Levy, R I
High density lipoproteins (HDL) have come of age. For years it has been fashionable to study HDL as an approach to understanding lipoprotein structure and lipid binding. Available in abundant amounts from normal human plasma, readily separable into its individual lipid and soluble apolipoprotein components, HDL has provided much information for lipoprotein model building. Suddenly it has been thrust center stage clinically by a host of convincing epidemiologic studies that clearly establishes an inverse relationship between HDL levels and coronary vascular events. Biochemists, clinicians, cardiologists and epidemiologists are simultaneously focusing attention on HDL. Familial High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency (Tangier Disease) has been well described but is poorly understood as a clinical syndrome complex. We have suddenly become aware of how little we understand about HDL's normal ultracentrifugal and apoprotein heterogeneity, about its functional role(s) or the determinant(s) of its concentration in plasma. The relative contributions of the two sites of HDL origin, the liver and intestine, are yet to be determined as are the site(s) of degradation. Awareness of a problem and its importance is the first step toward the solution(s) of the problem.
Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.
Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad
Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901
Oldoni, Federico; Sinke, Richard J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a highly heterogeneous and dynamic group of the smallest and densest lipoproteins present in the circulation. This review provides the current molecular insight into HDL metabolism led by articles describing mutations in genes that have a large affect on HDL
Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...
Riwanto, Meliana; Rohrer, Lucia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Besler, Christian; Mocharla, Pavani; Mueller, Maja; Perisa, Damir; Heinrich, Kathrin; Altwegg, Lukas; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf
...). High-density lipoprotein from healthy subjects (HDL(Healthy)) has been proposed to exert endothelial antiapoptotic effects that may represent an important antiatherogenic property of the lipoprotein...
deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J
A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...
Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C
In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between
Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard
Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.
Barter, Philip; Kastelein, John; Nunn, Alistair; Hobbs, Richard
The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been found consistently to be a powerful negative predictor of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in human prospective population studies. There is also circumstantial evidence from human intervention studies and direct
Scott J Cameron
Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.
Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.
) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface...... of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of similar to 5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...
Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried
In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad
We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839
Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.
High plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) are a well-accepted risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the statin class of hypolipidemic drugs has emerged as an effective means of lowering LDL-C and reducing CVD risk. In contrast, the role of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in protection against atherosclerotic vascular disease is the subject of considerable controversy. Although the inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and CVD is widely acknowledged, reduction of CVD risk by interventions that increase HDL-C have not been uniformly successful. Several studies of large populations have shown that the first step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from the subendothelial space of the arterial wall via the plasma compartment to the liver for disposal, is impaired in patients with CVD. Here we review HDL function, the mechanisms by which HDL supports RCT, and the role of RCT in preventing CVD. PMID:26634027
Blache, Denis; Gautier, Thomas; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Lagrost, Laurent
Plasma activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) increases in patients with cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated whether platelet-released sPLA2 induces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modifications that translate into changes in lipoprotein
M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)
textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress
Buitenwerf, Edward; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol trafficked within plasma lipoproteins, in particular high-density lipoproteins (HDL), may represent an important source of cholesterol that is required for adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on a urinary gas chromatography method, compromised adrenal function has been suggested
Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing
Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women
Arsenault, Benoit J.; Rana, Jamal S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Shah, Prediman K.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C are still associated with
Kuller, L H; Hulley, S B; LaPorte, R E; Neaton, J; Dai, W S
High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) is negatively associated with coronary heart disease. Environmental heart disease risk factors may partially be related to coronary heart disease through alterations in HDL-chol concentrations. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which environmental factors are related to HDL-chol. The authors investigated a possible mechanism: changes in liver function as a mediating link between risk factors and HDL-chol concentrations in marathon runners, alcoholics, and participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Liver function, as measured by liver enzymes, was related to both coronary heart disease risk factors and alcohol consumption, suggesting that the increased levels of HDL-chol associated with alcohol were primarily the result of changes in liver function. The relationship of obesity to HDL-chol could not be explained by the alterations in liver function.
Whiteside, Wendy; Tan, Meng; Yu, Sunkyung; Rocchini, Albert
To test the hypothesis that patients with complex congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan palliation have low total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the random serum lipid profiles obtained at cardiology clinic visits between May 2010 and November 2011 in patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure. We compared these serum lipid levels against age- and sex-matched established normal data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure also had laboratory test data obtained during their visits. Median total cholesterol level in the Fontan group was 127 mg/dL (IQR, 116-144 mg/dL), median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 33-45 mg/dL), median non-HDL-C was 86 mg/dL (IQR, 76-109 mg/dL), and median LDL-C was 66 mg/dL (IQR, 57-83 mg/dL). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure compared with age- and sex-matched normal individuals (mean z-score, -1.4, -1.2, -1.0, and -1.0 respectively; all P<.0001). Cholesterol levels were below the 25th percentile for age and sex for total cholesterol in 82% of patients, for LDL-C in 76%, for non-HDL-C in 67%, and for HDL-C in 57%. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure have significantly lower serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels than age- and sex-matched normal individuals. Although the implications of this finding are unknown, it raises the possibility of abnormalities in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or catabolism in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
... with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). These familial disorders include lipoprotein(a) excess, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL), combined hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol and high triglycerides often with low HDL), hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low HDL), and hypercholesterolemia. We discuss the management of these disorders. W...
Yuana, Yuana; Levels, Johannes; Grootemaat, Anita; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication by carrying bioactive molecules such as proteins, messenger RNA, and micro (mi)RNAs. Recently, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) isolated from human plasma were also reported to transport miRNA to other cells. HDL, when isolated from
Monazahian, M; Kippenberger, S; Müller, A; Seitz, H; Böhme, I; Grethe, S; Thomssen, R
Heterogeneities in the density of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA-carrying material from human sera (1.03-1.20 g/ml) are partially due to the binding of lipoproteins [low density (LDL), very low density (VLDL), high density (HDL) lipoproteins] and immunoglobulins. In this study we demonstrate the binding of recombinant HCV envelope protein (El/E2) to human LDL, VLDL and HDL on a molecular basis. The binding of lipoproteins was restricted to the middle part of the El gene product (amino acids 222-336) and the C-terminal part of the E2 protein (amino acids 523-809). Lipoproteins did not bind to recombinant HCV core protein.
Agdeppa, D; Macaron, C; Mallik, T; Schnuda, N D
The plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were reduced in 16 hyperthyroid female patients compared to 37 euthyroid women (33.5 +/- 8 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl (mean +/- SD); P less than 0.001). When 5 patients were restudied after restoration of the euthyroid state, plasma HDL-C increased from 29 +/- 5 to 43 +/- 11.5 mg/dl (P less than 0.05). In addition, in 22 hypothyroid women, HDL-C levels were also diminished compared to the euthyroid group (43.4 +/- 15.5 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl; P less than 0.05). Nine patients were restudied after L-T4 replacement therapy; their levels of HDL-C increased but not to a statistically significant degree. The daily administration of 0.3 mg L-T4 to eight normal male volunteers for 1 month did not significantly affect HDL-C levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.
Philip J. Barter
Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.
Luthi, Andrea Jane
For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to
Full Text Available An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC. Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40, IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.
Spirig, Rolf; Schaub, Alexander; Kropf, Alain; Miescher, Sylvia; Spycher, Martin O; Rieben, Robert
An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.
Christoffersen, Christina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Moser, Markus
To investigate the role of apoM in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and atherogenesis, we generated human apoM transgenic (apoM-Tg) and apoM-deficient (apoM(-/-)) mice. Plasma apoM was predominantly associated with 10-12-nm alpha-migrating HDL particles. Human apoM overexpression (11-fold...... of alpha- to pre-alpha-migrating HDL was delayed in apoM-Tg mice. Moreover, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-independent generation of pre-beta-migrating apoA-I-containing particles in plasma was increased in apoM-Tg mice (4.2 +/- 1.1%, p = 0.06) and decreased in apoM(-/-) mice (0.5 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.......03) versus controls (1.8 +/- 0.05%). In the setting of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency, apoM-Tg mice with approximately 2-fold increased plasma apoM concentrations developed smaller atherosclerotic lesions than controls. The effect of apoM on atherosclerosis may be facilitated by enzymatic...
Gordon, P M; Fowler, S; Warty, V; Danduran, M; Visich, P; Keteyian, S
Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL-C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24-48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post-exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women.
Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Lamberg, Antti; Lehtivaara, Maria; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Vattulainen, Ilpo
Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface. Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of ∼5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is tensions in the used HDL and LDL models are essentially unaffected by single apo-proteins at the surface. Finally, interfacial tensions of lipoproteins are higher than in thermodynamically stable droplets, suggesting that HDL and LDL are kinetically trapped into a metastable state. PMID:22995496
Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young
Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal
Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipop...
Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Harada, Sei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurihara, Ayako; Kubota, Yoshimi; Higashiyama, Aya; Hirata, Takumi; Nishida, Yoko; Kawasaki, Midori; Takebayashi, Toru; Okamura, Tomonori
The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) Guidelines for Diagnosis and Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases for Japanese 2012 version have set a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)-management target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ＋30 mg/dL. However, the actual difference between non-HDL-C and LDL-C is not clear. Therefore, we evaluated its joint distribution and assessed the validity of this criterion in the general Japanese population. We used baseline cross-sectional data of 4,110 participants from two studies; the KOBE Study (n=1,108) and the Tsuruoka Metabolomic Cohort Study (n=3,002). To evaluate whether the difference between LDL-C and non-HDL-C in the general population match that of the current guidelines, we classified LDL-C levels into four groups according to the JAS Guideline and evaluated its agreement with the corresponding non-HDL-C group. Analysis was also done using six groups (the previous four groups plus the upper and lower cut-off values). The mean difference (mg/dL) between the non-HDL-C and LDL-C (for the KOBE Study and Tsuruoka Metabolomic Cohort Study, respectively) was 19.6 and 24.1 (ppopulation, the difference between non-HDL-C and LDL-C was lower than the expected difference of 30 mg/dL. Changes to the criteria for non-HDL-C target levels may be considered in the future.
Suhartati, FM; Suryapratama, W; Rahayu, S
An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain (as an animal model). The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments ...
von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd
Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...
Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels
Nader - Rahnama
Full Text Available
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between lipids and insulin concentration in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 350 adolescents aged 14-19 years old from a public high school in Guadalajara, in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, was conducted. Fasting insulin concentration was determined using microparticle enzyme immunoassay; total cholesterol and triglycerides were detected by standard enzymatic procedures; and low- and high-density lipoproteins were found using standard precipitation methods. Statistical analysis included linear multivariate regression. RESULTS: Serum triglycerides were associated positively with insulin fasting (beta= 0.003, p= 0.0001 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was negatively associated with insulin fasting in male adolescents 18-19 years old (beta= -0.03, p= 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between triglycerides and insulin and between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin are already present in adolescence.
Dwi Laksono Adiputro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.
Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N
Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koivuniemi, A.; Vattulainen, I.
The structure and function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have intrigued the scientific community for decades because of their crucial preventive role in coronary heart disease. However, it has been a taunting task to reveal the precise molecular structure and dynamics of HDL. Further...
Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for
Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for
Brooks-Wilson, A.; Marcil, M.; Clee, S. M.; Zhang, L. H.; Roomp, K.; van Dam, M.; Yu, L.; Brewer, C.; Collins, J. A.; Molhuizen, H. O.; Loubser, O.; Ouelette, B. F.; Fichter, K.; Ashbourne-Excoffon, K. J.; Sensen, C. W.; Scherer, S.; Mott, S.; Denis, M.; Martindale, D.; Frohlich, J.; Morgan, K.; Koop, B.; Pimstone, S.; Kastelein, J. J.; Genest, J.; Hayden, M. R.
Genes have a major role in the control of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Here we have identified two Tangier disease (TD) families, confirmed 9q31 linkage and refined the disease locus to a limited genomic region containing the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette
Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.
Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo
We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect...
Full Text Available The high density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma is a heterogeneous lipoprotein consisting of roughly equal contents of lipid and protein in roughly equal content, and it consists of several subtypes. HDL possesses several well-documented functions, including anti-atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, inhibiting vascular inflammation, preventing thrombosis and apoptosis, and promoting endothelial repair. Recently, more cardiovascular protective functions of HDL have been found, mainly including the ability of suppressing immune inflammatory reaction, inhibiting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, and regulating the plasma glucose level. It is of great importance to understand how different HDL subtypes contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.13
In clinical trials, the use of statins in patients with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has resulted in a 25% to 40% decrease in major clinical events. However, despite a marked reduction (up to 60%) in LDL-C, approximately 50% (or more) of patients continue to have CVD events. This high ...
Ferretti, G; Bacchetti, T; Menanno, F; Curatola, G
Several studies have demonstrated that the isoflavone genistein exerts a protective effect against lipid peroxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Aim of our study was to investigate whether genistein protects high density lipoproteins (HDL), isolated from normolipemic subjects, against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that genistein exerts an inhibitory effect against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation of HDL, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of conjugated dienes in lipoproteins oxidized after preincubation with different concentrations of genistein (0.5-2.5microM). Moreover the analysis of fluorescence emission spectra of tryptophan (Trp) and Laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminonaphthalene) demonstrated that genistein prevents the alterations of apoprotein structure and physico-chemical properties, associated with Cu(++)-triggered lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins. The protective effect exerted by genistein against oxidative damage of lipoproteins was realized at concentrations similar to those observed in plasma of human subjects consuming a traditional soy diet or receiving a soy supplement. Therefore, we suggested that antioxidant activity exerted by genistein against lipid peroxidation of HDL in vitro could be of physiological relevance.
Johannsen, Trine Holm; Kamstrup, Pia R; Andersen, Rolf V
CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase influences metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD: ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease). OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the hepatic lipase genetic variants V......73M, N193S, S267F, L334F, T383M, and -480c>t influence levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins and risk of ICD. DESIGN: For the cross-sectional study, we genotyped 9003 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study; hereof were 8971 individuals included in the prospective study, 1747...
Kilic, Harun; Atalar, Enver; Lay, Incilay; Yazihan, Nuray; Buyukcam, Fatih; Saygisunar, Ugur; Aksoy, Murat; Gunduz, Huseyin; Akdemir, Ramazan
Low concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is prevalent in Turkey. Endothelial lipase (EL) regulates lipoprotein metabolism. Small, lipid-poor HDL particles represent more-efficient cholesterol acceptors than their large, lipid-rich counterparts. The aim of this study was to investigate HDL subfractions and the effect of EL on HDL concentrations in healthy Turkish population. 102 healthy subjects were included in the study (mean age 33.6 ± 10.3 years, 42 female). HDL subfractions were assayed by single precipitation method and EL concentrations were measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Mean HDL concentrations were 1.45 ± 0.37 mmol/L in women, 1.10 ± 0.30 mmol/L in men. Small HDL subfraction levels did not differ statistically between density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG) and age but positively correlated with total cholesterol and HDL (r = 0.2, p = 0.017; r = 0.2, p = 0.028, respectively). Large HDL was not correlated with age, EL and total cholesterol, and negatively correlated with HDL, LDL, TG (r = - 0.7, p 1.6 mmol/L, mean EL concentrations were 475.83 ± 521.77 nmol/L and 529.71 ± 276.92 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.086). There were no differences between small HDL concentrations in the HDL low and high groups. Our data did not support EL to be the reason for low HDL in a healthy Turkish population. Our results in a healthy population may serve as a reference for clinical studies on HDL subfractions.
Simultaneous low-density lipoprotein-C lowering and high-density lipoprotein-C elevation for optimum cardiovascular disease prevention with various drug classes, and their combinations: a meta-analysis of 23 randomized lipid trials.
Brown, B Greg; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Zhao, Xue-Qiao
Our analysis presents an alternative hypothesis to the prevailing view that low-density lipoprotein-C is the only important target of lipid therapy. Two recently published studies showed surprising results. In the Armed Forces Regression Study, low-density lipoprotein-C was lowered only 22% with cholystyramine, niacin and gemfibrozil. Coronary stenosis regressed, however, and the primary clinical event rate was reduced by 54%. Conversely, in the FIELD trial, the primary event rate reduction was only 11% (P = NS). These differences appeared to be explained largely by the difference in high-density lipoprotein response to these regimens (38 vs. 3%). This meta-analysis of 23 trials strongly supports the notion that the sum of percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein-C plus percent increase in high-density lipoprotein-C predicts benefits much more effectively than either lipoprotein component. Epidemiology suggests that the cardiovascular event rate is reduced by nearly 1% for each 1% reduction in low-density lipoprotein-C and by at least 1% for each 1% increase in high-density lipoprotein. These effects are statistically independent; thus, for moderate lipid changes, they are additive. If this simple algorithm is proven accurate, a 30% high-density lipoprotein-C increase and a 40% low-density lipoprotein-C reduction would result in a nearly 70% CHD risk reduction - and a revolution in cardiovascular prevention.
Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich
The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.
TS Mohamed Saleem
Full Text Available TS Mohamed Saleem1, PV Sandhya Rani1, K Gauthaman21Department of Pharmacology, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boyanapalli, Andhrapradesh, India; 2Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Derna, LibyaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease has a high rate of mortality in both Western and developing countries. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherothrombosis with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and high levels of low-density lipoprotein is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular disease. Lipid-lowering drugs like statins, niacin, fibrates, and some newer agents, ie, the apolipoprotein A-I mimetics and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, not only increase HDL levels but are also effective in reducing key atherogenic lipid components, including triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that HDL possesses a diverse range of biological actions, and that increasing HDL levels by drug treatment may be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, lipoproteins, statins, apolipoprotein, atherosclerosis
Yang, Xiaoping; Sethi, Amar A; Yanek, Lisa R
a missense mutation resulting in an S129L substitution in exon 3. To follow up, 2 cohorts (GeneSTAR, the family-based Genetic Study of Atherosclerosis Risk [n=543], and CCHS, the population-based Copenhagen City Heart Study [n=5835]) were screened for combined HDL cholesterol and Lp(a) elevations. Subjects......BACKGROUND: SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1), encoded by the gene SCARB1, is a lipoprotein receptor that binds both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein. We reported that SR-B1 is also a receptor for lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)), mediating cellular uptake of Lp(a) in vitro...... and promoting clearance of Lp(a) in vivo. Although genetic variants in SCARB1 are associated with variations in HDL level, no SCARB1 variants affecting Lp(a) have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an index subject with high levels of HDL cholesterol and Lp(a), SCARB1 was sequenced and demonstrated...
Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction
Chen, Sike; Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.
Columns containing immobilized lipoproteins were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with these particles by high-performance affinity chromatography. This approach was evaluated by using it to examine the binding of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to the drugs propranolol or verapamil. HDL was immobilized by the Schiff base method onto silica and gave HPLC columns with reproducible binding to propranolol over four to five days of continuous operation at pH 7.4. Frontal analysis experiments indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R/S-propranolol and HDL at 37°C: saturable binding with an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 1.1–1.9 × 105 M−1, and non-saturable binding with an overall affinity constant (n Ka) of 3.7–4.1 × 104 M−1. Similar results were found at 4 and 27°C. Verapamil also gave similar behavior, with a Ka of 6.0 × 104 M−1 at 37°C for the saturable sites and a n Ka value for the non-saturable sites of 2.5 × 104 M−1. These measured affinities gave good agreement with solution-phase values. The results indicated HPAC can be used to study drug interactions with HDL, providing information that should be valuable in obtaining a better description of how drugs are transported within the body. PMID:19833090
Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Amarenco, Pierre
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic...... cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (= 1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (...
Carey, Vincent J; Bishop, Louise; Laranjo, Nancy; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Kwiat, Carolyn; Sacks, Frank M
To determine the relative contributions of triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the residual risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) after the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to guideline-recommended levels, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study with optimal matching in the strata of LDL cholesterol, gender, ethnicity, and age. The 170 cases and 175 controls were patients at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) from 2005 to 2008 who had an LDL cholesterol level cholesterol level of 73 and 87 mg/dl, respectively. The association between TG and HDL cholesterol levels and CHD risk was assessed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression analysis. The models investigated accommodated the possibility of an interaction between lipid factors. The odds of CHD increased by approximately 20% per 23-mg/dl increase in TGs and decreased by approximately 40% per 7.5-mg/dl decrease in HDL cholesterol. High TGs and low HDL cholesterol interacted synergistically to increase the odds ratio to 10 for the combined greatest TG (> or =190 mg/dl) and lowest HDL cholesterol quintiles (cholesterol was low than average or high; and low HDL cholesterol levels were more strongly associated with CHD when the TGs were high. TGs and HDL cholesterol were associated with CHD in patients with a LDL cholesterol level of risk similar to, or greater than, those in the total group. In conclusion, high TG and low HDL cholesterol levels contribute strongly and synergistically to CHD when LDL cholesterol is well controlled. Thus, high TGs might have greater importance in patients with optimal rather than greater LDL cholesterol concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this “HDL hypothesis”. In vitro studies suggest that HDL has a wide range of anti-atherogenic properties but validation of these functions in humans is absent to date. A significant number of anima...
Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Pongratz, Thomas; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Goliasch, Georg; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S.
Objective: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are heterogeneous in structure and function and the role of HDL subfractions in atherogenesis is not well understood. It has been suggested that small HDL may be dysfunctional in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes are considered to play a key role in atherosclerotic diseases. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three subtypes according to their surface expression of CD14 and CD16. Our aim was to examine whether mono...
A. J. M. Rattu
Full Text Available The acute and chronic effects of endurance exercise on parameters pertinent to blood lipid profiles have been extensively studied and reviewed. The preponderance of evidence available would suggest that endurance exercise transiently increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with concomitant alteration in total cholesterol and triglycerides. The major aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Poco-Poco Dance On High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level. Subjects were divided into 2 groups : A Poco-Poco Dance Group; B Control group which received no exercise training. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately after Poco-Poco Dance. Data showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol rose significantly in the Poco-Poco Dance Group (from 39.3 ±0.4 to 40.7 ± 4.0 mg%; P<0.05 in response to Poco-Poco Dance. It is therefore concluded that The Poco-Poco Dance induces alterations in blood lipid profiles.
Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy
Yehezkel, G; Chayoth, R; Abdu, U; Khalaila, I; Sagi, A
The high-density lipoproteins LPI and LPII were isolated from the hemolymph of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by gradient ultracentrifugation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both lipoproteins contained a carotenoid moiety. LPI is comprised of a single polypeptide with an approximate molecular mass of 96 kDa. LPII was composed of two similar native components, LPIIa and LPIIb, both having polypeptides of 80 and 177 kDa. Both under natural conditions and after endocrine manipulations, LPI was present in males and in females, regardless of the female reproductive stage. LPII was present only in secondary-vitellogenic females, but not during the winter reproductive arrest period. LPII was also absent from young females that had received androgenic gland implants. LPII also appeared in the hemolymph of intersex individuals from which the androgenic gland had been removed. It is therefore suggested that LPII serves as a marker indicating the onset of secondary vitellogenesis in C. quad'iariicarintus females.
Full Text Available Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia.
Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee
It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this "HDL hypothesis". In vitro studies suggest that HDL has a wide range of anti-atherogenic properties but validation of these functions in humans is absent to date. A significant number of animal studies and clinical trials support an atheroprotective role for HDL; however, most of these findings were obtained in the context of marked changes in other plasma lipids. Finally, genetic studies in humans have not provided convincing evidence that HDL genes modulate cardiovascular risk. Thus, despite a wealth of information on this intriguing lipoprotein, future research remains essential to prove the HDL hypothesis correct.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To detect the changes of high density lipoprotein (HDL and its subtypes in serum of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods: 337 hospitalized patients were selected from our hospital during August, 2014 - January, 2015, and divided into CHD group (n = 190 and control group (n = 127. Lipoprint lipoprotein analyzer was used to classify low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and its sub-components, as well as HDL particle size and its sub-components. The changes of the subtypes in patients with CHD were statistically analyzed. The possible mechanism was explored. Results: (1 Compared with the control group, the concentration of HDL in CHD patients reduced, HDLL significantly decreased (P S increased (P L had the most significant decreased; (3 HDL and all HDL subtypes were positively correlated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, of which, HDLL had the biggest correlation with apoA-I (P M had a maximum correlation with HDL (P Conclusion: HDL maturation disorders existed in the serum of CHD patients, HDLL may be protected factor for CHD, whose decrease was closely related wit the risk increase of CHD. The cardiovascular protection function of HDLL may be related with apoA-I content.
Besler, Christian; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf
Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, which has triggered the hypothesis that HDL, in contrast to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), acts as an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein. Moreover, experimental studies have identified potential anti-atherogenic properties of HDL, including promotion of macrophage cholesterol efflux and direct endothelial-protective effects of HDL, such as stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production and repair, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties. Studies in gene-targeted mice, however, have also indicated that increasing HDL-cholesterol plasma levels can either limit (e.g. apolipoprotein A-I) or accelerate (e.g. Scavenger receptor class B type I) atherosclerosis. Moreover, vascular effects of HDL have been observed to be heterogenous and are altered in patients with CAD or diabetes, a condition that has been termed ‘HDL dysfunction’. These alterations in biological functions of HDL may need to be taken into account for HDL-targeted therapies and considering raising of HDL-cholesterol levels alone is likely not sufficient in this respect. It will therefore be important to further determine, which biological functions of HDL are critical for its anti-atherosclerotic properties, as well as how these can be measured and targeted. PMID:22431312
Xia, P; Vadas, M A; Rye, K A; Barter, P J; Gamble, J R
The ability of high density lipoproteins (HDL) to inhibit cytokine-induced adhesion molecule expression has been demonstrated in their protective function against the development of atherosclerosis and associated coronary heart disease...
Virani, Salim S; Woodard, Lechauncy D; Landrum, Cassie R; Pietz, Kenneth; Wang, Degang; Ballantyne, Christie M; Petersen, Laura A
The aim of this analysis was to identify the proportion of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients achieving guideline-recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) goals and to identify correlates of dual goal attainment. We analyzed patient, provider, and facility characteristics for 21,801 CHD patients in one Veterans Affairs Hospitals Network. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment was 80%, but optional LDL-C goal attainment was 41%. Of patients with triglycerides ≥200 mg/dL, 51% attained both LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals. Correlates of higher dual goal attainment included older age (65-74 years: odds ratio [OR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.28-1.69), diabetes (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.16-1.53), obesity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50), a higher number of primary care visits (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.04-1.05), and mild increase in illness severity of patients in provider's panel (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.0008-1.46), whereas African American patients were less likely to achieve dual lipid goals (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.82). Receipt of care from physician (vs nonphysician) or specialist (vs primary care) provider, number of patients in provider's panel, and percentage of patients in provider's panel with diagnosis of hyperlipidemia were not associated with dual goal attainment. A large proportion of CHD patients attained LDL-C goal, but optional LDL-C goal attainment was low. Patients with elevated triglycerides had poor attainment of dual LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals, suggesting a treatment gap. Factors associated with dual goal attainment may identify interventions needed to improve future guideline adherence. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer
Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....
