosed in a secondary containment system to insure isolation of mercury vapors from the remaining experimental environment. The jet diameter is 1-cm while the jet velocity will be up to 20 m/s. Optical diagnostics is incorporated into the target design to allow observation of the dispersal of the mercury as a result of interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20 x 10

  11. High-speed jet electrodeposition and microstructure of nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Guiying; Jing Tianfu; Wang Nan; Gao Yuwei; Zhao Xin; Zhou Jifeng; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    The jet electrodeposition from watts baths with a device of electrolyte jet was carried out to prepare nano-crystalline cobalt-nickel alloys. The influence of the concentration of Co 2+ ions in the electrolyte and electrolysis parameters, such as the cathodic current density, the temperature as well as the electrolyte jet speed, on the chemistry and microstructure of Ni-Co-deposit alloys were investigated. Experimental results indicated that increasing the Co 2+ ions concentration in the bath, the electrolyte jet speed and decreasing of the cathodic current density and decrease of the electrolyte temperature all results in an increase of cobalt content in the alloy. Detailed microstructure changes upon the changes of alloy composition and experimental conditions were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD results show the Ni-Co solid solution was formed through the jet electrodeposition. Phase constitution of solid solution changes progressively under different electrolyte concentration. Alloys with low Co concentration exhibit single phase of face-centered cubic (fcc) structure; The Co concentration over 60.39 wt.%, the alloys are composed of face-centered cubic (fcc) phase and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase. Furthermore, the formation of the nanostructured Ni-Co alloy deposit is investigated. Increasing the Co 2+ ions concentration in the bath, the cathodic current density, the electrolyte temperature and the electrolyte jet speed all result in the finer grains in the deposits. Additives such as saccharin in the electrolyte also favor the formation of the finer grains in the alloy deposits

  12. Gaps between Jets in the high energy limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Seymour, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We use perturbative QCD to calculate the parton level cross section for the production of two jets that are far apart in rapidity, subject to a limitation on the total transverse momentum Q 0 in the interjet region. We specifically address the question of how to combine the approach which sums all leading logarithms in Q/Q 0 (where Q is the jet transverse momentum) with the BFKL approach, in which leading logarithms of the scattering energy are summed. This paper constitutes progress towards the simultaneous summation of all important logarithms. Using an 'all orders' matching, we are able to obtain results for the cross section which correctly reproduce the two approaches in the appropriate limits

  13. Investigation of the motion of diesel injection jets using high-speed cinematography and short time holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisfeld, F.

    1987-01-01

    The knowledge about the penetration of diesel injection jets, particularly about the flow within the short behind the nozzle, and the arising of droplets from an injection jet is very limited. Experimental investigations are required to describe the process of penetration and spreading of the jet. The research method requires high speed cinematography and short time holography. Problems in the investigation method are described

  14. High density high-TC ceramic superconductors by hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, S.; Chaklader, A.C.D.

    1989-01-01

    High density and high T C superconductor specimens, YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , have been produced by hot-pressing. The factors studied are the effect of hot pressing on the density, the oxygen stoichiometry, the crystal structure, and the critical temperature. Hot pressing followed by heat treatment increased the density of the specimen to 93%. The hot pressing itself did not significantly affect the oxygen content in the specimen, and although the crystal structure appeared to be orthorhombic, the specimens were not superconducting above liquid nitrogen temperature. The superconductivity was restored after head treatment in oxygen. The highest critical temperature (T C ) of the hot pressed pellets was 82K, which was slightly lower than the T C that could be obtained with the cold pressed/sintered pellets. (6 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  15. Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.

    2016-04-01

    We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.

  16. Parametric study on density stratification erosion caused by a horizontal steam jet interacting with a vertical plate obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjape, S., E-mail: Sidharth.paranjape@psi.ch; Kapulla, R., E-mail: ralf.kapulla@psi.ch; Mignot, G., E-mail: guillaume.mignot@psi.ch; Paladino, D., E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Helium layer breakup by horizontal steam jet impinging on vertical plate. • A small change in geometric configuration lead to a large change in flow pattern. • The functional dependence of erosion front motion on time. • Creation of a concentration stratification in adjacent vessel. - Abstract: During postulated severe accident scenarios in nuclear power plants, a hydrogen-rich layer might form at the top of the reactor containment. Various flow patterns resulting from the release of steam from the primary circuit might break the layer and redistribute hydrogen in the containment. The prediction of the gas transport during the accident requires detailed modeling of the processes involved. Advanced lumped parameter codes or computational fluid dynamics codes are used for this purpose. These codes need to be validated against experimental data obtained in large scale experimental facilities, where scale distortions are reduced. In order to obtain the required data with high spatial and temporal resolution, experiments were carried out in the PANDA facility in Switzerland as a part of OECD/HYMERES (HYdrogen Mitigation Experiments for Reactor Safety) project. The present experiments address the breakup of a layer rich in helium (used as simulant for hydrogen), under steam environment and its redistribution in two interconnected vessels (total volume of 183.3 m{sup 3}) under the action of a diffused flow resulting from the interaction of a horizontal steam jet with a vertical plate obstruction. The influence of the distance between the jet exit and the obstruction on the flow pattern was investigated. Spatial and temporal distribution of the gas concentration, the temperature and local gas velocity field were measured. It was found that a small change in the geometric configuration lead to a large change in the flow pattern. Reducing the jet-obstruction distance slowed down the helium-layer erosion process by a factor of two. Additionally, the

  17. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  18. Ground state of high-density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  19. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  20. Ion temperature profiles in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellermann, M. von; Mandl, W.; Summers, H.P.; Weisen, H.

    1989-01-01

    The results presented in this paper have shown some extreme cases of ion temperature profiles illustrating the different operation modes of the JET tokamak. In the three examples of low-density high temperature, high-density moderates and high-density high-confinement plasmas comparable values of a maximum fusion product n d T i τ E in the order of 10 20 keV m -3 sec are achieved. (author) 1 ref., 7 figs

  1. The structural and dynamic characteristics of a water-polimer high-speed jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Володимирович Погребняк

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the structural and dynamic characteristics of the water-polymer jet, what is of decisive importance for understanding the nature of the abnormally high cutting ability. A complex study of the structure and dynamics of a water-polymer high-speed jet has been carried out. Analysis of the photographs of jets of aqueous PEO solution indicates that adding polyethylene oxide (PEO into water results in a significant increase in the initial sections of the water-polymer jet, which characterizes the quality of its formation, and leads to compactness due to a reduction of its diameter. The obtained experimental data made it possible to propose a relationship for determining the dimensionless value of the initial sections of jets of aqueous PEO solutions of different concentration and molecular mass of PEO, taking into account the real parameters of the jet forming head. Investigation of changes in the energy capabilities of water-polymer jets, which were estimated by the force of the jet impact on the steel obstacle, made it possible to establish the features of their dynamics. The obtained experimental data explain the nature of the change in the cutting properties of the water-polymer jet as a function of the distance between the surface of the material that is being cut and the cut of the nozzle. If the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the material is less than the size of the initial sections of the water-polymer jet, an increase in the diameter of the nozzle outlet hole will lead to a reduction in the depth of the cut. If, however, the distance from the nozzle to the surface of the material approaches or exceeds the size of the main part of the water-polymer jet, then the depth of the cut will increase with increasing diameter of the nozzle at a constant pressure. The use of structural and dynamic characteristics of water-polymer jets is substantiated when establishing rational parameters of equipment for water

  2. Study of high-transverse momentum quark and gluon jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghez, P.

    1986-09-01

    The fragmentation properties of high-transverse momentum jets are investigated using new data from the ISR and the SPS collider. Effects from gluon radiation are clearly demonstrated by comparison with a state-of-the-art model including QCD parton cascade evolution and string hadronization, which gives in general good agreement with the data. Differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed as well as Q 2 -dependent scaling violation effects

  3. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  4. Jet production at high transverse momenta by interactions of two quasi-real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Lackas, W.; Pielorz, J.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Ferrarotto, F.; Stella, B.; Bussey, P.J.; Cartwright, S.L.; Dainton, J.B.; King, B.T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thomson, J.C.; Achterberg, O.; Blobel, V.; Burkart, D.; Dielmann, K.; Feindt, M.; Kapitza, H.; Koppitz, B.; Krueger, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Staa, R. van; Almeida, F.; Baecker, A.; Barreiro, F.; Brandt, S.; Derikum, K.; Grupen, C.; Meyer, H.J.; Mueller, H.; Neumann, B.; Rost, M.; Stupperich, K.; Zech, G.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Junge, H.; Kraski, K.; Maxeiner, C.; Maxeiner, H.; Meyer, H.; Schmidt, D.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Deuter, A.; Franke, G.; Gaspero, M.; Gerke, C.; Knies, G.; Lewendel, B.; Meyer, J.; Michelsen, U.; Pape, K.H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zachara, M.; Zimmermann, W.

    1985-09-01

    An experimental study of two jet production by interactions of two quasireal photons is presented. The data for production of jets with high transverse momentum squared, psub(T) 2 > 10 GeV 2 , are found to be consistent with the fractional charged quark-parton model. If gauge integer charged quark models are considered, then the gluon mass is less than 5 MeV at the 95% confidence level. (orig.)

  5. Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.

  6. Interpretation of heat and density pulse measurements in JET in terms of coupled transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de; O'Rourke, J.; Sips, A.C.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    The perturbations of electron density and temperature profiles in a tokamak following a sawtooth collapse are considered. An analytic model for the interpretation of such perturbations is presented. It is shown that the perturbation can be decomposed into two contributions, which are eigenmodes of the linearised coupled diffusion equations for particle and energy. The approximations made in the analytical treatment are checked using computer simulations. Measurements of heat and density pulses in Joint European Torus are used to illustrate the power of the new approach. It is shown that using the coupled equations, an improved description of the heat and density pulses is obtained. The analysis yields the four diffusion coefficients in the linearised transport matrix. The non-zero off-diagonal elements explain certain salient features of the measurements, notably a marked decrease of the local density which occurs during the maximum of the temperature pulse. (author)

  7. High-field, high-density tokamak power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Cook, D.L.; Hay, R.D.; Kaplan, D.; Kreischer, K.; Lidskii, L.M.; Stephany, W.; Williams, J.E.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Okabayashi, M.

    1977-11-01

    A conceptual design of a compact (R 0 = 6.0 m) high power density (average P/sub f/ = 7.7 MW/m 3 ) tokamak demonstration power reactor has been developed. High magnetic field (B/sub t/ = 7.4 T) and moderate elongation (b/a = 1.6) permit operation at the high density (n(0) approximately 5 x 10 14 cm -3 ) needed for ignition in a relatively small plasma, with a spatially-averaged toroidal beta of only 4%. A unique design for the Nb 3 Sn toroidal-field magnet system reduces the stress in the high-field trunk region, and allows modularization for simpler disassembly. The modest value of toroidal beta permits a simple, modularized plasma-shaping coil system, located inside the TF coil trunk. Heating of the dense central plasma is attained by the use of ripple-assisted injection of 120-keV D 0 beams. The ripple-coil system also affords dynamic control of the plasma temperature during the burn period. A FLIBE-lithium blanket is designed especially for high-power-density operation in a high-field environment, and gives an overall tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 in the slowly pumped lithium

  8. Jets and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Kramer, G.

    2010-12-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e + e - collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W ± ,Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  9. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  10. Drop Characteristics of non-Newtonian Impinging Jets at High Generalized Bird-Carreau Jet Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Paul E.; Rodrigues, Neil S.

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigates the drop characteristics of three Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sprays produced by the impingement of two liquid jets. The three water-based solutions used in this work (0.5 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.8 wt.-% CMC-7MF, and 1.4 wt.-% CMC-7MF) exhibited strong shear-thinning, non-Newtonian behavior - characterized by the Bird-Carreau rheological model. A generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number was used as the primary parameter to characterize the drop size and the drop velocity, which were measured using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). PDA optical configuration enabled a drop size measurement range of approximately 2.3 to 116.2 μm. 50,000 drops were measured at each test condition to ensure statistical significance. The arithmetic mean diameter (D10) , Sauter mean diameter (D32) , and mass median diameter (MMD) were used as representative diameters to characterize drop size. The mean axial drop velocity Uz -mean along with its root-mean square Uz -rms were used to characterize drop velocity. Incredibly, measurements for all three CMC liquids and reference DI water sprays seemed to follow a single curve for D32 and MMD drop diameters in the high generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number range considered in this work (9.21E +03

  11. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  12. Jet-Surface Interaction - High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test: Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test was conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the fall of 2015. There were four primary goals specified for this test: (1) extend the current noise database for rectangular nozzles to higher aspect ratios, (2) verify data previously acquired at small-scale with data from a larger model, (3) acquired jet-surface interaction noise data suitable for creating verifying empirical noise models and (4) investigate the effect of nozzle septa on the jet-mixing and jet-surface interaction noise. These slides give a summary of the test with representative results for each goal.

  13. Mueller-Navelet jets at LHC: BFKL versus high-energy DGLAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiberto, F.G.; Murdaca, B.; Papa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Cosenza (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato, Cosenza (Italy); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The production of forward jets separated by a large rapidity gap at LHC, the so-called Mueller-Navelet jets, is a fundamental testfield for perturbative QCD in the high-energy limit. Several analyses have already provided us with evidence about the compatibility of theoretical predictions, based on collinear factorization and BFKL resummation of energy logarithms in the next-to-leading approximation, with the CMS experimental data at 7 TeV of center-of-mass energy. However, the question if the same data can be described also by fixed-order perturbative approaches has not yet been fully answered. In this paper we provide numerical evidence that the mere use of partially asymmetric cuts in the transverse momenta of the detected jets allows for a clear separation between BFKL-resummed and fixed-order predictions in some observables related with the Mueller-Navelet jet production process. (orig.)

  14. A Sweeping Jet Application on a High Reynolds Number Semispan Supercritical Wing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Chan, David T.; Melton, Latunia; Goodliff, Scott L.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2017-01-01

    The FAST-MAC circulation control model was modified to test an array of unsteady sweeping-jet actuators at realistic flight Reynolds numbers in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two types of sweeping jet actuators were fabricated using rapid prototype techniques, and directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for low-speed high-lift testing with flap deflections of 30 deg and 60 deg, and a transonic cruise configuration having a 0 deg flap deflection. For the 30 deg flap high-lift configuration, the sweeping jets achieved comparable lift performance in the separation control regime, while reducing the mass flow by 54% as compared to steady blowing. The sweeping jets however were not effective for the 60 deg flap. For the transonic cruise configuration, the sweeping jets reduced the drag by 3.3% at an off-design condition. The drag reduction for the design lift coefficient for the sweeping jets offer is only half the drag reduction shown for the steady blowing case (6.5%), but accomplished this with a 74% reduction in mass flow.

  15. Effect of Stand-Off Distance on Impact Pressure of High Speed Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittiwong, Wuttichai; Seehanam, Wirapan; Pianthong, Kulachate; Matthujak, Anirut

    2010-06-01

    High speed liquid jets may be applied to jet cutting, drilling and cleaning. Recently, in the automotive industries, the spray injection pressure becomes higher and higher to enhance the fuel mixing for the improved combustion efficiency. However, the ultra high injection pressure may cause the damage to the nozzle and also the combustion chamber. In the medical application, the high speed liquid injection might be applied for the drug delivery through the skin where the needle is not required anymore. From the above mentioned application, the investigation on the impact pressure of the high speed liquid jet relative to the stand-off distant is significant. The high speed liquid jets are generated by the projectile impact driven method. The high speed projectile is launched by the horizontal single stage powder gun. The experimental study focuses on the stand-off between 1.5 cm to 6.0 cm, while the nozzle contains approximately 1.5cm3 of water in its cavity. The nozzle conical angles are 30° and 60° with the orifice diameter of 0.7 mm. The jet velocities are measured by laser beam interruptions method. The target material is the Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) which the impact pressure is measured by using a piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) film. From the experiments, the maximum water jet velocity of 2290 m/s can be obtained from the 30° conical angle nozzle. The maximum impact pressures of nozzle conical angle of 30° and 60° are 3.4 GPa and 2.6 GPa respectively, at stand-off distance 3 cm. However, at the stand-off distance more than 3 cm, the impact pressure significantly decreases, because of aerodynamic drag, jets core break-up, and atomization of the water.

  16. Experimental investigation of the velocity distribution of the attached plane jet after impingement with the corner in a high room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guangyu [Department of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Haltonintie 1-3, 47400 Kausala (Finland); Kurnitski, Jarek [Finnish Innovation Fund, Itaemerentori 2, 00181 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Supplying air into rooms properly without causing a sensation of draught is a challenging task. Airflow patterns and the air velocity of attached plane jets should be predicted and designed accurately before the airflow enters an occupied zone in different applications. The objective of this study is to identify the airflow patterns of attached plane jets and set up an efficient model to predict the maximum jet velocity decay of an attached plane jet after its impingement with the corner in a high room. A full-scale test chamber was used to measure the jet velocity with a plane jet supply device. The attached plane jet is bounded initially by the ceiling and the insulated wall after being discharged from the jet slot. Three velocities from the slot, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m/s, are used as the initial jet velocities with three Reynolds numbers, 1000, 2000, and 4000, respectively. The results show that the behaviours of the attached plane jet differ from earlier studies carried out in a relatively low room. The virtual origin model setup in this study can be used to predict the maximum jet velocity decay for jet flow design with impingement in the corners of rooms. (author)

  17. High-density biosynthetic fuels: the intersection of heterogeneous catalysis and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Meylemans, Heather A; Gough, Raina V; Quintana, Roxanne L; Garrison, Michael D; Bruno, Thomas J

    2014-05-28

    Biosynthetic valencene, premnaspirodiene, and natural caryophyllene were hydrogenated and evaluated as high performance fuels. The parent sesquiterpenes were then isomerized to complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Nafion SAC-13. High density fuels with net heats of combustion ranging from 133-141 000 Btu gal(-1), or up to 13% higher than commercial jet fuel could be generated by this approach. The products of caryophyllene isomerization were primarily tricyclic hydrocarbons which after hydrogenation increased the fuel density by 6%. The isomerization of valencene and premnaspirodiene also generated a variety of sesquiterpenes, but in both cases the dominant product was δ-selinene. Ab initio calculations were conducted to determine the total electronic energies for the reactants and products. In all cases the results were in excellent agreement with the experimental distribution of isomers. The cetane numbers for the sesquiterpane fuels ranged from 20-32 and were highly dependent on the isomer distribution. Specific distillation cuts may have the potential to act as high density diesel fuels, while use of these hydrocarbons as additives to jet fuel will increase the range and/or time of flight of aircraft. In addition to the ability to generate high performance renewable fuels, the powerful combination of metabolic engineering and heterogeneous catalysis will allow for the preparation of a variety of sesquiterpenes with potential for pharmaceutical, flavor, and fragrance applications.