Kini, Annapoorna S; Muntner, Paul; Moreno, Pedro R; Mann, Devin; Krishnan, Prakash; Kim, Michael C; Rafael, Oana C; Farkouh, Michael E; Sharma, Samin K
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in the general population. Conflicting data exist on the protective effects of high HDL cholesterol in patients with optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. To determine the association of high HDL cholesterol with mortality in patients with LDL cholesterol levels cholesterol levels years in patients with HDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 59, and > or =60 mg/dl, respectively (p for trend cholesterol levels of 40 to 49, 50 to 59, and > or =60 mg/dl, compared with their counterparts with HDL cholesterol levels 50 to 0.93), 0.55 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.85), and 0.45 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.74), respectively. For each 1-SD increase in HDL cholesterol level (14 mg/dl), the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.68 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.79). In conclusion, in patients with LDL cholesterol levels cholesterol level and all-cause mortality.
Chandra, Alvin; Neeland, Ian J; Das, Sandeep R; Khera, Amit; Turer, Aslan T; Ayers, Colby R; McGuire, Darren K; Rohatgi, Anand
Therapies targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content (HDL-C) have not improved coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes. High-density lipoprotein particle concentration (HDL-P) may better predict CHD. However, the impact of race/ethnicity on the relations between HDL-P and subclinical atherosclerosis and incident CHD events has not been described. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic, probability-based, population cohort of Dallas County adults, underwent the following baseline measurements: HDL-C, HDL-P by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and coronary artery calcium by electron-beam computed tomography. Participants were followed for a median of 9.3 years for incident CHD events (composite of first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death). The study comprised 1,977 participants free of CHD (51% women, 46% black). In adjusted models, HDL-C was not associated with prevalent coronary artery calcium (p = 0.13) or incident CHD overall (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 1.05). However, HDL-C was inversely associated with incident CHD among nonblack (adjusted HR per 1 SD 0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.97) but not black participants (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13, pinteraction = 0.05). Conversely, HDL-P, adjusted for risk factors and HDL-C, was inversely associated with prevalent coronary artery calcium (p = 0.009) and with incident CHD overall (adjusted HR per 1 SD 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.86), with no interaction by black race/ethnicity (pinteraction = 0.57). In conclusion, in contrast to HDL-C, the inverse relation between HDL-P and incident CHD events is consistent across ethnicities. These findings suggest that HDL-P is superior to HDL-C in predicting prevalent atherosclerosis as well as incident CHD events across a diverse population and should be considered as a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus of Wistar strain (as an animal model. The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments tested were P1 = high-fat ration containing 27.66% fat (HF, P2 = HF + 5 ml of milk/head/day, P3 = HF + 10 ml of milk/head/day, P4 = low-fat ration containing 5% fat (LF. Each treatment was repeated five times to make 20 experiment units, each consisted of two rats. Body weight gain, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed. The data obtained were then analyzed using analysis of variance followed by orthogonal contrast test. Orthogonal polynomials tests was applied to evaluate the response variables. The results showed that 10 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease body weight of hypercholesterolemic rats and 5 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and to increase blood HDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic rats. Keywords: cow milk, conjugated linoleic acid, body weight gain, cholesterol. Animal Production 14(2:70-76
Berrougui, Hicham; Momo, Claudia N; Khalil, Abdelouahed
Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are strongly and inversely correlated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, it is becoming clear that a functional HDL is a more desirable target than simply increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. The best known antiatherogenic function of HDL particles relates to their ability to promote reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells. However, HDL also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects. This review focuses on the state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL heterogeneity and function and their relationship to cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quinn, Alex G; Schwemberger, Rachel; Stock, Eveline Oestreicher; Movsesyan, Irina; Axtell, Andrea; Chang, Sunny; Ishida, Brian Y; Malloy, Mary J; Kane, John P; Pullinger, Clive R
Elevated plasma levels of prebeta-1 high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the principal acceptor of cholesterol effluxed from macrophages, are associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. The objective of the study was to assess the effects on prebeta-1 HDL levels of 6-week moderate-dose statin treatment. We studied 101 patients (mean age 52.7 years; 53.5% female; 63 with primary hypercholesterolemia; 38 with combined hyperlipidemia) before and after treatment with statins. Mean atorvastatin potency equivalence was 23.6 mg/d. Prebeta-1 HDL plasma levels were measured by immunofixation of agarose gels using anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibody. We observed a 42.0% reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (181 ± 56 vs 105 mg/dL, P < .001). Triglyceride (TG) levels decreased by 22.3% (157 vs 122 mg/dL, P < .001), HDL cholesterol levels remained similar (56.0 vs 57.1, P = NS). Levels of prebeta-1 HDL were significantly reduced by 17.9% after statin treatment (mean 11.4 vs 9.4 mg apoA-1/dL, P < .001). The magnitude of this decrease was similar with each of 3 statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin). The decrease in prebeta-1 HDL was strongly associated with the decline in TG, but not with the decline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association of high prebeta-1 HDL with coronary heart disease identifies it as an inferential measure of the rate of cholesterol efflux from the artery wall. Our observations demonstrate a reduction of prebeta-1 HDL with statin therapy, partially reflecting the reduced TGs, and probably reflecting a direct beneficial impact on cholesterol efflux. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muntner, Paul; Lee, Fleur; Astor, Brad C
National cholesterol treatment guidelines include a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) that should be considered when making decisions on treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We investigated the association of HDL and LDL-cholesterol with incident CHD events (fatal or nonfatal CHD) over 14 years of follow-up among 13,615 adults aged 45 to 64 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A total of 966 (7.1%) participants had a CHD event during follow-up. After adjustment for age, race, sex, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, chronic kidney disease and physical activity, a graded association was present between progressively lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and higher CHD risk, overall (P cholesterol (cholesterol, each standard deviation higher HDL-cholesterol (18 mg/dL) was associated with a hazard ratio of incident CHD of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63-0.77). These data suggest a graded association exists between lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and CHD across the full range of LDL-cholesterol levels. As interventions targeting HDL levels are developed, the combinatorial effects of lower HDL levels with various levels of LDL-cholesterol should be examined.
Hu, Gang; Cui, Yadong; Jousilahti, Pekka; Sundvall, Jouko; Girman, Cynthia J; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Tuomilehto, Jaakko
To evaluate the single and joint associations of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Study cohorts included 21,375 Finnish participants who were 25-74 years of age and free of CHD and stroke at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 10.8 years, 437 participants developed CHD. The sex- and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD at different levels of HDL cholesterol [cholesterol [cholesterol level was consistent in people with any level of LDL cholesterol. Likewise, an increasing trend in incidence of CHD with an increase in the LDL cholesterol level was consistent in subjects with any level of HDL cholesterol. These results suggest an inverse association between HDL cholesterol and CHD risk and a direct association between LDL cholesterol and CHD risk, independent of other risk factors. The protective effect of HDL cholesterol on CHD risk is observed at all levels of LDL cholesterol.
Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Navarro, María A; Acin, Sergio; Guillén, Natalia; Barranquero, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Surra, Joaquín; Osada, Jesus
The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL) composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed. To address these issues, rats were administered a bolus of 5-ml of extra-virgin olive oil and sacrificed 4 and 8 hours after feeding. In these animals, lipoproteins were analyzed and gene expressions of apolipoprotein and HDL enzymes were assessed in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver. Using this experimental design, total plasma and HDL phospholipids increased at the 8-hour-time-point due to increased sphingomyelin content. An increase in apolipoprotein A4 was also observed mainly in lipid-poor HDL. Increased expression of intestinal Apoa1, Apoa4 and Sgms1 mRNA was accompanied by hepatic decreases in the first two genes in liver. Hepatic expression of Abcg1, Apoa1bp, Apoa2, Apoe, Ptlp, Pon1 and Scarb1 decreased significantly following fat gavage, while no changes were observed for Abca1, Lcat or Pla2g7. Significant associations were also noted for hepatic expression of apolipoproteins and Pon1. Manipulation of postprandial triglycerides using an inhibitor of microsomal transfer protein -CP-346086- or of lipoprotein lipase -tyloxapol- did not influence hepatic expression of Apoa1 or Apoa4 mRNA. All these data indicate that dietary fat modifies the phospholipid composition of rat HDL, suggesting a mechanism of down-regulation of hepatic HDL when intestine is the main source of those particles and a coordinated regulation of hepatic components of these lipoproteins at the mRNA level, independently of plasma postprandial triglycerides.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study was designed to verify the influence of acute fat loading on high density lipoprotein (HDL composition, and the involvement of liver and different segments of small intestine in the changes observed. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues, rats were administered a bolus of 5-ml of extra-virgin olive oil and sacrificed 4 and 8 hours after feeding. In these animals, lipoproteins were analyzed and gene expressions of apolipoprotein and HDL enzymes were assessed in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and liver. Using this experimental design, total plasma and HDL phospholipids increased at the 8-hour-time-point due to increased sphingomyelin content. An increase in apolipoprotein A4 was also observed mainly in lipid-poor HDL. Increased expression of intestinal Apoa1, Apoa4 and Sgms1 mRNA was accompanied by hepatic decreases in the first two genes in liver. Hepatic expression of Abcg1, Apoa1bp, Apoa2, Apoe, Ptlp, Pon1 and Scarb1 decreased significantly following fat gavage, while no changes were observed for Abca1, Lcat or Pla2g7. Significant associations were also noted for hepatic expression of apolipoproteins and Pon1. Manipulation of postprandial triglycerides using an inhibitor of microsomal transfer protein -CP-346086- or of lipoprotein lipase -tyloxapol- did not influence hepatic expression of Apoa1 or Apoa4 mRNA. CONCLUSION: All these data indicate that dietary fat modifies the phospholipid composition of rat HDL, suggesting a mechanism of down-regulation of hepatic HDL when intestine is the main source of those particles and a coordinated regulation of hepatic components of these lipoproteins at the mRNA level, independently of plasma postprandial triglycerides.
de Faria Eliana C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma lipases and lipid transfer proteins are involved in the generation and speciation of high density lipoproteins. In this study we have examined the influence of plasma lipases and lipid transfer protein activities on the transfer of free cholesterol (FC and phospholipids (PL from lipid emulsion to human, rat and mouse lipoproteins. The effect of the lipases was verified by incubation of labeled (3H-FC,14C-PL triglyceride rich emulsion with human plasma (control, post-heparin and post-heparin plus lipase inhibitor, rat plasma (control and post-heparin and by the injection of the labeled lipid emulsion into control and heparinized functionally hepatectomized rats. Results In vitro, the lipase enriched plasma stimulated significantly the transfer of 14C-PL from emulsion to high density lipoprotein (p3H-FC. In hepatectomized rats, heparin stimulation of intravascular lipolysis increased the plasma removal of 14C-PL and the amount of 14C-PL found in the low density lipoprotein density fraction but not in the high density lipoprotein density fraction. The in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that free cholesterol and phospholipids were transferred from lipid emulsion to plasma lipoproteins independently from each other. The incubation of human plasma, control and control plus monoclonal antibody anti-cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, with 14C-PL emulsion showed that CETP increases 14C-PL transfer to human HDL, since its partial inhibition by the anti-CETP antibody reduced significantly the 14C-PL transfer (p14C-PL distribution in mice lipoproteins was observed. Conclusions It is concluded that: 1-intravascular lipases stimulate phospholipid transfer protein mediated phospholipid transfer, but not free cholesterol, from triglyceride rich particles to human high density lipoproteins and rat low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; 2-free cholesterol and phospholipids are transferred from triglyceride
Khan, Anmar A; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Straznicky, Nora E; Nestel, Paul J; Wong, Gerard; Tan, Ricardo; Huynh, Kevin; Ng, Theodore W; Mellett, Natalie A; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Barlow, Christopher K; Alshehry, Zahir H; Lambert, Gavin W; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Meikle, Peter J
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipid composition and function may better reflect cardiovascular risk than HDL cholesterol concentration. This study characterized the relationships between HDL composition, metabolism, and function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and how changes in composition after weight loss (WL) and exercise treatments are related to function. Plasma samples from MetS patients (n=95) and healthy individuals (n=40) were used in this study. Subsets of the MetS group underwent 12 weeks of no treatment (n=17), WL (n=19), or WL plus exercise (WLEX; n=17). HDL was isolated using density-gradient ultracentrifugation. The HDL lipidome was analyzed by mass spectrometry, and particle size determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity and ex vivo HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) were assessed. The HDL lipidome in the MetS patients was substantially different from that in healthy individuals, mean particle size was smaller, and CEC was lower. Several HDL phospholipid and sphingolipid species were associated with HDL diameter and CEC. The HDL lipidome and particle size were modified toward the healthy individuals after WL and WLEX treatments, with greater effects observed in the latter group. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity was reduced after WL and WLEX, and CEC was improved after WLEX. WLEX treatment in MetS patients normalizes the HDL lipidome and particle size profile and enhances CEC. HDL lipids associated with diminished CEC may represent novel biomarkers for early prediction of HDL dysfunction and disease risk and may represent potential therapeutic targets for future HDL therapies. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00163943. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
van Tol, A; van der Gaag, M S; Scheek, L M; van Gent, T; Hendriks, H F
We measured the effects of consumption of moderate amounts of beer, wine or spirits with evening dinner on plasma LDL and HDL levels as well as composition in 11 healthy middle-aged men. Forty grams of alcohol were consumed daily with dinner for a period of 3 weeks. Mineral water was used as a negative control. Dinner was served at 6 pm and blood samples were obtained at 1 h before and 3, 5, 9, and 13 h after the start of the meal. No differences were detected between the effects of the different alcohol-containing beverages. Plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), measured 1 h before dinner were very variable and higher than fasting values (means of 2.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively). Daily consumption of 40 g of alcohol with dinner resulted in increased postprandial plasma TG levels and decreased low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. These effects were transient and observed at 11 pm (TG) and 9 pm and 11 pm (LDL). In contrast, high density lipoproteins (HDL) were raised by alcohol intake at all time points analysed. HDL composition was changed by alcohol consumption, resulting in a raised HDL-cholesterol/apo A-I ratio at 5 pm and 9 pm. The observed alcohol-dependent effects on plasma HDL and LDL during the postprandial phase are considered anti-atherogenic and may contribute to the observed protection against coronary heart disease by moderate alcohol consumption.
Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Stevenson, John C; Crook, David; Johnston, Desmond G; Godsland, Ian F
To distinguish the effects of menopause, gender and age on serum lipid risk markers for vascular disease, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfractions 2 and 3 (HDL2-C and HDL3-C). We undertook a cross-sectional database analysis of apparently healthy Caucasian pre- and postmenopausal women and men (n=515, 518 and 800, respectively) not taking drugs affecting lipid metabolism (including contraceptive or post-menopausal steroids). Measurements of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C and non-HDL-C concentrations and the TC/HDL-C concentration ratio were considered. Men had lower TC than postmenopausal women (p50 years), differences apparent in the non-standardized comparisons were generally sustained, although HDL3-C levels were lower at menopause, HDL2-C ceased to differ and LDL-C was lower in postmenopausal women than men. Male gender is associated with a more atherogenic profile than female gender, with appreciably lower levels of the HDL2-C subfraction. Among women, menopause is associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile, but has less effect than male gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shin, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Young-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Jung, Yo-Han; Kang, Hee-Cheol
Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDLC) ratio predicts insulin resistance better than individual lipid levels, including TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), or HDLC. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome in the general Korean population. We evaluated the data of adults ≥20 years old who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013 and 2014. Subjects with angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the harmonized definition. We examined the odds ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome according to TG/HDLC ratio quartiles using logistic regression analysis (SAS ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Weighted complex sample analysis was also conducted. We found a significant association between the TG/HDLC ratio and metabolic syndrome. The cutoff value of the TG/HDLC ratio for the fourth quartile was ≥3.52. After adjustment, the OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile compared with that of the first quartile was 29.65 in men and 20.60 in women (Pmetabolic syndrome.
Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.
Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.
Ampuero, Javier; Ranchal, Isidora; Gallego-Durán, Rocío; Pareja, María Jesús; Del Campo, Jose Antonio; Pastor-Ramírez, Helena; Rico, María Carmen; Picón, Rocío; Pastor, Luis; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Andrade, Raúl; Romero-Gómez, Manuel
A small but significant proportion of patients with normal body mass index show non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a powerful immunogenic molecule, which causes oxidative stress and produces antibodies (oxLDL-ab). We aimed to analyze the role of oxLDL-ab on histological features in lean-NAFLD patients. Seventy-two biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were included. Lean patients showed body index mass of Liver biopsies were assessed by one pathologist blinded to clinical data. Histological features were non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and liver fibrosis. Metabolic and hepatic profiles were analyzed, and lipid-lowering medication was recorded. OxLDL-ab levels were measured by ELISA. OxLDL-ab-based lipid indexes analyzed: oxLDL-ab/total cholesterol ratio; oxLDL-ab/LDL-c ratio; oxLDL-ab/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio; and oxLDL-ab/oxLDL ratio. Lean-NAFLD patients presented 26.5% (9/34) of NASH. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (r = 0.570; n = 34; P = 0.001) correlated with NAS score and was the only variable associated with NASH in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio, OR, 1.10 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-1.21); P = 0.039]. Severe steatosis was present in 41.2% (14/34) of lean-NAFLD patients. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with grade-III steatosis (54.9 (37.3-124.6)) than those with grade II (37.1 (20.2-71.1)) and grade I (17.7 (13.1-22.8)) (P = 0.018). Hepatocellular ballooning was present in 20.6% (7/34) of lean-NAFLD patients, and OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio (OR 1.03 [95% CI: 1.01-1.05]; P = 0.050) was independently associated with histological features. OxLDL-ab/HDL-c ratio was higher in patients with advanced fibrosis (39.8 (22.9-121.6) vs 17.7 (13.9-30.9); P = 0.025), increasing gradually with the fibrosis stage (P = 0.042) and remained in the final multivariate model [OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.00-1.11); P = 0.05]. However, in
Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.
Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Tamura, Akira; Kadota, Junichi
The positive association between the ratio of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular events has recently been receiving much attention. However, the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and this ratio has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, we sought to clarify this association and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on the ratio. We performed polysomnography and LDL-C/HDL-C measurements in 215 patients who were suspected of having OSA. Furthermore, LDL-C/HDL-C was again evaluated 6 months after polysomnography in 30 OSA patients for whom CPAP therapy was initiated and continued, and in 11 age- and sex-matched OSA patients for whom the therapy could not be initiated. The LDL-C/HDL-C correlated positively with apnea-hypopnea index (ρ = 0.28, P arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (ρ = -0.30, P arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation) was independently associated with LDL-C/HDL-C. The LDL-C/HDL-C decreased after 6 months in the CPAP group (2.29 ± 0.67 to 2.11 ± 0.74, P = .02), whereas it did not change in the non-CPAP group (2.65 ± 0.82 to 2.62 ± 0.66, P = .81). The severity of OSA was independently associated with LDL-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C was significantly reduced at 6 months after CPAP therapy. These findings suggest that LDL-C/HDL-C increases in proportion to the severity of OSA, which may contribute partly to an increased risk for cardiovascular events in OSA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High density lipoprotein2. Relationship of the plasma levels of this lipoprotein species to its composition, to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, and to the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase.
Patsch, J R; S. Prasad; Gotto, A M; Patsch, W
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in postheparin plasma of 38 normolipidemic volunteers was related to the magnitude of postprandial lipemia after a fat meal, to triglyceride content of high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2), to hepatic lipase (HL) activity, and to HDL2 levels. LPL activity correlated indirectly with lipemia, triglyceride content of HDL2, HL activity, and levels of HDL2 but not of HDL3. HL activity correlated directly with lipemia and indirectly with HDL2 levels. Triglyceride conte...
Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity.
Sabnis, Sarika; Sabnis, Nirupama A; Raut, Sangram; Lacko, Andras G
Current cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with short- and long-term side effects, affecting the quality of life of cancer survivors. Because malignant cells are known to overexpress specific surface antigens, including receptors, targeted drug delivery is often utilized to reduce or overcome side effects. The current study involves a novel targeting approach using specifically designed nanoparticles, including encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug valrubicin into superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) containing reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticles. Specifically, rHDL-SPION-valrubicin hybrid nanoparticles were assembled and characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties, drug entrapment efficiency and receptor-mediated release of the drug valrubicin from the nanoparticles to prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. Prussian blue staining was used to assess nanoparticle movement in a magnetic field. Measurements of cytotoxicity toward PC-3 cells showed that rHDL-SPION-valrubicin nanoparticles were up to 4.6 and 31 times more effective at the respective valrubicin concentrations of 42.4 µg/mL and 85 µg/mL than the drug valrubicin alone. These studies showed, for the first time, that lipoprotein drug delivery enhanced via magnetic targeting could be an effective chemotherapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.
Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Herminghaus, Grazyna; Brodde, Martin; Morgenstern, Eberhard; Rust, Stephan; Engel, Thomas; Seedorf, Udo; Assmann, Gerd; Bluethmann, Horst; Kehrel, Beate E
ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is involved in regulation of intracellular lipid trafficking and export of cholesterol from cells to high density lipoproteins. ABCA1 defects cause Tangier disease, a disorder characterized by absence of high density lipoprotein and thrombocytopenia. In the present study we have demonstrated that ABCA1 is expressed in human platelets and that fibrinogen binding and CD62 surface expression in response to collagen and low concentrations of thrombin, but not to ADP, are defective in platelets from Tangier patients and ABCA1-deficient animals. The expression of platelet membrane receptors such as GPVI, alpha2beta1 integrin, and GPIIb/IIIa, the collagen-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and cholesterol distribution, and the collagen-induced signal transduction examined by phosphorylation of LAT and p72syk and by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization were unaltered in Tangier platelets. The electron microscopy of Tangier platelets revealed reduced numbers of dense bodies and the presence of giant granules typically encountered in platelets from Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Further studies demonstrated impaired release of dense body content in platelets from Tangier patients and ABCA1-deficient animals. In addition, Tangier platelets were characterized by defective surface exposure of dense body and lysosomal markers (CD63, LAMP-1, LAMP-2, CD68) during collagen- and thrombin-induced stimulation and by abnormally high lysosomal pH. We conclude that intact ABCA1 function is necessary for proper maturation of dense bodies in platelets. The impaired release of the content of dense bodies may explain the defective activation of Tangier platelets by collagen and low concentrations of thrombin, but not by ADP.
Mooberry, Linda K; Nair, Maya; Paranjape, Sulabha; McConathy, Walter J; Lacko, Andras G
The purpose of these studies was to determine the mechanism(s) whereby paclitaxel (PTX), is taken up by cancer cells, once encapsulated into synthetic/reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL). The uptake of PTX was found to be facilitated by the scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1) when drug-loaded rHDL particles were incubated with cells that express the SRB1 receptor. Studies with double-labeled, PTX containing rHDL nanoparticles showed that prostate cancer (PC-3) cells incorporated PTX primarily via a selective (SR-B1 type) uptake mechanism. In the presence of a 10-fold excess of plasma HDL, PTX uptake decreased to 30% of the control. These findings suggest that the incorporation of lipophilic drugs by cancer cells from rHDL nanoparticles is facilitated by a receptor mediated (SR-B1) mechanism.
McConathy, Walter J; Nair, Maya P; Paranjape, Sulabha; Mooberry, Linda; Lacko, Andras G
Reconstituted (synthetic) high-density lipoprotein particles carrying paclitaxel (rHDL/PTX) were prepared with substantially higher PTX content than reported earlier. The rHDL/PTX complexes seemed to be primarily spherical nanoparticles when examined via electron microscopy, with a constant composition, molecular weight and exceptional stability even after ultracentrifugation and storage for up to 6 months. The rHDL/PTX nanoparticles had superior cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines (MCF7, DU145, OV1063 and OVCAR-3), the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) having been found to be 5-20 times lower than that of the free drug. Studies with mice showed that the rHDL/PTX nanoparticles were substantially better tolerated than the corresponding dosages of either Taxol or Abraxane.
Full Text Available Negative relationship between plasma High Density Lipoprotein (HDL levels and risk of cardiovascular disease is a firmly established medical fact, but attempts to reproduce protective properties of HDL by pharmacologically elevating HDL levels were mostly unsuccessful. This conundrum presents a fundamental question: were the approaches used to raise HDL flawed or the protective effects of HDL are an epiphenomenon. Recent attempts to elevate plasma HDL were universally based on reducing HDL catabolism by blocking reverse cholesterol transport. Here we argue that this mode of HDL elevation may be mechanistically different to natural mechanisms and thus be counterproductive. We further argue that independently of whether HDL is a driving force or a surrogate measure of the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, approaches aimed at increasing HDL supply, rather than reducing its catabolism, would be most beneficial for speeding up reverse cholesterol transport and improving protection against cardiovascular disease.
Khalil, Abdelouahed; Kamtchueng Simo, Olivier; Ikhlef, Souade; Berrougui, Hicham
Pharmacological interventions to increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have led to disappointing results and have contributed to the emergence of the concept of HDL functionality. The anti-atherogenic activity of HDLs can be explained by their functionality or quality. The capacity of HDLs to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis and to transport cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for elimination is one of their principal anti-atherogenic activities. However, HDLs possess several other attributes that contribute to their protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. HDL functionality is regulated by various proteins and lipids making up HDL particles. However, several studies investigated the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and suggest a significant role of this protein in the regulation of the functionality of HDLs. Moreover, research on PON1 attracted much interest following several studies indicating that it is involved in cardiovascular protection. However, the mechanisms by which PON1 exerts these effects remain to be elucidated.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, a significant risk factor for various chronic diseases, is universally related to dyslipidemia mainly represented by decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, which plays an indispensible role in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the mechanisms underlying obesity and low HDL-C have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have focused on the alteration of HDL catabolism in circulation following elevated triglyceride (TG. But recent findings suggested that liver and fat tissue played pivotal role in obesity related low HDL-C. Some new molecular pathways like microRNA have also been proposed in the regulation of HDL metabolism in obesity. This article will review recent advances in understanding of the potential mechanism of low HDL-C in obesity.
Orso Giacone, G
It is widely known that atherosclerosis through its complication, i.e. heart and brain infarction, is at the present the main cause of death. The atherosclerotic process has been shown in correlation with hyperlipemia especially as far as the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol level is concerned. A preminent role in removing cholesterol from tissues and arterial walls then in preventing atherosclerosis is played by a specific class of plasma lipoproteins, the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Since the HDL-colesterol level seems to have an inverse correlation with the atherosclerotic disease it is of primary importance to define a reliable and reproducible technique to measure it. One of the aims of this paper was to examine the different methods now available for such a determination. This analysis has underlined the discrepancy among the reference values reported in the literature. However, all the authors agree that only the simultaneous measurement of total and HDL-colesterol levels is of prognostic value. Personal studies are here reported on the relationship between total and HDL-colesterol levels and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The two mentioned laboratory analyses have been performed on blood samples from 250 between male and female human subjects of different age. The obtained results show that the highest HDL-colesterol concentrations determined by a lipoprotein precipitation procedure with dextran sulphate, are typical in the first ten years of life both in male and in female, while the lowest levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol have been evintiated during the fifth decade of life, when the total cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular complications rich the highest values. In a following set of investigations, the already examined blood parameters together with the risk factor values have been examined in two groups of subjects, the first one represented by adult healthy persons the second one by patients of similar age from a cardiovascular
Lippi, Giuseppe; Lo Cascio, Claudia; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Montagnana, Martina; Bassi, Antonella; Caruso, Beatrice; Bovo, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca
This retrospective study was planned to establish potential associations between circulating values of cardiac troponins and those of conventional blood lipids. The study population consisted of patients attending an inpatient clinic of the University Hospital of Verona during the year 2015 as part of routine cardiovascular risk assessment. No exclusion criteria were applied. Serum lipids including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were measured using reference enzymatic techniques, whereas troponin T (TnT) was measured using a high-sensitivity (HS) immunoassay. A second analysis was also performed in the General Hospital of Verona, extracting data from the local laboratory database of all patients in whom troponin I (TnI) and blood lipids were simultaneously measured during the same year. In univariate analysis, HS-TnT was found to be associated with age, sex, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, but not with TG. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age (positive correlation; Pvalues >50 ng/L was higher in subjects with HDL-C values >50 ng/L was also higher in elderly subjects than in younger ones (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15-3.84). The combination of age and HDL-C explained 35% of overall variability of TnT concentration. In the second analysis, HDL-C was also found to be an independent and negative predictor of TnI in multivariate linear regression analysis (P=0.010). The combination of age and HDL-C explained approximately 28% of the overall variability of TnI concentration. Our study suggests that HDL-C values inversely predict cardiac troponins concentration irrespective of age, sex and other blood lipids.
Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.
Lipoprotein lipase and PPAR alpha gene polymorphisms, increased very-low-density lipoprotein levels, and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels as risk markers for the development of visceral leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum.
Carvalho, Márcia Dias Teixeira; Alonso, Diego Peres; Vendrame, Célia Maria Vieira; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Goto, Hiro
In visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triacylglycerol (TAG), and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples) (H+ = the presence and H- = the absence of mutation) revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR) of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H-/H- genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32-3335.3; P = 0.003). The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.
Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Veeranna, Vikas; Panaich, Sidakpal; Kottam, Anupama; Afonso, Luis
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLc) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease risk, with elevated levels signifying an increased risk beyond low-density lipoprotein. Previous data have shown inconsistent association of lipid subfractions with progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a surrogate marker of incident cardiovascular disease. We sought to evaluate the association between non-HDLc and development (incident) and progression of CAC in a cohort of multiethnic asymptomatic subjects. The cohort (n = 5,705) was derived from the limited access data set of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis obtained from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to derive the association between non-HDLc and incident CAC (n = 2,927) and non-HDLc and progression of CAC (n = 2,778). In the population without CAC at baseline, non-HDLc, especially >190 mg/dl, was independently associated with incident CAC (relative risk 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.79, p = 0.008) after adjustments with age, gender, race, systolic blood pressure, antihypertension medication use, smoking, diabetes, lipid-lowering therapy use, follow-up duration, and waist-hip ratio. Similarly, among those with CAC at baseline, non-HDLc levels >190 mg/dl were associated with significant CAC progression in the overall population (β 16.4, 95% confidence interval -5.63 to 27.2, p = 0.003) after adjustments. In conclusion, non-HDLc levels, especially >190 mg/dl, are consistently associated with increased risk of CAC progression. Our results suggest that among lipid fractions, non-HDLc may be best suited for the prediction of future CAC progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kon, Valentina; Yang, Haichun; Fazio, Sergio
Although reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with lipid-lowering agents (statins) decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, a substantial residual risk (up to 70% of baseline) remains after treatment in most patient populations. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a potential contributor to residual risk, and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established risk factor for CVD. However, in contrast to conventional lipid-lowering therapies, recent studies show that pharmacologic increases in HDL-C levels do not bring about clinical benefits. These observations have given rise to the concept of dysfunctional HDL where increases in serum HDL-C may not be beneficial because HDL loss of function is not corrected by or even intensified by the therapy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases CVD risk, and patients whose CKD progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis are at the highest CVD risk of any patient type studied. The ESRD population is also unique in its lack of significant benefit from standard lipid-lowering interventions. Recent studies indicate that HDL-C levels do not predict CVD in the CKD population. Moreover, CKD profoundly alters metabolism and composition of HDL particles and impairs their protective effects on functions such as cellular cholesterol efflux, endothelial protection, and control of inflammation and oxidation. Thus, CKD-induced perturbations in HDL may contribute to the excess CVD in CKD patients. Understanding the mechanisms of vascular protection in renal disease can present new therapeutic targets for intervention in this population. PMID:26009251
Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha F; Eckel, Robert H; Hamman, Richard F; Hokanson, John E
Although the physiologic interrelationships between triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are not fully understood, studies typically are adjusted for one when one is examining the role of the other. If the mechanism of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is mediated through the other, then controlling for the second factor may mask the true effect of the first. We investigated the relationship between the combined effect of increased (↑) TG and decreased (↓) HDL-C compared with isolated ↑TG or isolated ↓HDL-C on CHD risk in men and women and compared these TG/HDL-C categories to non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Subjects (936 women and 746 men) from the San Luis Valley Study were grouped on the basis of 4 sex-specific NCEP-ATP III cutpoints (↑TG ≥150 mg/dL, and ↓HDL-C, 50 and >40 mg/dL for women and men, respectively). Non-HDL-C was analyzed as a continuous variable. Among women, all groups had greater risk of CHD compared with the ↓TG/↑HDL-C reference in univariate analysis: ↓TG/↓HDL-C HR = 2.82 [95% confidence interval 1.12-7.1], ↑TG/↑HDL-C HR = 3.82 [1.50-9.74], ↑TG/↓HDL-C HR= 4.32 [1.91-9.80]. The risk remained significant in the ↓TG/↓HDL-C group (HR= 3.27 [1.26-8.50] and marginally significant in other groups in multivariable analysis. Neither ↑TG nor ↓HDL-C was related to CHD risk in men. Non-HDL cholesterol was significantly related to CHD in men but not in women. The CHD risk associated with ↓HDL-C in women was >2- to 4-fold elevated depending on TG levels. Non-HDL cholesterol was a significant predictor of CHD in men. Examining the combined effects of risk factors that share physiologic pathways may reveal important associations that can be otherwise obscured. Further dissection of gender specific pathways that affect HDL-C and TG and non-HDL cholesterol are important in understanding CHD risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Amarenco, Pierre; Andreotti, Felicita; Borén, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Watts, Gerald F.
Even at low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal, patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper aims (i) to critically appraise evidence for elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as cardiovascular risk factors, and (ii) to advise on therapeutic strategies for management. Current evidence supports a causal association between elevated TRL and their remnants, low HDL-C, and cardiovascular risk. This interpretation is based on mechanistic and genetic studies for TRL and remnants, together with the epidemiological data suggestive of the association for circulating triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. For HDL, epidemiological, mechanistic, and clinical intervention data are consistent with the view that low HDL-C contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk; genetic evidence is unclear however, potentially reflecting the complexity of HDL metabolism. The Panel believes that therapeutic targeting of elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L or 150 mg/dL), a marker of TRL and their remnants, and/or low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L or 40 mg/dL) may provide further benefit. The first step should be lifestyle interventions together with consideration of compliance with pharmacotherapy and secondary causes of dyslipidaemia. If inadequately corrected, adding niacin or a fibrate, or intensifying LDL-C lowering therapy may be considered. Treatment decisions regarding statin combination therapy should take into account relevant safety concerns, i.e. the risk of elevation of blood glucose, uric acid or liver enzymes with niacin, and myopathy, increased serum creatinine and cholelithiasis with fibrates. These recommendations will facilitate reduction in the substantial cardiovascular risk that persists in patients with cardiometabolic abnormalities at LDL-C goal. PMID:21531743
Chinwong, Surarong; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Mangklabruks, Ampica
This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO) consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18-25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i) 15 mL VCO or (ii) 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution (as control), twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results . Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females), daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL ( p = 0.001) compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion . Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
Full Text Available This open-label, randomized, controlled, crossover trial assessed the effect of daily virgin coconut oil (VCO consumption on plasma lipoproteins levels and adverse events. The study population was 35 healthy Thai volunteers, aged 18–25. At entry, participants were randomly allocated to receive either (i 15 mL VCO or (ii 15 mL 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC solution (as control, twice daily, for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, participants had an 8-week washout period and then crossed over to take the alternative regimen for 8 weeks. Plasma lipoproteins levels were measured in participants at baseline, week-8, week-16, and week-24 follow-up visits. Results. Of 32 volunteers with complete follow-up (16 males and 16 females, daily VCO intake significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 5.72 mg/dL (p=0.001 compared to the control regimen. However, there was no difference in the change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels between the two regimens. Mild diarrhea was reported by some volunteers when taking VCO, but no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Daily consumption of 30 mL VCO in young healthy adults significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No major safety issues of taking VCO daily for 8 weeks were reported.
The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...
Shahzad, Mian M K; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Han, Hee Dong; Lu, Chunhua; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Nishimura, Masato; Mora, Edna M; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L; Pecot, Chad V; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Roh, Ju-Won; Gaur, Puja; Nair, Maya P; Park, Yun-Yong; Sabnis, Nirupama; Deavers, Michael T; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ellis, Lee M; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; McConathy, Walter J; Prokai, Laszlo; Lacko, Andras G; Sood, Anil K
RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1). In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL) nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase) in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches.
Shahzad, Mian MK; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Han, Hee Dong; Lu, Chunhua; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Nishimura, Masato; Mora, Edna M; Lee, Jeong-Won; Stone, Rebecca L; Pecot, Chad V; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Roh, Ju-Won; Gaur, Puja; Nair, Maya P; Park, Yun-Yong; Sabnis, Nirupama; Deavers, Michael T; Lee, Ju-Seog; Ellis, Lee M; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; McConathy, Walter J; Prokai, Laszlo; Lacko, Andras G; Sood, Anil K
RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1). In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL) nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase) in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches. PMID:21472135
Mian M.K. Shahzad
Full Text Available RNA interference holds tremendous potential as a therapeutic approach, especially in the treatment of malignant tumors. However, efficient and biocompatible delivery methods are needed for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA. To maintain a high level of growth, tumor cells scavenge high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles by overexpressing its receptor: scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1. In this study, we exploited this cellular characteristic to achieve efficient siRNA delivery and established a novel formulation of siRNA by incorporating it into reconstituted HDL (rHDL nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that rHDL nanoparticles facilitate highly efficient systemic delivery of siRNA in vivo, mediated by the SR-B1. Moreover, in therapeutic proof-of-concept studies, these nanoparticles were effective in silencing the expression of two proteins that are key to cancer growth and metastasis (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and focal adhesion kinase in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian and colorectal cancer. These data indicate that an rHDL nanoparticle is a novel and highly efficient siRNA carrier, and therefore, this novel technology could serve as the foundation for new cancer therapeutic approaches.
Full Text Available Masafumi Funamoto,1,2 Yoichi Sunagawa,1–3 Yasufumi Katanasaka,1–3 Yusuke Miyazaki,1,2 Atsushi Imaizumi,4 Hideaki Kakeya,5 Hajime Yamakage,2 Noriko Satoh-Asahara,2 Maki Komiyama,2 Hiromichi Wada,2 Koji Hasegawa,2 Tatsuya Morimoto1–3 1Division of Molecular Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, 2Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Theravalues Corporation, Kioicho, Tokyo, 5Department of System Chemotherapy and Molecular Sciences, Division of Bioinformatics and Chemical Genomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin–low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin®, a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD.Patients and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I–II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin® or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated.Results: There were no differences between the Theracurmin® and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure
Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina
Human genetics studies have implicated GALNT2, encoding GalNAc-T2, as a regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the mechanisms relating GALNT2 to HDL-C remain unclear. We investigated the impact of homozygous GALNT2 deficiency on HDL-C in humans and mammalian...
Background: Population studies have shown an inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). HDL has different functions, including the ability to protect biological molecules from oxidation. Our aim was to evaluate the performa...
Rotterdam, E.P.; Katan, M.B.; Knuiman, J.T.
We studied intra-individual variation in total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in healthy volunteers (22 men and 19 women, ages 19 to 62 years) on controlled natural diets. The within- person coefficient of variation (CV) depended on the interval between blood samples, increasing from
Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Groen, Albert K.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Tol, Arie
Objective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In 76 subjects
Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Groen, Albert K.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; van Tol, Arie
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. DESIGN: In 76 subjects
R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. Groen (Albert); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); R. de Vries (Rindert); W. Sluiter (Wim); A. van Tol (Arie)
textabstractObjective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In
Chen, Wei; Jarzyna, Peter A.; van Tilborg, Geralda A. F.; Nguyen, Van Anh; Cormode, David P.; Klink, Ahmed; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Fisher, Edward A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Fayad, Zahi A.
High density lipoprotein (HDL), an endogenous nanoparticle, transports fat throughout the body and is capable of transferring cholesterol from atheroma in the vessel wall to the liver. In the present study, we utilized HDL as a multimodal nanoparticle platform for tumor targeting and imaging via
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipid metabolism and particularly high-density lipoprotein (HDL may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with plasma HDL and other lipids, which may be confounded by the recently reported associations of AMD with HDL-related genes. We explored the association of AMD with plasma lipid levels and lipid-lowering medication use, taking into account most of HDL-related genes associated with AMD. METHODS: The Alienor study is a population-based study on age-related eye diseases performed in 963 elderly residents of Bordeaux (France. AMD was graded from non mydriatic color retinal photographs in three exclusive stages: no AMD (n = 430 subjects, 938 eyes; large soft distinct drusen and/or large soft indistinct drusen and/or reticular drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities (early AMD, n = 176, 247; late AMD (n = 40, 61. Associations of AMD with plasma lipids (HDL, total cholesterol (TC, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides (TG were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equation logistic regressions. Statistical analyses included 646 subjects with complete data. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment for age, sex, educational level, smoking, BMI, lipid-lowering medication use, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and for all relevant genetic polymorphisms (ApoE2, ApoE4, CFH Y402H, ARMS2 A69S, LIPC rs10468017, LIPC rs493258, LPL rs12678919, ABCA1 rs1883025 and CETP rs3764261, higher HDL was significantly associated with an increased risk of early (OR = 2.45, 95%CI: 1.54-3.90; P = 0.0002 and any AMD (OR = 2.29, 95%CI: 1.46-3.59; P = 0.0003. Association with late AMD was far from statistical significance (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 0.48-5.17; p = 0.45. No associations were found for any stage of AMD with TC, LDL and TG levels, statin or fibrate drug use. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that elderly patients with high HDL
Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum
Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho
Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.
Yadav, Rahul; Liu, Yifen; Kwok, See; Hama, Salam; France, Michael; Eatough, Ruth; Pemberton, Phil; Schofield, Jonathan; Siahmansur, Tarza J; Malik, Rayaz; Ammori, Basil A; Issa, Basil; Younis, Naveed; Donn, Rachelle; Stevens, Adam; Durrington, Paul; Soran, Handrean
Background The aim of this study was to explore the influence of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRP) versus placebo on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant function, cholesterol efflux, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, and mediators of vascular inflammation associated with 15% increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Study patients had persistent dyslipidemia despite receiving high-dose statin treatment. Methods and Results In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, we compared the effect of ERN/LRP with placebo in 27 statin-treated dyslipidemic patients who had not achieved National Cholesterol Education Program-ATP III targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We measured fasting lipid profile, apolipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, small dense LDL apoB (sdLDL-apoB), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), glycated apoB (glyc-apoB), lipoprotein phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lysophosphatidyl choline (lyso-PC), macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP1), serum amyloid A (SAA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). We also examined the capacity of HDL to protect LDL from in vitro oxidation and the percentage cholesterol efflux mediated by apoB depleted serum. ERN/LRP was associated with an 18% increase in HDL-C levels compared to placebo (1.55 versus 1.31 mmol/L, P<0.0001). There were significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, total serum apoB, lipoprotein (a), CETP activity, oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, lyso-PC, MCP1, and SAA, but no significant changes in glyc-apoB or sdLDL-apoB concentration. There was a modest increase in cholesterol efflux function of HDL (19.5%, P=0.045), but no change in the antioxidant capacity of HDL in vitro or PON1 activity. Conclusions ERN/LRP reduces LDL-associated mediators of vascular inflammation, but has varied effects on HDL functionality and LDL quality, which may counter its HDL
Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.
Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.
Full Text Available A biomimic reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL based system, rHDL/Stearic-PEI/VEGF complexes, was fabricated as an advanced nanovector for delivering VEGF plasmid. Here, Stearic-PEI was utilized to effectively condense VEGF plasmid and to incorporate the plasmid into rHDL. The rHDL/Stearic-PEI/VEGF complexes with diameter under 100 nm and neutral surface charge demonstrated enhanced stability under the presence of bovine serum albumin. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity and transfection assays on H9C2 cells further revealed their superiority, as they displayed lower cytotoxicity with much higher transfection efficiency when compared to PEI 10K/VEGF and Lipos/Stearic-PEI/VEGF complexes. In addition, in vivo investigation on ischemia/reperfusion rat model implied that rHDL/Stearic-PEI/VEGF complexes possessed high transgene capacity and strong therapeutic activity. These findings indicated that rHDL/Stearic-PEI/VEGF complexes could be an ideal gene delivery system for enhanced VEGF gene therapy of myocardial ischemia, which might be a new promising strategy for effective myocardial ischemia treatment.
Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Farah, Vanessa; Chahine, Elise; Balech, Nicole; Ibrahim, Toni; Asmar, Nadia; Barakett-Hamadé, Vanda; Jambart, Selim
The prevalence of dyslipidelmia in pediatric Middle-Eastern populations is unknown. Our study aims to investigate the distribution and correlates of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides among Lebanese school children. A total of 969 subjects aged 8-18 years were included in the study (505 boys and 464 girls). Recruitment was done from 10 schools located in the Great Beirut and Mount-Lebanon areas. Non-fasting total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Non-HDL-C was calculated. Schools were categorized into 3 socioeconomic statuses (SESs; low, middle, and high). In the overall population, the prevalence of high non-HDL-C (>3.8 mmol/L), very high non-HDL-C (>4.9 mmol/L), and high triglycerides (>1.5 mmol/l) are respectively 9.2%, 1.24%, and 26.6%. There is no significant gender difference for non-HDL-C or triglycerides. Non-HDL-C and triglycerides are inversely correlated with age in girls (P triglycerides are higher in children from lower SES schools. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), testosterone is inversely associated with triglycerides in boys (P triglycerides are independently associated with BMI and schools' SES in both girls and boys. This study confirms, in our population, the association between obesity and both high non-HDL-C and triglycerides, and between high triglycerides and low SES. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Chang; Zhou, Zijun; Chen, Ye; Liu, Ju; Wang, Yang; Liu, Hongsheng
Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) is over-expressed in tumor cells where it mediates the uptake of drug payload of reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) via the process of reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, rHDL was prepared to determine its function as a drug delivery carrier for targeting hepatocellular carcinoma by incorporating the anti-tumor drug garcinia glycosides into rHDL to yield rHDL/GG nano-complexes. Structural analysis indicated that the rHDL/GG nano-complex was similar to HDL in size. HepG2 cells treated with fluorescent-labeled rHDL/GG exhibited a time-dependent increase in cell death. Further experiment in which HepG2 cells were treated with rHDL/GG plus plasma-derived HDL showed reduction in cell death compared to treatment with rHDL/GG alone, suggesting that plasma-derived HDL compete with rHDL/GG for binding to the SR-B1 on the cell. We concluded that rHDL could incorporate GG and serve as acarrier, targeting the drug to HepG2 cells via SR-B1.
Cormode, David P; Chandrasekar, Rohith; Delshad, Amanda; Briley-Saebo, Karen C; Calcagno, Claudia; Barazza, Alessandra; Mulder, Willem J M; Fisher, Edward A; Fayad, Zahi A
Determining arterial macrophage expression is an important goal in the molecular imaging of atherosclerosis. Here, we compare the efficacy of two synthetic, high density lipoprotein (HDL) based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of macrophage burden. Each form of HDL was labeled with gadolinium and rhodamine to allow MRI and fluorescence microscopy. Either the 37 or 18 amino acid peptide replaced the apolipoprotein A-I in these agents, which were termed 37pA-Gd or 18A-Gd. The diameters of 37pA-Gd and 18A-Gd are 7.6 and 8.0 nm, respectively, while the longitudinal relaxivities are 9.8 and 10.0 (mM s)(-1). 37pA has better lipid binding properties. In vitro tests with J774A.1 macrophages proved the particles possessed the functionality of HDL by eliciting cholesterol efflux and were taken up in a receptor-like fashion by the cells. Both agents produced enhancements in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E knockout mice of approximately 90% (n = 7 per agent) and are macrophage specific as evidenced by confocal microscopy on aortic sections. The half-lives of 37pA-Gd and 18A-Gd are 2.6 and 2.1 h, respectively. Despite the more favorable lipid interactions of 37pA, both agents gave similar, excellent contrast for the detection of atherosclerotic macrophages using MRI.
Full Text Available Background and Aims. Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP. Methods. A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN, and serum creatinine (Scr determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model was developed to predict SAP as follows: −2.25–0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. Conclusions. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.
Beekhof Piet K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.
Hendriks, H F; Veenstra, J; van Tol, A; Groener, J E; Schaafsma, G
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels were investigated in response to moderate alcohol consumption. A dose of 40 g of alcohol was consumed as beer, wine or spirits by eight healthy middle-aged men before and during dinner thus simulating social drinking. Lipid parameters were studied before, and at 1, 3, 5, 9, and 13 h after dinner. An alcohol-induced elevation of plasma triglycerides was observed at 3 and 5 h after dinner, but total plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were hardly affected. HDL lipids changed during the postprandial phase after alcohol consumption, HDL triglycerides were elevated at 5 and 9 h, HDL phospholipids were elevated at 9 and 13 h, and HDL cholesterol was elevated at 13 h. A 6% increase in the concentration of apolipoprotein A-II was observed at 13 h. Plasma LCAT activity was slightly increased 9 h after dinner, but CETP activity levels were not affected. The LCAT changes appeared similar for all three alcoholic beverages. It is concluded that moderate alcohol consumption with dinner affects plasma triglyceride concentration as well as HDL composition.
Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio
Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.
Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio
high density lipoproteins (HDL) have important cardiovascular protective effects mediated by their role in reverse cholesterol transport as well as other functional activities, including significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It has been shown that HDL anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions are defective in metabolically stable diabetic patients; however they have not been evaluated during a hyperglycemic crisis. to determine the antioxidant activity of HDL during a severe diabetic decompensation and to analyze whether this function is restored after resolution of the acute event. the antioxidant activity of HDL was measured in vitro by a fluorescent assay in plasma samples obtained from diabetic patients with acute metabolic decompensation at admission, recovery within the hospital and follow-up in ambulatory care. As a comparison, HDL particles from some healthy subjects were used as controls. the HDL antioxidant function was significantly reduced in patients during an acute diabetic decompensation compared with the control group, and was gradually restored reaching normal values during the ambulatory follow-up. Hyperglycemic crisis also showed low plasma paraoxonase-1 activity, which increased significantly during at follow-up. HDL particles isolated from acute diabetic descompensated patients exhibit a significantly and reversibly low antioxidant capacity, which is probably due to a reduced paraoxonase-1 activity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Beamonte, Roberto; Lou-Bonafonte, Jose M.; Martínez-Gracia, María V.; Osada, Jesús
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are an inverse risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and sphingomyelin (SM) is the second most abundant phospholipid component and the major sphingolipid in HDL. Considering the marked presence of SM, the present review has focused on the current knowledge about this phospholipid by addressing its variable distribution among HDL lipoparticles, how they acquire this phospholipid, and the important role that SM plays in regulating their fluidity and cholesterol efflux from different cells. In addition, plasma enzymes involved in HDL metabolism such as lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase or phospholipid transfer protein are inhibited by HDL SM content. Likewise, HDL SM levels are influenced by dietary maneuvers (source of protein or fat), drugs (statins or diuretics) and modified in diseases such as diabetes, renal failure or Niemann–Pick disease. Furthermore, increased levels of HDL SM have been shown to be an inverse risk factor for coronary heart disease. The complexity of SM species, described using new lipidomic methodologies, and their distribution in different HDL particles under many experimental conditions are promising avenues for further research in the future. PMID:23571495
Miao, LiXia; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Cao, ZhiJan; Yang, Hong; Motley-Johnson, Evangeline; Guo, Zhongmao
Accumulation of unesterified cholesterol-rich lipid vesicles in the subendothelial space contributes to atherogenesis. Transport of cholesterol from the subendothelial intima back to the circulating blood inhibits atherosclerosis development; however, the mechanism for this process has not been fully defined. Using cultured mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs), we observed that unesterified cholesterol can be transported across the endothelial cell monolayer from the basolateral to the apical compartment. Administration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) to the apical compartment enhanced transendothelial cholesterol transport in a concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) or scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1), or inhibition of SR-B1 diminished HDL-induced transendothelial cholesterol transport; while knockdown of ABCA1 reduced apoAI-mediated cholesterol transport. HDL enhanced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt in MAECs. However, inhibition of PI3K or Akt did not reduce HDL-induced transendothelial cholesterol transport. These results suggest that HDL enhances transendothelial cholesterol transport by activation of a mechanism involving ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-B1 but not involving PI3K and Akt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL levels are an inverse risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and sphingomyelin (SM is the second most abundant phospholipid component and the major sphingolipid in HDL. Considering the marked presence of SM, the present review has focused on the current knowledge about this phospholipid by addressing its variable distribution among HDL lipoparticles, how they acquire this phospholipid, and the important role that SM plays in regulating their fluidity and cholesterol efflux from different cells. In addition, plasma enzymes involved in HDL metabolism such as lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase or phospholipid transfer protein are inhibited by HDL SM content. Likewise, HDL SM levels are influenced by dietary maneuvers (source of protein or fat, drugs (statins or diuretics and modified in diseases such as diabetes, renal failure or Niemann–Pick disease. Furthermore, increased levels of HDL SM have been shown to be an inverse risk factor for coronary heart disease. The complexity of SM species, described using new lipidomic methodologies, and their distribution in different HDL particles under many experimental conditions are promising avenues for further research in the future.
Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs
The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...