  18. Highly efficient red electrophosphorescent devices at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Youzhi; Zhu Wenqing; Zheng Xinyou; Sun, Runguang; Jiang Xueyin; Zhang Zhilin; Xu Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency decrease at high current densities in red electrophosphorescent devices is drastically restrained compared with that from conventional electrophosphorescent devices by using bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolate aluminum (BAlq) as a hole and exciton blocker. Ir complex, bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl) pyridinato-N,C 3' ) iridium (acetyl-acetonate) is used as an emitter, maximum external quantum efficiency (QE) of 7.0% and luminance of 10000cd/m 2 are obtained. The QE is still as high as 4.1% at higher current density J=100mA/cm 2 . CIE-1931 co-ordinates are 0.672, 0.321. A carrier trapping mechanism is revealed to dominate in the process of electroluminescence

  19. High-density oxidized porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Ahmed; Souifi, Abdelkader; Remaki, Boudjemaa; Halimaoui, Aomar; Bensahel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have studied oxidized porous silicon (OPS) properties using Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage C–V measurements. We report the first experimental determination of the optimum porosity allowing the elaboration of high-density OPS insulators. This is an important contribution to the research of thick integrated electrical insulators on porous silicon based on an optimized process ensuring dielectric quality (complete oxidation) and mechanical and chemical reliability (no residual pores or silicon crystallites). Through the measurement of the refractive indexes of the porous silicon (PS) layer before and after oxidation, one can determine the structural composition of the OPS material in silicon, air and silica. We have experimentally demonstrated that a porosity approaching 56% of the as-prepared PS layer is required to ensure a complete oxidation of PS without residual silicon crystallites and with minimum porosity. The effective dielectric constant values of OPS materials determined from capacitance–voltage C–V measurements are discussed and compared to FTIR results predictions. (paper)

  20. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experiments to Design Sweeping Jets for High Reynolds Number Cruise Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Fell, Jared S.; Webb, Sandy R.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The application of a sweeping jet actuator to a circulation control system was initiated by a risk reduction series of experiments to optimize the authority of a single sweeping jet actuator. The sweeping jet design was integrated into the existing Fundamental Aerodynamic Subsonic Transonic- Modular Active Control (FAST-MAC) model by replacing the steady blowing system with an array of thirty-nine sweeping jet cartridges. A constant slot height to wing chord ratio was similar to the steady blowing configuration resulting in each actuator having a unique in size for the sweeping jet configuration. While this paper will describe the scaling and optimization of the actuators for future high Reynolds number applications, the major focus of this effort was to target the transonic flight regime by increasing the amplitude authority of the actuator. This was accomplished by modifying the diffuser of the sweeping jet actuator, and this paper highlights twelve different diffuser designs. The experimental portion of this work was completed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility.

  1. Visualization of high speed liquid jet impaction on a moving surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuchen; Green, Sheldon

    2015-04-17

    Two apparatuses for examining liquid jet impingement on a high-speed moving surface are described: an air cannon device (for examining surface speeds between 0 and 25 m/sec) and a spinning disk device (for examining surface speeds between 15 and 100 m/sec). The air cannon linear traverse is a pneumatic energy-powered system that is designed to accelerate a metal rail surface mounted on top of a wooden projectile. A pressurized cylinder fitted with a solenoid valve rapidly releases pressurized air into the barrel, forcing the projectile down the cannon barrel. The projectile travels beneath a spray nozzle, which impinges a liquid jet onto its metal upper surface, and the projectile then hits a stopping mechanism. A camera records the jet impingement, and a pressure transducer records the spray nozzle backpressure. The spinning disk set-up consists of a steel disk that reaches speeds of 500 to 3,000 rpm via a variable frequency drive (VFD) motor. A spray system similar to that of the air cannon generates a liquid jet that impinges onto the spinning disc, and cameras placed at several optical access points record the jet impingement. Video recordings of jet impingement processes are recorded and examined to determine whether the outcome of impingement is splash, splatter, or deposition. The apparatuses are the first that involve the high speed impingement of low-Reynolds-number liquid jets on high speed moving surfaces. In addition to its rail industry applications, the described technique may be used for technical and industrial purposes such as steelmaking and may be relevant to high-speed 3D printing.

  2. Density measurements of small amounts of high-density solids by a floatation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1984-09-01

    A floatation method for determining the density of small amounts of high-density solids is described. The use of a float combined with an appropriate floatation liquid allows us to measure the density of high-density substances in small amounts. Using the sample of 0.1 g in weight, the floatation liquid of 3.0 g cm -3 in density and the float of 1.5 g cm -3 in apparent density, the sample densities of 5, 10 and 20 g cm -3 are determined to an accuracy better than +-0.002, +-0.01 and +-0.05 g cm -3 , respectively that correspond to about +-1 x 10 -5 cm 3 in volume. By means of appropriate degassing treatments, the densities of (Th,U)O 2 pellets of --0.1 g in weight and --9.55 g cm -3 in density were determined with an accuracy better than +-0.05 %. (author)

  3. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-12-01

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ˜200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm2 and volume power density of ˜2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ˜4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

  4. High Fidelity Simulation of Transcritical Liquid Jet in Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Soteriou, Marios

    2017-11-01

    Transcritical injection of liquid fuel occurs in many practical applications such as diesel, rocket and gas turbine engines. In these applications, the liquid fuel, with a supercritical pressure and a subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where both the pressure and temperature exceeds the critical point of the fuel. The convoluted physics of the transition from subcritical to supercritical conditions poses great challenges for both experimental and numerical investigations. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical gaseous crossflow is performed. The spatially varying fluid thermodynamic and transport properties are evaluated using established cubic equation of state and extended corresponding state principles with established mixing rules. To efficiently account for the large spatial gradients in property variations, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. The transcritical simulation results are compared with the predictions from the traditional subcritical jet atomization simulations.

  5. AMODS and High Energy Density Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Y.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the Lab for Quantum Optics (LFQO) in KAERI, which has been devoted to the research on atomic spectroscopy for more than 20 years with precision measurement of atomic parameters such as isotope shift, hyperfine structures, autoionization levels and so on as well as with theoretical analysis of atomic systems by developing relativistic calculation methodologies for laser propagation and population dynamics, electron impact ionization, radiative transitions of high Z materials, etc for the application to isotope separation, the AMODS (Atomic Molecular and Optical Database Systems) which was established in 1997 and has been a member of International Data Center Network of IAEA since then is explained by giving an information on the data sources and internal structure of the compilation of AMODS. Since AMODS was explained in detail during last DCN meeting, just a brief introduction is given this time. Then more specific research themes carried out in LFQO in conjunction with A+M data are discussed, including (1) electron impact ionization processes of W, Mo, Be, C, etc, (2) spectra of highly charged ions of W, Xe, and Si, (3) dielectronic recombination process of Fe ion. Also given are the talk about research activities about the simulations of high energy density experiments such as those performed at (1) GEKKO laser facility (Japan) for X-ray photoionization of low temperature Si plasma, which can explain the unsolved arguments on the X-ray spectra of black holes and/or neutron stars, (2) VULCAN laser facility (UK) for two dimensional compression of cylindrical target and investigation of hot electron transport in the compressed target plasma to understand the fast ignition process of laser fusion, (3) LULI laser facility (France) and TITAN laser facility (USA) for one dimensional compression of aluminum targets with different laser energies, and (4) PALS facility (Czech Republic) for 'Laser Induced Cavity Pressure Acceleration' to

  6. The deduction of low-Z ion temperature and densities in the JET tokamak using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boileau, A.; Hellermann, M. von; Horton, L.D.; Spence, J.; Summers, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    A charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic has been established on JET to study fully stripped low-Z species. Ion temperature in the plasma centre is measured from visible lines of helium, carbon and oxygen excited by charge exchange with heating neutral beam particles. Coincident cold components produced at the plasma edge are apparent on helium and carbon spectra and most spectra are subject to accidental blending from other species' edge plasma emission. The charge exchange feature can be isolated from the various composite lines and all three impurities agree on the same temperature within experimental error. Observed column emissivities are converted into absolute impurity densities using a neutral beam attenuation code and charge exchange effective rate coefficients. Comprehensive new calculations have been performed to obtain the effective rate coefficients. The models take detailed account of cascading and the influence of the plasma environment in causing l-mixing, and allow the n-dependence of the rate coefficients to be addressed experimentally. The effective ion charge reconstructed from simultaneous measurements of the densities of dominant impurities shows good agreement with the value inferred from visible Bremsstrahlung. Some illustrative results are shown for helium (helium discharge or minority r.f.. heating), carbon and oxygen concentrations monitored during characteristic operating regimes. (author)

  7. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  8. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  9. High-current discharge channel contraction in high density gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutberg, Ph. G.; Bogomaz, A. A.; Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Leks, A. G.; Pozubenkov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Research results for discharges at current amplitudes of 0.5-1.6 MA and current rise rate of ∼10 10 A/s are presented. The discharge is performed in the hydrogen environment at the initial pressure of 5-35 MPa. Initiation is implemented by a wire explosion. The time length of the first half-period of the discharge current is 70-150 μs. Under such conditions, discharge channel contraction is observed; the contraction is followed by soft x-ray radiation. The phenomena are discussed, which are determined by high density of the gas surrounding the discharge channel. These phenomena are increase of the current critical value, where the channel contraction begins and growth of temperature in the axis region of the channel, where the initial density of the gas increases.

  10. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  11. Effects of air jet duration and timing on the combustion characteristics of high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition combustion mode in a hybrid pneumatic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Wuqiang; Meng, Xiangyu; Tian, Jiangping; Tian, Hua; Cui, Jingchen; Feng, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D CFD model of the power cylinder in HPE was developed. • High-pressure air JCCI combustion mode includes two-stage high-temperature reaction. • The combustion phasing of the pre-mixture is controllable via the SOJ timing. • There exists an optimum SOJ timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration. - Abstract: The high-pressure air jet controlled compression ignition (JCCI) combustion mode was employed to control the premixed diesel compression ignition combustion phasing by using the compound thermodynamic cycle under all operating conditions, which is accomplished in a hybrid pneumatic engine (HPE). A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation coupled with reduced n-heptane chemical kinetics mechanism has been applied to investigate the effects of high-pressure air jet duration and the start of jet (SOJ) timing on the combustion characteristics in the power cylinder of HPE. By sweeping the high-pressure air jet durations from 6 to 14 °CA and SOJ timings from −12 °CA ATDC to the top dead center (TDC) under the air jet temperatures of 400 and 500 K, respectively, the low- and high-temperature reactions, combustion efficiency, as well as the combustion phasing and burning duration have been analyzed in detail. The results illustrated that a longer air jet duration results in a higher peak in the first-stage high-temperature reaction, and the short air jet duration of 6 °CA can lead to a higher combustion efficiency. The SOJ timing sweep results showed that there exists an optimum timing for obtaining the highest combustion efficiency and shortest burning duration.

  12. Design of Jet lower hybrid current drive generator and operation of high power test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbing, J.A.; Bosia, G.; Brandon, M.; Gammelin, M.; Gormezano, C.; Jacquinot, J.; Jessop, G.; Lennholm, M.; Pain, M.; Sibley, A.

    1989-01-01

    The JET Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) generator consists of 24 klystrons each rated for 650 KW operating at 3.7 GHz, giving a nominal generator power of 15.6 MW for 10 seconds or 12 MW for 20 seconds. This power will be transmitted through 24 waveguides to a phased array launcher on one of the main ports of the JET machine. In addition, two klystrons are currently being operated on a high power test bed to establish reliable operation of the generators components and test high power microwave components prior to their installation

  13. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R.; Heyes, David M.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-02-01

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  14. Communication: Simple liquids' high-density viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, Lorenzo; Pedersen, Ulf R; Heyes, David M; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2018-02-28

    This paper argues that the viscosity of simple fluids at densities above that of the triple point is a specific function of temperature relative to the freezing temperature at the density in question. The proposed viscosity expression, which is arrived at in part by reference to the isomorph theory of systems with hidden scale invariance, describes computer simulations of the Lennard-Jones system as well as argon and methane experimental data and simulation results for an effective-pair-potential model of liquid sodium.

  15. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  16. Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, M.; Galli, D. E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Moroni, S. [IOM-CNR DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center and SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Vitali, E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.

  17. Simulation and Damage Analysis of an Accidental Jet Fire in a High-Pressure Compressed Pump Shelter

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Chang Bong; Choi, Sang-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background: As one of the most frequently occurring accidents in a chemical plant, a fire accident may occur at any place where transfer or handling of combustible materials is routinely performed. Methods: In particular, a jet fire incident in a chemical plant operated under high pressure may bring severe damage. To review this event numerically, Computational Fluid Dynamics methodology was used to simulate a jet fire at a pipe of a compressor under high pressure. Results: For jet fire...

  18. High-p{sub T} B-tagging and top-tagging with variable-R jets in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, Katharina [Sub-department of Particle Physics, University of Oxford, Denys-Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Variable-R jets, whose effective size is inversely proportional to their transverse momentum, are a versatile tool for object reconstruction across the large transverse momentum regime accessible during Run 2 of the LHC. I discuss the performance of Variable-R jets in two different contexts: (1) Boosted top-tagging. The separation between the decay products of highly energetic top quarks decreases with p{sub T}{sup top} causing them to overlap and merge into a single jet. Taggers relying on large fixed-R jets overestimate the real size of the top jet in the highly boosted regime and are more susceptible to the effects of pile-up. Variable-R jets are studied as the basis for more natural taggers which may not even require grooming. (2) B-tagging. The b-tagging performance in boosted topologies suffers in the presence of close-by jets. This limits the sensitivity of many searches such as those in boosted hh → 4b final states. New b-taggers relying on track jets with smaller sizes than the traditional R=0.4 to better isolate the b-hadron decay show significant improvements in highly boosted scenarios but perform worse at low transverse momenta where they fail to capture the full b-jet. Variable-R track jets provide a unified approach to b-tagging in both p{sub T} regimes.

  19. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  20. Small-Scale Morphological Features on a Solid Surface Processed by High-Pressure Abrasive Water Jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Can; Liu, Haixia

    2013-08-14

    Being subjected to a high-pressure abrasive water jet, solid samples will experience an essential variation of both internal stress and physical characteristics, which is closely associated with the kinetic energy attached to the abrasive particles involved in the jet stream. Here, experiments were performed, with particular emphasis being placed on the kinetic energy attenuation and turbulent features in the jet stream. At jet pressure of 260 MPa, mean velocity and root-mean-square (RMS) velocity on two jet-stream sections were acquired by utilizing the phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. A jet-cutting experiment was then carried out with Al-Mg alloy samples being cut by an abrasive water jet. Morphological features and roughness on the cut surface were quantitatively examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profiling techniques. The results indicate that the high-pressure water jet is characterized by remarkably high mean flow velocities and distinct velocity fluctuations. Those irregular pits and grooves on the cut surfaces indicate both the energy attenuation and the development of radial velocity components in the jet stream. When the sample is positioned with different distances from the nozzle outlet, the obtained quantitative surface roughness varies accordingly. A descriptive model highlighting the behaviors of abrasive particles in jet-cutting process is established in light of the experimental results and correlation analysis.

  1. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  2. Exploiting jet binning to identify the initial state of high-mass resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Markus A.; Liebler, Stefan; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin; Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    If a new high-mass resonance is discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent techniques to identify the production mechanism will be crucial to understand its nature and effective couplings to Standard Model particles. We present a powerful and model-independent method to infer the initial state in the production of any high-mass color-singlet system by using a tight veto on accompanying hadronic jets to divide the data into two mutually exclusive event samples (jet bins). For a resonance of several hundred GeV, the jet binning cut needed to discriminate quark and gluon initial states is in the experimentally accessible range of several tens of GeV. It also yields comparable cross sections for both bins, making this method viable already with the small event samples available shortly after a discovery. Theoretically, the method is made feasible by utilizing an effective field theory setup to compute the jet cut dependence precisely and model-independently and to systematically control all sources of theoretical uncertainties in the jet binning, as well as their correlations. We use a 750 GeV scalar resonance as an example to demonstrate the viability of our method.

  3. High-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different p$_\\text{T}$ ranges. In-situ techniques exploiting the p$_\\text{T}$ balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower p$_\\text{T}$, but at very high p$_\\text{T}$ (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for such in-situ techniques. A low JES uncertainty at high-p$_\\text{T}$ is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest p$_\\text{T}$ range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy deposition belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  4. High-speed monodisperse droplet generation by ultrasonically controlled micro-jet breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Lippert, Alexander; Holsteyns, Frank Ludwig; Mettin, Robert

    2014-04-01

    A liquid jet that is ejected from a nozzle into air will disintegrate into drops via the well-known Plateau-Rayleigh instability within a certain range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. With the focus on the micrometer scale, we investigate the control of this process by superimposing a suitable ultrasonic signal, which causes the jet to break up into a very precise train of monodisperse droplets. The jet leaves a pressurized container of liquid via a small orifice of about 20 μm diameter. The break-up process and the emerging droplets are recorded via high-speed imaging. An extended parameter study of exit speed and ultrasonic frequency is carried out for deionized water to evaluate the jet's state and the subsequent generation of monodisperse droplets. Maximum exit velocities obtained reach almost 120 m s-1, and frequencies have been applied up to 1.8 MHz. Functionality of the method is confirmed for five additional liquids for moderate jet velocities 38 m s-1. For the uncontrolled jet disintegration, the drop size spectra revealed broad distributions and downstream drop growth by collision, while the acoustic control generated monodisperse droplets with a standard deviation less than 0.5 %. By adjustment of the acoustic excitation frequency, drop diameters could be tuned continuously from about 30 to 50 μm for all exit speeds. Good agreement to former experiments and theoretical approaches is found for the relation of overpressure and jet exit speed, and for the observed stability regions of monodisperse droplet generation in the parameter plane of jet speed and acoustic excitation frequency. Fitting of two free parameters of the general theory to the liquids and nozzles used is found to yield an even higher precision. Furthermore, the high-velocity instability limit of regular jet breakup described by von Ohnesorge has been superseded by more than a factor of two without entering the wind-induced instability regime, and monodisperse droplet generation was

  5. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  6. Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.

    2015-11-01

    We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.

  7. St 2-22 - Another Symbiotic Star with High-Velocity Bipolar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T.; Zamanov, R.; Gałan, C.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report the detection of high-velocity components in the wings of Hα emission line in spectra of symbiotic binary star St 2-22 obtained in 2005. This finding encouraged us to start the present investigation in order to show that this poorly-studied object is a jet-producing system. We have used high-resolution optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra, as well as available optical and infrared photometry, to evaluate some physical parameters of the St 2-22 components and characteristics of the jets. We confirm that St 2-22 is a S-type symbiotic star. Our results demonstrate that an unnoticed outburst, similar to those in classical symbiotic systems, occurred in the first half of 2005. During the outburst, collimated bipolar jets were ejected by the hot component of St 2-22 with an average velocity of about 1700 km/s.

  8. Scalar mixing in LES/PDF of a high-Ka premixed turbulent jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jiaping; Yang, Yue

    2016-11-01

    We report a large-eddy simulation (LES)/probability density function (PDF) study of a high-Ka premixed turbulent flame in the Lund University Piloted Jet (LUPJ) flame series, which has been investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiments. The target flame, featuring broadened preheat and reaction zones, is categorized into the broken reaction zone regime. In the present study, three widely used mixing modes, namely the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM), Modified Curl (MC), and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) models are applied to assess their performance through detailed a posteriori comparisons with DNS. A dynamic model for the time scale of scalar mixing is formulated to describe the turbulent mixing of scalars at small scales. Better quantitative agreement for the mean temperature and mean mass fractions of major and minor species are obtained with the MC and EMST models than with the IEM model. The multi-scalar mixing in composition space with the three models are analyzed to assess the modeling of the conditional molecular diffusion term. In addition, we demonstrate that the product of OH and CH2O concentrations can be a good surrogate of the local heat release rate in this flame. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11521091 and 91541204).

  9. Variable kernel density estimation in high-dimensional feature spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the joint probability density function of a dataset is a central task in many machine learning applications. In this work we address the fundamental problem of kernel bandwidth estimation for variable kernel density estimation in high...

  10. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were assayed. ... Abiodun and Gwarzo: Association of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with haemolysis in sickle cell disease ... analyses were carried out to determine the correlation.

  11. High-Latitude Neutral Mass Density Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y.-J.; Huang, T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported that thermospheric effects due to solar wind driving can be observed poleward of auroral latitudes. In these papers, the measured neutral mass density perturbations appear as narrow, localized maxima in the cusp and polar cap. They conclude that Joule heating below the spacecraft is the cause of the mass density increases, which are sometimes associated with local field-aligned current structures, but not always. In this paper we investigate neutral mass densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft from launch until years 2010 (CHAMP) and 2012 (GRACE), approximately 10 years of observations from each satellite. We extract local maxima in neutral mass densities over the background using a smoothing window with size of one quarter of the orbit. The maxima have been analyzed for each year and also for the duration of each set of satellite observations. We show where they occur, under what solar wind conditions, and their relation to magnetic activity. The region with the highest frequency of occurrence coincides approximately with the cusp and mantle, with little direct evidence of an auroral zone source. Our conclusions agree with the "hot polar cap" observations that have been reported and studied in the past.

  12. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  13. Dynamics and Structure of Three-Dimensional Trans-Alfvenic Jets. II. The Effect of Density and Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Hardee, Philip; Rosen, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Two three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of strongly magnetized conical jets, one with a poloidal and one with a helical magnetic field, have been performed. In the poloidal simulation a significant sheath (wind) of magnetized moving material developed and partially stabilized the jet to helical twisting. The fundamental pinch mode was not similarly affected and emission knots developed in the poloidal simulation. Thus, astrophysical jets surrounded by outflowing winds could de...

  14. Diagnostics of high-speed liquid lithium jet for IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Sugiura, Hirokazu; Horiike, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Matsushita, Izuru

    2011-01-01

    Regarding R and Ds on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), hydraulic stability of the liquid Li jet simulating the IFMIF Li target is planned to be validated using EVEDA Li Test Loop (ELTL). IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron-lithium (Li) neutron source for research and development of fusion reactor materials. The stable Li target is required in IFMIF to maintain the quality of the neutron fluence and integrity of the Li target itself. This paper presents diagnostics of the Li jet to be implemented in validation tests of the jet stability in ELTL, and those specifications and methodologies are introduced. In the tests, the following physical parameters need to be measured; thickness of the jet; surface structure (height, length/width and frequency of free-surface waves); local flow velocity at the free surface; and Li evaporation rate. With regard to measurement of jet thickness and the surface wave height, a contact-type liquid level sensor is to be used. As for measurement of wave velocity and visual understanding of detailed free-surface structure, a high-speed video camera is to be leveraged. With respect to Li evaporation measurement, weight change of specimens installed near the free surface and frequency change of a crystal quartz are utilized. (author)

  15. Visualization of the heat release zone of highly turbulent premixed jet flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liang; Tan, Jianguo; Zhu, Jiajian

    2017-10-01

    Visualization of the heat release zone (HRZ) of highly turbulent flames is significantly important to understand the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions, which is the foundation to design and optimize engines. Simultaneous measurements of OH and CH2O using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were performed to characterize the HRZ. A well-designed piloted premixed jet burner was employed to generate four turbulent premixed CH4/air jet flames, with different jet Reynolds numbers (Rejet) ranging from 4900 to 39200. The HRZ was visualized by both the gradient of OH and the pixel-by-pixel product of OH and CH2O. It is shown that turbulence has an increasing effect on the spatial structure of the flame front with an increasing height above the jet exit for the premixed jet flames, which results in the broadening of the HRZ and the increase of the wrinkling. The HRZ remains thin as the Rejet increases, whereas the preheat zone is significantly broadened and thickened. This indicates that the smallest turbulent eddies can only be able to enter the flame front rather than the HRZ in the present flame conditions. The flame quenching is observed with Rejet = 39200, which may be due to the strong entrainment of the cold air from outside of the burned gas region.

  16. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  17. An investigation of pulsed high density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis a wall-stabilized argon cascade arc is studied at values of pulsed pressure up to 14 bar and a pulsed current range up to 2200 A with a time duration of about 2 ms. The basic plasma is a CW cascade arc with a 5 mm diameter plasma column and a length of 90 mm, which operates at a 60 A DC current and at one atmosphere filling pressure. The author starts with an extensive summary of the CW arc investigations. After a brief introduction of the basic transport equations the mass equations of the constituent particles are treated using the extended collisional radiative model. The energy balance equations and the momentum balance are discussed. The electron density is determined from measurements of the continuum radiation. The final chapter contains the experimental results on the electron temperatures and electron densities in the pressure and current pulsed plasma. Attention is given to the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium values of the ground level densities of the different argon systems. (Auth.)

  18. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H.

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T c superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm 2 and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation

  19. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  20. Appearance of high submerged cavitating jet: The cavitation phenomenon and sono luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study jet structure and behaviour of cloud cavitation within time and space, visualization of highly submerged cavitating water jet has been done using Stanford Optics 4 Quick 05 equipment, through endoscopes and other lenses with Drello3244 and Strobex Flash Chadwick as flashlight stroboscope. This included obligatory synchronization with several types of techniques and lenses. Images of the flow regime have been taken, allowing calculation of the non-dimensional cavitation cloud length under working conditions. Consequently a certain correlation has been proposed. The influencing parameters, such as; injection pressure, downstream pressure and cavitation number were experimentally proved to be very significant. The recordings of sono-luminescence phenomenon proved the collapsing of bubbles everywhere along the jet trajectory. In addition, the effect of temperature on sono-luminescence recordings was also a point of investigation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35046

  1. High-intensity, thin-target He-jet production source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Butler, G.W.; Rosenauer, Dk; Loebner, K.E.G.; Lind, V.G.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    A thin-target He-jet system suited to the production and rapid transport of non-volatile radioactive species has been successfully operated with proton beam intensities of up to 700 μA. The system consists of a water-cooled, thin-target chamber, capillary gas transport system, moving tape/Ge detection system, and an aerosol generator/gas recirculator. The yields for a wide variety of uranium fission and deep spallation products have been measured and robust operation of the system demonstrated for several weeks. He-jet transport and collection efficiencies ranged between 15 and 25% with collection rates of 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/sec/isotope. The high-intensity, thin-target He-jet approach represents a robust production source for nonvolatile radioactive heavy ion beams

  2. Study on the effect of distance between the two nozzle holes on interaction of high pressure combustion-gas jets with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaochun; Yu, Yonggang; Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We design a five-stage cylindrical stepped-wall chamber to study twin combustion-gas jets. • We observe mixing processes of twin combustion-gases and liquid by high speed photographic system. • We discuss the influence of multiple parameters on expansion shape of the Taylor cavities. • The three-dimensional mathematics model is established to simulate the energy release process. • We obtain distribution characteristics of parameters under different nozzle distances. - Abstract: The combustion-gas generator and cylindrical stepped-wall observation chambers with five stages are designed to study the expansion characteristic of twin combustion-gas jets in liquid working medium under high temperature and high pressure. The expansion processes of Taylor cavities formed by combustion-gas jets and the mixing characteristics of gas–liquid are studied by means of high-speed digital camera system. The effects of the distance between the two nozzle holes, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on jet expansion processes are discussed. The experimental results indicate that, the velocity differences exist on the gas–liquid interface during expansion processes of twin combustion-gas jets, and the effect of Taylor–Helmholtz instability is intense, so interfaces between gas and liquid show turbulent folds and randomness. The strong turbulent mixing of gas and liquid leads to release of combustion-gas energy with the temperature decreasing. Moreover, the mixing effectiveness is obviously enhanced on the corners of each step of the cylindrical stepped-wall structure, forming radial expansion phenomenon. The reasonable matching of multi-parameter can restrain the jet instability and make the combustion-gas energy orderly release. Based on the experiments, the three-dimensional unsteady mathematical model of interaction of twin combustion-gas jets and liquid working medium is established to obtain the density, pressure, velocity and temperature

  3. POLAMI: Polarimetric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei at Millimetre Wavelengths - III. Characterization of total flux density and polarization variability of relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Iván; Thum, Clemens; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Molina, Sol N.; Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first results of the POLAMI (Polarimetric Monitoring of AGNs with Millimetre Wavelengths) programme, a simultaneous 3.5 and 1.3 mm full-Stokes-polarization monitoring of a sample of 36 of the brightest active galactic nuclei in the northern sky with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Through a systematic statistical study of data taken from 2006 October (from 2009 December for the case of the 1.3 mm observations) to 2014 August, we characterize the variability of the total flux density and linear polarization. We find that all sources in the sample are highly variable in total flux density at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm, as well as in spectral index, which (except in particularly prominent flares) is found to be optically thin between these two wavelengths. The total flux-density variability at 1.3 mm is found, in general, to be faster, and to have larger fractional amplitude and flatter power-spectral-density slopes than at 3.5 mm. The polarization degree is on average larger at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm, by a factor of 2.6. The variability of linear polarization degree is faster and has higher fractional amplitude than for total flux density, with the typical time-scales during prominent polarization peaks being significantly faster at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm. The polarization angle at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm is highly variable. Most of the sources show one or two excursions of >180° on time-scales from a few weeks to about a year during the course of our observations. The 3.5 and 1.3 mm polarization angle evolution follows each other rather well, although the 1.3 mm data show a clear preference to more prominent variability on the short time-scales, i.e. weeks. The data are compatible with multizone models of conical jets involving smaller emission regions for the shortest-wavelength emitting sites. Such smaller emitting regions should also be more efficient in energising particle populations, as implied by the coherent evolution of the spectral index and the total flux

  4. Modeling of liquid ceramic precursor droplets in a high velocity oxy-fuel flame jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Saptarshi; Cetegen, Baki M.

    2008-01-01

    Production of coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) flame jet processing of liquid precursor droplets can be an attractive alternative method to plasma processing. This article concerns modeling of the thermophysical processes in liquid ceramic precursor droplets injected into an HVOF flame jet. The model consists of several sub-models that include aerodynamic droplet break-up, heat and mass transfer within individual droplets exposed to the HVOF environment and precipitation of ceramic precursors. A parametric study is presented for the initial droplet size, concentration of the dissolved salts and the external temperature and velocity field of the HVOF jet to explore processing conditions and injection parameters that lead to different precipitate morphologies. It is found that the high velocity of the jet induces shear break-up into several μm diameter droplets. This leads to better entrainment and rapid heat-up in the HVOF jet. Upon processing, small droplets (<5 μm) are predicted to undergo volumetric precipitation and form solid particles prior to impact at the deposit location. Droplets larger than 5 μm are predicted to form hollow or precursor containing shells similar to those processed in a DC arc plasma. However, it is found that the lower temperature of the HVOF jet compared to plasma results in slower vaporization and solute mass diffusion time inside the droplet, leading to comparatively thicker shells. These shell-type morphologies may further experience internal pressurization, resulting in possibly shattering and secondary atomization of the trapped liquid. The consequences of these different particle states on the coating microstructure are also discussed in this article

  5. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  6. High-Fidelity Simulations of Electrically-Charged Atomizing Diesel-Type Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Benoit; Owkes, Mark; van Poppel, Bret

    2015-11-01

    Combustion of liquid fuels accounts for over a third of the energy usage today. Improving efficiency of combustion systems is critical to meet the energy needs while limiting environmental impacts. Additionally, a shift away from traditional fossil fuels to bio-derived alternatives requires fuel injection systems that can atomize fuels with a wide range of properties. In this work, the potential benefits of electrically-charged atomization is investigated using numerical simulations. Particularly, the electrostatic forces on the hydrodynamic jet are quantified and the impact of the forces is analyzed by comparing simulations of Diesel-type jets at realistic flow conditions. The simulations are performed using a state-of-the-art numerical framework that globally conserves mass, momentum, and the electric charge density even at the gas-liquid interface where discontinuities exist.

  7. Acceptance Test Report for the high pressure water jet system canister cleaning fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, J.R.

    1995-10-25

    This Acceptance Test confirmed the test results and recommendations, documented in WHC-SD-SNF-DTR-001, Rev. 0 Development Test Report for the High Pressure Water Jet System Nozzles, for decontaminating empty fuel canisters in KE-Basin. Optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle size and overall configuration were tested

  8. Adaptation of high pressure water jets with abrasives for nuclear installations dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, R.; Pinault, M.; Gasc, B.; Guiadeur, R.; Pilot, M.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the work realized for adjust the cutting technology with high pressure water jet with abrasives for nuclear installation dismantling. It has necessited the conception and the adjustement of a remote tool and the realization of cutting tests with waste produce analysis. This technic can be ameliorated with better viewing systems and better fog suction systems

  9. Acceptance Test Report for the high pressure water jet system canister cleaning fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdin, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test confirmed the test results and recommendations, documented in WHC-SD-SNF-DTR-001, Rev. 0 Development Test Report for the High Pressure Water Jet System Nozzles, for decontaminating empty fuel canisters in KE-Basin. Optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle size and overall configuration were tested

  10. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  11. Sputtered thin films for high density tape recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.

    This thesis describes the investigation of sputtered thin film media for high density tape recording. As discussed in Chapter 1, to meet the tremendous demand of data storage, the density of recording tape has to be increased continuously. For further increasing the bit density the key factors are:

  12. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  13. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  14. Jets in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattrass, Christine

    2017-01-01

    High energy collisions of heavy nuclei permit the study of nuclear matter at temperatures and energy densities so high that the fundamental theory for strong interactions, QCD, predicts a phase transition to a plasma of quarks and gluons. This matter, called a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), has been studied experimentally for the last decade and has been observed to be a strongly interacting liquid with a low viscosity. High energy partons created early in the collision interact with the QGP and provide unique probes of its properties. Hard partons fragment into collimated sprays of particles called jets and have been studied through measurements of single particles, correlations between particles, and measurements of fully reconstructed jets. These measurements demonstrate partonic energy loss in the QGP and constrain the QGP’s properties. Measurements of the jet structure give insight into the mechanism of this energy loss. The information we have learned from studies of jets and challenges for the field will be reviewed. (paper)

  15. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  16. High density, high magnetic field concepts for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    One rather discouraging feature of our conventional approaches to fusion energy is that they do not appear to lend themselves to a small reactor for developmental purposes. This is in contrast with the normal evolution of a new technology which typically proceeds to a full scale commercial plant via a set of graduated steps. Accordingly' several concepts concerned with dense plasma fusion systems are being studied theoretically and experimentally. A common aspect is that they employ: (a) high to very high plasma densities (∼10 16 cm -3 to ∼10 26 cm -3 ) and (b) magnetic fields. If they could be shown to be viable at high fusion Q, they could conceivably lead to compact and inexpensive commercial reactors. At least, their compactness suggests that both proof of principle experiments and development costs will be relatively inexpensive compared with the present conventional approaches. In this paper, the following concepts are considered: (1) The staged Z-pinch, (2) Liner implosion of closed-field-line configurations, (3) Magnetic ''fast'' ignition of inertial fusion targets, (4) The continuous flow Z-pinch

  17. Bayesian Multiscale Analysis of X-Ray Jet Features in High Redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, Kathryn; Siemiginowska, A.; Kashyap, V.; Stein, N.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission of powerful quasar jets may be a result of the inverse Compton (IC) process in which the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons gain energy by interactions with the jet’s relativistic electrons. However, there is no definite evidence that IC/CMB process is responsible for the observed X-ray emission of large scale jets. A step toward understanding the X-ray emission process is to study the Radio and X-ray morphologies of the jet. We implement a sophisticated Bayesian image analysis program, Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) (Esch et al. 2004; Conners & van Dyk 2007), to analyze jet features in 11 Chandra images of high redshift quasars (z ~ 2 - 4.8). Out of the 36 regions where knots are visible in the radio jets, nine showed detectable X-ray emission. We measured the ratios of the X-ray and radio luminosities of the detected features and found that they are consistent with the CMB radiation relationship. We derived a range of the bulk lorentz factor (Γ) for detected jet features under the CMB jet emission model. There is no discernible trend of Γ with redshift within the sample. The efficiency of the X-ray emission between the detected jet feature and the corresponding quasar also shows no correlation with redshift. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation REU and the Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no.1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution, and by NASA Contract NAS8-39073 to the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). This research has made use of data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive and Chandra Source Catalog, and software provided by the CXC in the application packages CIAO, ChIPS, and Sherpa. We thank Teddy Cheung for providing the VLA radio images. Connors, A., & van Dyk, D. A. 2007, Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy IV, 371, 101 Esch, D. N., Connors, A., Karovska, M., & van Dyk, D. A. 2004, ApJ, 610, 1213

  18. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  1. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HIGH COLUMN DENSITY TURNOVER IN THE H I COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 , which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 10 22 cm –2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H 2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 10 21 cm –2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I ∼> 10 22 cm –2 . We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ∼ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  2. High Energy Density Capacitors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  3. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  4. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures in a time modulated RF driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet: an analysis of the production and destruction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiqiang; Van Gessel, Bram; Hofmann, Sven; Van Veldhuizen, Eddie; Bruggeman, Peter; Van Gaens, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a time modulated RF driven DBD-like atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar + 2%O 2 , operating at a time averaged power of 6.5 W is investigated. Spatially resolved ozone densities and gas temperatures are obtained by UV absorption and Rayleigh scattering, respectively. Significant gas heating in the core of the plasma up to 700 K is found and at the position of this increased gas temperature a depletion of the ozone density is found. The production and destruction reactions of O 3 in the jet effluent as a function of the distance from the nozzle are obtained from a zero-dimensional chemical kinetics model in plug flow mode which considers relevant air chemistry due to air entrainment in the jet fluent. A comparison of the measurements and the models show that the depletion of O 3 in the core of the plasma is mainly caused by an enhanced destruction of O 3 due to a large atomic oxygen density. (paper)

  5. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-01-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth

  6. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  7. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  8. Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi

    2010-10-28

    Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise.