Zhang, Wenli; He, Hongliang; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Suyang; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Zimei
High density lipoproteins (HDL) have been successfully reconstructed to deliver a large number of lipophilic drugs. Here, discoidal and spherical recombinant HDL loaded with cardiovascular drug tanshinone IIA (TA) were constructed (TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL), respectively. And next their in vitro physiochemical and biomimetic properties were characterized. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics, atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects and antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately performed and compared in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In vitro characterizations results showed that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had nano-size diameter, high entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug-loading capacity (DL). Additionally, similar to their native counterparts, TA-d-rHDL maintained remodeling behaviors induced by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and TA leaked during remodeling behaviors. Pharmacokinetic studies manifested that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL markedly improved pharmacokinetic behaviors of TA in vivo. Ex vivo imaging demonstrated that both d-rHDL and s-rHDL bound more avidly to atherosclerotic lesions than to normal vessel walls, and s-rHDL had better targeting effect than d-rHDL. Pharmacodynamic tests illustrated that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had much stronger antiatherogenic efficacies than conventional TA nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-NLC), TA liposomes (TA-L) and commercially available preparation Sulfotanshinone Sodium Injection (SSI). Moreover, TA-s-rHDL had more potent antiatherogenic efficacies than TA-d-rHDL. Collectively our studies indicated that rHDL could be exploited as potential delivery vehicles of TA targeting atherosclerotic lesions as well as synergistically improving efficacies, especially for s-rHDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radhika, G; Ganesan, A; Sathya, R M; Sudha, V; Mohan, V
To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged >/=20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in southern India. Participants with self-reported history of diabetes or heart disease or on drug therapy for dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index and glycemic load were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Both dietary glycemic load (Pcarbohydrate intake (Pglycemic load, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C values were 44.1 mg per 100 ml and 41.2 mg per 100 ml (6.6% difference, P for trendcarbohydrate it was less (5% difference, P for trend=0.016). The pattern of decrease in HDL-C for the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load was more pronounced among men (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 4.3 mg per 100 ml decrease (10.3%)) than women (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 3.2 mg per 100 ml decrease (6.9%)). Our findings indicate that both total carbohydrates and dietary glycemic load intake are inversely associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations among Asian Indians, with dietary glycemic load having a stronger association.
Lehti, Maarit; Donelan, Elizabeth; Abplanalp, William; Al-Massadi, Omar; Habegger, Kirk M; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Mansfeld, Johannes; Somvanshi, Sonal; Trivedi, Chitrang; Keuper, Michaela; Ograjsek, Teja; Striese, Cynthia; Cucuruz, Sebastian; Pfluger, Paul T; Krishna, Radhakrishna; Gordon, Scott M; Silva, R A Gangani D; Luquet, Serge; Castel, Julien; Martinez, Sarah; D'Alessio, David; Davidson, W Sean; Hofmann, Susanna M
Abnormal glucose metabolism is a central feature of disorders with increased rates of cardiovascular disease. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are a key predictor for cardiovascular disease. We used genetic mouse models with increased HDL levels (apolipoprotein A-I transgenic [apoA-I tg]) and reduced HDL levels (apoA-I-deficient [apoA-I ko]) to investigate whether HDL modulates mitochondrial bioenergetics in skeletal muscle. ApoA-I ko mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance test compared with wild-type mice. Mitochondria isolated from gastrocnemius muscle of apoA-I ko mice displayed markedly blunted ATP synthesis. Endurance capacity during exercise exhaustion test was impaired in apoA-I ko mice. HDL directly enhanced glucose oxidation by increasing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration rate in C2C12 muscle cells. ApoA-I tg mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance test, increased lactate levels, reduced fat mass, associated with protection against age-induced decline of endurance capacity compared with wild-type mice. Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 21, a novel biomarker for mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiencies and inhibitor of white adipose lipolysis, were significantly reduced in apoA-I tg mice. Consistent with an increase in glucose utilization of skeletal muscle, genetically increased HDL and apoA-I levels in mice prevented high-fat diet-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis. In view of impaired mitochondrial function and decreased HDL levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus, our findings indicate that HDL-raising therapies may preserve muscle mitochondrial function and address key aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond cardiovascular disease.
Smith, Loren E; Smith, Derek K; Blume, Jeffrey D; Linton, MacRae F; Billings, Frederic T
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and damage play important roles in the development of AKI. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and improve endothelial function and repair. Statins enhance HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. We hypothesized that a higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration is associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery and that perioperative statin exposure potentiates this association. We tested our hypothesis in 391 subjects from a randomized clinical trial of perioperative atorvastatin to reduce AKI after cardiac surgery. A 2-component latent variable mixture model was used to assess the association between preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration and postoperative change in serum creatinine, adjusted for known AKI risk factors and suspected confounders. Interaction terms were used to examine the effects of preoperative statin use, preoperative statin dose, and perioperative atorvastatin treatment on the association between preoperative HDL and AKI. A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was independently associated with a decreased postoperative serum creatinine change (P=0.02). The association between a high HDL concentration and an attenuated increase in serum creatinine was strongest in long-term statin-using patients (P=0.008) and was further enhanced with perioperative atorvastatin treatment (P=0.004) and increasing long-term statin dose (P=0.003). A higher preoperative HDL cholesterol concentration was associated with decreased AKI after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and perioperative statin treatment enhanced this association, demonstrating that pharmacological potentiation is possible during the perioperative period. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT00791648. © 2017 The Authors
Gu, Feifei; Jones, Martin K; Chen, Jianguo; Patterson, James C; Catte, Andrea; Jerome, W Gray; Li, Ling; Segrest, Jere P
Conversion of discoidal phospholipid (PL)-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) to spheroidal cholesteryl ester-rich HDL is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport. A detailed understanding of this process and the atheroprotective role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) requires knowledge of the structure and dynamics of these various particles. This study, combining computation with experimentation, illuminates structural features of apoA-I allowing it to incorporate varying amounts of PL. Molecular dynamics simulated annealing of PL-rich HDL models containing unesterified cholesterol results in double belt structures with the same general saddle-shaped conformation of both our previous molecular dynamics simulations at 310 K and the x-ray structure of lipid-free apoA-I. Conversion from a discoidal to a saddle-shaped particle involves loss of helicity and formation of loops in opposing antiparallel parts of the double belt. During surface expansion caused by the temperature-jump step, the curved palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer surfaces approach planarity. Relaxation back into saddle-shaped structures after cool down and equilibration further supports the saddle-shaped particle model. Our kinetic analyses of reconstituted particles demonstrate that PL-rich particles exist in discrete sizes corresponding to local energetic minima. Agreement of experimental and computational determinations of particle size/shape and apoA-I helicity provide additional support for the saddle-shaped particle model. Truncation experiments combined with simulations suggest that the N-terminal proline-rich domain of apoA-I influences the stability of PL-rich HDL particles. We propose that apoA-I incorporates increasing PL in the form of minimal surface bilayers through the incremental unwinding of an initially twisted saddle-shaped apoA-I double belt structure.
Moradi, Hamid; Streja, Elani; Kashyap, Moti L; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Fonarow, Gregg C; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) confers protection against atherosclerosis by several different mechanisms. Although in the general population, increasing levels of HDL are associated with reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality, this association is not well known in patients with chronic disease states such as end-stage renal disease. We hypothesize that the association of serum HDL concentration and its ratio to total cholesterol with all-cause and CV mortality in hemodialysis patients is different from the general population. A 3-year (July 2004 to June 2007) cohort of 33 109 chronic hemodialysis patients was studied in the USA in the dialysis clinics where lipid profile was measured in at least 50% of all outpatients of the clinic during a given calendar quarter. Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for demographics and case-mix variables and cubic splines were plotted. Higher HDL concentrations up to 50 mg/dL were associated with better overall survival, while HDL at 60 mg/dL and above was associated with a rise in all-cause and CV mortality. All-cause and CV mortality hazard ratio was 1.28 (1.20-1.38) and 1.08 (1.01-1.16) for HDL mortality in hemodialysis patients. A U-shaped association between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause and CV mortality exists in hemodialysis patients with HDL between 50 and <60 mg/dL exhibiting the best survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these seemingly paradoxical associations await further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Kastl, Stefan P; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Pongratz, Thomas; Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M; Goliasch, Georg; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Oravec, Stanislav; Wojta, Johann; Speidl, Walter S
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are heterogeneous in structure and function and the role of HDL subfractions in atherogenesis is not well understood. It has been suggested that small HDL may be dysfunctional in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Monocytes are considered to play a key role in atherosclerotic diseases. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three subtypes according to their surface expression of CD14 and CD16. Our aim was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with HDL subfractions in patients with atherosclerosis. We included 90 patients with angiographically stable CAD. Monocyte subsets were defined as classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-; CM), intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+; IM) and non-classical monocytes (CD14+CD16++; NCM). HDL subfractions were measured by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Serum levels of small HDL correlated with circulating pro-inflammatory NCM and showed an inverse relationship to circulating CM independently from other lipid parameters, risk factors, inflammatory parameters or statin treatment regime, respectively. IM were not associated with small HDL. In particular, patients with small HDL levels in the highest tertile showed dramatically increased levels of NCM (14.7 ± 7% vs. 10.7 ± 5% and 10.8 ± 5%; p = 0.006) and a decreased proportion of CM (79.3 ± 7% vs. 83.7 ± 6% and 83.9 ± 6%; p = 0.004) compared to patients in the two lower tertiles. In contrast, intermediate HDL, large HDL and total HDL were not associated with monocyte subset distribution. Small HDL levels are associated with pro-inflammatory NCM and inversely correlated with CM. This may suggest that small HDL could have dysfunctional anti-inflammatory properties in patients with established CAD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Blackhurst, Dee; Frias, Miguel; James, Richard; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine
Obesity and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with cardiovascular risk. Surprisingly, despite a greater prevalence of obesity and lower HDL concentrations than white women, black South African women are relatively protected against ischaemic heart disease. We investigated whether this apparent discrepancy may be related to different HDL function and subclass distribution in black and white, normal-weight and obese South African women (n = 40). HDL functionality was assessed by measuring paraoxonase (PON) activity, platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and quantification of the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule in endothelial cells. PON-1 and PAF-AH expression was determined in isolated HDL and serum using Western blotting. Levels of large, intermediate and small HDL subclasses were measured using the Lipoprint® system. PON activity was lower in white compared to black women (0.49 ± 0.09 U/L vs 0.78 ± 0.10 U/L, p Obese black women had lower PAF-AH activity (9.34 ± 1.15 U/L vs 13.89 ± 1.21 U/L, p obese white women. Compared to normal-weight women, obese women had lower large HDL, greater intermediate and small HDL; an effect that was more pronounced in white women than black women. There were no differences in antioxidant capacity or anti-inflammatory function across groups. Our data show that both obesity and ethnicity are associated with differences in HDL functionality, while obesity was associated with decreases in large HDL subclass distribution. Measuring HDL functionality and subclass may, therefore, be important factors to consider when assessing cardiovascular risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C has been advocated as a simple clinical indicator of insulin resistance. Thresholds of TG/HDL-C appeared to depend on ethnicity. However, no studies have specifically compared the accuracy of TG/HDL-C with and without other clinical and demographic factors in predicting insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. The aim of the present investigation was to use TG/HDL-C and other clinical available factors to predict insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. Methods A total of 812 subjects were recruited from at the time of their general health examination at the Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taiwan. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained. Insulin resistance was defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to obtain probabilities of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 2 using TG/HDL-C with (Model 2 and without (Model 1 other clinical variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the two models to correctly discriminate between subjects of low and elevated HOMA-IR. Results Female sex, greater waist circumferences, and higher ALT levels were significantly associated with the risk of elevated HOMA-IR in addition to TG/HDL-C in the multiple logistic regression (Model 2. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of Model 2 was 0.71 [95% CI = 0.67-0.75] and was significantly higher (P = 0.007 than the AUC 0.66 [95% CI = 0.62-0.71] of Model 1. Conclusions The diagnostic accuracy of insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR, using TG/HDL-C can be significantly enhanced by including three additional clinically available factors - sex, waist circumferences, and ALT levels.
Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Chang, Jiunn-Kae; Koo, Malcolm
The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) has been advocated as a simple clinical indicator of insulin resistance. Thresholds of TG/HDL-C appeared to depend on ethnicity. However, no studies have specifically compared the accuracy of TG/HDL-C with and without other clinical and demographic factors in predicting insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. The aim of the present investigation was to use TG/HDL-C and other clinical available factors to predict insulin resistance in Taiwanese adults. A total of 812 subjects were recruited from at the time of their general health examination at the Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taiwan. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were obtained. Insulin resistance was defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to obtain probabilities of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 2) using TG/HDL-C with (Model 2) and without (Model 1) other clinical variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the two models to correctly discriminate between subjects of low and elevated HOMA-IR. Female sex, greater waist circumferences, and higher ALT levels were significantly associated with the risk of elevated HOMA-IR in addition to TG/HDL-C in the multiple logistic regression (Model 2). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Model 2 was 0.71 [95% CI = 0.67-0.75] and was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than the AUC 0.66 [95% CI = 0.62-0.71] of Model 1. The diagnostic accuracy of insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR, using TG/HDL-C can be significantly enhanced by including three additional clinically available factors - sex, waist circumferences, and ALT levels.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL was reported to decrease plasma glucose and promote insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes patients. This investigation was designed to determine the effects and mechanisms of HDL on glucose uptake in adipocytes and glycogen synthesis in muscle cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Actions of HDL on glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assessed with 1-[(3H]-2-deoxyglucose and plasma membrane lawn, respectively, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycogen analysis was performed with amyloglucosidase and glucose oxidase-peroxidase methods in normal and palmitate-treated L6 cells. Small interfering RNA was used to observe role of scavenger receptor type I (SR-BI in glucose uptake of HDL. Corresponding signaling molecules were detected by immunoblotting. HDL stimulated glucose uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was significantly increased by HDL. Glycogen deposition got enhanced in L6 muscle cells paralleling with elevated glycogen synthase kinase3 (GSK3 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, increased phosphorylations of Akt-Ser473 and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK α were detected in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glucose uptake and Akt-Ser473 activation but not AMPK-α were diminished in SR-BI knock-down 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: HDL stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through enhancing GLUT4 translocation by mechanisms involving PI3K/Akt via SR-BI and AMPK signaling pathways, and increases glycogen deposition in L6 muscle cells through promoting GSK3 phosphorylation.
Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't
A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate
Shoma Hayat; Shahnaj Begum; Muhammad Rezwanur Rahman; Muhammad Saiedullah; Md. Aminul Haque Khan
Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total ch...
Corral, Pablo; Schreier, Laura
There is irrefutable evidence that statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in a magnitude proportional to the intensity of the decrease in cholesterol transport by the low density lipoproteins. Despite this great advance there is still a residual risk of cardiovascular events. For this reason, an increase in the levels of high density lipoprotein is considered in order to boost the main action of this lipoprotein, which is reverse cholesterol transport. Distinct classes of evidence (epidemiological, genetic, and pathophysiological) show that the inhibition and/or modulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein increases plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. The main reason for presenting this review is to look at the physiology of cholesterol ester transfer protein, its interrelationship with high density lipoproteins, and to give an update on the development of different cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor/modulator molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.
Damiano, Marina Giacoma
High density lipoproteins (HDLs), natural nanoparticles that function as vehicles for cholesterol transport, have enhanced uptake by several human cancers. This uptake is mediated, in part, by the high affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B-1 (SR-B1). More specifically, studies show that the rate of cellular proliferation of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphocytes, is directly proportional to the amount of HDL-cholesterol available. Thus, targeting of HDL-cholesterol uptake by these cells could be an effective therapeutic approach that may have lower toxicity to healthy cells compared to conventional therapies. Biomimetic HDL can be synthesized using a gold nanoparticle template (HDL-AuNPs), which provides control over size, shape, and surface chemistry. Like their natural counterparts, HDL-AuNPs sequester cholesterol. However, since the gold nanoparticle replaces the cholesterol core of natural HDL, HDL-AuNPs inherently deliver less cholesterol. We show that HDL-AuNPs are able to induce dose dependent apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines and reduce tumor volume following systemic administration to mice bearing B cell lymphoma tumors. Furthermore, HDL-AuNPs are neither toxic to healthy human lymphocytes (SR-B1-), nor to hepatocytes and macrophages (SR-B1+), which are cells naturally encountered by HDLs. Manipulation of cholesterol flux and targeting of SR-B1 are responsible for the efficacy of HDL-AuNPs against B cell lymphoma. HDL-AuNPs could be used to treat B cell lymphomas and other diseases that involve pathologic accumulation of cholesterol. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) core HDLs (HDL-TiO 2 NPs) have been synthesized for high resolution cellular localization studies and for future use as a therapeutic and imaging agent. In initial studies, HDL-TiO(2 NPs display maximum uptake in B cell lymphoma cell lines. X-ray fluorescence microscopy studies show interaction between HDL-TiO2 NPs and cells 10 minutes after treatment and internalization after
Lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is converted into alpha-migrating high density lipoproteins by lipoprotein-depleted plasma of normolipidemic donors and apo A-I-deficient patients but not of Tangier disease patients
von Eckardstein, A.; Huang, Y.; Kastelein, J. J.; Geisel, J.; Real, J. T.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Miccoli, R.; Noseda, G.; Assmann, G.
Plasma of patients with Tangier disease (TD) is devoid of alpha-LpA-I (apolipoprotein A-I-containing lipoprotein), which in normolipidemic plasma constitutes the majority of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The residual amounts of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) in TD plasma have electrophoretic
Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine
The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.
Ayyappa, K A; Shatwan, I; Bodhini, D; Bramwell, L R; Ramya, K; Sudha, V; Anjana, R M; Lovegrove, J A; Mohan, V; Radha, V; Vimaleswaran, K S
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) have been shown to influence metabolism related to lipid phenotypes. Dietary factors have been shown to modify the association between LPL SNPs and lipids; however, to date, there are no studies in South Asians. Hence, we tested for the association of four common LPL SNPs with plasma lipids and examined the interactions between the SNPs and dietary factors on lipids in 1,845 Asian Indians. The analysis was performed in 788 Type 2 diabetes cases and 1,057 controls randomly chosen from the cross-sectional Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG), serum total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using a Hitachi-912 autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The SNPs (rs1121923, rs328, rs4922115 and rs285) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme digestion and 20% of samples were sequenced to validate the genotypes obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. After correction for multiple testing and adjusting for potential confounders, SNPs rs328 and rs285 showed association with HDL-C (P = 0.0004) and serum TAG (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. The interaction between SNP rs1121923 and fat intake (energy %) on HDL-C (P = 0.003) was also significant, where, among those who consumed a high fat diet (28.4 ± 2.5%), the T allele carriers (TT + XT) had significantly higher HDL-C concentrations (P = 0.0002) and 30% reduced risk of low HDL-C levels compared to the CC homozygotes. None of the interactions on other lipid traits were statistically significant. Our findings suggest that individuals carrying T allele of the SNP rs1121923 have increased HDL-C levels when consuming a high fat diet compared
Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Ayaori, Makoto; Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Nakajima, Takatomo; Mutoh, Makoto; Ikewaki, Katsunori
We examined the clinical relevance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity from macrophage (cholesterol efflux capacity) as a predictor of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with that of conventional coronary and lipid risk variables in Japanese daily practice. Fasting blood sampling, including 6 routinely measured dyslipidemia-related variables, was performed at the time of coronary angiography (CAG) or multi-slice coronary computed tomography (MSCT) between January 2011 and January 2013. CAD, defined as native coronary atherosclerosis stenosis >50% by CAG or MSCT, was identified in 182 patients (CAD group), but not in 72 patients (non-CAD group). Cholesterol efflux capacity, measured using a cell-based efflux system in (3)[H]-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages in apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma, was significantly impaired in the CAD group compared with the non-CAD group (0.86 ± 0.26 vs. 1.02 ± 0.38; p = 0.001). After adjusting 15 patient and dyslipidemia-related variables using a propensity score matching analysis produced 55 patients in each arm, cholesterol efflux capacity in the CAD group remained to be significant compared with the non-CAD group (0.83 ± 0.24 vs. 0.97 ± 0.36; p = 0.019). Stepwise logistic regression analysis using a backward method after the baseline adjustment showed that cholesterol efflux capacity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.056-0.91; p = 0.037) was the single predictor of CAD, while other variables including HDL-C (p = 0.088) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (p = 0.681) were removed owing to those insignificance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve after the baseline adjustment was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.51-0.73, p = 0.048 by Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics). The present observational study conducted under daily clinical practice confirmed that cholesterol efflux capacity is a clinically relevant predictor of CAD among the
Scanu, Anna; Luisetto, Roberto; Oliviero, Francesca; Gruaz, Lyssia; Sfriso, Paolo; Burger, Danielle; Punzi, Leonardo
To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation -that is, gouty inflammation, in vivo. Air pouches raised on the backs of mice were injected with MSU crystals or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the presence or absence of HDL and/or interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) for 3 h. Leucocyte count and neutrophil percentage in pouch fluids were measured using a haemocytometer and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. The cytokine production and expression in the pouch were measured by ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. MSU crystals induced leucocyte infiltration, mostly neutrophils, and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and IL-1Ra in pouch fluids. TNF remained under the detection limit. MSU crystals triggered IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 expression in both pouch exudates and membranes, whereas CCL2 and TNF mRNA were not modulated. The co-injection of MSU crystals and HDL inhibited leucocyte influx by 59% and neutrophil infiltration by 83% and, in turn, both protein and mRNA levels of all assessed proinflammatory cytokines were reduced, but not those of IL-1Ra. Similar results were obtained when mice were injected with MSU crystals pretreated with HDL or TNF instead of crystals. When HDL and IL-1Ra were added together they displayed additional inhibition, suggesting different mechanisms of action. This study demonstrated that HDL may represent an important factor in the modulation of gouty inflammation by acting on both tissue and infiltrating cells -that is, synovial tissue and synovial fluid cells. HDL display anti-inflammatory activity, in part, by interacting with crystals but also by directly acting on cells. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL
Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ROS-derived hydroperoxides, as an indicator of ROS production, have been measured by using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs test, which requires iron-containing transferrin in the reaction mixture. In this study we developed a modified d-ROMs test, termed the Fe-ROMs test, where iron ions were exogenously added to the reaction mixture. This modification is expected to exclude the assay variation that comes from different blood iron levels in individuals. In addition, this Fe-ROMs test was helpful for determining the class of plasma lipoproteins that are hydroperoxidized. Low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were purified by use of an LDL/VLDL purification kit and the dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation method, respectively; their hydroperoxide contents were assessed by performing the Fe-ROMs test. The majority of the hydroperoxides were detected only in the HDL fraction, not in the LDL/VLDL. Further detailed analysis of HDLs by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the hydroperoxide-containing molecules were small-sized HDLs. Because HDL was shown to be the principal vehicle for the plasma hydroperoxides, this Fe-ROMs test is a beneficial method for the assessment of oxidized-HDL levels. Indeed, Fe-ROMs levels were strongly associated with the levels of oxidized HDL, which were determined by performing the malondialdehyde-modified HDL enzyme immunoassay. In conclusion, the Fe-ROMs test using plasma itself or the HDL fraction after dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation is useful to assess the functionality of HDL, because the oxidation of HDL impairs its antiatherogenic capacity.
Williams, Paul T
Objective The inverse relationship between adiposity and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is well established, however, we believe that its usual representation lacks an important dimension. The purpose of this study is to test whether the relationship depends upon past weight history in addition to current weight. Design Physician-supplied medical data were compared to questionnaires from a national cross-sectional survey. Subjects 6847 men who ran between zero and 171 km per week. Measurement Self-reported current weight, greatest lifetime weight and body circumferences were compared to physician-supplied data for plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. Result Current HDL-cholesterol levels were greatest in those runners with the greatest weight loss since their maximum lifetime weight and the greatest reductions in circumference of their waist, hip, and chest since their maximum weight. Plasma levels of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol were also significantly lower for runners showing the greatest decreases in total and regional adiposity since their maximum weight. The results remained significant when adjusted for current body mass index and running mileage. Conclusion These results suggest that the lipoprotein concentrations of runners are in part dependent upon whether the current weight is relatively high or low within the historical range of weights experienced by the individual. PMID:9023594
Xiong, Fangyuan; Nirupama, Sabnis; Sirsi, Shashank R; Lacko, Andras; Hoyt, Kenneth
The abnormal tumor vasculature and the resulting abnormal microenvironment are major barriers to optimal chemotherapeutic drug delivery. It is well known that ultrasound (US) can increase the permeability of the tumor vessel walls and enhance the accumulation of anticancer agents. Reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) nanoparticles (NPs) allow selective delivery of anticancer agents to tumor cells via their overexpressed scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1) receptor. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential of noninvasive US therapy to further improve delivery and tumor uptake of the payload from rHDL NPs, preloaded with an infrared dye (IR-780), aimed to establish a surrogate chemotherapeutic model with optical localization. Athymic nude mice were implanted orthotopically with one million breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231/Luc). Three weeks later, animals were divided into seven groups with comparable mean tumor size: control, low, moderate, and high concentration of rHDL NPs alone groups, as well as these three levels of rHDL NPs plus US therapy groups (N = 7 to 12 animals per group), where low, moderate and high denote 5, 10, and 50 µg of the IR-780 dye payload per rHDL NP injection, respectively. The US therapy system included a single element focused transducer connected in series with a function generator and power amplifier. A custom 3D printed cone with an acoustically transparent aperture and filled with degassed water allowed delivery of focused US energy to the tumor tissue. US exposure involved a pulsed sequence applied for a duration of 5 min. Each animal in the US therapy groups received a slow bolus co-injection of MB contrast agent and rHDL NPs. Animals were imaged using a whole-body optical system to quantify intratumoral rHDL NP accumulation at baseline and again at 1 min, 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h. At 48 h, all animals were euthanized and tumors were excised for ex vivo analysis. We investigated a noninvasive optical imaging
Ponsot, P; Yvert, J P; Chevrier, M; Bon, R
The authors utilized a reagent containing concanavalin A, a vegetal lecithin, to selectively precipitate lipoproteins containing apoprotein B, a component of VLDL, LDL, and Lp (a) which are well known for their atherogenic risk. During this precipitation "true" high density lipoproteins remain in solution. HDL cholesterol determination which constitutes an indirect indication of HDL activity or concentrations is performed by an enzymatic method using an automated continuous flow technique carried out on an Auto Analyzer II (Technicon Corp.). This rapid, easy determination obtains results comparable to other methods, particularly those chosen by the Société Française de Biologie Clinique (French Society of Clinical Biology). This technique should permit all laboratories to confirm an atherogenic index.
Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF
Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key
She, M P; Xia, R Y; Ran, B F; Wong, Z L
According to data obtained from epidemiological and experimental survey, serum HDL level is known to be correlated conversely with the incidence of atherosclerosis. Experimental data collected in this article explained part of its mechanism, which is described in four parts as follows: 1. The result of 3 successive experiments on experimental atherosclerosis in tree shrews (total of 96 animals available including 40 as the controls) showed that the serum HDL level had been kept persistantly to 69-88% of the total serum lipoproteins even after a high cholesterol intake for 32 weeks. The incidence of atheromatous lesions developed was only 0-9%, but the incidence of gall stone was very high, 48-84% by gross examination by the end of these experiments. 2. HDL are also capable of (1) promotion of monocyte migration activity; (2) enhancement of cholesterol clearance rate of aortic smooth muscle cells originally isolated from either rabbits or tree shrews; (3) inhibition of 20% of LDL degradation but with no inhibitory effect obtained on Ac-LDL degradation in the endothelial cells; (4) presence of specific binding sites for apo E free HDL on the surface of aortic smooth muscle cells from either rabbits or tree shrews which recognizes apo A1 as a ligand. 3. Data from 2 successive experiments in rabbits showed that HDL lipoproteins (mainly apo A1) possess an inhibitory effect on the development of atheromatous plaques, but not a very strong one. 4. The colesterol clearance effect of smooth muscle cells was markedly enhanced by apo A1/phospholipid liposomes (the apo A1 used was isolated from either rabbit's or tree shrew's serum) in vitro.