  9. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous magnet...

  10. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core

    OpenAIRE

    Livermore, PW; Hollerbach, R; Finlay, CC

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field—the secular variation—provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field's generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, no...

  11. The high voltage grid interface in present and future JET operational requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, K.I.; Ciscato, D.; Marchese, V.; Ashmole, P.; Jervis, B.

    1987-01-01

    A number of limitations surround the JET pulse load and its impact upon the high voltage network in order not to decrease quality and reliability of the electrical supply to other consumers. According to the present agreement with the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) the active and reactive power swing at the 400kV point of supply should not exceed 575MW and 375MVAr. The voltage drop should be less than 1.5% and the rise and decay of JET load should not exceed 200MW/s. There are also limitations in load power steps the purpose being to protect components of the CEGB power system. The paper presents two simulated JET scenarios in which the plasma current is Ip = 5MA and the additional heating power to the plasma is 25MW. The pulse termination is either normal or abnormal (plasma disruption). In the first case a reactive power compensation of 130MVAr is needed in order to comply with the limits on voltage drop. In case of plasma disruption an active power compensation of 150MW is needed in addition in order that the combined JET load may remain within the present limits of active power step, reactive power swing and voltage drop

  12. A new high speed, Ultrascale+ based board for the ATLAS jet calorimeter trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A new high speed Ultrascale+ based board for the ATLAS jet calorimeter trigger system To cope with the enhanced luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2021, the ATLAS collaboration is planning a major detector upgrade. As a part of this, the Level 1 trigger based on calorimeter data will be upgraded to exploit the fine granularity readout using a new system of Feature EXtractors (FEX), which each reconstruct different physics objects for the trigger selection. The jet FEX (jFEX) system is conceived to provide jet identification (including large area jets) and measurements of global variables within a latency budget of less then 400ns. It consists of 6 modules. A single jFEX module is an ATCA board with 4 large FPGAs of the Xilinx Ultrascale+ family, that can digest a total input data rate of ~3.6 Tb/s using up to 120 Multi Gigabit Transceiver (MGT), 24 electrical optical devices, board control and power on the mezzanines to allow flexibility in upgrading controls functions and components without aff...

  13. High Performance Computation of a Jet in Crossflow by Lattice Boltzmann Based Parallel Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a round jet in crossflow based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM is carried out on multi-GPU cluster. Data parallel SIMT (single instruction multiple thread characteristic of GPU matches the parallelism of LBM well, which leads to the high efficiency of GPU on the LBM solver. With present GPU settings (6 Nvidia Tesla K20M, the present DNS simulation can be completed in several hours. A grid system of 1.5 × 108 is adopted and largest jet Reynolds number reaches 3000. The jet-to-free-stream velocity ratio is set as 3.3. The jet is orthogonal to the mainstream flow direction. The validated code shows good agreement with experiments. Vortical structures of CRVP, shear-layer vortices and horseshoe vortices, are presented and analyzed based on velocity fields and vorticity distributions. Turbulent statistical quantities of Reynolds stress are also displayed. Coherent structures are revealed in a very fine resolution based on the second invariant of the velocity gradients.

  14. Behavior of a corium jet in high pressure melt ejection from a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1988-04-01

    Discharge of the molten core debris from a pressurized reactor vessel has been recognized as an important accident scenario for pressurized water reactors. Recent high-pressure melt streaming experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories, designed to study cavity and containment events related to melt ejection, have resulted in two important observations: (1) Expansion and breakup of the ejected molten jet. (2) Significant aerosol generation during the ejection process. The expansion and breakup of the jet in the experiments are attributed to rapid evolution of the pressurizing gas (nitrogen or hydrogen) dissolved in the melt. It has been concluded that aerosol particles may be formed by condensation of melt vapor and mechanical breakup of the melt and generation. It was also shown that the above stated phenomena are likely to occur in reactor accidents. This report provides results from analytical and experimental investigations on the behavior of a gas supersaturated molten jet expelled from a pressurized vessel. Aero-hydrodynamic stability of liquid jets in gas, stream degassing of molten metals, and gas bubble nucleation in molten metals are relevant problems that are addressed in this work

  15. Production of high-pt jets in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.; Zieminski, A.; Blessing, S.; Crittenden, R.; Draper, P.; Dzierba, A.; Heinz, R.; Krider, J.; Marshall, T.; Martin, J.; Sambamurti, A.; Smith, P.; Sulanke, T.; Gomez, R.; Dauwe, L.; Haggerty, H.; Malamud, E.; Nikolic, M.; Hagopian, S.; Abrams, R.; Ares, J.; Goldberg, H.; Halliwell, C.; Margulies, S.; McLeod, D.; Salminen, A.; Solomon, J.; Wu, G.; Ellsworth, R.; Goodman, J.; Gupta, S.; Yodh, G.; Watts, T.; Abramov, V.; Antipov, Y.; Baldin, B.; Denisov, S.; Glebov, V.; Gorin, Y.; Kryshkin, V.; Petrukhin, A.; Polovnikov, S.; Sulyaev, R.

    1990-01-01

    We present results on the production of jets and ''jetlike'' clusters in 800-GeV/c proton-nucleus (pA) collisions. Events with high values of transverse energy in the central kinematic region were selected for nuclear targets of H, Be, C, Cu, and Pb. A jet-finding algorithm was used in analyzing the data. The A dependence of the jet and dijet cross sections was parametrized as A α . The values of α for events with ''jetlike'' cluster pairs found by the algorithm without any additional kinematic cuts reach a plateau of approximately 1.5 at dijet transverse energies >11 GeV. The collimation of observed ''jetlike'' clusters decreases with A, and the fragmentation is softer for heavier target nuclei. However, nuclear effects become less pronounced with the increasing cluster or cluster-pair transverse energy. We argue that the observed nuclear enhancement for the production of ''jetlike'' clusters is due to underlying event or/and soft-scattering contributions to the heavy-nuclei data. We show that the nuclear enhancement becomes consistent with a value of α within 0.10 from unity once the data are corrected for the underlying event or kinematic cuts enhancing clear jet structure are applied

  16. Ultra-high pressure water jetting for coating removal and surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Spencer T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper shall examine the basics of water technology with particular attention paid to systems currently in use and some select new applications. By providing an overview of commercially available water jet systems in the context of recent case histories, potential users may evaluate the process for future applications. With the on going introduction of regulations prohibiting the use of chemical paint strippers, manual scrapping and dry abrasive media blasting, the need for an environmentally compliant coating removal process has been mandated. Water jet cleaning has been a traditional part of many industrial processed for year, although it has only been in the last few years that reliable pumping equipment capable of ultra-high pressure operation have become available. With the advent of water jet pumping equipment capable of sustaining pressures in excess of 36,000 psi. there has been shift away from lower pressure, high water volume systems. One of the major factors in driving industry to seek higher pressures is the ability to offer higher productivity rates while lowering the quantity of water used and subsequently reprocessed. Among benefits of the trend toward higher pressure/lower volume systems is the corresponding reduction in water jet reaction forces making hand held water jetting practical and safe. Other unique applications made possible by these new generation pumping systems include the use of alternative fluids including liquid ammonia for specialized and hazardous material removal applications. A review of the equipment used and the required modifications will be presented along with the conclusions reached reached during this test program.

  17. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  18. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Graves; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high- Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×10 12 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  19. Energy confinement of high-density tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, F.C.; Schram, D.C.; Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W.

    1977-01-01

    Neoclassical ion heat conduction is the major energy loss mechanism in the center of an ohmically heated high-d. tokamak discharge (n>3 * 1020 m-3). This fixes the mutual dependence of plasma quantities on the axis and leads to scaling laws for the poloidal b and energy confinement time, given the

  20. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. We also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.

  1. Filter device for high density aerozol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Masao; Utamura, Motoaki; Tozuka, Fumio; Tate, Hitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a reactor, filters for capturing aerozol particles at high concentration have such a structure that a great number of fine pores are formed. Aerozols are introduced to a filter portion from the place remote from a first inlet. Cloggings are caused successively from the places remote from the inlet. Even if the clogging should occur, since there are many pores, the performance of filters is not deteriorated. Further, the filter has a multi-layered structure. With such a constitution, if the filter at a first stage is clogged to increase the pressure, a partitioning plate is opened and fluids are introduced into a second filter. This is conducted successively to suppress the deterioration of the performance of the filter. In view of the above, even if cloggings should occur, the filter performance is not deteriorated and, accordingly, reactor container ventilation can be conducted at high reliability upon occurrence of accidents. (T.M.)

  2. High current density ion beam measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.

    1976-01-01

    High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current

  3. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  4. GAE detection for mass measurement for plasma density control. JET article 14 contract no 950104. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Ridder, G. de; Villard, L.

    1997-01-01

    In view of the interest in obtaining a direct mass measurement in JET D-T plasmas, ultimately for D/T ratio control, the CRPP has performed numerical simulation work to verify the underlying method. The work undertaken is described and the conclusions are presented. The use of the GAE in JET is concluded to be less interesting than initially hoped. The reasons are discussed. Such a method, however, provide useful additional information. (author) figs., tabs., 5 refs

  5. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  6. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  7. Spectroscopic investigations of high-energy-density\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Martin; Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Kamas, Michal; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Shestivska, Violetta; Juha, Libor; Skřehot, P.; Laitl, V.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 39 (2016), s. 27317-27325 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S; GA MŠk LG15013; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083 Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) R200401521 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : HIGH-POWER LASER * INDUCED DIELECTRIC-BREAKDOWN * EARTHS EARLY ATMOSPHERE Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  8. Examining the High-energy Radiation Mechanisms of Knots and Hotspots in Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Du, Shen-shi; Guo, Sheng-Chu; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Chen, Liang; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    We compile the radio–optical–X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 65 knots and 29 hotspots in 41 active galactic nucleus jets to examine their high-energy radiation mechanisms. Their SEDs can be fitted with the single-zone leptonic models, except for the hotspot of Pictor A and six knots of 3C 273. The X-ray emission of 1 hotspot and 22 knots is well explained as synchrotron radiation under the equipartition condition; they usually have lower X-ray and radio luminosities than the others, which may be due to a lower beaming factor. An inverse Compton (IC) process is involved for explaining the X-ray emission of the other SEDs. Without considering the equipartition condition, their X-ray emission can be attributed to the synchrotron-self-Compton process, but the derived jet powers (P jet) are not correlated with L k and most of them are larger than L k, with more than three orders of magnitude, where L k is the jet kinetic power estimated with their radio emission. Under the equipartition condition, the X-ray emission is well interpreted with the IC process for the cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB). In this scenario, the derived P jet of knots and hotspots are correlated with and comparable to L k. These results suggest that the IC/CMB model may be a promising interpretation of the X-ray emission. In addition, a tentative knot–hotspot sequence in the synchrotron peak-energy–peak-luminosity plane is observed, similar to the blazar sequence, which may be attributed to the different cooling mechanisms of electrons.

  9. The bipolar jet of the symbiotic star R Aquarii: A study of its morphology using the high-resolution HST WFC3/UVIS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Stute, Matthias; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    maps which present a mosaic combined from the large field and the PSF-subtracted inner region. Conclusions: The high signal-to-noise HST WFC3/UVIS images provide powerful tools for the study of the jet morphology and also bring detailed information about the physical jet gas conditions. The simultaneous observations of [OIII], [OI], [NII], and [SII] would allow us to measure basic parameters of the ionised gas in the R Aqr outflow such as electron density, electron temperature and hydrogen ionisation fraction, and compare them with other stellar jets.

  10. High fusion performance at high T i/T e in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with high NBI heating power and low gas puffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; Sips, A. C. C.; Romanelli, M.; Challis, C. D.; Rimini, F.; Garzotti, L.; Lerche, E.; Buchanan, J.; Yuan, X.; Kaye, S.; contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the transport analysis of high density baseline discharges in the 2016 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW), where a significant increase in the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion neutron rate (~2.8  ×  1016 s-1) was achieved with stable high neutral beam injection (NBI) powers of up to 28 MW and low gas puffing. Increase in T i exceeding T e were produced for the first time in baseline discharges despite the high electron density; this enabled a significant increase in the thermal fusion reaction rate. As a result, the new achieved record in fusion performance was much higher than the previous record in the same heating power baseline discharges, where T i  =  T e. In addition to the decreases in collisionality and the increases in ion heating fraction in the discharges with high NBI power, T i  >  T e can also be attributed to positive feedback between the high T i/T e ratio and stabilisation of the turbulent heat flux resulting from the ion temperature gradient driven mode. The high T i/T e ratio was correlated with high rotation frequency. Among the discharges with identical beam heating power, higher rotation frequencies were observed when particle fuelling was provided by low gas puffing and pellet injection. This reveals that particle fuelling played a key role for achieving high T i/T e, and the improved fusion performance.

  11. High baryon density from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Schlagel, T.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics, is developed and applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS energies. This model is in excellent agreement with observed particle spectra in heavy ion collisions using Si beams, where baryon densities of three and four times the normal nuclear matter density ({rho}{sub 0}) are reached. For Au on Au collisions, the authors predict the formation of matter at very high densities (up to 10 {rho}{sub 0}).

  12. Lexical Density Of English Reading Texts For Senior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Nesia, Bersyebah Herljimsi; Ginting, Siti Aisah

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with the lexical density especially the lexical items of English reading texts in the textbook for senior high school. The objectives of the study are to find out the lexical density especially the lexical items which formed in the reading texts of Look Ahead textbook and the type of genre which has the highest lexical density of the reading texts. This study was conducted by descriptive method with qualitative approach. The data of this research were the English reading text...

  13. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  14. Investigation of the impact of high liquid viscosity on jet atomization in crossflow via high-fidelity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Gao, Hui; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2017-08-01

    Atomization of extremely high viscosity liquid can be of interest for many applications in aerospace, automotive, pharmaceutical, and food industries. While detailed atomization measurements usually face grand challenges, high-fidelity numerical simulations offer the advantage to comprehensively explore the atomization details. In this work, a previously validated high-fidelity first-principle simulation code HiMIST is utilized to simulate high-viscosity liquid jet atomization in crossflow. The code is used to perform a parametric study of the atomization process in a wide range of Ohnesorge numbers (Oh = 0.004-2) and Weber numbers (We = 10-160). Direct comparisons between the present study and previously published low-viscosity jet in crossflow results are performed. The effects of viscous damping and slowing on jet penetration, liquid surface instabilities, ligament formation/breakup, and subsequent droplet formation are investigated. Complex variations in near-field and far-field jet penetrations with increasing Oh at different We are observed and linked with the underlying jet deformation and breakup physics. Transition in breakup regimes and increase in droplet size with increasing Oh are observed, mostly consistent with the literature reports. The detailed simulations elucidate a distinctive edge-ligament-breakup dominated process with long surviving ligaments for the higher Oh cases, as opposed to a two-stage edge-stripping/column-fracture process for the lower Oh counterparts. The trend of decreasing column deflection with increasing We is reversed as Oh increases. A predominantly unimodal droplet size distribution is predicted at higher Oh, in contrast to the bimodal distribution at lower Oh. It has been found that both Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz linear stability theories cannot be easily applied to interpret the distinct edge breakup process and further study of the underlying physics is needed.

  15. Jets and high pT hadrons in dense matter: recent results from STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Peter; Klay, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We review recent measurements of high transverse momentum (high pT) hadron production in nuclear collisions by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC. The previously observed suppression in central Au+Au collisions has been extended to much higher pT. New measurements from d+Au collisions are presented which help disentangle the mechanisms responsible for the suppression. Inclusive single hadron spectra are enhanced in d+Au relative to p+p, while two-particle azimuthal distributions are observed to be similar in p+p, d+Au and peripheral Au+Au collisions. The large suppression of inclusive hadron production and absence of the away-side jet-like correlations in central Au+Au collisions are shown to be due to interactions of the jets with the very dense medium produced in these collisions

  16. Experimental study on thermal interaction between a high-temperature molten jet and plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Saito, M.; Furutani, A.; Isozaki, M.; Imahori, S.; Konishi, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent simulant experiments to study molten corium-structure interactions under postulated core disruptive accident (CDA) conditions in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFMRs). These experiments were conducted in the MELT-II facility generating high-temperature molten simulants by an induction heating technique. From a series of molten jet-structure interaction experiments, the effects of the solidified crust layer and molten layer on the erosion behavior were identified, and analytical models were developed to assess the structure erosion rate with and without crust formation. Especially, we revealed the inherent mitigation mechanism that when the molten oxide jet with high melting point falls down onto the structure plate, solidified crust of the oxide can significantly reduce the erosion rate. (author)

  17. Mixing characterization of highly underexpanded fluid jets with real gas expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Felix J.; Baab, Steffen; Steinhausen, Christoph; Lamanna, Grazia; Ewart, Paul; Weigand, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    We report a comprehensive speed of sound database for multi-component mixing of underexpanded fuel jets with real gas expansion. The paper presents several reference test cases with well-defined experimental conditions providing quantitative data for validation of computational simulations. Two injectant fluids, fundamentally different with respect to their critical properties, are brought to supercritical state and discharged into cold nitrogen at different pressures. The database features a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios covering the regimes that are generally classified as highly and extremely highly underexpanded jets. Further variation is introduced by investigating different injection temperatures. Measurements are obtained along the centerline at different axial positions. In addition, an adiabatic mixing model based on non-ideal thermodynamic mixture properties is used to extract mixture compositions from the experimental speed of sound data. The concentration data obtained are complemented by existing experimental data and represented by an empirical fit.

  18. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  19. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Physics Department, Novosibirsk State University,2 Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Theory division, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11 Lavrenteva avenue, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Université Paris 06, Faculté de Physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-09-02

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  20. Application of High Performance Computing for Simulations of N-Dodecane Jet Spray with Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    is unlimited. 10 6. References 1. Malbec L-M, Egúsquiza J, Bruneaux G, Meijer M. Characterization of a set of ECN spray A injectors : nozzle to...sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the laboratory of turbulent diesel sprays. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high...models into future simulations of turbulent jet sprays and develop a predictive theory for comparison to measurements in the lab of turbulent diesel

  1. Application of PIV to the Measurement of High Speed Jet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV, has been implemented for the investigation of high-speed jet flows at the NASA Langley Research Center. In this approach the velocity (displacement) is found as the location of a peak in the correlation map of particle images acquired in quick succession. In the study, the technique for the correct seeding of the flow field were developed and implemented and the operational parameters influencing the accuracy of the measurement have been optimized.

  2. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  3. Low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B.N.; Anuradha, M.; Nageshwara Rao, P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2000-01-01

    Low sintered density and density variation in sintered UO 2 were found to have been caused by non uniformity in the granule feed characteristics to the compacting press. The nitrogen impurity content of sintered UO 2 was found to be sintering furnace related and associated with low sintered density pellets. The problems of low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen could be solved by the replacement of the prevailing four punch precompaction by a single punch process; by the introduction of a vibro-sieve for the separation of fine particles from the press feed granules; by innovation in the powder feed shoe design for simultaneous and uniform dispensing of powder in all the die holes; by increasing the final compaction pressure and by modifying the gas flows and preheat temperature in the sintering furnace. (author)

  4. Properties of matter at ultra-high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, B.; Chitre, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The recent discovery of pulsars and their subsequent identification with neutron stars has given a great impetus to the study of the behaviour of matter at ultra high densities. The object of these studies is to calculate the equation of state as a function of density. In this paper, the properties of electrically neutral, cold (T=0) matter at unusually high densities has been reviewed. The physics of the equation of state of such matter divides quite naturally in four density ranges. (i) At the very lowest densities the state of minimum energy is a lattice of 56 Fe atoms. This state persists upto 10 7 g/cm 3 . (ii) In the next density region the nuclei at the lattice sites become neutron rich because the high electron Fermi energy makes inverse beta decay possible. (iii) At a density 4.3 x 10 11 the nuclei become so neutron rich that the neutrons start 'dripping' out of the nuclei and form a gas. This density range is characterised by large, neutron-rich nuclei immersed in a neutron gas. (iv) At a density 2.4 x 10 14 g/cm 3 , the nuclei disappear and a fluid of uniform neutron matter with a small percentage of protons and electrons results. The above four density ranges have been discussed in detail as the equation of state is now well established upto the nuclear density 3 x 10 14 g/cm 3 . The problems of extending the equation of state beyond this density are also touched upon. (author)

  5. BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state, in...

  6. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburn, S. A.; Matthews, G. F.; Challis, C. D.; Frigione, D.; Graves, J. P.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Belonohy, E.; Hobirk, J.; Iglesias, D.; Keeling, D. L.; King, D.; Kirov, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lomas, P. J.; Moradi, S.; Sips, A. C. C.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data.

  7. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silburn, S A; Matthews, G F; Challis, C D; Belonohy, E; Iglesias, D; Keeling, D L; King, D; Kirov, K; Lomas, P J; Frigione, D; Graves, J P; Mantsinen, M J; Hobirk, J; Lennholm, M; Moradi, S; Sips, A C C; Tsalas, M

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data. (paper)

  8. Phenomenology of high density disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Bell, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of high density disruptions on TFTR, including a comparison of minor and major disruptions at high density, provide important new information regarding the nature of the disruption mechanism. Further, for the first time, an (m,n)=(1,1) 'cold bubble' precursor to high density disruptions has been experimentally observed in the electron temperature profile. The precursor to major disruptions resembles the 'vacuum bubble' model of disruptions first proposed by B.B. Kadomtsev and O.P. Pogutse (Sov. Phys. - JETP 38 (1974) 283). (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 25 refs, 3 figs

  9. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  10. Experimental investigation of the effects of heat release on mixing processes and flow structure in a high-speed subsonic turbulent H{sub 2} jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, M.; Bellenoue, M. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, CNRS UPR 9028, Poitiers (France)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper, we explore the effects of heat release on mixing and flow structure in a high-speed subsonic turbulent H{sub 2} jet in an air coflow. Heat release effects are determined from the comparison of nonreacting and reacting jet behavior, boundary conditions being identical in both cases. Experiments are performed in a wind tunnel specifically designed for this purpose. Planar laser induced fluorescence on OH radicals and on acetone (seeded in the hydrogen jet) are used to characterize the cartography of scalars, and laser Doppler velocimetry is used to characterize velocity profiles in the far field of the H{sub 2} jet. Results show significant effects of heat release on mixing and flow structure, indicating an overall reduction of mixing and entrainment in the reacting jet compared to the nonreacting jet. First, a change is observed in the orientation of coherent structures originating from Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities, and responsible for air entrainment within the jet, which appear 'flatter' in the jet flame. Then, the flame length is increased over what would be predicted from the intersection of the mean stoichiometric contour with the centerline of the nonreacting jet. And finally, the longitudinal average velocity decrease along the jet axis is quicker in the nonreacting jet, and nondimensional transverse velocity fluctuations are about half as high in the reacting jet as in the nonreacting jet, indicating a reduction of the turbulence intensity of the flow in this direction in the jet flame. (author)

  11. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  12. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  13. Development and characterization of high-frequency resonance-enhanced microjet actuators for control of high-speed jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Puja; Gustavsson, Jonas P. R.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    For flow control applications requiring high-frequency excitation, very few actuators have sufficient dynamic response and/or control authority to be useful in high-speed flows. Due to this reason, experiments involving high-frequency excitation, attempted in the past, have been limited to either low-frequency actuation with reasonable control authority or moderate-frequency actuation with limited control authority. The current work expands on the previous development of the resonance-enhanced microactuators to design actuators that are capable of producing high-amplitude pulses at much higher frequencies [{O} (10 kHz)]. Using lumped element modeling, two actuators have been designed with nominal frequencies of 20 and 50 kHz. Extensive benchtop characterization using acoustic measurements as well as optical diagnostics using a high-resolution micro-schlieren setup is employed to characterize the dynamic response of these actuators. The actuators performed at a range of frequencies, 20.3-27.8 and 54.8-78.2 kHz, respectively. In addition to providing information on the actuator flow physics and performance at various operating conditions, this study serves to develop easy-to-integrate high-frequency actuators for active control of high-speed jets. Preliminary testing of these actuators is performed by implementing the 20-kHz actuator on a Mach 0.9 free jet flow field for noise reduction. Acoustic measurements in the jet near field demonstrate attenuation of radiated noise at all observation angles.

  14. Development of liquid film thickness measurement technique by high-density multipoint electrodes method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Takahiro; Furuya, Masahiro; Kanai, Taizo

    2010-01-01

    High-density multipoint electrode method was developed to measure a liquid film thickness transient on a curved surface. The devised method allows us to measure spatial distribution of liquid film with its conductance between electrodes. The sensor was designed and fabricated as a multilayer print circuit board, where electrode pairs were distributed in reticular pattern with narrow interval. In order to measure a lot of electrode pairs at a high sampling rate, signal-processing method used by the wire mesh sensor measurement system was applied. An electrochemical impedance spectrometry concludes that the sampling rate of 1000 slices/s is feasible without signal distortion by electric double layer. The method was validated with two experimental campaigns: (1) a droplet impingement on a flat film and (2) a jet impingement on a rod-shape sensor surface. In the former experiment, a water droplet having 4 mm in diameter impinged onto the 1 mm thick film layer. A visual observation study with high-speed video camera shows after the liquid impingement, the water layer thinning process was clearly demonstrated with the sensor. For the latter experiment, the flexible circuit board was bended to form a cylindrical shape to measure water film on a simulated fuel rod in bundle geometry. A water jet having 3 mm in diameter impinged onto the rod-shape sensor surface. The process of wetting area enlargement on the rod surface was demonstrated in the same manner that the video-frames showed. (author)

  15. Boosted jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juknevich, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the substructure of jets high transverse momentum at hadron colliders. A template method is introduced to distinguish heavy jets by comparing their energy distributions to the distributions of a set of templates which describe the kinematical information from signal or background. As an application, a search for a boosted Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks in association with a leptonically decaying W boson is presented as well. (author)

  16. Numerical modeling and validation of helium jet impingement cooling of high heat flux divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, Bostjan; Simonovski, Igor; Norajitra, Prachai

    2009-01-01

    Numerical analyses of jet impingement cooling presented in this paper were performed as a part of helium-cooled divertor studies for post-ITER generation of fusion reactors. The cooling ability of divertor cooled by multiple helium jets was analysed. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics and temperature distributions in the solid structures were predicted for the reference geometry of one cooling finger. To assess numerical errors, different meshes (hexagonal, tetra, tetra-prism) and discretisation schemes were used. The temperatures in the solid structures decrease with finer mesh and higher order discretisation and converge towards finite values. Numerical simulations were validated against high heat flux experiments, performed at Efremov Institute, St. Petersburg. The predicted design parameters show reasonable agreement with measured data. The calculated maximum thimble temperature was below the tile-thimble brazing temperature, indicating good heat removal capability of reference divertor design. (author)

  17. High power tests of beryllium oxide windows to the lower hybrid current drive launcher in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Brandon, M.; Finburg, P.

    1999-01-01

    The vacuum windows to the 3.70 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system in JET were originally designed to withstand 350 kW for 20 s with VSWR ≤ 1.8. High power RF tests of the windows have been carried out in the LHCD test facility at JET. All windows that were tested could operate at 500 kW for 10 s in a matched load. Two windows passed an endurance test at 250 kW for 20 s with the windows terminated in a short circuit. One window also passed this endurance test without active cooling. The results show that this type of window can be used in a new advanced launcher, as proposed for ITER, in which the output power from each klystron (P ≤ 500 kW) will be transmitted through one waveguide and one vacuum window. (author)

  18. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field--the secular variation--provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km yr-1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating phase may be part of a longer-term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastward and westward movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional-wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  19. Effect of mix proportion of high density concrete on compressive strength, density and radiation absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Ismail Mustapha; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud; Mohammad Shahrizan Samsu

    2014-01-01

    To prevent radiation leaks at nuclear reactors, high-density concrete is used as an absorbent material for radiation from spreading into the environment. High-density concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate (usually high-density minerals) and water. In this research, hematite stone is used because of its mineral density higher than the granite used in conventional concrete mixing. Mix concrete in this study were divided into part 1 and part 2. In part 1, the concrete mixture is designed with the same ratio of 1: 2: 4 but differentiated in terms of water-cement ratio (0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 ). Whereas, in part 2, the concrete mixture is designed to vary the ratio of 1: 1: 2, 1: 1.5: 3, 1: 2: 3, 1: 3: 6, 1: 2: 6 with water-cement ratio (0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9). In each section, the division has also performed in a mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. Then, the physical characteristics of the density and the compressive strength of the mixture of part 1 and part 2 is measured. Comparisons were also made in terms of absorption of radiation by Cs-137 and Co-60 source for each mix. This paper describes and discusses the relationship between the concrete mixture ratio, the relationship with the water-cement ratio, compressive strength, density, different mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. (author)

  20. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  1. Operation of a Free Hg Jet Delivery System in a High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, V; Spampinato, P; Kirk, H; Fabich, A; Efthymiopoulos, I; Lettry, J; McDonald, K

    2010-01-01

    Op­er­a­tion of a mer­cury jet de­liv­ery sys­tem is pre­sent­ed. The de­liv­ery sys­tem is part of the Mer­cury In­tense Tar­get (MERIT) Ex­per­i­ment, a proof-of-prin­ci­ple ex­per­i­ment con­duct­ed at CERN in 2007 which demon­strat­ed the fea­si­bil­i­ty of using an un­con­strained jet of mer­cury as a tar­get for a fu­ture Neu­tri­no Fac­to­ry or Muon Col­lid­er. The Hg sys­tem was de­signed to pro­duce a 1-cm-di­am­e­ter, 20 m/s Hg jet in­side a high-field (15 Tesla), 15-cm-bore solenoid mag­net. A high-speed op­ti­cal di­ag­nos­tic sys­tem al­lowed ob­ser­va­tion of the in­ter­ac­tion of the jet with both 14- and 24-GeV pro­ton beams. Per­for­mance of the Hg sys­tem dur­ing the in-beam ex­per­i­ment will be pre­sent­ed.

  2. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  3. High density UO2 powder preparation for HWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. T.; Chang, I. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Cho, B. R.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.; Moon, B. H.; Kim, S. D.; Phyu, K. M.; Lee, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the preparation of method high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Accordingly, it is necessary to character ize the AUC processed UO 2 powder and to search method for the preparation of high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can effect the producing of AUC processed UO 2 powder having sinterability. (Author)

  4. Density-dependent phonoriton states in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang; Nguyen Minh Khue; Nguyen Que Huong

    1995-09-01

    The dynamical aspects of the phonoriton state in highly-photoexcited semiconductors is studied theoretically. The effect of the exciton-exciton interaction and nonbosonic character of high-density excitons are taken into account. Using Green's function method and within the Random Phase Approximation it is shown that the phonoriton dispersion and damping are very sensitive to the exciton density, characterizing the excitation degree of semiconductors. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs

  5. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  6. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  7. The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M.A.; Gay Ducati, M.B.; Ayala Filho, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process (q q-bar → γ * →l + l - ) are investigated for pA collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. In particular, we use a set of nuclear parton distributions that describes the present nuclear eA and pA data in the DGLAP approach including the high density effects introduced in the perturbative Glauber-Mueller approach. (author)

  8. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  9. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped 12 CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10 6 cm -3 ), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10 -4 M ⊙ yr -1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M ⊙ ) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  10. Flow-Field Characteristics of High-Temperature Annular Buoyant Jets and Their Development Laws Influenced by Ventilation System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yanqiu; Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and veloc...

  11. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A.; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists’ breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 (pdensity estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (pdensity estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 (p=0.0076) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists’ BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy. PMID:28042590

  12. Production of radiatively cooled hypersonic plasma jets and links to astrophysical jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S V; Ciardi, A; Ampleford, D J; Bland, S N; Bott, S C; Chittenden, J P; Hall, G N; Rapley, J; Jennings, C; Sherlock, M; Frank, A; Blackman, E G

    2005-01-01

    We present results of high energy density laboratory experiments on the production of supersonic radiatively cooled plasma jets with dimensionless parameters (Mach number ∼30, cooling parameter ∼1 and density contrast ρ j /ρ a ∼ 10) similar to those in young stellar objects jets. The jets are produced using two modifications of wire array Z-pinch driven by 1 MA, 250 ns current pulse of MAGPIE facility at Imperial College, London. In the first set of experiments the produced jets are purely hydrodynamic and are used to study deflection of the jets by the plasma cross-wind, including the structure of internal oblique shocks in the jets. In the second configuration the jets are driven by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field and this configuration is relevant to the astrophysical models of jet launching mechanisms. Modifications of the experimental configuration allowing the addition of the poloidal magnetic field and angular momentum to the jets are also discussed. We also present three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of the experiments and discuss the scaling of the experiments to the astrophysical systems

  13. Searches for high-mass supersymmetry using masses of large-radius jets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Results are reported from two searches for supersymmetric particles in final states with multiple jets, including several b-tagged jets, with and without large missing transverse momentum. The data sample corresponds to 2.3 fb − 1 (2.7 fb − 1 without missing transverse momentum) of pp collisions recorded by the CMS experiment at √ s = 13 TeV. The searches focus on processes with massive, high multiplicity final states, such as gluino pair production with the gluino decaying to top quarks and a neutralino, and gluino pair production with R-parity violating gluino decay to top, bottom and strange quarks. Both searches use the quantity M J , the sum of the masses of the large-radius jets, to discriminate between signal and background, establish control regions for other discriminating variables, and as a central piece of the background estimation. The observed event yields are consistent with the standard model expectations, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on simplified supersymmetric mo...

  14. Jet activity as a probe of high-mass resonance production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harland-Lang, L.A. [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Khoze, V.A. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryskin, M.G. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Spannowsky, M. [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    We explore the method of using the measured jet activity associated with a high-mass resonance state to determine the corresponding production modes. To demonstrate the potential of the approach, we consider the case of a resonance of mass M{sub R} decaying to a diphoton final state. We perform a Monte Carlo study, considering three mass points M{sub R} = 0.75, 1.5, 2.5 TeV, and show that the γγ, WW, gg and light and heavy q anti q initiated cases lead to distinct predictions for the jet multiplicity distributions. As an example, we apply this result to the ATLAS search for resonances in diphoton events, using the 2015 data set of 3.2 fb{sup -1} at √(s) = 13 TeV. Taking the spin-0 selection, we demonstrate that a dominantly gg-initiated signal hypothesis is mildly disfavoured, while the γγ and light quark cases give good descriptions within the limited statistics, and a dominantly WW-initiated hypothesis is found to be in strong tension with the data. We also comment on the b anti b initial state, which can already be constrained by the measured b-jet multiplicity. Finally, we present expected exclusion limits with integrated luminosity, and demonstrate that with just a few 10s of fb{sup -1} we can expect to constrain the production modes of such a resonance. (orig.)

  15. Fluorescent Fe K Emission from High Density Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel; Mendoza, Claudio; Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.; Palmeri, Patrick; Deprince, Jerome; Quinet, Pascal

    2018-06-01

    Iron K-shell lines emitted by gas closely orbiting black holes are observed to be grossly broadened and skewed by Doppler effects and gravitational redshift. Accordingly, models for line profiles are widely used to measure the spin (i.e., the angular momentum) of astrophysical black holes. The accuracy of these spin estimates is called into question because fitting the data requires very high iron abundances, several times the solar value. Meanwhile, no plausible physical explanation has been proffered for why these black hole systems should be so iron rich. The most likely explanation for the super-solar iron abundances is a deficiency in the models, and the leading candidate cause is that current models are inapplicable at densities above 1018 cm-3. We study the effects of high densities on the atomic parameters and on the spectral models for iron ions. At high densities, Debye plasma can affect the effective atomic potential of the ions, leading to observable changes in energy levels and atomic rates with respect to the low density case. High densities also have the effec of lowering energy the atomic continuum and reducing the recombination rate coefficients. On the spectral modeling side, high densities drive level populations toward a Boltzman distribution and very large numbers of excited atomic levels, typically accounted for in theoretical spectral models, may contribute to the K-shell spectrum.