Schwab, K Otfried; Doerfer, Jürgen; Hungele, Andreas; Scheuing, Nicole; Krebs, Andreas; Dost, Axel; Rohrer, Tilman R; Hofer, Sabine; Holl, Reinhard W
Percentile-based non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed by glycemic control, weight, age, and sex of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 26,358). Ten percent of all children and 25% of overweight adolescent girls require both immediate lipid-lowering medication and lifestyle changes to achieve non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <120 mg/dL and cardiovascular risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of coronary heart disease risk: The PROCAM experience and pathophysiological implications for reverse cholesterol transport. Atherosclerosis 124(suppl 6):S11–20. 1996. ...
Liu, Junmeng; Yang, Ruiyue; Zhou, Min; Mao, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Shu; Chen, Wenxiang; Dong, Jun; He, Qing
Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (FERHDL) has been found to be closely correlated with atherosclerotic dyslipidemia, especially lipoprotein distributions, and is a potentially useful predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The associations of FERHDL, measured by the simple and precise HPLC method, with angiographically defined CHD and its related risk factors in Chinese patients were evaluated. Two hundred and fifty eight Chinese patients who had indications for angiography were enrolled in this study. Coronary angiograms were obtained by the standard techniques. FERHDL was determined by the HPLC method. Cholesterol levels in serum HDL, LDL and subfractions were measured by ultracentrifugation/HPLC method. Associations between FERHDL and CHD and CHD risk factors were analyzed. FERHDL was correlated with almost all the CHD risk factors. Compared with the non-CHD group, the CHD patients had higher values of FERHDL (20.9 ± 7.9%/h vs 17.7 ± 7.1%/h, p = 0.001). FERHDL was found to be independently and positively correlated with log TG (β = 0.386, P risk factors for CHD. FERHDL significantly correlated with both HDL2-C and LDLb-C, and therefore, is the predictor of lipoprotein distributions. In addition, after correcting for the presence of classic risk factors, FERHDL was independently associated with the presence of angiographically defined CHD.
Button, Emily B; Yuen, Brian; Gilmour, Megan; Kang, Kevin; Bahrabadi, Arvin; Stukas, Sophie; Zhao, Wenchen; Kulic, Iva
Amyloid plaques, consisting of deposited beta-amyloid (Aβ), are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Cerebral vessels play a major role in AD, as Aβ is cleared from the brain by pathways involving the cerebrovasculature, most AD patients have cerebrovascular amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cardiovascular risk factors increase dementia risk. Here we present a notable advance in vascular tissue engineering by generating the first functional 3-dimensioinal model of CAA in bioengineered human vessels. We show that lipoproteins including brain (apoE) and circulating (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) synergize to facilitate Aβ transport across bioengineered human cerebral vessels. These lipoproteins facilitate Aβ42 transport more efficiently than Aβ40, consistent with Aβ40 being the primary species that accumulates in CAA. Moreover, apoE4 is less effective than apoE2 in promoting Aβ transport, also consistent with the well-established role of apoE4 in Aβ deposition in AD. PMID:28994390
Full Text Available Background: Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is the most common complication of ethanol abuse. Alcoholic fatty liver progresses to alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Lipoproteins are synthesized by the liver and secreted into the circulation. Alcoholic liver cirrhosis causes alteration in lipoprotein metabolism producing liver steatosis and necrosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1 is an enzyme synthesized in liver and has an esterase activity towards lipid peroxides and circulates in plasma bound to High-Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c. Aim and Objectives: To determine the activity of PON-1 and levels of HDL-c in alcoholic liver disease and to correlate PON-1 activity with HDL-c. Materials and Methods: A Cross sectional study done in Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Belagavi Institute of Medical Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India, from 1st December 2014 to 31st January 2016 Study included 50 males (age range 25-55 years with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 50 healthy male participants (age range 25-55 years. PON-1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of phenylacetate. HDL-c level was measured by cholesterol oxidase-peroxidase method. Results: The serum PON-1 activity and levels of HDL-c in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were significantly reduced (p<0.001 compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant decrease in PON-1 and HDL-c in alcoholic liver cirrhosis may contribute to the risk of atherosclerosis in alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients.
Wolfe, Adam R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Rachel L. [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Debeb, Bisrat G.; Larson, Richard; Li, Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Masuda, Hiroko; Brewer, Takae [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Atkinson, Bradley J. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy Services, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brewster, Abeena [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ueno, Naoto T. [Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
Purpose: We previously demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering agents regulate radiation sensitivity of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cell lines in vitro and are associated with less radiation resistance among IBC patients who undergo postmastectomy radiation. We hypothesized that decreasing IBC cellular cholesterol induced by treatment with lipoproteins would increase radiation sensitivity. Here, we examined the impact of specific transporters of cholesterol (ie lipoproteins) on the responses of IBC cells to self-renewal and to radiation in vitro and on clinical outcomes in IBC patients. Methods and Materials: Two patient-derived IBC cell lines, SUM 149 and KPL4, were incubated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL) for 24 hours prior to irradiation (0-6 Gy) and mammosphere formation assay. Cholesterol panels were examined in a cohort of patients with primary IBC diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Lipoprotein levels were then correlated to patient outcome, using the log rank statistical model, and examined in multivariate analysis using Cox regression. Results: VLDL increased and HDL decreased mammosphere formation compared to untreated SUM 149 and KPL4 cells. Survival curves showed enhancement of survival in both of the IBC cell lines when pretreated with VLDL and, conversely, radiation sensitization in all cell lines when pretreated with HDL. In IBC patients, higher VLDL values (>30 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than normal values (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.9 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-3.45], P=.035). Lower-than-normal patient HDL values (<60 mg/dL) predicted a lower 5-year overall survival rate than values higher than 60 mg/dL (HR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.25-8.27], P=.015). Conclusions: This study discovered a relationship among the plasma levels of lipoproteins, overall patient response, and radiation resistance in IBC patients
Ling, Yan; Jiang, Jingjing; Wu, Bingjie; Gao, Xin
Increased serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The major types of dyslipidemia in Chinese population are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of HDL-C, triglyceride, and apoB levels on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population undergoing coronary angiography. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1941 consecutive patients who were referred to coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected CHD were recruited. Lipid parameters were measured after an overnight fast. Patients were diagnosed with CHD and without CHD based on the findings of the coronary angiography. There were 1363 angiography confirmed CHD patients and 578 non-CHD patients. In nonstatin users, the major types of dyslipidemia were hypertriglyceridemia combined with low HDL-C, isolated low HDL-C, and isolated hypertriglyceridemia, accounting for 21.60%, 19.70%, and 14.99%, respectively. In statin users, a low to moderate-intensity statin was effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The proportion of reaching an LDL-C goal coronary angiography with a relatively low level of LDL-C and a high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cordero, Alberto; Moreno-Arribas, José; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Agudo, Pilar; Miralles, Beatriz; Masiá, M Dolores; López-Palop, Ramón; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente
The role of high-density lipoproteins in the context of acute chest pain has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of lipid profile to the risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients admitted to a cardiology ward for chest pain. We included all consecutive admissions in a single cardiology department over a period of 10 months and 1-year follow-up was performed. In total, 959 patients were included: 457 (47.7%) were diagnosed with non-ischemic chest pain, 355 (37%) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and 147 (15.3%) with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Prevalence of high-density lipoproteins acute coronary syndrome (69.4% vs 30.6%; Pacute coronary syndrome increased with reductions in mean high-density lipoproteins. Age, active smoking, diabetes, fasting glucose >100 mg/dL, and high-density lipoproteins acute coronary syndrome, and low high-density lipoproteins was the main associated factor (odds ratio, 4.11; 95% confidence interval, 2.87-5.96). Survival analysis determined that, compared with non-ischemic chest pain, the presence of acute coronary syndrome was associated with significantly greater risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Low levels of high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (≤40 mg/dL) were independently associated with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients hospitalized for chest pain, with an inverse relationship between lower levels of high-density lipoproteins and prevalence of acute coronary syndrome. Copyright Â© 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chien, Kuo-Liong; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Hu, Frank B
The aim of our study was to compare apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (nonHDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and other lipid markers as predictors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese. Overall, 122 individuals developed CHD during a median 13.6 years of follow-up in 3,568 adult participants from a community-based cohort. The multivariate relative risk of CHD in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 2.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-5.19] for apoB, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.00-3.92) for nonHDL-C, and 1.86 (95% CI, 1.00-3.49) for LDL-C (all tests for trend, P risk was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.31-5.96; P = 0.001) compared with 1.09 (95% CI, 0.49-2.40; P = 0.75) for nonHDL-C. Compared with the lowest risk, participants with the highest apoB and total cholesterol/HDL-C had a 3-fold increased risk of developing CHD (relative risk = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.45-7.14). These data provide strong evidence that apoB concentration was a better predictor of CHD than other lipid markers in Chinese.
Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming
Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.
Dubé, Michael P; Komarow, Lauren; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Cadden, Joseph J; Overton, Edgar T; Hodis, Howard N; Currier, Judith S; Stein, James H
Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are common in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, persist during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Virologically controlled participants without CVD on stable ART with low HDL-C (men 50 mg/dL) and triglycerides >150 mg/dL were randomized to receive open-label extended-release niacin 1500 mg/day with aspirin 325 mg/day or fenofibrate 200 mg/day for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the week 24 within-arm change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in participants with complete follow-up scans. Of 99 participants, 74 had complete data (35 niacin, 39 fenofibrate). Median age was 45 years, 77% were male, median CD4(+) count was 561 cells/µL, and brachial FMD was 4.2%. Median HDL-C was 32 mg/dL for men and 38 mg/dL for women, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 103 mg/dL, and triglycerides were 232 mg/dL. In men, HDL-C increased a median of 3 mg/dL with niacin and 6.5 mg/dL with fenofibrate (P < .001 for both). In women, HDL-C increased a median of 16 mg/dL with niacin and 8 mg/dL with fenofibrate (P = .08 for both). After 24 weeks, there was no significant change in FMD in either arm; the median (interquartile range) change was +0.6% (-1.6 to 2.3) with niacin (P = .28) and +0.5% (-1.0 to 3.0) with fenofibrate (P = .19). Neither treatment significantly affected C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, or D-dimer levels. Despite improvements in lipids, niacin or fenofibrate treatment for 24 weeks did not improve endothelial function or inflammatory markers in participants with well-controlled HIV infection and low HDL-C. NCT01426438. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.
Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL is one of the major carriers of cholesterol in the blood. It attracts particular attention because, in contrast with other lipoproteins, as many physiological functions of HDL influence the cardiovascular system in favourable ways unless HDL is modified pathologically. The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from cardiovascular disease. Atheroprotective activities, as well as a functional deficiency of HDL, ultimately depend on the protein and lipid composition of HDL. Further, numerous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association between HDL-cholesterol and cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation, has been shown to be the mediator of the pathologic effects of numerous risk factors of Alzheimer's disease. Lifestyle interventions proven to increase HDL- cholesterol levels including “healthy” diet, regular exercise, weight control, and smoking cessation have also been shown to provide neuro-protective effects. This review will focus on current knowledge of the beneficial effects of HDL-cholesterol as it relates to cardiovascular diseases, breast and lung cancers, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as its neuroprotective potential in reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.
Barochia, Amisha V; Gordon, Elizabeth M; Kaler, Maryann; Cuento, Rosemarie A; Theard, Patricia; Figueroa, Debbie M; Yao, Xianglan; Weir, Nargues A; Sampson, Maureen L; Stylianou, Mario; Choy, David F; Holweg, Cecile T J; Remaley, Alan T; Levine, Stewart J
Blood eosinophil counts and serum periostin levels are biomarkers of type 2 inflammation. Although serum levels of HDL and apoA-I have been associated with less severe airflow obstruction in asthma, it is not known whether serum lipids or lipoprotein particles are correlated with type 2 inflammation in asthmatics. Here, we assessed whether serum lipids and lipoproteins correlated with blood eosinophil counts or serum periostin levels in 165 atopic asthmatics and 163 nonasthmatic subjects with and without atopy. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were quantified using standard laboratory assays and NMR spectroscopy. Absolute blood eosinophils were quantified by complete blood counts. Periostin levels were measured using the Elecsys® periostin assay. In atopic asthmatics, blood eosinophils negatively correlated with serum HDL cholesterol and total HDL particles measured by NMR spectroscopy (HDLNMR). Serum periostin levels negatively correlated with total HDLNMR In contrast, blood eosinophil counts positively correlated with serum triglyceride levels. This study demonstrates for the first time that HDL particles were negatively correlated, whereas serum triglycerides were positively correlated, with blood eosinophils in atopic asthmatics. This supports the concept that serum levels of HDL and triglycerides may be linked to systemic type 2 inflammation in atopic asthma. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Pikó, Péter; Fiatal, Szilvia; Kósa, Zsigmond; Sándor, János; Ádány, Róza
Previous findings showed that reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are more frequent in all age groups of the Hungarian Roma compared to the general population. It suggests that genetic factors may exist behind this phenomenon. Our present study was designed to test this hypothesis, i.e., to define whether genetic factors contribute to the higher prevalence of reduced HDL-C among Roma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (N = 21) contributing to the variation in plasma HDL-C concentrations were analysed in the Hungarian Roma (N = 646) and general (N = 1542) populations. Genetic risk scores, unweighted (GRS) and weighted (wGRS), were computed and compared. Associations between the GRSs and the prevalence of reduced HDL-C levels were analysed. The GRS and wGRS were significantly higher in the Roma compared to the general population (GRS: 22.2 ± 3.2 vs. 21.5 ± 3.3; wGRS: 0.57 ± 0.1 vs. 0.53 ± 0.1; ppopulation (p=0.025), while 5% of the Roma subjects were in the top fifth of the wGRS (wGRS≥ 0.75) compared with 2.6% of those in the general population (p=0.004). The GRS showed similar correlation with reduced plasma HDL-C levels in the two populations, whilst the wGRS showed stronger correlation with the trait among Roma after controlling for confounders. These results strongly suggest that genetic factors contribute to the higher prevalence of reduced HDL-C levels among Roma, so interventions aiming to improve Roma health status need to consider their increased genetic susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alenezi, Mohammad Y; Marcil, Michel; Blank, David; Sherman, Mark; Genest, Jacques
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) seen in the MS is associated with increased hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Patients with low HDL-C and abnormal cellular lipid efflux due to ABCA1 gene defects (Tangier disease) also have elevated plasma triglycerides. In the present study, we examined the cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux in patients with low HDL-C and features of the MS. Forty-four patients with a HDL-C below the fifth percentile for age and gender were selected. The MS was defined by a low HDL-C and at least two additional features: body mass index at least 30 kg/m(2), plasma triglycerides at least 150 mg/dl, fasting glucose at least 110 mg/dl, and blood pressure at least 130/85 mm Hg. Cellular lipid efflux was examined on fibroblasts obtained from study subjects, nine normal controls and six subjects with Tangier disease. In 22 patients identified with the MS, HDL-C was 21 +/- 7 mg/dl, triglyceride levels were 340 +/- 157 mg/dl, and cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux were 107 +/- 18% and 105 +/- 17% of controls, respectively. No patient with the MS and low HDL-C showed a cellular lipid efflux defect. We conclude that primary cellular lipid efflux defects do not contribute to the low HDL-C frequently encountered in the MS.
Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.
BACKGROUND. Fatty acids that contain a trans double bond are consumed in large amounts as hydrogenated oils, but their effects on serum lipoprotein levels are unknown. METHODS. We placed 34 women (mean age, 26 years) and 25 men (mean age, 25 years) on three mixed natural diets of identical nutrient
Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...
Nicholas J. Leeper, MD
Full Text Available Summary: Nanoparticles promise to advance the field of cardiovascular theranostics. However, their sustained and targeted deliveryÂ remains an important obstacle. The body synthesizes some ânaturalâ nanoparticles, including high-density lipoprotein (HDL, which may home to the atherosclerotic plaque and promote cholesterol efflux. In a recent article published in JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, investigators generated modified, radiolabeled HDL nanoparticles and confirmed they accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions from several different species. These approaches hold promise for the noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable plaque and in the stratification of patients in whom HDL-mimetic therapy mayÂ have a clinicalÂ benefit. Key Words: atherosclerosis, HDL, imaging, nanoparticles, macrophages/monocytes
M Hashemzadeh Chaleshtory
Full Text Available Background: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 moves with high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles in blood and prevents low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles from oxidation. The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation between fatty acid composition of HDL phospholipids with pon-1 polymorphisms and response to lovastatin treatment in people with high blood cholesterol. Methods: In this descriptive study, 265 patients were selected and divided into two groups based on LDL-C concentrations; 131 patients with LDL-C greater than 130 mg/dl (cases and 134 patients with LDL-C lower than 130 mg/dl (controls. Fatty acids of HDL phospholipids were measured with gas chromatography and lipid profile (cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B were measured by relevant commercial kits. Oxidized LDL was measured by ELISA method and activity of paraoxonase was determined by a relevant standard manual method. Genotypes of L55M polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. Results: Prevalence of L allele from L55M polymorphism was 0.65 and 0.53 in the case and control groups, respectively (P=0.04. PON1 paraoxonase activity in LL homozygote genotype was higher than other genotypes upon treatment with lovastatin. Concentrations of oleic, linoleic and eicosapentaenoic acids in LL genotype were increased by lovastatin administration. Conclusion: Allele (L from L55M polymorphism had a higher frequency in patients with higher LDL-C concentrations. PON1 genotypes seemed to have a modifying role on paraoxonase-1 activity after lovastatin therapy.
Full Text Available Peter P Toth1, Kamlesh M Thakker2, Ping Jiang2, Robert J Padley21University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, and CGH Medical Center, Sterling, 2Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USABackground: The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of niacin extended-release in combination with simvastatin (NER/S versus atorvastatin monotherapy on high-density lipoprotein (HDL particle number and size in patients with hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia from the SUPREME study.Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of patients (n = 137 who completed the SUPREME study and who had lipid particle number and size measurements at both baseline and at week 12 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Following ≥4 weeks without lipid-modifying therapy (washout period, the patients received NER/S 1000/40 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by NER/S 2000/40 mg/day for 8 weeks, or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in HDL particle number and size from baseline to week 12 were compared between the NER/S and atorvastatin treatment groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Distribution of HDL particle subclasses at week 12 was compared between the treatment groups using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test.Results: Treatment with NER/S resulted in a significantly greater percent reduction in small HDL particle number at week 12 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy (-1.8% versus 4.2%, P = 0.014, and a numerically greater percent increase in large HDL particle number (102.4% versus 39.2%, P = 0.078 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. A significantly greater percent increase in HDL particle size from baseline at week 12 was observed with NER/S compared with atorvastatin (6.0% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001. NER/S treatment also resulted in a significant shift in HDL particle size from small and medium at baseline to large at week 12 (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with NER/S resulted in larger favorable changes in number and size of HDL particle
Marsillach, Judit; Aragonès, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Michael; Rull, Anna; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), a lactonase synthesized by the liver, circulates in blood bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This enzyme is thought to degrade oxidized phospholipids and play an important role in the organism's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory system. Chronic liver diseases are characterized by decreased serum PON1 activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the compositional changes in HDL that could influence PON1 activity in liver impairment. The study was performed in samples from five patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and with preserved renal function, chosen on the basis of having low serum PON1 activity and high serum PON1 concentration. As a control group, we accessed five healthy volunteers from among our hospital staff. Lipid and protein compositional analysis of lipoprotein particles were done by high-performance liquid chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and Western-Blot. HDL particles from cirrhotic patients had an increased phospholipid content that was inversely correlated to PON1 activity. The HDL particles contained high levels of PON1 that corresponded, in part, to an immunoreactive protein of high molecular weight (55 kDa) not present in control subjects. This protein was identified as glycosylated PON1 and was also present in biopsies from patients with steatosis and from rats with CCl(4)-induced hepatic impairment. These changes were associated with an increased plasma concentration of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Abnormalities in the composition of lipids and proteins of HDL particles, including PON1 glycosylation, are associated with the decrease in serum PON1 activity in patients with liver disease. These alterations may adversely affect the protective role of HDL against oxidative stress and inflammation in these patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1, a lactonase synthesized by the liver, circulates in blood bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL. This enzyme is thought to degrade oxidized phospholipids and play an important role in the organism's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory system. Chronic liver diseases are characterized by decreased serum PON1 activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the compositional changes in HDL that could influence PON1 activity in liver impairment. Methods The study was performed in samples from five patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and with preserved renal function, chosen on the basis of having low serum PON1 activity and high serum PON1 concentration. As a control group, we accessed five healthy volunteers from among our hospital staff. Lipid and protein compositional analysis of lipoprotein particles were done by high-performance liquid chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and Western-Blot. Results HDL particles from cirrhotic patients had an increased phospholipid content that was inversely correlated to PON1 activity. The HDL particles contained high levels of PON1 that corresponded, in part, to an immunoreactive protein of high molecular weight (55 kDa not present in control subjects. This protein was identified as glycosylated PON1 and was also present in biopsies from patients with steatosis and from rats with CCl4-induced hepatic impairment. These changes were associated with an increased plasma concentration of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrogenesis. Conclusion Abnormalities in the composition of lipids and proteins of HDL particles, including PON1 glycosylation, are associated with the decrease in serum PON1 activity in patients with liver disease. These alterations may adversely affect the protective role of HDL against oxidative stress and inflammation in these patients.
Burgess, Stephen; Davey Smith, George
Undertake a systematic investigation into associations between genetic predictors of lipid fractions and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Two-sample Mendelian randomization investigation using published data. A total of 33 526 individuals (16 144 cases, 17 832 controls) predominantly of European ancestry from the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics Consortium. We consider 185 variants previously demonstrated to be associated with at least 1 of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or triglycerides at a genome-wide level of significance, and test their associations with AMD. We particularly focus on variants in gene regions that are proxies for specific pharmacologic agents for lipid therapy. We then conduct a 2-sample Mendelian randomization investigation to assess the causal roles of LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides on AMD risk. We also conduct parallel investigations for coronary artery disease (CAD) (viewed as a positive control) and Alzheimer's disease (a negative control) for comparison. Diagnosis of AMD. We find evidence that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD, with an odds ratio (OR) estimate of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.44) per 1 standard deviation increase in HDL-cholesterol. No causal effect of LDL-cholesterol or triglycerides was found. Variants in the CETP gene region associated with increased circulating HDL-cholesterol also associate with increased AMD risk, although variants in the LIPC gene region that increase circulating HDL-cholesterol have the opposite direction of association with AMD risk. Parallel analyses suggest that lipids have a greater role for AMD compared with Alzheimer's disease, but a lesser role than for CAD. Some genetic evidence suggests that HDL-cholesterol is a causal risk factor for AMD risk and that increasing HDL-cholesterol (particularly via CETP inhibition) will increase AMD risk
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in postmenopausal Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. MethodsA total of 1271 postmenopausal Uyghur women who underwent physical examination in the physical examination centers of hospitals in Urumqi and Kashi, Xinjiang, were enrolled as study subjects, and according to the presence or absence of NAFLD, they were divided into NAFLD group (682 women and control group (589 women. Demographic data were recorded in detail, and the hepatic enzyme parameters, parameters for glucose and lipid metabolism, and parameters including uric acid and non-HDL-C were measured. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ResultsCompared with the control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher uric acid, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, glycosylated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and non-HDL-C level (all P＜0.05, and a significantly lower HDL-C level (P＜0.05. Compared with the group with a non-HDL-C level of ≥3.58 mmol/L, the group with a non-HDL-C level of ＜3.58 mmol/L had significantly lower levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, TG, AST, ALT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-HDL-C, serum uric acid, and BMI were risk factors for NAFLD in postmenopausal women. ConclusionNon-HDL-C, along with central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia, is a major risk factor for NAFLD in postmenopausal women.
Andrew L Carey
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.
Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Salomone, Federico; Yeshua, Hanny; Lotan, Roni; Webb, Muriel; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin; Oren, Ran; Shibolet, Oren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), i.e. total cholesterol minus HDL, is a well-established risk factor for CVD; however, its association with NAFLD development has not been established. Our aim was to test whether non-HDL-C is an independent predictor of new onset of NAFLD. A prospective cohort study of 213 subjects from the general population, without liver disease, was studied. Evaluation of medical history, dietary and physical activity habits, fasting blood tests and ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD was performed at baseline and after a 7-year follow-up by identical protocols. From 147 patients that did not have NAFLD at baseline, 28 (19%) developed NAFLD at the 7-year follow-up. The baseline levels of non-HDL-C were higher among subjects who developed NAFLD (179.5 ± 37.1 vs. 157.3 ± 35.1 mg/dl, P = 0.003). Non-HDL-C independently predicted new onset of NAFLD adjusting for age, gender, BMI or waist circumference, lifestyle and serum insulin (OR = 1.02 for every mg/dl increment, 1.01-1.04 95% CI, P = 0.008). Non-HDL-C was a stronger predictor for NAFLD than total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL. No patients with non-HDL-C values between 130 to 160 and 24.6% of those with values >160 mg/dl developed NAFLD (P for trend = 0.015). Non-HDL-C is an independent predictor for NAFLD and a stronger predictor than other lipoproteins. This association may stem from the combined hepato-toxic effect of non-HDL-C and may explain the association between NAFLD and CVD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
William R Lagor
Full Text Available Apolipoprotein F (apoF is 29 kilodalton secreted sialoglycoprotein that resides on the HDL and LDL fractions of human plasma. Human ApoF is also known as Lipid Transfer Inhibitor protein (LTIP based on its ability to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-mediated transfer events between lipoproteins. In contrast to other apolipoproteins, ApoF is predicted to lack strong amphipathic alpha helices and its true physiological function remains unknown. We previously showed that overexpression of Apolipoprotein F in mice reduced HDL cholesterol levels by 20-25% by accelerating clearance from the circulation. In order to investigate the effect of physiological levels of ApoF expression on HDL cholesterol metabolism, we generated ApoF deficient mice. Unexpectedly, deletion of ApoF had no substantial impact on plasma lipid concentrations, HDL size, lipid or protein composition. Sex-specific differences were observed in hepatic cholesterol content as well as serum cholesterol efflux capacity. Female ApoF KO mice had increased liver cholesteryl ester content relative to wild type controls on a chow diet (KO: 3.4+/-0.9 mg/dl vs. WT: 1.2+/-0.3 mg/dl, p<0.05. No differences were observed in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in either sex. Interestingly, ApoB-depleted serum from male KO mice was less effective at promoting ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages relative to WT controls.
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki
Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.
Full Text Available Abstract HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ≤ 2.5. Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ≤ 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their
Sobansky, Matthew R; Hage, David S
Columns containing immobilized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with this agent by high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC). R/S-Propranolol was used as a model drug for this study. The LDL columns gave reproducible binding to propranolol over 60 h of continuous use in the presence of pH 7.4 0.067 M potassium phosphate buffer. Experiments conducted with this type of column through frontal analysis indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R-propranolol and LDL, while only a single type of interaction was observed between S-propranolol and LDL. The first type of interaction, which was seen for both enantiomers, involved non-saturable binding; this interaction had an overall affinity (nK(a)) of 1.9 (±0.1) × 10(5) M(-1) for R-propranolol and 2.7 (±0.2) × 10(5) M(-1) for S-propranolol at 37 °C. The second type of interaction was observed only for R-propranolol and involved saturable binding that had an association equilibrium constant (K(a)) of 5.2 (±2.3) × 10(5) M(-1) at 37 °C. Similar differences in binding behavior were found for the two enantiomers at 20 °C and 27 °C. This is the first known example of stereoselective binding of drugs by LDL or other lipoproteins. This work also illustrates the ability of HPAC to be used as a tool for characterizing mixed-mode interactions that involve LDL and related binding agents.
McConathy, Walter J; Paranjape, Sulabha; Mooberry, Linda; Buttreddy, Sabitha; Nair, Maya; Lacko, Andras G
Dilauryl fluorescein (DLF) is a lipid soluble molecule that becomes fluorescent when lauric acid is removed by hydrolysis The purpose of these studies was to evaluate DLF as a potential probe for the function of reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) as hydrophobic drug transport vehicles. The DLF containing rHDL nanoparticles were characterized regarding their physical/chemical properties, including molecular diameter, molecular weight, chemical composition, and buoyant density. We investigated the uptake of DLF from rHDL in cells that overexpress the scavenger receptor (SR-B1), known to facilitate the selective cellular uptake of cholesteryl esters from HDL. These studies show that DLF can be incorporated into rHDL and redistributed in the plasma compartment. In addition, these studies demonstrated an enhanced uptake and hydrolysis of DLF from rHDL by cells that overexpress the SR-B1 receptor, suggesting the involvement of a receptor mediated mechanism. The incorporation of DLF into the rHDL nanoparticles appear to protect against hydrolysis in the systemic circulation based on the lower rate of rHDL/DLF hydrolysis compared with the free DLF during incubation with human plasma. DLF may thus be used as a probe to track the movement and metabolism of HDL core constituents, including cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
Candini, C.; Schimmel, A. W.; Peter, J.; Bochem, A. E.; Holleboom, A. G.; Vergeer, M.; Dullaart, R. P. F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Hovingh, G. K.; Khoo, K. L.; Fasano, T.; Bocchi, L.; Calandra, S.; Kuivenhoven, J. A.; Motazacker, M. M.
Objectives: The current literature provides little information on the frequency of mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels that are referred to the clinic. In 78 patients with low plasma levels of HDL
Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Stene, M.C.A.
Context Low levels of high- density lipoprotein ( HDL) cholesterol are inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Whether this is a causal effect is unclear. Objective To determine whether genetically reduced HDL cholesterol due to heterozygosity for 4 loss- of- function mutations in ABCA1 cause i...
Higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with moderate alcohol consumption is not related to altered plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activity levels
Riemens, SC; vanTol, A; Hoogenberg, K; vanGent, T; Scheek, LM; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) are important factors involved in HDL metabolism. Altered plasma activity levels of these factors could play a role in the increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)
Feuerborn, Renata; Becker, Susen; Potì, Francesco
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophage apoptosis is critically involved in atherosclerosis. We here examined the effect of anti-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its component sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on apoptosis in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. METHODS: Mitochondrial or endoplasmic...
Apro, Johanna; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats
Objective-Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux
Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Barter, Philip; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Fayad, Zahi A.; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keyserling, Constance; Klepp, Heather; Koenig, Wolfgang; L'allier, Philippe L.; Lespérance, Jacques; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Paolini, John F.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Waters, David D.; Pfeffer, M.; Brown, V.; Rouleau, J.; Watkins, P.; Wei, L. J.; Gosselin, G.; Chayer, C.; Lanthier, S.; Pelletier, G. B.; Racine, N.; Agarwal, H.; Brilakis, E.; Cannon, L.; Carrié, D.; Corbelli, J.; Coste, P.; de Winter, R.; Diaz, A.; Eisenberg, S.; Ennis, B.; Fajadet, J.; Fam, N.; Fortuin, D.; Gessler, C.; Grines, C.; Guerra, D.; Gum, H.; Haldis, T.; Heestermans, T.; Herrman, J. P.; Huynh, T.; Kedhi, E.; Koren, M.; Kouz, S.; Krolick, M.; Kumkumian, G.; Lavi, S.; Li, R. J.; Masud, A. R. Z.; McAlhany, C.; McGrew, F. A.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Oude Ophuis, A. J. M.; Parr, K.; Penny, W.; Pesant, Y.; Robinson, S.; Rodes-Cabau, J.; Roy, A.; Schulman, S.; Spence, F.; Stouffer, G.; Stys, T.; Sussex, B.; Tahirkheli, N.; Tardif, J.-C.; Grégoire, J.; ten Berg, J.; van Boven, A. J.; von Birgelen, C.; Weinstein, D.
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have several potentially protective vascular effects. Most clinical studies of therapies targeting HDL have failed to show benefits vs. placebo. To investigate the effects of an HDL-mimetic agent on atherosclerosis by intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) and
Belalcazar, L M; Ballantyne, C M
Because patients with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) are at high risk for clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) events, these patients require aggressive treatment with lifestyle modifications-increased exercise, smoking cessation, and weight loss in overweight patients-and available pharmacological agents. Drugs that raise HDL-C include nicotinic acid, fibric acid derivatives, estrogens, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), alpha-blockers, and alcohol. However, all agents that increase HDL-C may not have the same clinical benefit, just as, as shown in genetic studies in humans and mice, genetic causes of high HDL-C do not always protect against CAD, nor do genetic causes of low HDL-C always increase risk for CAD. Better understanding of the complexities of HDL metabolism and the mechanisms by which HDL protects against CAD is needed to enable the development of new therapeutic strategies--novel drugs or gene delivery systems--to increase HDL-C and reduce CAD events. The statins are the agents with the greatest evidence for slowing progression of CAD and reducing clinical events in patients with low HDL-C, but additional research is needed to determine the potential benefits of additional interventions that increase HDL-C, including combination therapy, which may provide greater improvements in the entire lipid profile.
Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah
Purpose The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. Materials and Methods We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). Results The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG. PMID:27593868
Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young
The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.
Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju
Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pdensity lipoprotein cholesterol AUC was lower (P<.05), in AO-HPIR than those in AO-LPIR and controls. Postprandial AUCs for total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were similar in abdominally obese subjects with different degrees of postprandial insulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jayesh H. Prajapati
Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.
Karasek, David; Vaverkova, Helena; Cibickova, Lubica; Gajdova, Jaromira; Kubickova, Veronika
Both apolipoprotein B (apoB) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are accepted as alternative risk factors or targets for lipid-lowering therapy, which correlate more strongly with cardiovascular events than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the differences in plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and of von Willebrand factor (vWF) as endothelial hemostatic markers and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) as a morphologic marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease among dyslipidemic individuals with apoB levels higher, estimated or lower based on regression equation of apoB vs non-HDL-C. A total of 594 dyslipidemic subjects without atherosclerotic manifestation were divided into 3 groups (according to tertiles of apoB levels above, within, and below the line of identity): H-apoB (n = 200), E-apoB (n = 194), and L-apoB (n = 200). PAI-1, vWF, C-IMT and lipids, anthropometric parameters, markers of insulin resistance, and inflammation were measured. Differences in variables between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance. There was a strong association between apoB and non-HDL-C. The correlations of apoB and of non-HDL-C with markers of endothelial damage and C-IMT were very similar. Despite these facts, individuals with higher apoB levels had significantly higher levels of PAI-1 compared with individuals with estimated (P < .05) or lower apoB (P < .001). There were no significant differences in vWF, C-IMT, markers of insulin resistance, obesity, and inflammation. Individuals with apoB higher than predicted by non-HDL-C had significantly higher levels of PAI-1, which may contribute to the increased risk of future atherothrombotic events. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Padmapriyadarsini, C.; Ramesh, K.; Sekar, L.; Ramachandran, Geetha; Reddy, Devaraj; Narendran, G.; Sekar, S.; Chandrasekar, C.; Anbarasu, D.; Wanke, Christine; Swaminathan, Soumya
Background & objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglycerides is common in the general population in India. As nevirapine (NVP)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) tends to increase HDL-C, gene polymorphisms associated with HDL-C metabolism in HIV-infected adults on stable NVP-based ART were studied. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2013 and July 2014 among adults receiving NVP-based ART for 12-15 months. Blood lipids were estimated and gene polymorphisms in apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Framingham's 10-yr CVD risk score was estimated. Logistic regression was done to show factors related to low HDL-C levels. Results: Of the 300 patients included (mean age: 38.6±8.7 yr; mean CD4 count 449±210 cell/μl), total cholesterol (TC) >200 mg/dl was observed in 116 (39%) patients. Thirty nine per cent males and 47 per cent females had HDL-C levels below normal while 32 per cent males and 37 per cent females had TC/HDL ratio of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively. Body mass index [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.84, P=0.04] and viral load (aOR=3.39, 95% CI: 1.52-7.52, P=0.003) were negatively associated with serum HDL-C levels. The 10-yr risk score of developing CVD was 11-20 per cent in 3 per cent patients. Allelic variants of APOC3 showed a trend towards low HDL-C. Interpretation & conclusions: High-risk lipid profiles for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease were common among HIV-infected individuals, even after 12 months of NVP-based ART. Targeted interventions to address these factors should be recommended in the national ART programmes. PMID:28948955
Elizabeth M. Gordon
Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I and high-density lipoproteins (HDL mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of acute lung injury, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach.
Cohen, Anna; Myerscough, Mary R; Thompson, Rosemary S
We present an ODE model which we use to investigate how High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) reduce the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis. HDL causes atherosclerotic plaque stabilisation and regression, and is an important potential marker and prevention target for cardiovascular disease. HDL enables cholesterol efflux from the arterial wall, macrophage and foam cell emigration, and has other athero-protective effects. Our basic inflammatory model is augmented to include several different ways that HDL can act in early atherosclerosis. In each case, the action of HDL is represented via a parameter in the model. The long-term model behaviour is investigated through phase plane analysis and simulations. Our results indicate that only HDL-enabled cholesterol efflux can stabilise the internalised lipid content in the lesion so that it does not continue to grow, but this does not reduce macrophage numbers which is required to stabilise the lesion or prevent rupture. HDL-enabled macrophage emigration guarantees lesion stabilisation by maintaining stable macrophage content.
Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Wu, Qing; Li, Xingsheng; Wu, Zhiqin; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Mo, Xiangang
In the aged population, serum cholesterol is directly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We aimed to investigate the correlation between non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) level and CHD and coronary lesions in an aged population. 1,272 cases of old patients who were more than 65 years old and accepted for coronary angiography were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the result of coronary angiography, the patients were divided into control group and CHD group. Further, 767 CHD patients were divided into subgroups according to the number of branches with pathological changes and Gensini score. Serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG were assayed to measure the level of non-HDL-C. The differences in non-HDL-C among groups were compared, and the correlation between non-HDL-C and coronary artery disease degree was also analyzed. The non-HDL-C level in the CHD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p coronary artery branches lesions, the non-HDL-C in those with multiple lesions in branches was significantly increased (p coronary artery stenosis, the serum non-HDL-C level was gradually increased. The most significant increase was observed in the group with Gensini score of more than 40. There was a significant difference between Gensini score > 40 group and Gensini score of 20-40 group and Gensini score coronary lesions area and severity (r = 0.147, p coronary artery lesions severity.
Kashyap, Sangeeta; Kheniser, Karim; Li, Ling; Bena, James; Kasumov, Takhar
To determine whether 12 months of intensive medical therapy (IMT) improves HDL functionality parameters in subjects with type II diabetes (T2D). Retrospective, randomized, and controlled 12-month IMT intervention trial that enrolled 13-subjects with T2D (age 51- years, fasting glucose 147 mg/dL, body mass index [BMI] 36.5 kg/m(2)) and nine healthy control (46-years, fasting glucose 90 mg/dL, BMI 26.5 kg/m2). Subjects with T2D underwent IMT and HDL functionality measures (pro-inflammatory index of high-density lipoprotein (pHDL)), paraoxonase one (PON1), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were performed on samples at baseline and at 12-months following IMT. At baseline, pHDL index was significantly higher in subjects with T2D (p therapy alone may only have relatively miniscule effects on the aforementioned factors, in relation to the aggregate.
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is reaching epidemic worldwide and is risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I are inversely correlated to obesity, whether HDLs have anti-obesity effect remains unclear until a recent study reporting the direct anti-obesity effect of apoA-I and its mimetic peptide. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. Increasing adipose energy expenditure through attainment of brown adipocyte phenotype in white adipose tissue is considered a potential strategy to combat obesity. Specific inhibition of autophagy in adipose tissue is associated with reduced adiposity which is attributed to the attainment of brown adipocyte phenotype in white adipose tissue and the increased energy expenditure. HDL and apoA-I could activate PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling which negatively regulates autophagy. The links between HDL/apoA-I and autophagy brings a new understanding on the anti-obesity effect of HDL and apoA-I.
Masdeu, S; Nubiola, A R; Masana, L; Ras, M R; Chacón, P; Ramos, F; Rubiés-Prat, J
The serum levels of cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) were determined by the heparin-manganese chloride precipitation method in 306 subjects, 182 male with ages ranging from 11 to 81 years, and 124 female with ages ranging from 7 to 78 years. Twenty six subjects belonged to a lacto-vegetarian community, while the remaining 280 were healthy volunteers, factory workmen sampled during a regular check-up, and either outpatients or inpatients being evaluated for minor illnesses or minor surgery. None of the subjects had arteriosclerosis or a metabolic disease and, with the exception of the lacto-vegetarians, they were all consuming a normal diet. HDL-C concentrations varied very little among the different age groups. Females had HDL-C values slightly superior to those of males. No significant differences were found between smokers and non-smokers, alcohol drinkers and non-drinkers, and regularly exercising and sedentary people. HDL-C concentrations were independent of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Females under oral contraceptive treatment had lower HDL-C levels than control females, but the differences were not statistically significant. Compared with age and sex-matched controls, the lactovegetarians showed similar HDL-C concentrations.
Martinez, Laurent O; Najib, Souad; Perret, Bertrand; Cabou, Cendrine; Lichtenstein, Laeticia
The atheroprotective property of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is supported by many epidemiological studies and cellular and in vivo approaches on animal models. While the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL are thought to derive primarily from its role in reverse cholesterol transport, together with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic and cytoprotective properties, the mechanisms that support these effects are still not completely understood. However, many advances in identifying the cellular partners involved in HDL functions have been made over the last two decades. This review highlights the diverse roles of the HDL receptor ecto-F1-ATPase coupled to purinergic P2Y receptors in the modulation of important metabolic and vascular functions of HDL. On hepatocytes, the ecto-F1-ATPase is coupled to P2Y13 receptor and contributes to HDL holoparticle endocytosis. On endothelial cells, ecto-F1-ATPase/P2Ys pathway is involved in HDL-mediated endothelial protection and HDL transcytosis. The clinical relevance of this F1-ATPase/P2Ys axis in humans has recently been supported by the identification of serum F1-ATPase inhibitor (IF1) as an independent determinant of HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease risk. Therapeutic strategies targeting F1-ATPase/P2Y pathways for the treatment of atherosclerosis are currently being explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaler, Maryann; Cuento, Rosemarie A.; Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Weir, Nargues A.; Sampson, Maureen; Fontana, Joseph R.; MacDonald, Sandra; Moss, Joel; Manganiello, Vincent; Remaley, Alan T.; Levine, Stewart J.
Rationale: Although lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoprotein particles are important modulators of inflammation, varying relationships exist between these parameters and asthma. Objectives: To determine whether serum lipids and apolipoproteins correlate with the severity of airflow obstruction in subjects with atopy and asthma. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 154 atopic and nonatopic subjects without asthma, and 159 subjects with atopy and asthma. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were quantified using standard diagnostic assays and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Airflow obstruction was assessed by FEV1% predicted. Measurements and Main Results: Serum lipid levels correlated with FEV1 only in the subjects with atopy and asthma. Serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) were positively correlated with FEV1 in subjects with atopy and asthma, whereas a negative correlation existed between FEV1 and serum levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and the apoB/apoA-I ratio. NMR spectroscopy identified a positive correlation between FEV1 and HDLNMR particle size, as well as the concentrations of large HDLNMR particles and total IDLNMR (intermediate-density lipoprotein) particles in subjects with atopy and asthma. In contrast, LDLNMR particle size and concentrations of LDLNMR and VLDLNMR (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles were negatively correlated with FEV1 in subjects with atopy and asthma. Conclusions: In subjects with atopy and asthma, serum levels of apoA-I and large HDLNMR particles are positively correlated with FEV1, whereas serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and apoB are associated with more severe airflow obstruction. These results may facilitate future studies to assess whether apoA-I and large HDLNMR particles can reduce airflow obstruction and disease severity in asthma. PMID:25692941
Birjmohun, Rakesh S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.
A substantial body of evidence supports the benefits of lipid lowering on cardiovascular outcome. As a consequence, statin therapy has emerged as the foundation for management of dyslipidemia in high-risk patients. Despite these achievements, two-thirds of cardiovascular events cannot be prevented
Sang, Hui; Yao, Shutong; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Nana; Zhao, Jianxiang; Zhao, Li; Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Lv, Xiaohong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors, including central obesity, dysglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) can be compromised in MetS. Exercise is recognized as an important factor in the prevention and treatment of MetS. This study was designed to investigate whether walk/run training without any specific diet could enhance anti-inflammation capacity of HDL from MetS patients. This was a case control study. The study was conducted in a Zhoudian community, Taian. Thirty nine patients with MetS were recruited and divided into a control group (n = 12) remaining in an untrained state and exercise group (n = 27) performing a 10-week walk/run training program. The anti-inflammation capacities of HDL3 (HDL subfractions) from MetS patients with or without exercise were investigated by co-incubating with TNF- α-injured endothelial cells in vitro. The training did not influence serum lipoprotein level in MetS patients and cholesterol efflux capacity of circulating HDL. However, walk/run training increased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in either serum or isolated HDL from MetS patients prominently. More importantly, HDL3 isolated from MetS patients with 10 weeks training protected endothelial cells against tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) -induced injury, decreased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in media and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression markedly. Furthermore, HDL3 isolated from MetS patients with walk/run training inhibited the TNF-á-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and obviously increased nitric oxide production by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Walk/run training leads to a significant improvement in HDL anti-inflammation capacity in subjects with MetS without restricted diet, the mechanism underlying which at least partially is due to increased PON1 activity in HDL, NO
Hancock-Cerutti, William; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Lecocq, Sora; Chapman, M John; Rader, Daniel J; Kontush, Anatol; Cuchel, Marina
Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in epidemiologic studies. Despite this, the directionality of this relationship and the underlying biology behind it remain to be firmly established, especially at the extremes of HDL-C levels. We investigated differences in the HDL phosphosphingolipidome in a rare population of subjects with premature CAD despite high HDL-C levels to gain insight into the association between the HDL lipidome and CAD disease status in this unusual phenotype. We sought to assess differences in HDL composition that are associated with CAD in subjects with HDL-C >90th percentile. We predicted that quantitative lipidomic analysis of HDL particles would reveal novel differences between CAD patients and healthy subjects with matched HDL-C levels. We collected plasma samples from 25 subjects with HDL-C >90th percentile and clinically manifest CAD and healthy controls with HDL-C >90th percentile and without self-reported CAD. More than 140 individual HDL phospholipid and sphingolipid species were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Significant reductions in HDL phosphatidylcholine (-2.41%, Q value = 0.025) and phosphatidylinositol (-10.7%, Q value = 0.047) content, as well as elevated sphingomyelin (+10.0%, Q value = 0.025) content, and sphingomyelin/phosphatidylcholine ratio (+12.8%, P value = .005) were associated with CAD status in subjects with high HDL-C. These differences may lay the groundwork for further analysis of the relationship between the HDL lipidome and disease states, as well as for the development of biomarkers of CAD status and HDL function. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulder, M.; Lombardi, P.; Jansen, H.; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.
It has previously been shown that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enhances the binding of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) to HepG2 cells and fibroblasts, up to 80-fold. This increase in binding is LDL receptor-independent and is due to a bridging of LPL between
Hovland, Anders; Hardersen, Randolf; Enebakk, Terje; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore
Side effects and patient satisfaction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis treatment has been less vigorously studied than hemodialysis treatment in end-stage renal failure. In the present study we systematically compared three different LDL apheresis columns with respect to side effects and patient satisfaction. Three patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia went through six treatments with each of the LDL apheresis columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W. Possible side effects were recorded during and after apheresis treatment, and patient satisfaction was assessed by means of a visual analogue scale ranging from 1 to 10. One or several side effects during apheresis were noted in 40%, 29%, and 30% of the treatments for the columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the columns. Side effects after apheresis were noted in 33%, 33%, and 18% of the treatments for the columns DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. The latter column was statistically different from the two others. However, general patient satisfaction was high, with visual analogue scale scores of 8.8, 8.7, and 8.9 for DL-75, LA-15, and EC-50W, respectively. Side effects were noted quite frequently during and after LDL apheresis, although significantly there were fewer when the EC-50W column was used after apheresis treatment. Patient satisfaction with the LDL apheresis treatment was high with all columns. Copyright Â© 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Laskarzewski, P M; Morrison, J A; Gutai, J; Khoury, P R; Glueck, C J
In a 1-year longitudinal study of 19 adolescent boys, our major aim was to assess whether, and to what degree, testosterone, estradiol, Quetelet index, and their interactions related to concentrations of high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, LDLC). During the 1-year followup, mean HDLC and estradiol levels fell and triglycerides, LDLC, Quetelet index, and testosterone levels rose. For large decreases in estradiol, increases in testosterone were associated with decreases in HDLC. These decreases in HDLC were moderated by small decreases in Quetelet index. For boys with small decreases in estradiol, as the changes in testosterone increased, the change in HDLC varied from an increase to a decrease, except in those boys who also had a small decrease in Quetelet index, for whom the change in HDLC was positive. The greatest increases in LDLC were observed in boys having the largest increase in Quetelet index and a small decrease in estradiol; however, as the decrease in estradiol became large, the positive association of Quetelet with LDLC was moderated or nullified. For boys having large decreases in estradiol, the LDLC/HDLC ratio changed from small increments to substantial decrements as testosterone increased. As the decreases in estradiol became smaller, increases in the change of testosterone moderated the decreases in the LDLC/HDLC ratio, and large increases in Quetelet index tended to diminish this moderation. As the change in testosterone increased, the change in triglyceride increased, unless the decrease in estradiol was small. The overall pattern of change of HDLC and LDLC during sexual maturation in boys can be associated with changes in testosterone, estradiol, and Quetelet index.
Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, serum creatinine, HbA1c were measured by standard methods and serum LDL cholesterol was calculated by Friedewald’s formula. GFR was calculated by MDRD4 variables prediction equation. Total subjects were grouped according to sex; both males and females were subdivided into three subgroups depending on GFR values. Results of lipid parameters were compared by one-way ANOVA among different groups and correlation of lipid parameters with GFR were expressed by Pearson r. Results: HDL cholesterol was significantly different among different GFR groups (p0.05 in males. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and LDLC/HDL-C were significantly different among three different GFR groups (p<0.01 and only HDL cholesterol and LDL-C/HDL-C showed weak correlation with GFR (r = 0.0770, p<0.05 for HDL cholesterol and r = -0.0803, p<0.05 for LDL-C/HDL-C in females. Conclusion: The study revealed that HDL cholesterol was significantly and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate in both male and female diabetic subjects and assessment of lipid parameters might be a helpful tool to prevent or delay the progression of renal insufficiency.
Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases
Full Text Available Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to identify pathways associated with a trait of interest. In a second step, important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or genes may be identified within associated pathways. The pathways approach is motivated by the fact that genes do not act alone, but instead have effects that are likely to be mediated through their interaction in gene pathways. Where this is the case, pathways approaches may reveal aspects of a trait's genetic architecture that would otherwise be missed when considering SNPs in isolation. Most pathways methods begin by testing SNPs one at a time, and so fail to capitalise on the potential advantages inherent in a multi-SNP, joint modelling approach. Here, we describe a dual-level, sparse regression model for the simultaneous identification of pathways and genes associated with a quantitative trait. Our method takes account of various factors specific to the joint modelling of pathways with genome-wide data, including widespread correlation between genetic predictors, and the fact that variants may overlap multiple pathways. We use a resampling strategy that exploits finite sample variability to provide robust rankings for pathways and genes. We test our method through simulation, and use it to perform pathways-driven gene selection in a search for pathways and genes associated with variation in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in two separate GWAS cohorts of Asian adults. By comparing results from both cohorts we identify a number of candidate pathways including those associated with cardiomyopathy, and T cell receptor and PPAR signalling. Highlighted genes include those associated with the L-type calcium channel, adenylate cyclase, integrin, laminin, MAPK
Santos, Raul D; Waters, David D; Tarasenko, Lisa; Messig, Michael; Jukema, J Wouter; Ferrières, Jean; Verdejo, Juan; Chiang, Cheng-Wen
Differences between women and men have been documented for both diagnostic testing and treatment in cardiology. This analysis evaluates whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) success rates according to current guidelines and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels differ by gender in the L-TAP 2 population. Patients aged > or =20 years with dyslipidemia on stable lipid-lowering therapy were assessed in 9 countries between September 2006 and April 2007. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment by cardiovascular risk level and region and determinants of low HDL-C were compared between genders. Of 9,955 patients (45.3% women) evaluated, women had a significantly lower overall LDL-C success rate than men (71.5% vs 73.7%, P = .014), due entirely to the difference in the high-risk/coronary heart disease (CHD) group (LDL-C goal or =2 additional risk factors, only 26.7% of women and 31.5% of men (P = .021) attained the optional LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was <50 mg/dL in 32.2% of women and <40 mg/dL in 26.8% of men (P < .0001), including 38.2% of women and 29.8% of men in the high risk/CHD group (P < .0001). Predictors of low HDL-C in women included diabetes, smoking, waist circumference, and hypertension. Cholesterol treatment has improved substantially since the original L-TAP a decade ago, when only 39% of women attained their LDL-C goal. However, high-risk women are undertreated compared to men, and a substantial opportunity remains to reduce their cardiovascular risk.