  16. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  17. Stability of high-speed lithium sheet jets for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masamichi; Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Kobayashi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The stability of high-speed liquid lithium sheet jets was analytically studied for the neutron source in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which makes cancers and tumors curable with cell-level selections and hence high QOL. The object of our research is to realize the thin and high-speed plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum as an accelerator target. Linear analysis approach is made to the stability on thin plane sheet jets of liquid lithium in a high-vacuum, and then our analytical results were compared with the previous experimental ones. We proved that the waves of surface tension on thin lithium sheet jets in a high-vacuum are of supercritical flows and neutral stable under about 17.4 m/s in flow velocity and that the fast non-dispersive anti-symmetric waves are more significant than the very slow dispersive symmetric waves. We also formulated the equation of shrinking angle in isosceles-triangularly or isosceles-trapezoidal shrinking sheet jets corresponding to the Mach angle of supersonic gas flows. This formula states universally the physical meaning of Weber number of sheet jets on the wave of surface tension in supercritical flows. We obtained satisfactory prospects (making choice of larger flow velocity U and larger thickness of sheet a) to materialize a liquid target of accelerator in BNCT. (author)

  18. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-01-01

    A dislocation density of as high as 10 17 /m 2 in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10 3 A/ cm 2 . The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining

  19. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-01-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as ...

  20. Microturbulence and Flow Shear in High-performance JET ITB Plasma; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.V. Budny; A. Andre; A. Bicoulet; C. Challis; G.D. Conway; W. Dorland; D.R. Ernst; T.S. Hahm; T.C. Hender; D. McCune; G. Rewoldt; S.E. Sharapov

    2001-01-01

    The transport, flow shear, and linear growth rates of microturbulence are studied for a Joint European Torus (JET) plasma with high central q in which an internal transport barrier (ITB) forms and grows to a large radius. The linear microturbulence growth rates of the fastest growing (most unstable) toroidal modes with high toroidal mode number are calculated using the GS2 and FULL gyrokinetic codes. These linear growth rates, gamma (subscript lin) are large, but the flow-shearing rates, gamma (subscript ExB) (dominated by the toroidal rotation contribution) are also comparably large when and where the ITB exists

  1. Elective use of the Ventrain for upper airway obstruction during high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Robert A; Badiger, Sheela; Oakley, Richard J; Ahmad, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The safety of high pressure source ventilation (jet ventilation) is dependent upon upper airway patency to facilitate adequate passive expiration and prevent increasing intrathoracic pressure and its associated deleterious sequelae. Distortions in airway anatomy may make passive expiration inadequate or impossible in some patients. We report the elective use of the Ventrain device to provide ventilation in a clinical setting of upper airway obstruction in a patient with post radiation fibrosis that had previously prevented passive expiration during attempted high pressure source ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fidelity large eddy simulation for supersonic jet noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kurt M.

    The problem of intense sound radiation from supersonic jets is a concern for both civil and military applications. As a result, many experimental and computational efforts are focused at evaluating possible noise suppression techniques. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is utilized in many computational studies to simulate the turbulent jet flowfield. Integral methods such as the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) method are then used for propagation of the sound waves to the farfield. Improving the accuracy of this two-step methodology and evaluating beveled converging-diverging nozzles for noise suppression are the main tasks of this work. First, a series of numerical experiments are undertaken to ensure adequate numerical accuracy of the FWH methodology. This includes an analysis of different treatments for the downstream integration surface: with or without including an end-cap, averaging over multiple end-caps, and including an approximate surface integral correction term. Secondly, shock-capturing methods based on characteristic filtering and adaptive spatial filtering are used to extend a highly-parallelizable multiblock subsonic LES code to enable simulations of supersonic jets. The code is based on high-order numerical methods for accurate prediction of the acoustic sources and propagation of the sound waves. Furthermore, this new code is more efficient than the legacy version, allows cylindrical multiblock topologies, and is capable of simulating nozzles with resolved turbulent boundary layers when coupled with an approximate turbulent inflow boundary condition. Even though such wall-resolved simulations are more physically accurate, their expense is often prohibitive. To make simulations more economical, a wall model is developed and implemented. The wall modeling methodology is validated for turbulent quasi-incompressible and compressible zero pressure gradient flat plate boundary layers, and for subsonic and supersonic jets. The supersonic code additions and the

  3. High resolution projections for the western Iberian coastal low level jet in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro M. M.; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Semedo, Alvaro

    2017-09-01

    The Iberian coastal low-level jet (CLLJ) is one of the less studied boundary layer wind jet features in the Eastern Boundary Currents Systems (EBCS). These regions are amongst the most productive ocean ecosystems, where the atmosphere-land-ocean feedbacks, which include marine boundary layer clouds, coastal jets, upwelling and inland soil temperature and moisture, play an important role in defining the regional climate along the sub-tropical mid-latitude western coastal areas. Recently, the present climate western Iberian CLLJ properties were extensively described using a high resolution regional climate hindcast simulation. A summer maximum frequency of occurrence above 30 % was found, with mean maximum wind speeds around 15 ms-1, between 300 and 400 m heights (at the jet core). Since the 1990s the climate change impact on the EBCS is being studied, nevertheless some lack of consensus still persists regarding the evolution of upwelling and other components of the climate system in these areas. However, recently some authors have shown that changes are to be expected concerning the timing, intensity and spatial homogeneity of coastal upwelling, in response to future warming, especially at higher latitudes, namely in Iberia and Canaries. In this study, the first climate change assessment study regarding the Western Iberian CLLJ, using a high resolution (9 km) regional climate simulation, is presented. The properties of this CLLJ are studied and compared using two 30 years simulations: one historical simulation for the 1971-2000 period, and another simulation for future climate, in agreement with the RCP8.5 scenario, for the 2071-2100 period. Robust and consistent changes are found: (1) the hourly frequency of occurrence of the CLLJ is expected to increase in summer along the western Iberian coast, from mean maximum values of around 35 % to approximately 50 %; (2) the relative increase of the CLLJ frequency of occurrence is higher in the north off western Iberia; (3

  4. High density operation on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Gao

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the operation region has been studied in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak, and progress on the extension of the HT-7 ohmic discharge operation region is reported. A density corresponding to 1.2 times the Greenwald limit was achieved by RF boronization. The density limit appears to be connected to the impurity content and the edge parameters, so the best results are obtained with very clean plasmas and peaked electron density profiles. The peaking factors of electron density profiles for different current and line averaged densities were observed. The density behaviour and the fuelling efficiency for gas puffing (20-30%), pellet injection (70-80%) and molecular beam injection (40-50%) were studied. The core crash sawteeth and MHD behaviour, which were induced by an injected pellet, were observed and the events correlated with the change of current profile and reversed magnetic shear. The MARFE phenomena on HT-7 are summarized. The best correlation has been found between the total input ohmic power and the product of the edge line averaged density and Z eff . HT-7 could be easily operated in the high density region MARFE-free using RF boronization. (author)

  5. Operation and control of high density tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenberger, S.E.; McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The incentive for high density operation of a tokamak reactor was discussed. It is found that high density permits ignition in a relatively small, moderately elongated plasma with a moderate magnetic field strength. Under these conditions, neutron wall loadings approximately 4 MW/m 2 must be tolerated. The sensitivity analysis with respect to impurity effects shows that impurity control will most likely be necessary to achieve the desired plasma conditions. The charge exchange sputtered impurities are found to have an important effect so that maintaining a low neutral density in the plasma is critical. If it is assumed that neutral beams will be used to heat the plasma to ignition, high energy injection is required (approximately 250 keV) when heating is accompished at full density. A scenario is outlined where the ignition temperature is established at low density and then the fueling rate is increased to attain ignition. This approach may permit beams with energies being developed for use in TFTR to be successfully used to heat a high density device of the type described here to ignition

  6. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  7. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an "oxygen depletion design" whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm⁻²) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm⁻³). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells.

  8. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benettoni, M; Checchia, P; Cossutta, L; Furlan, M; Gonella, F; Pegoraro, M; Garola, A Rigoni; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Viesti, G; Bettella, G; Bonomi, G; Donzella, A; Subieta, M; Zenoni, A; Calvagno, G; Cortelazzo, G; Zanuttigh, P; Calvini, P; Squarcia, S

    2013-01-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented

  9. Numerical simulation of SU(2)c high density state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Nonaka, Chiho

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the high baryon number density system with use of the two-color lattice QCD with Wilson fermions[1]. First we investigate thermodynamical quantities such as the Polyakov line, gluon energy density, and baryon number density in the (κ, μ) plane, where κ and μ are the hopping parameter and chemical potential, respectively. Then we calculate propagators of meson (q-barΓq) and baryon (qΓq) states in addition to the potential between quark lines. (author)

  10. Low-frequency oscillations at high density in JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Katagiri, Masaki; Suzuki, Norio; Fujisawa, Noboru

    1977-12-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in a plasma were measured with magnetic probes and Si surface-barrier detectors, and behaviour of the high density plasmas was studied. The plasma current profile in the phase of decreasing density after the interruption of gas input is more peaked than during gas input. The introduction of hydrogen during a discharge results in a reduction of the impurities flux. The increase of density by fast gas input is limited with a negative voltage spike. Immediately before a negative voltage spike, oscillations of m=1,2 grow, leading to the spike. (auth.)

  11. Ion temperature anisotropy in high power helium neutral beam fuelling experiments in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, A C; Core, W G.F.; Gerstel, U C; Von Hellermann, M G; Koenig, R W.T.; Marcus, F B [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    During helium beam fuelling experiments in JET, distinctive anisotropic features have been observed in the velocity distribution function describing both fast and thermal alpha particle populations. During the initial fuelling phase the central helium ion temperature observed perpendicular to the magnetic field is higher than the central electron temperature, while the central helium ion temperature observed parallel to the magnetic field is lower than or equal to the central electron temperature. In order to verify temperature measurements of both perpendicular and parallel lines of sight, other independent methods of deducing the ion temperature are investigated: deuterium ion temperature, deuterium density, comparison with neutron rates and profiles (influence of a possible metastable population of helium). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  12. High Power Proton Beam Shocks and Magnetohydrodynamics in a Mercury Jet Target for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, A; Fabjan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of liquid metal jet targets for secondary particle production with high power proton beams has been studied. The main aspects of the thesis were benchmark experiments covering the behaviour of liquid targets under thermal shock waves induced by high power proton beams, and also magnetohydrodynamic effects. Severe challenges were imposed by safety issues and the restricted beam time to the tests in ISOLDE at CERN and at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Grenoble. Restricted access times in high radiation level areas were of the order of minutes and in this short time span, the complete experimental setup had to be performed and verified. The involvement of mercury as liquid target material and its activation during beam tests demanded special confinement precautions. The setup for both experiments was based on the use of a high speed camera system for observation of the mercury target. The presence of high radiation or high magnetic field required the installation of the sensitive camera sy...

  13. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  14. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  15. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  16. Density-dependent squeezing of excitons in highly excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Quang.

    1995-07-01

    The time evolution from coherent states to squeezed states of high density excitons is studied theoretically based on the boson formalism and within the Random Phase Approximation. Both the mutual interaction between excitons and the anharmonic exciton-photon interaction due to phase-space filling of excitons are taken into account. It is shown that the exciton squeezing depends strongly on the exciton density in semiconductors and becomes smaller with increasing the latter. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  17. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics

  18. VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF THE JET IN M 87 DURING THE VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY FLARE IN 2010 APRIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Honma, Mareki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki [Department of Astronomical Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    We report on the detailed radio status of the M 87 jet during the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray flaring event in 2010 April, obtained from high-resolution, multi-frequency, phase-referencing Very Long Baseline Array observations. We especially focus on the properties of the jet base (the radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1, which are currently favored as the {gamma}-ray emitting sites. During the VHE flaring event, the HST-1 region remains stable in terms of its structure and flux density in the optically thin regime above 2 GHz, being consistent with no signs of enhanced activities reported at X-ray for this feature. The radio core shows an inverted spectrum at least up to 43 GHz during this event. Astrometry of the core position, which is specified as {approx}20 R {sub s} from the central engine in our previous study, shows that the core position is stable on a level of 4 R {sub s}. The core at 43 and 22 GHz tends to show slightly ({approx}10%) higher flux level near the date of the VHE flux peak compared with the epochs before/after the event. The size of the 43 GHz core is estimated to be {approx}17 R {sub s}, which is close to the size of the emitting region suggested from the observed timescale of rapid variability at VHE. These results tend to favor the scenario that the VHE {gamma}-ray flare in 2010 April is associated with the radio core.

  19. Possibilities of Application of High Pressure Jet Assisted Machining in Hard Turning with Carbide Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Pressure Jet Assisted Machining (HPJAM in turning is a hybrid machining method in which a high pressure jet of cooling and lubrication fluid, under high pressure (50 MPa, leads to the zone between the cutting tool edge and workpiece. An experimental study was performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high pressure cooling (HPC in the turning of hard-to-machine materials: hard-chromed and surface hardened steel Ck45 (58 HRc and hardened bearing steel 100Cr6 (62 HRc. Machining experiments were performed using coated carbide tools and highly cutting speed. Experimental measurements were performed for different input process parameters. The cooling capabilities are compared by monitoring of tool wear, tool life, cooling efficiency, and surface roughness. Connection between the tool wear and surface roughness is established. Experimental research show that the hard turning with carbide cutting tools and HP supply CLF provides numerous advantages from the techno-economic aspect: greater productivity, reduce of temperature in the cutting zone, improved control chip formation, extended tool life, low intensity of tool wear, surface roughness in acceptable limits, significant reduce of production costs related to the CLF.

  20. Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, Rizwan

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. L...

  1. Morphodynamics of supercritical high-density turbidity currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor and outcrop observations combined with numerical and physical experiments show that turbidity currents are likely 1) to be in a supercritical flow state and 2) to carry high sediment concentrations (being of high-density). The thesis starts with an experimental study of bedforms

  2. High Channel Count, High Density Microphone Arrays for Wind Tunnel Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) proposes the development of high channel count, high density, reduced cost per channel, directional microphone...

  3. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  4. Numerical Analysis on the Compressible Flow Characteristics of Supersonic Jet Caused by High-Pressure Pipe Rupture Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong-Kil; Yoon, Jun-Kyu [Gachon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Chu [KEPCO-E& C, Kimchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    A rupture in a high-pressure pipe causes the fluid in the pipe to be discharged in the atmosphere at a high speed resulting in a supersonic jet that generates the compressible flow. This supersonic jet may display complicated and unsteady behavior in general . In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to investigate the compressible flow generated by a supersonic jet ejected from a high-pressure pipe. A Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was selected to analyze the unsteady nature of the flow, which depends upon the various gases as well as the diameter of the pipe. In the CFD analysis, the basic boundary conditions were assumed to be as follows: pipe of diameter 10 cm, jet pressure ratio of 5, and an inlet gas temperature of 300 K. During the analysis, the behavior of the shockwave generated by a supersonic jet was observed and it was found that the blast wave was generated indirectly. The pressure wave characteristics of hydrogen gas, which possesses the smallest molecular mass, showed the shortest distance to the safety zone. There were no significant difference observed for nitrogen gas, air, and oxygen gas, which have similar molecular mass. In addition, an increase in the diameter of the pipe resulted in the ejected impact caused by the increased flow rate to become larger and the zone of jet influence to extend further.

  5. The role and production of polar/subtropical jet superpositions in two high-impact weather events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Andrew C.

    Careful observational work has demonstrated that the tropopause is typically characterized by a three-step pole-to-equator structure, with each break between steps in the tropopause height associated with a jet stream. While the two jet streams, the polar and subtropical jets, typically occupy different latitude bands, their separation can occasionally vanish, resulting in a vertical superposition of the two jets. A cursory examination of a number of historical and recent high-impact weather events over North America and the North Atlantic indicates that superposed jets can be an important component of their evolution. Consequently, this dissertation examines two recent jet superposition cases, the 18--20 December 2009 Mid-Atlantic Blizzard and the 1--3 May 2010 Nashville Flood, in an effort (1) to determine the specific influence that a superposed jet can have on the development of a high-impact weather event and (2) to illuminate the processes that facilitated the production of a superposition in each case. An examination of these cases from a basic-state variable and PV inversion perspective demonstrates that elements of both the remote and local synoptic environment are important to consider while diagnosing the development of a jet superposition. Specifically, the process of jet superposition begins with the remote production of a cyclonic (anticyclonic) tropopause disturbance at high (low) latitudes. The cyclonic circulation typically originates at polar latitudes, while organized tropical convection can encourage the development of an anticyclonic circulation anomaly within the tropical upper-troposphere. The concurrent advection of both anomalies towards middle latitudes subsequently allows their individual circulations to laterally displace the location of the individual tropopause breaks. Once the two circulation anomalies position the polar and subtropical tropopause breaks in close proximity to one another, elements within the local environment, such as

  6. Strong coupling constant extraction from high-multiplicity Z +jets observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Maître, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We present a strong coupling constant extraction at next-to-leading order QCD accuracy using ATLAS Z +2 ,3,4 jets data. This is the first extraction using processes with a dependency on high powers of the coupling constant. We obtain values of the strong coupling constant at the Z mass compatible with the world average and with uncertainties commensurate with other next-to-leading order extractions at hadron colliders. Our most conservative result for the strong coupling constant is αS(MZ)=0.117 8-0.0043+0.0051 .

  7. The machinability of nickel-based alloys in high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kramar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, nickel-based alloys are generally included among materials that are hard to machine. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning of hard-to-machine materials, namely Inconel 718. The capabilities of different hard turning procedures are compared by means of chip breakability. The obtained results show that HPJA method offers a significant increase in chip breakability, under the same cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut.

  8. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  9. Burnout in a high heat-flux boiling system with an impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monde, M.; Katto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study has been made on the fully-developed nucleate boiling at atmospheric pressure in a simple forced-convection boiling system, which consists of a heated flat surface and a small, high-speed jet of water or of freon-113 impinging on the heated surface. A generalized correlation for burnout heat flux data, that is applied to either water or freon-113 is successfully evolved, and it is shown that surface tension has an important role for the onset of burnout phenomenon, not only in the ordinary pool boiling, but also in the present boiling system with a forced flow. (author)

  10. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, B. [Government Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India)], E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.in; Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P.G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)], E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in

    2008-12-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T{sub c} cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters.