Wolfe, Adam R.; Bambhroliya, Arvind [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Debeb, Bisrat G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Huo, Lei [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Larson, Richard; Li, Li [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ueno, Naoto T. [Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)
Purpose: We previously showed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) radiosensitizes inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells in vitro and is associated with better local control after radiation therapy in IBC patients. The microRNA miR-33 family negatively regulates the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1. We hypothesized that variations in miR-33a expression in IBC cancer cells versus non-IBC cells would correlate with radiation sensitivity following exposure to HDL in vitro. Methods and Materials: MiR-33a expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction in 4 cell lines representing common clinical breast cancer subtypes. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-33a was demonstrated via transfection of an miR-33a mimic or an anti-miR-33a construct in high- and low-expressing miR-33a cell lines. Clonogenic survival in vitro in these cells was quantified at baseline and following HDL treatment. MiR-33a expression on distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) of 210 cases downloaded from the Oxford breast cancer dataset was determined. Results: Expression levels of miR-33a were lower in IBC cell lines and IBC tumor samples than in non-IBC cell lines and normal breast tissue. Cholesterol concentrations in the cell membranes were higher in IBC cells than in non-IBC cells. Clonogenic survival following 24 hours of HDL treatment was decreased in response to irradiation in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines SUM149 and KPL4, but survival following HDL treatment decreased in the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM159. In the high-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, anti-miR-33a transfection decreased radiation resistance in clonogenic assays. Conversely, in the low-miR-33a–expressing cell lines, the miR-33a mimic reversed the HDL-induced radiation sensitization. Breast cancer patients in the top quartile based on miR-33a expression had markedly lower rates of DRFS than the bottom quartile (P
Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown a negative association between macrophage cholesterol efflux and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, the current methods for measuring cholesterol efflux require a radioactive tracer and involve a variety of cell treatments, making the measurement of macrophage cholesterol efflux impractical for use in clinical laboratories. In this study, we developed a non-radioactive and precise LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages. Methods: J774 cells were seeded on 12-well plates at a density of 1.5×105 cells/ml in H-DMEM medium, and when the cells were approximately 80% confluent, they were incubated with H-DMEM medium containing 2% FBS, 0.5 μg/ml ACAT inhibitor Sandoz 58-035, and 20 μg/ml [3,4-13C]cholesterol for 6 h. After washing and equilibrating the cells, HDL samples were added at a final concentration of 7% and incubated for 8 h. The cells were lysed, and [3,4-13C]cholesterol and cholesterol were measured by LC/MS/MS. Cholesterol efflux was expressed as the percent decrease of cell [3,4-13C]cholesterol mass during the incubation. Results: When incubated with [3,4-13C]cholesterol enriched J774 cells, HDL mediated higher cell cholesterol efflux than influx compared to serum and isolated LDL; therefore, HDL was used as the extracellular acceptor. The results from healthy volunteers showed that the rate of cholesterol efflux was negatively correlated with weight, BMI, blood pressure, and FERHDL and positively correlated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and apoAI levels. Conclusions: A LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of HDL mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells has been established. This method is non-radioactive, precise and reliable and is potentially useful for the assessment of HDL function and cardiovascular disease risks.
Reference Values for The Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean Children and Adolescents: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2013.
Shim, Young Suk; Baek, Joon Woo; Kang, Min Jae; Oh, Yeon Jeong; Yang, Seung; Hwang, Ii Tae
Cholesterol levels vary throughout childhood and adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and identify age- and gender-specific reference values for serum lipid concentrations including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C ratio) in apparently healthy Korean children and adolescents. A total of 6197 participants aged 10 to 19 years old from the 2007-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Serum lipid concentrations were evaluated according to age and gender. The overall mean concentration of non-HDL-C was 105.5±25.6 mg/dL, with a significant gender difference: 103.3±26.1 mg/dL in boys and 107.9±24.7 mg/dL in girls (p=0.028). The median values of non-HDL-C concentrations in boys and girls, respectively, were 111 and 112 mg/dL in the 10-year-old age group, 95 and 103 mg/dL in the 15-year-old age group, and 109 and 103 mg/dL in the 19-year-old age group. The overall mean TG/HDL-C ratio was 1.74±1.22, and there were no significant gender differences: 1.77±1.25 in boys and 1.72±1.22 in girls (p=0.183). The median values of the TG/HDL-C ratio in boys and girls were 1.16 and 1.00 in the 10-year-olds, 1.54 and 0.95 in the 15-year-olds, and 1.74 and 0.84 in the 19-year-olds, respectively. Age- and gender-specific reference values for non-HDL-C and for the TG/HDL-C ratio in children and adolescents could provide valuable information for individualized interpretations of lipid profiles and interventions as well as for strategies to prevent and manage childhood and adolescent dyslipidemia.
Pienimaeki-Roemer, Annika; Fischer, Astrid; Tafelmeier, Maria; Orsó, Evelyn; Konovalova, Tatiana; Böttcher, Alfred; Liebisch, Gerhard; Reidel, Armin; Schmitz, Gerd
Stored platelet (PLT) concentrates (PLCs) for transfusion develop a PLT storage lesion (PSL), decreasing PLT viability and function with profound lipidomic changes and PLT extracellular vesicle (PL-EV) release. High-density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3 ) improves PLT homeostasis through silencing effects on PLT activation in vivo. This prompted us to investigate HDL3 and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) as PSL-antagonizing agents. Healthy donor PLCs were split into low-volume standard PLC storage bags and incubated with native (n)HDL3 or apoA-I from plasma ethanol fractionation (precipitate IV) for 5 days under standard blood banking conditions. Flow cytometry, Born aggregometry, and lipid mass spectrometry were carried out to analyze PL-EV release, PLT aggregation, agonist-induced PLT surface marker expression, and PLT and plasma lipid compositions. Compared to control, added nHDL3 and apoA-I significantly reduced PL-EV release by up to -62% during 5 days, correlating with the added apoA-I concentration. At the lipid level, nHDL3 and apoA-I antagonized PLT lipid loss (+12%) and decreased cholesteryl ester (CE)/free cholesterol (FC) ratios (-69%), whereas in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated CE ratios increased (+3%) and CE 16:0/20:4 ratios decreased (-5%). Administration of nHDL3 increased PLT bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate/phosphatidylglycerol (+102%) and phosphatidic acid/lysophosphatidic acid (+255%) ratios and improved thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6-induced PLT aggregation (+5%). nHDL3 and apoA-I improve PLT membrane homeostasis and intracellular lipid processing and increase CE efflux, antagonizing PSL-related reduction in PLT viability and function and PL-EV release. We suggest uptake and catabolism of nHDL3 into the PLT open canalicular system. As supplement in PLCs, nHDL3 or apoA-I from Fraction IV of plasma ethanol fractionation have the potential to improve PLC quality to prolong storage. © 2014 AABB.
Kim-Dorner, Su-Jong; Deuster, Patricia A; Zeno, Stacey A; Remaley, Alan T; Poth, Merrily
The aims of the present study were to examine whether triglycerides (TG) and the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) could predict insulin resistance in healthy African Americans and whites. This cross-sectional study included 99 African American and 50 white men and women between 18 and 45 years of age with body mass indexes between 18.5 and 38.0 kg/m(2). Anthropometric measures were obtained; and overnight fasting blood was collected for TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin. Insulin resistance was defined by fasting insulin concentration of at least 13.13 microU/mL and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of at least 2.5. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the data. African Americans and whites had comparable demographic and anthropometric measures. Fasting insulin was higher in African Americans (12.4 +/- 7.8 microU/mL) than whites (10.2 +/- 7.5 microU/mL), but HOMA-IR did not differ significantly (African Americans, 2.9 +/- 2.0; whites, 2.4 +/- 1.9). Triglycerides and TG/HDL-C were significantly lower in African Americans (TG, 68.2 +/- 43.3 mg/dL; TG/HDL-C, 1.8 +/- 2.1) compared with whites (TG, 105.4 +/- 55.2 mg/dL; TG/HDL-C, 2.8 +/- 1.8). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that both TG and TG/HDL-C were acceptable markers of insulin resistance, as defined by fasting insulin concentration, in whites, 0.770 and 0.765, respectively, but poor predictors in African Americans, 0.633 and 0.651, respectively. Similarly, TG and TG/HDL-C were acceptable in predicting insulin resistance, as measured by HOMA-IR, in whites, 0.763 and 0.770, respectively, but poor in predicting HOMA-IR in African Americans, with areas of 0.625 and 0.639, respectively. In conclusion, the relationship between TG and TG/HDL-C with insulin resistance differs by ethnicity; and using TG and TG/HDL-C to predict insulin resistance in African Americans would not be appropriate. Copyright
Catanese, Maria Teresa; Graziani, Rita; von Hahn, Thomas; Moreau, Martine; Huby, Thierry; Paonessa, Giacomo; Santini, Claudia; Luzzago, Alessandra; Rice, Charles M; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo
The human scavenger class B type 1 receptor (SR-B1/Cla1) was identified as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) because it binds to soluble recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 (sE2). High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a natural SR-B1 ligand, was shown to increase the in vitro infectivity of retroviral pseudoparticles bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins and of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), suggesting that SR-B1 promotes viral entry in an HDL-dependent manner. To determine whether SR-B1 participates directly in HCV infection or facilitates HCV entry through lipoprotein uptake, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against native human SR-B1. Two of them, 3D5 and C167, bound to conformation-dependent SR-B1 determinants and inhibited the interaction of sE2 with SR-B1. These antibodies efficiently blocked HCVcc infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the role of HDL in SR-B1-mediated HCVcc infection, we set up conditions for HCVcc production and infection in serum-free medium. HCVcc efficiently infected Huh-7.5 cells in the absence of serum lipoproteins, and addition of HDL led to a twofold increase in infectivity. However, the HDL-induced enhancement of infection had no impact on the neutralization potency of MAb C167, despite its ability to inhibit both HDL binding to cells and SR-B1-mediated lipid transfer. Of note, MAb C167 also potently blocked Huh-7.5 infection by an HCV strain recovered from HCVcc-infected chimpanzees. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is essential for infection with HCV produced in vitro and in vivo and suggest the possible use of anti-SR-B1 antibodies as therapeutic agents.
Vinagre, J C; Vinagre, C G; Pozzi, F S; Slywitch, E; Maranhão, R C
Vegan diet excludes all foodstuffs of animal origin and leads to cholesterol lowering and possibly reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim was to investigate whether vegan diet improves the metabolic pathway of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, consisting in lipoprotein lipolysis and removal from circulation of the resulting remnants and to verify whether the diet alters HDL metabolism by changing lipid transfers to this lipoprotein. 21 vegan and 29 omnivores eutrophic and normolipidemic subjects were intravenously injected triglyceride-rich emulsions labeled with (14)C-cholesterol oleate and (3)H-triolein: fractional clearance rates (FCR, in min(-1)) were calculated from samples collected during 60 min for radioactive counting. Lipid transfer to HDL was assayed by incubating plasma samples with a donor nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; % lipids transferred to HDL were quantified in supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions and nanoemulsion. Serum LDL cholesterol was lower in vegans than in omnivores (2.1 ± 0.8, 2.7 ± 0.7 mmol/L, respectively, p vegans than in omnivores (0.016 ± 0.012, 0.003 ± 0.003, p vegans than in omnivores (2.7 ± 0.6, 3.5 ± 1.5%, p vegans, but the lipolysis process, estimated by triglyceride FCR was equal. Increased removal of atherogenic remnants and diminution of cholesteryl ester transfer may favor atherosclerosis prevention by vegan diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We determined the influence of fasting (FAST and feeding (FED on cholesteryl ester (CE flow between high-density lipoproteins (HDL and plasma apoB-lipoprotein and triacylglycerol (TG-rich emulsions (EM prepared with TG-fatty acids (FAs. TG-FAs of varying chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation were tested in the presence of a plasma fraction at d > 1.21 g/mL as the source of CE transfer protein. The transfer of CE from HDL to FED was greater than to FAST TG-rich acceptor lipoproteins, 18% and 14%, respectively. However, percent CE transfer from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins was similar for FED and FAST HDL. The CE transfer from HDL to EM depended on the EM TG-FA chain length. Furthermore, the chain length of the monounsaturated TG-containing EM showed a significant positive correlation of the CE transfer from HDL to EM (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001 and a negative correlation from EM to HDL (r = -041, P = 0.0088. Regarding the degree of EM TG-FAs unsaturation, among EMs containing C18, the CE transfer was lower from HDL to C18:2 compared to C18:1 and C18:3, 17.7%, 20.7%, and 20%, respectively. However, the CE transfer from EMs to HDL was higher to C18:2 than to C18:1 and C18:3, 83.7%, 51.2%, and 46.3%, respectively. Thus, the EM FA composition was found to be the rate-limiting factor regulating the transfer of CE from HDL. Consequently, the net transfer of CE between HDL and TG-rich particles depends on the specific arrangement of the TG acyl chains in the lipoprotein particle core.
Keene, Daniel; Price, Clare; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P
To investigate the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of drug interventions that increase high density lipoprotein levels. Meta-analysis. Therapeutic benefit of niacin, fibrates, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors on cardiovascular events (all cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke). 117,411 patients were randomised in a total of 39 trials. All interventions increased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. No significant effect was seen on all cause mortality for niacin (odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.15, P=0.59), fibrates (0.98, 0.89 to 1.08, P=0.66), or CETP inhibitors (1.16, 0.93 to 1.44, P=0.19); on coronary heart disease mortality for niacin (0.93, 0.76 to 1.12, P=0.44), fibrates (0.92, 0.81 to 1.04, P=0.19), or CETP inhibitors (1.00, 0.80 to 1.24, P=0.99); or on stroke outcomes for niacin (0.96, 0.75 to 1.22, P=0.72), fibrates (1.01, 0.90 to 1.13, P=0.84), or CETP inhibitors (1.14, 0.90 to 1.45, P=0.29). In studies with patients not receiving statins (before the statin era), niacin was associated with a significant reduction in non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.69, 0.56 to 0.85, P=0.0004). However, in studies where statins were already being taken, niacin showed no significant effect (0.96, 0.85 to 1.09, P=0.52). A significant difference was seen between these subgroups (P=0.007). A similar trend relating to non-fatal myocardial infarction was seen with fibrates: without statin treatment (0.78, 0.71 to 0.86, Pniacin, fibrates, nor CETP inhibitors, three highly effective agents for increasing high density lipoprotein levels, reduced all cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke in patients treated with statins. Although observational studies might suggest a simplistic hypothesis for high density lipoprotein cholesterol, that increasing the levels pharmacologically would generally reduce cardiovascular events
Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P increase the level of serum apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) (P fat diets promoted the synthesis of HDL-c in the obesity-insulin resistance rats.
Agarwala, Anandita P; Rodrigues, Amrith; Risman, Marjorie; McCoy, Mary; Trindade, Kevin; Qu, Liming; Cuchel, Marina; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J
Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared with controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. Fifty-five subjects with very high HDL-C (mean, 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD at the age of ≈ 60 years with no known risk factors for CAD (cases) were identified through systematic recruitment. A total of 120 control subjects without CAD, matched for race, sex, and HDL-C level (controls), were identified. In all subjects, HDL composition was analyzed and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed. HDL phospholipid composition was significantly lower in cases (92 ± 37 mg/dL) than in controls (109 ± 43 mg/dL; P=0.0095). HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly lower in cases (1.96 ± 0.39) than in controls (2.11 ± 0.43; P=0.04). In people with very high HDL-C, reduced HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity are associated with the paradoxical development of CAD. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gogonea, Valentin; Wu, Zhiping; Lee, Xavier; Pipich, Vitaliy; Li, Xin-Min; Ioffe, Alexander I.; DiDonato, Joseph; Hazen, Stanley L.
The predicted structure and molecular trajectories from over 80 ns molecular dynamics simulation of the solvated double super helix (DSH) model of nascent-high density lipoprotein (HDL) was determined and compared with experimental data on reconstituted nascent HDL obtained from multiple biophysical platforms including small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with contrast variation, hydrogen-deuterium exchange tandem mass spectrometry (H/D-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), cross-linking tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET), electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), and electron microscopy. In general, biophysical constraints experimentally derived from the multiple platforms agree with the same quantities evaluated using the simulation trajectory. Notably, key structural features postulated for the recent DSH model of nascent HDL are retained during the simulation including: 1) the super helical conformation of the anti-parallel apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) chains; 2) the lipid micellar-pseudolamellar organization; and 3) the solvent exposed Solar Flare loops, proposed sites of interaction with LCAT (lecithin cholesteryl acyltransferase). Analysis of salt bridge persistence during simulation provides insights into structural features of apoA1 that form the backbone of the lipoprotein. The combination of molecular dynamics simulation and experimental data from a broad range of biophysical platforms serves as a powerful approach to study large macromolecular assemblies such as lipoproteins. The present application to nascent HDL validates the DSH model proposed earlier, and suggests new structural details of nascent HDL. PMID:20687589
Farrell, Stephen W; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Willis, Benjamin L; DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Vega, Gloria L
To examine the prospective relationships among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), fasting blood triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C), and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men. A total of 40,269 men received a comprehensive baseline clinical examination between January 1, 1978, and December 31, 2010. Their CRF was determined from a maximal treadmill exercise test. Participants were divided into CRF categories of low, moderate, and high fit by age group and by TG:HDL-C quartiles. Hazard ratios for CHD mortality were computed using Cox regression analysis. A total of 556 deaths due to CHD occurred during a mean ± SD of 16.6±9.7 years (669,678 man-years) of follow-up. A significant positive trend in adjusted CHD mortality was shown across decreasing CRF categories (P for trendrisk of CHD mortality in each TG:HDL-C quartile was significantly attenuated in men with moderate to high CRF compared with men with low CRF. These results suggest that assessment of CRF and TG:HDL-C should be included for routine CHD mortality risk assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franceschini, Guido; Favari, Elda; Calabresi, Laura; Simonelli, Sara; Bondioli, Alighiero; Adorni, Maria Pia; Zimetti, Francesca; Gomaraschi, Monica; Coutant, Karine; Rossomanno, Simona; Niesor, Eric J; Bernini, Franco; Benghozi, Renee
The effectiveness of therapies that raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to lower cardiovascular disease risk is currently under debate, and further research into the relationship between HDL-C and function is required. o investigate whether 2 established HDL-C-raising therapies had differential effects on parameters of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) quality and function, such as HDL particle profile and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), in patients with dyslipidemia. Sixty-six patients with dyslipidemia, 24 with low HDL-C levels (niacin (0.5 g/d for 3 weeks, then 1 g/d) with 4 weeks of washout between treatments. Lipoprotein particle size distribution was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance, and pathway-specific serum CECs were assessed in J774 macrophages, hepatoma, and Chinese hamster ovary-human adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G1 cells. Comparable increases in HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I levels were seen with fenofibrate and ER niacin. There was a shift toward larger HDL, predominantly to medium-size HDL particles for fenofibrate (+209%) and to large HDL particles for ER niacin (+221%). Minor changes in serum CECs were observed with fenofibrate and ER niacin for all the efflux pathways measured. Small increases in plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase concentrations, and decreases in cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity were seen with both drugs. Fenofibrate and ER niacin increased plasma HDL-C level similarly, but modulated HDL particle size distribution differently; however, these changes did not result in differential effects on serum CECs. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Talavera, E M; Zafra, M F; Gil-Villarino, A; Pérez, M I; Alvarez-Pez, J M; García-Peregrín, E
Supplementation of coconut oil to the diet for 1-2 weeks produced a significant hypercholesterolemia in 14-day-old chicks. Changes in plasma fatty acid composition correlated positively with those of diets. In this study, we have shown a different response of low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) fractions to dietary saturated fat (coconut oil) rich in lauric and myristic acids. Although all the components of these particles seemed to increase, the percentages of increases found in total (TC), free (FC) and esterified cholesterol (EC) were higher in LDL than in HDL. TC/phospholipid (PL) ratio, considered as an inverse index of membrane fluidity, also increased with the dietary regimen in LDL, while no significant differences were found in HDL. These results suggest that supplementation of coconut oil to the diet decreased the fluidity of LDL. The EC/triglycerides (TG) ratio was also significantly increased in LDL, corroborating the main atherogenic function of this lipoprotein fraction in response to lauric and myristic acids. We have also estimated the lipidic order parameter, S, from the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-labelled low- and high-density lipoproteins. In LDL, temperature dependence of S shows two different behaviour zones at about 20 degrees C. In HDL, the plot of S values versus T is linear. DPH anisotropy and S increased in both LDL and HDL from treated chicks. This increase becomes more evident as temperature rises and also with dietary treatment.
Atrahimovich, Dana; Khatib, Soliman; Sela, Shifra; Vaya, Jacob; Samson, Abraham O.
High levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are a primary initiating event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the antiatherogenic effect of polyphenols has been shown to be exerted via a mechanism unrelated to their antioxidant capacity and to stem from their interaction with specific intracellular or plasma proteins. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the main polyphenol in pomegranate, punicalagin, with apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB100) that surrounds ...
Harari, Gil; Green, Manfred S; Magid, Avi; Zelber-Sagi, Shira
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be equivalent or superior to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, studies comparing the predictive values of LDL-C and non-HDL-C for CVD and total mortality in a long-term follow-up yielded conflicting results. The Cardiovascular Occupational Risk Factor Determination in Israel Study (CORDIS) is a prospective cohort study of a young industrial population of workers with a long-term follow-up. The initial phase of the study was carried out in 1985-1999. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and fasting blood samples, including lipid panels, were undertaken. In 2007, after a 22-year follow-up period, the baseline data were merged with data on all-cause and CVD mortality obtained from the Israeli National Death Registry. A total of 4,832 men were included in the analysis with a mean age of 42.1 ± 12.1 years. Univariate analysis indicated a positive association between non-HDL-C and LDL-C levels and an increased risk for both all-cause and CVD mortality. Multiple regression analysis, following adjustment for potential confounders, resulted in attenuation of the association of both lipoproteins with total mortality. The adjusted association between non-HDL-C levels ≥190 mg/dl and CVD mortality remained significant (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.96), but the association of LDL-C with CVD mortality was attenuated (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.39). In conclusion, non-HDL-C may be a more potent predictor of CVD mortality than LDL-C levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pang, Jing; Chan, Dick C; Hamilton, Sandra J; Tenneti, Vijay S; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R
To investigate the effect of extended-release (ER) niacin on the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus on a background of optimal statin therapy. Twelve men with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for a randomized, crossover design trial. Patients were randomized to rosuvastatin or rosuvastatin plus ER niacin for 12 weeks and then crossed over to the alternate therapy after a 3-week washout period. Metabolic studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. HDL apoA-I kinetics were measured after a standardized liquid mixed meal and a bolus injection of d3-leucine for 96 hours. Compartmental analysis was used to model the data. ER niacin significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, plasma cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB (all Pniacin also significantly increased HDL apoA-I pool size (6,088 ± 292 versus 5,675 ± 305 mg; Pniacin increases HDL apoA-I concentration in statin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus by lowering apoA-I fractional catabolic rate. The effect on HDL metabolism was independent of the reduction in plasma triglyceride with ER niacin treatment. Whether this finding applies to other dyslipidemic populations remains to be investigated.
Ronsein, Graziella E; Hutchins, Patrick M; Isquith, Daniel; Vaisar, Tomas; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Heinecke, Jay W
We investigated relationships between statin and niacin/statin combination therapy and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) and cholesterol efflux capacity, 2 HDL metrics that might better assess cardiovascular disease risk than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the Carotid Plaque Composition Study, 126 subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were randomized to atorvastatin or combination therapy (atorvastatin/niacin). At baseline and after 1 year of treatment, the concentration of HDL and its 3 subclasses (small, medium, and large) were quantified by calibrated ion mobility analysis (HDL-PIMA). We also measured total cholesterol efflux from macrophages and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Atorvastatin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39% and raised HDL-C by 11% (P=0.0001) but did not increase HDL-PIMA or macrophage cholesterol efflux. Combination therapy raised HDL-C by 39% (Pniacin therapy. Statin therapy increased HDL-C levels but failed to increase HDL-PIMA. It also reduced ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Adding niacin to statin therapy increased HDL-C and macrophage efflux, but had much less effect on HDL-PIMA. It also failed to improve ABCA1-specific efflux, a key cholesterol exporter in macrophages. Our observations raise the possibility that niacin might not target the relevant atheroprotective population of HDL. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong
To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Simvastatin but not bezafibrate decreases plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance of high sensitive C-reactive protein, lipoprotein profile and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) electronegativity
Constantinides, Alexander; de Vries, Rindert; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J. J.; Gautier, Thomas; van Pelt, L. Joost; Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Lagrost, Laurent; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
Objective: Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) levels predict incident cardiovascular disease, impacting Lp-PLA(2) as an emerging therapeutic target. We determined Lp-PLA(2) responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and assessed
Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.
Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J
Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.
Ayer, Julian G; Belousova, Elena; Harmer, Jason A; David, Clementine; Marks, Guy B; Celermajer, David S
Smoking in pregnancy is common. Its effects on lipoprotein levels and arterial structure in childhood are not well characterized. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal smoking in pregnancy on lipoprotein levels and arterial wall thickness in healthy pre-pubertal children. A community-based longitudinal study with prospective ascertainment of exposure to smoking in pregnancy and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) since birth and then lipoprotein and arterial measurements at age 8 years. In 616 newborn infants (gestation >36 weeks and birth weight >2.5 kg) data were collected prospectively by questionnaire on smoking in pregnancy and ETS exposure in childhood. At age 8-years, 405 of the children had measurements of lipoproteins, blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima-media thickness. Children born to mothers who smoked in pregnancy had lower HDL cholesterol [1.32 vs. 1.50 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference -0.28 to -0.08, P = 0.0005], higher triglycerides (1.36 vs. 1.20 mmol/L, 95% CI for ratio 1.01-1.30, P = 0.04) and higher systolic BP (102.1 vs. 99.9 mmHg, 95% CI for difference 0.6-3.8, P = 0.006). After adjustment for maternal passive smoking, post-natal ETS exposure, gender, breast feeding duration, physical inactivity, and adiposity, smoking in pregnancy remained significantly associated with lower HDL cholesterol (difference = -0.22 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.08, P = 0.003) but not with higher systolic BP. Neither smoking in pregnancy nor post-natal ETS exposure was associated with alterations of carotid artery wall thickness. Smoking in pregnancy is independently associated with significantly lower HDL cholesterol in healthy 8-year-old children.
Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G
AIMS: Recent European guidelines recommend to include high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in risk assessment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a SCORE-based risk model (SCORE-HDL). We compared the predictive performance of SCORE-HDL with SCORE in an independent......, contemporary, 'low-risk' European population, focusing on ability to identify those in need of intensified CVD prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2008, 46,092 individuals without CVD, diabetes, or statin use were enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). During a mean of 6.......8 years of follow-up, 339 individuals died of CVD. In the SCORE target population (age 40-65; n = 30,824), fewer individuals were at baseline categorized as high risk (≥5% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) using SCORE-HDL compared with SCORE (10 vs. 17% in men, 1 vs. 3% in women). SCORE-HDL did not improve...
Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.
Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.
Tyagi Suresh C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated non HDL-C (as part of the metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an isolated low HDL-C is rapidly emerging. The antiatherosclerotic roles of reverse cholesterol transport and the pleiotropic antioxidant – anti-inflammatory mechanistic effects of HDL-C are undergoing rapid exponential growth. Case presentation In 1997 a 53-year-old Caucasian male presented with a lipoprotein profile of many years duration with an isolated low HDL-C and uric acid levels in the upper quintile of normal. He developed an acute myocardial infarction involving the right coronary artery and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stenting of this lesion. He also demonstrated a non-critical non-flow limiting lesion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery at the time of this evaluation. Following a program of global risk reduction this patient has done well over the past 7 years and remains free of any clinical signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. His HDL-C and uric acid levels are currently in the normal physiological range. Conclusion Low HDL-C and isolated low HDL-C constitute an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therapies that lead to a return to normal physiologic range of HDL-C may result in the delay of atherosclerotic progression.