  11. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T c cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters

  12. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  13. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  14. NLO Vertex for a Forward Jet plus a Rapidity Gap at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, Martin; Murdaca, Beatrice; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2015-01-01

    We present the calculation of the forward jet vertex associated to a rapidity gap (coupling of a hard pomeron to the jet) in the BFKL formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Real emission contributions are computed via Lipatov's effective action. The NLO jet vertex turns out to be finite within collinear factorization and allows, together with the NLO non-forward gluon Green's function, to perform NLO studies of jet production in diffractive events (e.g. Mueller-Tang dijets).

  15. The prediction of noise and installation effects of high-subsonic dual-stream jets in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati

    Both military and civil aircraft in service generate high levels of noise. One of the major contributors to this noise generated from the aircraft is the jet engine exhaust. This makes the study of jet noise and methods to reduce jet noise an active research area with the aim of designing quieter military and commercial aircraft. The current stringent aircraft noise regulations imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other international agencies, have further raised the need to perform accurate jet noise calculations for more reliable estimation of the jet noise sources. The main aim of the present research is to perform jet noise simulations of single and dual-stream jets with engineering accuracy and assess forward flight effects on the jet noise. Installation effects such as caused by the pylon are also studied using a simplified pylon nozzle configuration. Due to advances in computational power, it has become possible to perform turbulent flow simulations of high speed jets, which leads to more accurate noise predictions. In the present research, a hybrid unsteady RANS-LES parallel multi-block structured grid solver called EAGLEJet is written to perform the nozzle flow calculations. The far-field noise calculation is performed using solutions to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. The present calculations use meshes with 5 to 11 million grid points and require about three weeks of computing time with about 100 processors. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9, which is similar to the operating conditions for commercial aircraft engines. A parallel flow gives the flight effect, which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0.0 to 0.28. The grid resolution effects, statistical properties of the turbulence and the heated jet effects

  16. High-energy resummation effects in the production of Mueller-Navelet di-jets at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudoue, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of two forward jets with a large interval of rapidity at hadron colliders, which was proposed by Mueller and Navelet as a possible test of the high energy dynamics of QCD, within a complete next-to-leading logarithm framework. We show that using the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie procedure to fix the renormalization scale leads to a very good description of the recent CMS data at the LHC for the azimuthal correlations of the jets. We show that the inclusion of next-to-leading order corrections to the jet vertex significantly reduces the importance of energy-momentum non-conservation which is inherent to the BFKL approach, for an asymmetric jet configuration. Finally, we argue that the double parton scattering contribution is negligible in the kinematics of actual CMS measurements. (authors)

  17. Calibration of the ATLAS $b$-tagging algorithm in $t\\bar{t}$ events with high multiplicity of jets

    CERN Document Server

    La Ruffa, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS $b$-tagging in environments characterised by high multiplicity of jets is presented. The calibration uses reconstructed $t\\bar{t}$ candidate events collected by the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at LHC with a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ of 13$\\,$TeV, with a final state containing one charged lepton, missing transverse momentum and at least four jets. The $b$-tagging efficiencies are measured not only as a function of the most relevant kinematic quantities, such as the transverse momentum or the presudo-rapidity of the jets, but also as a function of quantities that are sensitive to close-by jet activity. The results extend the regions where data-to-simulation $b$-tagging scale factors are derived when using dilepton $t\\bar{t}$ events.

  18. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  19. Possible new form of matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1974-01-01

    As a preliminary to discussion of the possibility of new forms of matter at high density, questions relating to the vacuum and vacuum excitation are considered. A quasi-classical approach to the development of abnormal nuclear states is undertaken using a Fermi gas of nucleons of uniform density. Discontinuous transitions are considered in the sigma model (tree approximation) followed by brief consideration of higher order loop diagrams. Production and detection of abnormal nuclear states are discussed in the context of high energy heavy ion collisions. Remarks are made on motivation for such research. 8 figures

  20. Some Aspects of High $E_T$ Jets in p-p Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070208; Kohli, J M

    2007-01-01

    The Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the only Standard Model particle not yet observed. It plays a key role in explaining the origin of the mass of other elementary particles, in particular the difference between the massless photon and the very heavy W and Z bosons. Low mass Standard Model Higgs decay predominantly into bbbar mode. The relatively high number of signal events at low Higgs masses is nonetheless much smaller compared to the number of background events especially QCD, which makes a search delicate in this channel. One way to reduce an enormous background is to study Weak Boson Fusion produced Higgs boson which is characterized by two high ET back to back jets in opposite rapidity region. The two high ET jets at opposite rapidity can be used to tag the events where Higgs is produced. Since at LHC, the real data will emerge only after year 2007, the simulated data is the need for the physics analysi...

  1. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Panat, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu, E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163 (United States); Ramana, C. V., E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu, E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24–500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  2. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Panat, Rahul; Ramana, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24–500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  3. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24-500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  4. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  5. High-frequency counter-flow plasma synthetic jet actuator and its application in suppression of supersonic flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Li, Jun; Jin, Di; Tang, Mengxiao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Lianghua

    2018-01-01

    We come up with a control strategy for suppression of supersonic flow separation based on high-frequency Counter-flow Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator (CPSJA). The main purpose of this investigation is to verify if its control authority can be enhanced by the jet/shock interaction. We use a blunt nose to generate a bow shock, a step on a flat plate to introduce a massive separation in a Mach 2 wind tunnel, and the CPSJA to generate Plasma Synthetic Jet (PSJ). In this study, pulsed capacitive discharge is provided for an array of CPSJAs, which makes the actuation (discharge) frequency f1 = 1 kHz, f2 = 2 kHz and f3 = 3 kHz. We use the high-speed schlieren imaging and fast response pressure transducers as well as a numerical simulation to investigate the quiescent PSJ properties, the interaction between the jet and bow shock, and its disturbance effect on the downstream separated region. The schlieren images show that PSJ is characterized by a succession of vortex rings; the jet strength weakens with the increase of frequency. A 4.5 mN jet thrust is found for all the frequencies. The simulation results show that jet/shock interaction produces vorticity in the vortex ring of the jet, enhancing turbulent mixing in PSJ so that a great deal of momentum is produced into the flow. We found the downstream flow is significantly disturbed by the enhanced actuation. Actuation with frequency of f2, f3 which is close to the natural frequency fn of the separation bubble suppresses the separation with the upstream laminar boundary layer being periodically attenuated, which has a better control effect than f1. The control effect is sensitive to the position where PSJ interacts with the shear layer, but the amount of energy deposited in one pulse is not crucial in a separation reduction in the experiment.

  6. High-density polymorphisms analysis of 23 candidate genes for association with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Sylvie; Elfassihi, Latifa; Clément, Valérie; Bussières, Johanne; Bureau, Alexandre; Cole, David E C; Rousseau, François

    2010-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), a highly heritable and polygenic trait. Women are more prone than men to develop osteoporosis due to a lower peak bone mass and accelerated bone loss at menopause. Peak bone mass has been convincingly shown to be due to genetic factors with heritability up to 80%. Menopausal bone loss has been shown to have around 38% to 49% heritability depending on the site studied. To have more statistical power to detect small genetic effects we focused on premenopausal women. We studied 23 candidate genes, some involved in calcium and vitamin-D regulation and others because estrogens strongly induced their gene expression in mice where it was correlated with humerus trabecular bone density. High-density polymorphisms were selected to cover the entire gene variability and 231 polymorphisms were genotyped in a first sample of 709 premenopausal women. Positive associations were retested in a second, independent, sample of 673 premenopausal women. Ten polymorphisms remained associated with BMD in the combined samples and one was further associated in a large sample of postmenopausal women (1401 women). This associated polymorphism was located in the gene CSF3R (granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor) that had never been associated with BMD before. The results reported in this study suggest a role for CSF3R in the determination of bone density in women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  8. FTIR free-jet set-up for the high resolution spectroscopic investigation of condensable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, R.; Bonnamy, A.; Benidar, A.; Decroi, M.; Boissoles, J.

    2002-05-01

    An existing experimental set-up combining Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and free-jet cooling has been modified significantly to allow high resolution studies of the spectrum of monomer species which are liquid under standard conditions. Evaporation of the liquid samples is controlled by a condenser apparatus which is described. A supersonic planar expansion issuing from a narrow aperture is preferred for its very high cooling rate. Such an expansion, probed with a pitot tube, has a zone of limited temperature gradient close to the nozzle exit. The continuum isentropic model appears well suited to describing the thermodynamic properties of the flow up to a high number of nozzle diameters downstream. High resolution spectra of benzene and methanol have been recorded in the 3 µm wavelength range, and their analysis demonstrates a well defined rotational temperature in the 20-25 K range.

  9. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  10. Novel nanostructured materials for high energy density supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are currently examining methods of improving energy density while not sacrificing the high power density of supercapacitors. In this study, nanostructured materials assembled from nanometer-sized building blocks with mesoporosity were synthesized in order investigate diffusion time, kinetics, and capacitances. Petal-like cobalt hydroxide Co(OH){sub 2} mesocrystals, urchin-like Co(OH){sub 2} and dicobalt tetroxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ordered arrays as well as N{sub i}O microspheres were assembled from 0-D nanoparticles, 1-D mesoporous nanowires and nanobelts, and 2-D mesoporous nanopetals. The study showed that all the synthesized nanostructured materials delivered larger energy densities while showing electrochemical stability at high rates.

  11. POLARIMETRY AND THE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION MECHANISMS IN QUASAR JETS: THE CASE OF PKS 1136-135

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cara, Mihai; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [SLAC/KIPAC, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 209, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cheung, Chi C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coppi, Paolo S. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Worrall, Diana M.; Birkinshaw, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Sparks, William B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stawarz, Lukasz [Institute of Space Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-Ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Begelman, Mitchell C. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, UCB 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0391 (United States); O' Dea, Christopher P. [Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 84 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States); Baum, Stefi A. [Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623-5604 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high-energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission, and other Comptonization processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are inked by a single spectral component, and in those, high-resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging photometry of the jet of PKS 1136-135 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization {Pi} > 30%. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed in these regions, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor {gamma} {approx} 1, and the jet is also very highly beamed ({delta} {>=} 20) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both the IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content of this jet. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in this jet, but they do strongly disfavor the model. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work.

  12. POLARIMETRY AND THE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION MECHANISMS IN QUASAR JETS: THE CASE OF PKS 1136–135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Mihai; Perlman, Eric S.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Cheung, Chi C.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Worrall, Diana M.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Sparks, William B.; Marshall, Herman L.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Begelman, Mitchell C.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high-energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission, and other Comptonization processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are inked by a single spectral component, and in those, high-resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging photometry of the jet of PKS 1136–135 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization Π > 30%. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed in these regions, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor γ ∼ 1, and the jet is also very highly beamed (δ ≥ 20) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both the IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content of this jet. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in this jet, but they do strongly disfavor the model. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work

  13. The nature of extragalactic radio-jets from high-resolution radio-interferometric observations

    OpenAIRE

    Perucho, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Extragalactic jets are a common feature of radio-loud active galaxies. The nature of the observed jets in relation to the bulk flow is still unclear. In particular it is not clear whether the observations of parsec-scale jets using the very long baseline interferometric technique (VLBI) reveal wave-like structures that develop and propagate along the jet, or trace the jet flow itself. In this contribution I review the evidence collected during the last years showing that the ridge-lines of he...

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Robert [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Anderson, William [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  15. Consideration on excitation mechanisms in a high-power two-jet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaksas, Natalia P.; Gerasimov, Vladimir A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of excitation mechanisms in the region before the jet confluence of a high-power two-jet plasma used for analysis of different powders has been undertaken. Distribution of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions according to the Boltzmann population was found. Measuring Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures showed their considerable difference (≈ 2000–2500 K). The effect of argon on line intensities of a wide range of elements was investigated by the experiment with argon covering. A negligible effect of argon covering on line intensities of atoms with ionization energy of 8 eV was revealed. This is likely to be due to Penning ionization by metastable argon followed by ion recombination with an electron and stepwise de-excitations. A more pronounced effect of argon covering was observed for ionic lines of investigated elements with total excitation energy ranging from 11 to 21 eV. Penning ionization followed by electron impact is believed to be a probable mechanism for ion excitation. The contribution of metastable argon to excitation processes results in departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium and different atomic and ionic excitation temperatures. - Highlights: • Excitation mechanisms were investigated in a high-power TJP. • Boltzmann population of excited levels of Fe atoms and ions takes place. • The considerable difference in Fe atomic and ionic excitation temperatures occurs. • Argon covering was used to study the argon effect on line intensities. • Participation of metastable argon in atom ionization was shown

  16. Z/γ{sup ∗} plus multiple hard jets in high energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jeppe R. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Medley, Jack J.; Smillie, Jennifer M. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Edinburgh,Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-23

    We present a description of the production of di-lepton pair production (through Z boson and virtual photon) in association with at least two jets. This calculation adds to the fixed-order accuracy the dominant logarithms in the limit of large partonic centre-of-mass energy to all orders in the strong coupling α{sub s}. This is achieved within the framework of High Energy Jets. This calculation is made possible by extending the high energy treatment to take into account the multiple t-channel exchanges arising from Z and γ{sup ∗}-emissions off several quark lines. The correct description of the interference effects from the various t-channel exchanges requires an extension of the subtraction terms in the all-order calculation. We describe this construction and compare the resulting predictions to a number of recent analyses of LHC data. The description of a wide range of observables is good, and, as expected, stands out from other approaches in particular in the regions of large dijet invariant mass and large dijet rapidity spans.

  17. Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)

  18. Measurement of the jet mass in highly boosted $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Polikarpov, Sergey; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; 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Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-07-14

    The first measurement of the jet mass $m_{\\text{jet}}$ of top quark jets produced in $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV is reported for the jet with the largest transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ in highly boosted hadronic top quark decays. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel in which the products of the semileptonic decay $\\mathrm{ t } \\to \\mathrm{ b }\\mathrm{ W }$ with $\\mathrm{ W }\\to\\ell \

  19. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  20. Structure Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Nozzle for High Pressure Water Jetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuce Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of nozzles normally used in industrial production are numerically simulated, and the structure of nozzle with the best jetting performance out of the three nozzles is optimized. The R90 nozzle displays the most optimal jetting properties, including the smooth transition of the nozzle’s inner surface. Simulation results of all sample nozzles in this study show that the helix nozzle ultimately displays the best jetting performance. Jetting velocity magnitude along Y and Z coordinates is not symmetrical for the helix nozzle. Compared to simply changing the jetting angle, revolving the jet issued from the helix nozzle creates a grinding wheel on the cleaning surface, which makes not only an impact effect but also a shearing action on the cleaning object. This particular shearing action improves the cleaning process overall and forms a wider, effective cleaning range, thus obtaining a broader jet width.

  1. Design of experimental setup for supercritical CO2 jet under high ambient pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; He, Zhenguo; Wang, Haizhu; Zhang, Shikun

    2016-12-01

    With the commercial extraction of hydrocarbons in shale and tight reservoirs, efficient methods are needed to accelerate developing process. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) jet has been considered as a potential way due to its unique fluid properties. In this article, a new setup is designed for laboratory experiment to research the SC-CO2 jet's characteristics in different jet temperatures, pressures, standoff distances, ambient pressures, etc. The setup is composed of five modules, including SC-CO2 generation system, pure SC-CO2 jet system, abrasive SC-CO2 jet system, CO2 recovery system, and data acquisition system. Now, a series of rock perforating (or case cutting) experiments have been successfully conducted using the setup about pure and abrasive SC-CO2 jet, and the results have proven the great perforating efficiency of SC-CO2 jet and the applications of this setup.

  2. Thermal Investigation of Interaction between High-power CW-laser Radiation and a Water-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Janssen, Henning; Eckert, Markus; Schmidt, Florian

    The technology of a water guided laser beam has been industrially established for micro machining. Pulsed laser radiation is guided via a water jet (diameter: 25-250 μm) using total internal reflection. Due to the cylindrical jet shape the depth of field increases to above 50 mm, enabling parallel kerfs compared to conventional laser systems. However higher material thicknesses and macro geometries cannot be machined economically viable due to low average laser powers. Fraunhofer IPT has successfully combined a high-power continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser (6 kW) and water jet technology. The main challenge of guiding high-power laser radiation in water is the energy transferred to the jet by absorption, decreasing its stability. A model of laser water interaction in the water jet has been developed and validated experimentally. Based on the results an upscaling of system technology to 30 kW is discussed, enabling a high potential in cutting challenging materials at high qualities and high speeds.

  3. Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

  4. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  5. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  6. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  7. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  8. Positron camera with high-density avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrass, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fromm, W.D.; Wohlfarth, D.; Hennig, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an extensive investigation of the properties of high-density avalanche chambers (HIDAC) are presented. This study has been performed in order to optimize the layout of HIDAC detectors, since they are intended to be applied as position sensitive detectors for annihilation radiation in a positron emission tomograph being under construction. (author)

  9. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, M.A.M.

    This thesis describes the results of a research project in the field of high bit-density data-storage media. More specifically, the material aspects of the novel recording technique using patterned media have been studied. The aim of the work was the design, realization and characterization of such

  10. Role of Lipids in Spheroidal High Density Lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorela, Timo; Catte, Andrea; Niemela, Perttu S.; Hall, Anette; Hyvonen, Marja T.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2010-01-01

    We study the structure and dynamics of spherical high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles through coarse-grained multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We simulate both a lipid droplet without the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and the full HDL particle including two apoA-I molecules

  11. Role of lipids in spheroidal high density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorela, T.A.; Catte, A.; Niemelä, P.S.; Hall, A.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Marrink, S.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2010-01-01

    We study the structure and dynamics of spherical high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles through coarse-grained multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We simulate both a lipid droplet without the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and the full HDL particle including two apoA-I molecules

  12. Interfacial stick–slip transition in hydroxyapatite filled high density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    flow curves of composites and that of unfilled system remain identical. Filler addition lowers the .... Injection moulding grade high density polyethylene,. HD6070EA, was ... rheometer (Rosand Precision Ltd., UK) using version. 6⋅10 software. .... Bagley E B, Cabbot I M and West D C 1958 J. Appl. Phys. 29. 109. Blyler L L and ...

  13. Searching for high baryon density at the AGS with ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.H.; Schlagel, T.J.; Pang, Y.

    1993-08-01

    A relativistic cascade ARC is used to analyse heavy ion experiments at the AGS. In particular predictions from ARC for Au on Au at 11.6 GeV/c have proved to be remarkably accurate. Going to lower energies and inserting a phenomenological equation of state into the cascade should lead to information about the interesting region of high baryon density

  14. CSR of Lanzhou and nuclear physics at high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Pengfei; Zhao Weiqin

    1999-01-01

    The possibility to produce highly dense nuclear matter at CSR of Lanzhou and the corresponding signals at final state are discussed. Especially, the maximum baryon density reached at CSR is estimated, and the subthreshold production and hadronic flow risen from the partial restoration of chiral symmetry at CSR energies are analyzed

  15. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  16. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  17. Burnout in a high heat flux boiling system with forced supply of liquid through a plane jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Yoshiro; Ishii, Kazunori.

    1978-01-01

    As for pool boiling, the non-dimensional formula for the burnout heat flux of a simple, basic boiling system has been obtained. On the other hand, in forced convection boiling, the studies on the burnout in forced flow boiling in a channel have been continued, but the derivation of a non-dimensional formula applicable generally is far away from the realization because the phenomena are too complex. Accordingly, in this study, the result of the experiment on the burnout of a boiling system to which liquid is supplied by the plane jet flowing out of a thin rectangular nozzle installed near the front edge of a rectangular heating surface is reported. The experimental apparatus is described, and the experiment was carried out in the ranges of two jet thicknesses at the nozzle outlet, two incident angles of jet and from 1.5 to 15 m/s of jet velocity. Burnout occurs under the situation of sufficiently developed nuclear boiling. A part of the liquid supplied from a plane jet is blown apart by the vapor blowing out of the nuclear boiling liquid layer covering the heating surface in the nuclear boiling with sufficiently developed high heat flux. However, the nuclear boiling liquid layer itself continues to exist on the heating surface till burnout occurs. Only the entering velocity of the plane jet affects burnout heat flux. (Kako, I.)

  18. Jet shapes in hadron and electron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainer, N.

    1993-05-01

    High energy jets are observed both in hadronic machines like the Tevatron and electron machines like LEP. These jets have an extended structure in phase space which can be measured. This distribution is usually called the jet shape. There is an intrinsic relation between jet variables, like energy and direction, the jet algorithm used, and the jet shape. Jet shape differences can be used to separate quark and gluon jets

  19. Reconstruction of High Mass $t\\overline{t}$ Resonances in the Lepton+Jets Channel

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    At the LHC, highly energetic pp collisions are expected to be the source of new experimental phenomenology. Top quarks will notably be produced with high transverse momenta for the very first time, leaving in the detector an unusual signature. Indeed, hadronic top quark decay products can be so close together in the detector that they are reconstructed as a single jet, and semi-leptonic top quark decays can no longer count on the presence of a truly isolated lepton for their identification. This note describes the use of new experimental techniques in the identification of these objects as part of a realistic analysis for a high mass tt resonance search with the ATLAS detector.

  20. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  1. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  2. Relativistic many-body theory of high density matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    A fully relativistic quantum many-body theory is applied to the study of high-density matter. The latter is identified with the zero-temperature ground state of a system of interacting baryons. In accordance with the observed short-range repulsive and long-range attractive character of the nucleon--nucleon force, baryons are described as interacting with each other via a massive scalar and a massive vector meson exchange. In the Hartree approximation, the theory yields the same result as the mean-field theory, but with additional vacuum fluctuation corrections. The resultant equation of state for neutron matter is used to determine properties of neutron stars. The relativistic exchange energy, its corresponding single-particle excitation spectrum, and its effect on the neutron matter equation of state, are calculated. The correlation energy from summing the set of ring diagrams is derived directly from the energy-momentum tensor, with renormalization carried out by adding counterterms to the original Lagrangian and subtracting purely vacuum expectation values. Terms of order g 4 lng 2 are explicitly given. Effects of scalar-vector mixing are discussed. Collective modes corresponding to macroscopic density fluctuation are investigated. Two basic modes are found, a plasma-like mode and zero sound, with the latter dominant at high density. The stability and damping of these modes are studied. Last, the effect of vacuum polarization in high-density matter is examined

  3. Electrical characteristics of high density, high purity titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupfer, D A [Electronics Laboratory, General Electric Company, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1958-07-01

    This report is concerned with the electrical behaviour of cubic (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} ceramics at very high values of the electric field. The work was undertaken to develop a dielectric system to be used in capacitors for the storage and discharge of electrical energy. Objectives for the finished system were to store large amounts of energy per unit volume, to release at least 75% of the energy in 0.2 x 10{sup -6} seconds, and to operate over a limited temperature range above 20 deg. C. The work is incomplete, but the results to date show that (Ba,Sr) TiO{sub 3} ceramics can store more electrical energy per unit volume than any other known dielectric system.

  4. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  5. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  6. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  7. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  8. Density Functional Methods for Shock Physics and High Energy Density Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics with density functional theory has emerged over the last two decades as a powerful and accurate framework for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties with broad application to dynamic compression, high energy density science, and warm dense matter. These calculations have been extensively validated against shock and ramp wave experiments, are a principal component of high-fidelity equation of state generation, and are having wide-ranging impacts on inertial confinement fusion, planetary science, and shock physics research. In addition to thermodynamic properties, phase boundaries, and the equation of state, one also has access to electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and lower energy optical properties. Importantly, all these properties are obtained within the same theoretical framework and are manifestly consistent. In this talk I will give a brief history and overview of molecular dynamics with density functional theory and its use in calculating a wide variety of thermodynamic and transport properties for materials ranging from ambient to extreme conditions and with comparisons to experimental data. I will also discuss some of the limitations and difficulties, as well as active research areas. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. High follicle density does not decrease sweat gland density in Huacaya alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K E; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high ambient temperatures, mammals lose heat evaporatively by either sweating from glands in the skin or by respiratory panting. Like other camelids, alpacas are thought to evaporate more water by sweating than panting, despite a thick fleece, unlike sheep which mostly pant in response to heat stress. Alpacas were brought to Australia to develop an alternative fibre industry to sheep wool. In Australia, alpacas can be exposed to ambient temperatures higher than in their native South America. As a young industry there is a great deal of variation in the quality and quantity of the fleece produced in the national flock. There is selection pressure towards animals with finer and denser fleeces. Because the fibre from secondary follicles is finer than that from primary follicles, selecting for finer fibres might alter the ratio of primary and secondary follicles. In turn the selection might alter sweat gland density because the sweat glands are associated with the primary follicle. Skin biopsy and fibre samples were obtained from the mid-section of 33 Huacaya alpacas and the skin sections were processed into horizontal sections at the sebaceous gland level. Total, primary, and secondary follicles and the number of sweat gland ducts were quantified. Fibre samples from each alpaca were further analysed for mean fibre diameter. The finer-fibred animals had a higher total follicle density (Palpacas with high follicle density should not be limited for potential sweating ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and rejection of pile-up jets at high pseudorapidity with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-15

    The rejection of forward jets originating from additional proton-proton interactions (pile-up) is crucial for a variety of physics analyses at the LHC, including Standard Model measurements and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The identification of such jets is challenging due to the lack of track and vertex information in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke η vertical stroke > 2.5. This paper presents a novel strategy for forward pile-up jet tagging that exploits jet shapes and topological jet correlations in pile-up interactions. Measurements of the per-jet tagging efficiency are presented using a data set of 3.2 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector. The fraction of pile-up jets rejected in the range 2.5 < vertical stroke η vertical stroke < 4.5 is estimated in simulated events with an average of 22 interactions per bunch-crossing. It increases with jet transverse momentum and, for jets with transverse momentum between 20 and 50 GeV, it ranges between 49% and 67% with an efficiency of 85% for selecting hard-scatter jets. A case study is performed in Higgs boson production via the vector-boson fusion process, showing that these techniques mitigate the background growth due to additional proton-proton interactions, thus enhancing the reach for such signatures. (orig.)

  11. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng; Udell, Kent S.; Bowman, Robert C.; Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J.; Kekelia, Bidzina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH 2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH 2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH 2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV 0.62 Mn 1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  12. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta', N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10 5 ) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10 1 Hz to 10 6 Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl 2 /Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl 2 /Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl 2 /Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  13. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  14. Numerical and experimental study of blowing jet on a high lift airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobonea, A.; Pricop, M. V.

    2013-10-01

    Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack in order to improve efficiency or performance has been the focus of a number of numerical and experimental investigations for many years. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D high-lift airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics. The available wind tunnel data from INCAS low speed facility are also beneficial for the validation of the numerical analysis. This study intends to analyze the impact of the blowing jet velocity and slot geometry on the efficiency of an active flow control.

  15. High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled CH{sub 5}{sup +}: Progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D. J. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Protonated methane (CH{sub 5}{sup +}) is thought to be a highly abundant molecular ion in interstellar medium, as well as a potentially bright μwave- mm wave emitter that could serve as a tracer for methane. This paper describes progress and first successful efforts to obtain a high resolution, supersonically cooled spectrum of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in the 2900-3100 cm{sup −1} region, formed in a slit supersonic discharge at low jet temperatures and with sub-Doppler resolution. Short term precision in frequency measurement (< 5 MHz on an hour time scale) is obtained from a thermally controlled optical transfer cavity servoloop locked onto a frequency stabilized HeNe laser. Long term precision (< 20 MHz day-to-day) due to pressure, temperature and humidity dependent index of refraction effects in the optical transfer cavity is also present and discussed.

  17. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  18. Search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV using b jets in a final state with a single lepton, many jets, and high sum of large-radius jet masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-12-24

    Results are reported from a search for physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV. The search uses a signature of a single lepton, large jet and bottom quark jet multiplicities, and high sum of large-radius jet masses, without any requirement on the missing transverse momentum in an event. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No significant excess beyond the prediction from standard model processes is observed. The results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on the production cross section for $R$-parity violating supersymmetric extensions of the standard model using a benchmark model of gluino pair production, in which each gluino decays promptly via $ {\\mathrm{\\widetilde{g}}} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{t} \\mathrm{b} \\mathrm{s} $. Gluinos with a mass below 1610 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

  19. Search for $R$-parity violating supersymmetry in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV using b jets in a final state with a single lepton, many jets, and high sum of large-radius jet masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Elgammal, Sherif; Khalil, Shaaban; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Rurua, Lali; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; 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Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kaur, Anterpreet; 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Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Badoer, Simone; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Alexakhin, Vadim; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Nazlim Agaras, Merve; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Dutta, Irene; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for physics beyond the standard model in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV. The search uses a signature of a single lepton, large jet and bottom quark jet multiplicities, and high sum of large-radius jet masses, without any requirement on the missing transverse momentum in an event. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No significant excess beyond the prediction from standard model processes is observed. The results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on the production cross section for $R$-parity violating supersymmetric extensions of the standard model using a benchmark model of gluino pair production, in which each gluino decays promptly via $ {\\mathrm{\\widetilde{g}}} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{t} \\mathrm{b} \\mathrm{s} $. Gluinos with a mass below 1610 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

  20. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  1. High-density housing that works for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif

    2010-03-15

    In an urbanising world, the way people fit into cities is vastly important - socially, economically, environmentally, even psychologically. So density, or the number of people living in a given area, is central to urban design and planning. Both governments and markets tend to get density wrong, leading to overcrowding, urban sprawl or often both. A case in point are the high-rise buildings springing up throughtout urban Asia - perceived as key features of that widely touted concept, the 'world-class city'. While some may offer a viable solution to land pressures and density requirements, many built to house evicted or resettled 'slum' dwellers are a social and economic nightmare - inconveniently sited, overcrowded and costly. New evidence from Karachi, Pakistan, reveals a real alternative. Poor people can create liveable high-density settlements as long as community control, the right technical assistance and flexible designs are in place. A city is surely 'world-class' only when it is cosmopolitan – built to serve all, including the poorest.

  2. Quenching of high-$p_T$ jet spectra arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute modifications to the jet spectrum in the presence of a dense medium. We show that in the large-$N_c$ approximation and at leading logarithmic accuracy the jet nuclear modification factor factorizes into a quenching factor associated to the total jet color charge and a Sudakov suppression factor which accounts for the energy loss of jet substructure fluctuations. This factor, called the jet collimator, implements the fact that subjets, that are not resolved by the medium, lose energy coherently as a single color charge, whereas resolved large angle fluctuations suffer more quenching. For comparison, we show that neglecting color coherence results in a stronger suppression of the jet nuclear modification factor.

  3. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  4. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in electric-arc jet facilities for planetary entry heating simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes are constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies; the temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its rate of change gives the steady-state, absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. It is concluded that the simple construction of these probes allows them to be expendable and heated to destruction to obtain a measurable temperature slope at high heating rates.

  5. Jet-Surface Interaction: High Aspect Ratio Nozzle Test, Nozzle Design and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford; Dippold, Vance

    2015-01-01

    The Jet-Surface Interaction High Aspect Ratio (JSI-HAR) nozzle test is part of an ongoing effort to measure and predict the noise created when an aircraft engine exhausts close to an airframe surface. The JSI-HAR test is focused on parameters derived from the Turbo-electric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) concept aircraft which include a high-aspect ratio mailslot exhaust nozzle, internal septa, and an aft deck. The size and mass flow rate limits of the test rig also limited the test nozzle to a 16:1 aspect ratio, half the approximately 32:1 on the TeDP concept. Also, unlike the aircraft, the test nozzle must transition from a single round duct on the High Flow Jet Exit Rig, located in the AeroAcoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center, to the rectangular shape at the nozzle exit. A parametric nozzle design method was developed to design three low noise round-to-rectangular transitions, with 8:1, 12:1, and 16: aspect ratios, that minimizes flow separations and shocks while providing a flat flow profile at the nozzle exit. These designs validated using the WIND-US CFD code. A preliminary analysis of the test data shows that the actual flow profile is close to that predicted and that the noise results appear consistent with data from previous, smaller scale, tests. The JSI-HAR test is ongoing through October 2015. The results shown in the presentation are intended to provide an overview of the test and a first look at the preliminary results.

  6. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  7. Estimation of high-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different pT ranges. In situ techniques exploiting the pT balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower pT, but at very high pT (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for in-situ techniques. The JES uncertainty at high-pT is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest pT range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy depositions belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  8. The use of low density high accuracy (LDHA) data for correction of high density low accuracy (HDLA) point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Michal Bartosz; Wozniak, Adam; Mayer, J. R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Coordinate measuring techniques rely on computer processing of coordinate values of points gathered from physical surfaces using contact or non-contact methods. Contact measurements are characterized by low density and high accuracy. On the other hand optical methods gather high density data of the whole object in a short time but with accuracy at least one order of magnitude lower than for contact measurements. Thus the drawback of contact methods is low density of data, while for non-contact methods it is low accuracy. In this paper a method for fusion of data from two measurements of fundamentally different nature: high density low accuracy (HDLA) and low density high accuracy (LDHA) is presented to overcome the limitations of both measuring methods. In the proposed method the concept of virtual markers is used to find a representation of pairs of corresponding characteristic points in both sets of data. In each pair the coordinates of the point from contact measurements is treated as a reference for the corresponding point from non-contact measurement. Transformation enabling displacement of characteristic points from optical measurement to their match from contact measurements is determined and applied to the whole point cloud. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by comparison with data from a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Three surfaces were used for this evaluation: plane, turbine blade and engine cover. For the planar surface the achieved improvement was of around 200 μm. Similar results were obtained for the turbine blade but for the engine cover the improvement was smaller. For both freeform surfaces the improvement was higher for raw data than for data after creation of mesh of triangles.

  9. Pair-density waves, charge-density waves, and vortices in high-Tc cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhehao; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Senthil, T.; Lee, Patrick A.

    2018-05-01

    A recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment reports the observation of a charge-density wave (CDW) with a period of approximately 8a in the halo region surrounding the vortex core, in striking contrast to the approximately 4a period CDWs that are commonly observed in the cuprates. Inspired by this work, we study a model where a bidirectional pair-density wave (PDW) with period 8 is at play. This further divides into two classes: (1) where the PDW is a competing state of the d -wave superconductor and can exist only near the vortex core where the d -wave order is suppressed and (2) where the PDW is the primary order, the so-called "mother state" that persists with strong phase fluctuations to high temperature and high magnetic field and lies behind the pseudogap phenomenology. We study the charge-density wave structures near the vortex core in these models. We emphasize the importance of the phase winding of the d -wave order parameter. The PDW can be pinned by the vortex core due to this winding and become static. Furthermore, the period-8 CDW inherits the properties of this winding, which gives rise to a special feature of the Fourier transform peak, namely, it is split in certain directions. There is also a line of zeros in the inverse Fourier transform of filtered data. We propose that these are key experimental signatures that can distinguish between the PDW-driven scenario from the more mundane option that the period-8 CDW is primary. We discuss the pro's and con's of the options considered above. Finally, we attempt to place the STM experiment in the broader context of pseudogap physics of underdoped cuprates and relate this observation to the unusual properties of x-ray scattering data on CDW carried out to very high magnetic field.

  10. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  11. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  12. High frequency characterization of Galfenol minor flux density loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Weng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first measurement of ring-shaped Galfenol’s high frequency-dependent minor flux density loops. The frequencies of applied AC magnetic field are 1k, 5k, 10k, 50k, 100k, 200k, 300k, 500 kHz. The measurements show that the cycle area between the flux density and magnetic field curves increase with increasing frequency. High frequency-dependent characterization, including coercivity, specific power loss, residual induction, and maximum relative permeability are discussed. Minor loops for different max induction are also measured and discussed at the same frequency 100 kHz. Minor loops with the same max induction 0.05 T for different frequencies 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kHz are measured and specific power loss are discussed.

  13. Preparations of high density (Th,U)O2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1986-07-01

    Preparations of high density and homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets by a powder metallurgy method were examined. (Th,U)O 2 powders were prepared by calcining coprecipitates of ammonium uranate and thorium hydroxide derived from nitrates and mixed sols, and by calcining mixed oxalates precipitated from nitrates. (Th,U)O 2 pellets were characterized with respect to sinterability, lattice parameter, microstructure, homogeneity and stoichiometry. Sintering atmospheres had a significant effect upon all the properties of the derived pellets. The sinterability of (Th,U)O 2 was most favourable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres for ThO 2 -rich and UO 2 -rich compositions, respectively, and can be enhanced by presence of water vapour in sintering atmospheres. In addition, highly homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets with 99 % in theoretical density were derived from the sol powders. (author)

  14. Jet studies in heavy ion collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Slovak, Radim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. ATLAS has provided a quantification of this jet suppression by the jet Raa measurement in run 1 of LHC. A factor of two suppression was seen in central heavy ion collisions with respect to pp collisions. The Raa exhibited only a week, if any, rapidity dependence, and a slow rise with increasing jet momentum. This talk summarizes the run 1 results on the inclusive jet production and the new results on dijet measurements.