High-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity Are Not Affected by Supervised Exercise but Are Associated with Baseline Interleukin-6 in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.
Albaghdadi, Mazen S; Wang, Zheng; Gao, Ying; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Wilkins, John
To quantify the association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers at baseline and the effect of supervised exercise on these HDL parameters in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The study to improve leg circulation (SILC) was a randomized trial of supervised treadmill exercise, leg resistance training, or control in individuals with PAD. In a post hoc cross-sectional analysis, we quantified the associations between baseline HDL subfraction concentrations (HDL2 and HDL3), HDL-C efflux capacity, and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)]. We then examined the effect of supervised exercise on changes in these lipoprotein parameters and inflammatory markers in 88 patients from SILC. Baseline HDL-C efflux capacity was associated with baseline concentrations of HDL2 (β = 0.008, p = 0.0106), HDL3 (β = 0.013, p capacity, CRP, or IL-6 were not significantly different at 6 months following the structured exercise intervention. HDL efflux and HDL3 were inversely associated with IL-6 in PAD patients. Structured exercise was not associated with changes in HDL subfractions, HDL-C efflux capacity, CRP, and IL-6 in PAD patients. Our preliminary findings support the theory that inflammation may adversely affect HDL structure and function; however, further studies are needed to evaluate these findings.
Billingham, M S; Hall, R A; Simpson, S; Bailey, C J
A possible influence of oral hypoglycaemic drugs on plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations was examined in streptozotocin diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Treatment of streptozotocin diabetic mice with glibenclamide (0.4 mg/kg/day), chlorpropamide (10 mg/kg/day) or metformin (60 mg/kg/day) for 28 weeks did not significantly alter plasma total cholesterol (TC) or HDL-C in streptozotocin diabetic mice. Plasma TC and HDL-C were not related to the prevailing plasma glucose concentration. Non-diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide or metformin for 46 weeks showed no changes in TC or HDL-C. However, chlorpropamide increased TC and HDL-C, and lowered the TC : HDL-C molar ration after 46 weeks in non-diabetic mice. The effect of chlorpropamide was associated with an excessive gain in weight.
Jensen, Majken K; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Overvad, Kim
AIMS: To investigate whether a common polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modifies the relationship of alcohol intake with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Parallel nested case-control studies...... among women [Nurses' Health Study (NHS)] and men [Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS)] where 246 women and 259 men who developed incident CHD were matched to controls (1:2) on age and smoking. The TaqIB variant and alcohol consumption were associated with higher HDL-C, with the most pronounced...... effects of alcohol among B2 carriers. In the NHS we did not find an inverse association between alcohol and CHD in B2 non-carriers (P trend: 0.5), but did among B2 carriers (P trend
Imamura, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hata, Jun; Nagata, Masaharu; Ikeda, Fumie; Mukai, Naoko; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Yoshida, Daigo; Fukuhara, Masayo; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka
It has not been fully determined whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels are involved in vascular events, especially stroke, in general Asian populations. We evaluated the association between non-HDLC levels and the risk of type-specific cardiovascular disease in a prospective cohort study in Japan. A total of 2452 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged≥40 years were followed prospectively for 24 years. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of coronary heart diseases (CHD) significantly increased with elevating non-HDLC levels (P for trendrisk factor for the development of atherothrombotic infarction as well as CHD but reduce the risk of cardioembolic infarction in the general Japanese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carolina H. M Azevedo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL to simultaneously receive nonesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids changes with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with biochemical analyses. SUBJECTS: Eleven elderly patients with coronary artery disease (74±5 years were compared with the following groups of non-coronary artery disease subjects (referred to as "healthy": 25 young (25±5 years, 25 middle-aged (42± years, and 25 elderly subjects (75±8 years. METHODS: Plasma samples were incubated with a nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; the transfer of the lipids from the nanoemulsion to the HDL was measured in chemically precipitated HDL. HDL size and paraoxonase-1 activity were also determined. RESULTS: The transfer of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. Non-esterified cholesterol and triglyceride transfer was not different among these three groups. The HDL size was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. The paraoxonase-1 activity was similar among the groups. Compared with healthy elderly subjects, coronary artery disease elderly subjects had significantly less (p<0.05 transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters to the HDL and a significantly smaller (p<0.05 HDL size. CONCLUSION: Because lipid transfer is enhanced in healthy elderly subjects but not in those with coronary artery disease, increasing lipid transfer to HDL may be a protective mechanism against the disease.
Serrani, Raquel; Taborda, Diego; DeMaria, Ines; Corchs, Juan
An inverse relationship between HDL-c plasmatic levels and Li+ flux (Na+-Li+ exchange mediated) has been reported in normotensive individuals with hypertensive ancestors as well as in essential hypertensive subjects. This lipoprotein reaction with plasmatic membrane components induces modifications in membrane transport mechanisms as well as in cellular enzymes. In this paper we present data on Li+ flux (Na+-Li+ exchange mediated) in red blood cells from normotensive individuals without hypertensive ancestors. Kinetic analysis of Li+ efflux as a function of Na+(extracell) concentration was carried out. Vmax and Km values were determined. HDL-c plasmatic levels were also determined. Vmax showed a significant inverse correlation with HDL-c levels. No significant correlation of Km values with HDL-c levels was observed. The data presented support previous data showing that variable Vmax is sensitive to cellular environmental factors. Otherwise the Km variable not influenced by these factors is sensitive to hereditary influences.
Choi, Hansol; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Yoon, Young Mi; Choi, Dong Phil; Kim, Hyeon Chang
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established cardiovascular risk factor, can be generally determined by calculation from total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare LDL-C estimations using various formulas with directly measured LDL-C in a community-based group and hospital-based group among the Korean population. A total of 1498 participants were classified into four groups according to triglyceride concentrations as follows: <100, 100-199, 200-299, and ≥300 mg/dL. LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald, Chen, Vujovic, Hattori, de Cordova, and Anandaraja formulas and directly measured using a homogenous enzymatic method. Pearson's correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Passing & Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the performance of six formulas. The Friedewald formula had the highest accuracy (ICC=0.977; 95% confidence interval 0.974-0.979) of all the triglyceride ranges, while the Vujovic formula had the highest accuracy (ICC=0.876; 98.75% confidence interval 0.668-0.951) in people with triglycerides ≥300 mg/dL. The mean difference was the lowest for the Friedewald formula (0.5 mg/dL) and the percentage error was the lowest for the Vujovic formula (30.2%). However, underestimation of the LDL-C formulas increased with triglyceride concentrations. The accuracy of the LDL-C formulas varied considerably with differences in triglyceride concentrations. The Friedewald formula outperformed other formulas for estimating LDL-C against a direct measurement and the Vujovic formula was suitable for hypertriglyceridemic samples; it could be used as an alternative cost-effective tool to measure LDL-C when the direct measurement cannot be afforded.
Ahmed, Haitham M; Miller, Michael; Nasir, Khurram; McEvoy, John W; Herrington, David; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J
Prior studies observing associations between low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have often been conducted among persons with metabolic or other lipid abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the association between primary low HDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and all-cause death after adjustment for confounders in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Participants who were free of clinical CVD were recruited from 6 US research centers from 2000 to 2002 and followed for a median duration of 10.2 years. We defined "primary low HDL cholesterol" as HDL cholesterol level cholesterol level cholesterol ≥40 mg/dL (men) or ≥50 mg/dL (women) and triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cholesterol versus those with an optimal lipid profile, adjusted hazard ratios for total CHD, CVD, and death were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 4.21; P = 0.011), 1.93 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.34; P = 0.020), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.84; P = 0.69), respectively. Participants with primary low HDL cholesterol had higher risks of CHD and CVD than participants with optimal lipid profiles but no difference in survival after a median 10.2 years of follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Steffen, Brian T; Bielinski, Suzette J; Decker, Paul A; Berardi, Cecilia; Larson, Nicholas B; Pankow, James S; Michos, Erin D; Hanson, Naomi Q; Herrington, David M; Tsai, Michael Y
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are well characterized for their role in reverse cholesterol transport but may confer other cardiovascular benefits-specifically, HDL may suppress the endothelial activation cascade in the initiating stages of atherogenesis. It was the primary aim of this study to examine the relations of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), total HDL particle (HDL-P) concentrations, and HDL-P subclasses with circulating levels of endothelial activation markers in a subcohort of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants. HDL-C was measured by enzymatic assay, and total HDL-P and subclass concentrations were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Concentrations of circulating endothelial activation markers were determined through immunoassay. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the cross-sectional associations between HDL variables and endothelial markers with statistical adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, systolic blood pressure, hypertension medication use, body mass index, smoking status, lipid-lowering medication use, serum creatinine, diabetes, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coronary artery calcium. HDL-C and HDL-P were found to be inversely associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular intracellular adhesion molecule-1, sL-selectin, and sP-selectin; HDL-P was additionally inversely associated with sE-selectin. Participants with low levels of HDL-C (<40 mg/dL) or HDL-P (<25th percentile) showed 3%-12% higher mean levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule and compared with those above these levels (all P < .01). Coupled with previous evidence, our findings suggest a modest to moderate relation of HDL and circulating levels of endothelial activation markers in humans. Whether this relationship may have clinical implications in suppressing atherogenesis or coronary heart disease development requires additional research. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid
Halfon, S T; Eisenberg, S; Baras, M; Davies, A M; Halperin, G; Stein, Y
The distribution of plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was examined in 6,654 17-yr-old young men and women who attended an army medical examination. There were highly significant differences among the four main groups, classified according to their father's place of birth: Israel, the Asian Near East, North Africa and Europe (including the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa). Mean levels of plasma cholesterol in each group varied in males from 126.9 to 137.4 mg/dl, TG from 72.1 to 77.8 mg/dl and HDL-C from 41.3 to 44.4 mg/dl. In females, the cholesterol levels ranged from 144.6 to 154.8 mg/dl, TG from 72.7 to 76.3 and HDL-C from 47.3 to 50.5 mg/dl. In the various groups, subjects of North African origin consistently had the lowest lipid values, and subjects whose fathers were born in Europe or Israel, the highest. When the subjects were classified according to their fathers' specific country of origin, mean cholesterol values ranged from a low of 126.2 mg/dl in Moroccan males to a high of 143.0 in Austrian and Swiss males, and from 137.6 mg/dl in Tunisian females to 161.6 in those whose fathers had emigrated from North American countries. HDL-C ranged in males from 40.0 mg/dl in the Egyptian group to 47.0 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group; in females, the values ranged from 46.0 mg/dl in the Algerian group to 53.4 in the Austrian-Swiss-Lichtenstein group. These findings are discussed in light of published reports of lipid and lipoprotein levels in individuals living in different countries.
Kuznetsov, A S; Missyul, B V
It is concluded on the basis of literature data, that apolipoprotein B-100 is the most high-molecular, hydrophobic, and positive charged protein compared to the other apoproteins of the plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins of healthy subjects, mainly containing apo B-100, have little heterogeneity on both charge and isoelectric point, in spite of heterogeneity on sizes and apolipoprotein composition. The reason of formation of subfraction with elevated negative charge is the damage with the free radicals and/or aldehydes. The reason of formation of more cationized subfraction is unclear. LDL charge changes are noted in some diseases and syndromes (ischemic heart diseases, familial hyper-alpha-lipoproteinemia, Tangier disease, X-bound ichthyosis and, possibly, others). Some IHD patients treatment with antioxidants leads to the disappearance of negative charged LDL subfraction, that shows participation of peroxidation products in their formation. Electrical characteristics of LDL of tissue fluids and of aorta wall differ essentially from those of the same class plasma lipoproteins. Lipid peroxidation and influences of several enzymes play the main role in these differences.
de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Tarling, Elizabeth J; Kim, Tammy; Civelek, Mete; Baldán, Ángel; Esau, Christine; Edwards, Peter A
The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates many aspects of lipid metabolism by variouscomplex and incompletely understood molecular mechanisms. We set out to investigate the molecular mechanisms for FXR-dependent regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. To identify FXR-regulated microRNAs that were subsequently involved in regulating lipid metabolism. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major determinant of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Here, we show that activation of the nuclear receptor FXR in vivo increases hepatic levels of miR-144, which in turn lowers hepatic ABCA1 and plasma HDL levels. We identified 2 complementary sequences to miR-144 in the 3' untranslated region of ABCA1 mRNA that are necessary for miR-144-dependent regulation. Overexpression of miR-144 in vitro decreased both cellular ABCA1 protein and cholesterol efflux to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I protein, whereas overexpression in vivo reduced hepatic ABCA1 protein and plasma HDL-cholesterol. Conversely, silencing miR-144 in mice increased hepatic ABCA1 protein and HDL-cholesterol. In addition, we used tissue-specific FXR-deficient mice to show that induction of miR-144 and FXR-dependent hypolipidemia requires hepatic, but not intestinal, FXR. Finally, we identified functional FXR response elements upstream of the miR-144 locus, consistent with direct FXR regulation. We have identified a novel pathway involving FXR, miR-144, and ABCA1 that together regulate plasma HDL-cholesterol.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to determine the cow’s milk powder to increased serum levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL of white male rat model with diabetes mellitus type 2. The design of this study was a post-test control group study conducted in 30 male rats which randomly divided into five groups. Negative control group was the group of rats which fed normally, the positive control group was induced by streptozotocin (STZ without given cow’s milk, group P1, P2, P3 were given a normal diet and cow’s milk 0.9; 1.8, and 2.7 g orally every day. The results of this study were the levels of HDL in K(-=44.22 mg/dl, K(+=47.45 mg/dl, P1=56.56 mg/dl, P2=51.82 mg/dl, and P3=59.45 mg/dl. The conclusion was the milk powder was not significantly increase levels of HDL (p>0.05. More longer intervention was suggested for further research to get more significant of HDL level on type 2 diabetes mellitus.Keywords: HDL serum level, high fat diet, milk powder, streptozotocinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis pengaruh pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap peningkatan kadar serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus berjenis kelamin jantan model diabetes melitus (DM tipe 2. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian post test control group dengan 30 ekor tikus dibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok. Kelompok K(- adalah tikus yang diberi pakan normal, kelompok K(+ diinduksi dengan streptozotocin (STZ tanpa diberi susu, kelompok P1 sampai P3 diberi diet normal dan susu 0,9; 1,8, dan 2,7 g secara oral setiap hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar HDL pada K(-=44,22 mg/dl, K(+=47,45 mg/dl, P1=56,56 mg/dl, P2=51,82 mg/dl, dan P3=59,45 mg/dl. Susu sapi bubuk mampu meningkatkan kadar HDL tikus model DM tipe 2 akan tetapi tidak signifikan (p>0,05. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut dengan waktu lama penelitian yang berbeda sehingga bisa berdampak yang lebih signifikan untuk kadar HDL pada DM tipe 2.Kata kunci
Restoration of high-density lipoprotein levels by cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression in scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice does not normalize pathologies associated with SR-BI deficiency
Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Meurs, Illiana; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; De Haan, Willeke; Zhao, Ying; Kruijt, J Kar; Praticò, Domenico; Schimmel, Alinda W M; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Hoekstra, Menno; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Van Eck, Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Disruption of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in mice impairs high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) delivery to the liver and induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. In this study, it was investigated whether introduction of cholesteryl ester transfer protein
An increased coronary risk is paradoxically associated with common cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene variations that relate to higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: A population-based study
S.E. Borggreve (Susanna); H.L. Hillege (Hans); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); P. de Jong (Paul); M.W. Zuurman (Mike); G. van der Steege (Gerrit); A. van Tol (Arie); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)
textabstractBackground: Several cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphisms affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but the impact of CETP gene variants on incident coronary disease in the general population is uncertain after correction for their effect on HDL cholesterol.
An increased coronary risk is paradoxically associated with common cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene variations that relate to higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol : A population-based study
Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; de Jong, Paul E.; Zuurman, Mike W.; van der Steege, Gerrit; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
Background: Several cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphisms affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but the impact of CETP gene variants on incident coronary disease in the general population is uncertain after correction for their effect on HDL cholesterol. Design: We
Morrison, JA; Sprecher, D; McMahon, RP; Schreiber, GB; Khoury, PR
It has been hypothesized that the role of obesity in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be mediated in part through its inverse relationship with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Obesity is inversely correlated with HDL-C, and HDL-C has been shown to be protective
Full Text Available Background: The increased prevalence of obesity will bring a great impact in the health sector, due to the effect of the influence of organ in the body such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Reduced energy diet and exercise are effective for management weight loss. During the restriction diet, an obese person should increase the amount of dietary fiber up to 20−35 g/day, specifically of soluble fiber, to more effective fat loss and improve serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride (TG cholesterol concentration. Psyllium husk (PH is a source of natural soluble fiber obtained from Plantago ovate Forssk seed. Objective: The aim of the study have investigated the change of body weight, serum HDL cholesterol, and TG concentration in obese I after supplemented PH 8.4 g/day and balanced deficit calories diet (BDCD for 4 weeks. Method: The survey used double-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel design. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups; treatment (T group and placebo (P group. The T subjects received psyllium husk (PH 8.4 g/day and BDCD 1200 kcal/day and the P subjects received placebo and BDCD 1200 kcal/day. The analyzed used independent t-test and Mann-Whitney. Results: A total 28 subjects (14 subjects in each group had completed the intervention. There were no serious adverse effects reported during the intervention. Intake of dietary fiber in T group was 17.2 ± 2.8 g/day had significantly higher than P group 8.6 (5.2−15.2 g/day, although supplemented with PH didn’t meet the recommendation of fiber intake (20-35 g/day. Decrease of body weight was -1,8 ± 0,8 kg and triglyceride level was -1,5 (-416−77 in T group that statistically insignificant difference (p=0,39 and p=0,84 with P group -1,6 ± 0,9 kg and -10,0 ± 31,3. Soluble supplementation (P group increased serum HDL cholesterol concentration was 0,0 ± 4,3 mg/dL that statistically insignificant difference (p=0,86 with T
Huang, Zhiliang; Wang, Baowu; Pace, Ralphenia D; Yoon, Seokjoo
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to investigate the effect of dietary intake of trans fat on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and adipokine levels in plasma. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 4.5% trans fat or a control diet containing no trans fat for 16 weeks. Fasting glucose level was monitored every 2 weeks. At the end of feeding experiment, blood, heart, kidney, liver, omental adipose tissue, and semitendinosus muscle were collected. The trans fat content in organs, lipid profile, adipokine, insulin, and glucose levels in plasma were analyzed. The trans fat content in adipose tissue, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle of rats fed trans fat were 169.9, 0.6, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 mg/g samples, respectively. The trans fat content in these organs contributed to 15.9%, 1.2%, 2.3%, 4.3%, and 6.1% of the total fat, respectively. The plasma glucose level, insulin level, and insulin sensitivity index were not significantly different between the trans fat and control groups. The results indicated that trans fat intake might not be related to insulin resistance. However, lipid profile and plasma adipokine levels were significantly changed after trans fat feeding. The trans fat fed group showed significantly lower total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the control group. The decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level may indicate the detrimental effect of trans fat intake on lipid profile. Adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly higher in the trans fat group than the control group. Leptin levels were significantly lower in the trans fat group than
Sun, Jia Teng; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lin; Liu, Hong Juan; Shen, Wei Feng; Yang, Ke; Zhang, Rui Yan
Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, these potent activities can become deficient and even transform into proinflammatory effects under various pathophysiological states. We investigated the effect of diabetic HDL on the inflammatory response in human monocytes and its relation to the existence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). HDL was isolated from DM patients with (n = 61) or without (n = 31) CAD (diameter stenosis ≥50%) and healthy controls (n = 40). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with HDL and the proinflammatory ability of HDL was determined by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Secretion of TNF-α in human monocytes in response to diabetic HDL was significantly increased compared with that of the control HDL. Of note, HDL from DM patients with CAD stimulated the release of TNF-α in monocytes to a greater extent than that of HDL from those without CAD. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the proinflammatory ability of HDL was independently associated with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Furthermore, the proinflammatory ability of HDL was a significant predictor for the presence of CAD in patients with DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During atherosclerosis monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate cholesteryl esters from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs via lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1 and class AI and AII (SR-AI, SR-AII and class B (SR-BI, CD36 scavenger receptors. Here we examined the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia may modulate receptor expression and hence lipid accumulation in macrophages. Human monocytes were matured into macrophages in 30 versus 5 mM glucose and receptor expression and lipid accumulation quantified. High glucose elevated LOX1 mRNA, but decreased SR-AI, SR-BI, LDLR, and CD36 mRNA. SR-BI and CD36 protein levels were decreased. Normo- and hyperglycaemic cells accumulated cholesteryl esters from modified LDL to a greater extent than control LDL, but total and individual cholesteryl ester accumulation was not affected by glucose levels. It is concluded that, whilst macrophage scavenger receptor mRNA and protein levels can be modulated by high glucose, these are not key factors in lipid accumulation by human macrophages under the conditions examined.
Rui, Mengjie; Guo, Wei; Ding, Qian; Wei, Xiaohui; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Yuhong
Natural high-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess important physiological functions to the transport of cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver for metabolic degradation and excretion in the bile. In this work, we took advantage of this pathway and prepared two different gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA-labeled cholesterol-containing recombinant HDL nanoparticles (Gd-chol-HDL) and Gd-(chol)(2)-HDL as liver-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The reconstituted HDL nanoparticles had structural similarity to native HDL, and could be taken up by HepG2 cells via interaction with HDL receptors in vitro. In vivo MRI studies in rats after intravenous injections of 10 μmol gadolinium per kg of recombinant HDL nanoparticles indicated that both nanoparticles could provide signal enhancement in the liver and related organs. However, different T(1)-weighted image details suggested that they participated in different cholesterol metabolism and excretion pathways in the liver. Such information could be highly useful to differentiate functional changes as well as anatomic differences in the liver. These cholesterol-derived contrast agents and their recombinant HDL preparations may warrant further development as a new class of contrast agents for MRI of the liver and related organs.
Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P
To estimate the prevalence as well as predictors of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in Oman. Data were analyzed from the records of 1583 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS as part of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was considered as prevalence of low HDL-C for this ACS population in Oman was 53% mostly affecting females (67 vs. 43%; p 2 mg/dL), triglycerides, and body mass index (BMI) were positive predictors of low HDL-C. However, male gender, total cholesterol, and heart failure (Killip class score ≥3) were negative predictors of low HDL-C. Omani ACS patients have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Renal impairment, triglycerides, and BMI were positive predictors of low HDL-C. The clinical relevance of a low HDL-C abnormality needs to be evaluated in light of the study's limitations (e.g., cross sectional study design as well as the effects of the acute phase reaction and treatment).
Whitney, Edwin J; Krasuski, Richard A; Personius, Bradley E; Michalek, Joel E; Maranian, Ara M; Kolasa, Mark W; Monick, Erik; Brown, B Gregory; Gotto, Antonio M
The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in epidemiologic studies. Until recently, it has been less extensively studied as a therapeutic target. To assess the angiographic and clinical effects of a pharmacologic strategy to increase HDL cholesterol levels. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from 1993 to 1996. Outpatient specialty clinic of a large U.S. military medical center. 143 military retirees younger than 76 years of age with low HDL cholesterol levels and angiographically evident coronary disease. Gemfibrozil, niacin, and cholestyramine or corresponding placebos, with aggressive dietary and lifestyle intervention at baseline. Change from baseline to 30 months and a composite measure of clinical events that included hospitalization for angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and stroke, death, and cardiovascular procedures. At baseline, mean (+/-SD) lipid values were as follows: total cholesterol, 5.1 +/- 0.8 mmol/L (196 +/- 31 mg/dL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 3.3 +/- 0.7 mmol/L (128 +/- 27 mg/dL); and HDL cholesterol, 0.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L (34 +/- 6 mg/dL). Compared with placebo, the pharmacologically treated group experienced a 20% (95% CI, 14.8% to 24.3%) decrease in total cholesterol level, a 36% (CI, 28.4% to 43.5%) increase in HDL cholesterol level, a 26% (CI, 19.1% to 33.7%) decrease in LDL cholesterol level, and a 50% (CI, 40.5% to 59.2%) reduction in triglyceride levels. Focal coronary stenosis increased by 1.4% in the placebo group but decreased by 0.8% in the drug group (difference, -2.2 percentage points [CI, -4.2 to -0.1 percentage points]). A composite cardiovascular event end point was reached in 26% of patients in the placebo group and 13% of those in the drug group (difference, 13.7 percentage points [CI, 0.9 to 26.5 percentage points]). Side effects, particularly flushing and gastrointestinal intolerance, were more common in
Quispe, Renato; Manalac, Raoul J; Faridi, Kamil F; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Nasir, Khurram; Virani, Salim S; Banach, Maciej; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R
High levels of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. We evaluated variability in the remaining lipid profile, especially remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and its components (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol), with variability in the TG/HDL-C ratio in a very large study cohort representative of the general U.S. We examined data from 1,350,908 US individuals who were clinically referred for lipoprotein cholesterol ultracentrifugation (Atherotech, Birmingham, AL) from 2009 to 2011. Demographic information other than age and sex was not available. Changes to the remaining lipid profile across percentiles of the TG/HDL-C ratio were quantified, as well as by three TG/HDL-C cut-off points previously proposed in the literature: 2.5 (male) and 2 (female), 3.75 (male) and 3 (female), and 3.5 (male and female). The mean age of our study population was 58.7 years, and 48% were men. The median TG/HDL-C ratio was 2.2. Across increasing TG/HDL-C ratios, we found steadily increasing levels of RLP-C, non-HDL-C and LDL density. Among the lipid parameters studied, RLP-C and LDL density had the highest relative increase when comparing individuals with elevated TG/HDL-C levels to those with lower TG/HDL-C levels using established cut-off points. Approximately 47% of TG/HDL-C ratio variance was attributable to RLP-C. In the present analysis, a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increasingly atherogenic lipid phenotype, characterized by higher RLP-C along with higher non-HDL-C and LDL density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Grossman, Jennifer M; Sahakian, Lori J; Skaggs, Brian J; FitzGerald, John; Ragavendra, Nagesh; Charles-Schoeman, Christina; Chen, Weiling; Gorn, Alan; Karpouzas, George; Weisman, Michael; Wallace, Daniel J; Hahn, Bevra H; McMahon, Maureen
To investigate the association between physical activity, functional activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and subclinical cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 242 SLE patients (all women) participated in this cross-sectional study from February 2004 to February 2008. Carotid plaque and intima-media thickness (IMT), antioxidant function of HDL, and traditional cardiac risk factors were measured. Physical activity was assessed from self-reports by calculating the metabolic equivalents (METS) per week and by the physical function domain of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Number of METS per week spent performing strenuous exercise was negatively correlated with IMT (r = -0.4, P = 0.002) and number of plaques (r = -0.30, P = 0.0001). Physical function as assessed by the SF-36 was also negatively correlated with IMT (r = -0.14, P = 0.03) and number of plaques (r = -0.14, P = 0.04). In multivariate analyses, number of strenuous exercise METS was significantly associated with IMT (t = -2.2, P = 0.028) and number of plaques (t = -2.5, P = 0.014) when controlling for markers of SLE disease activity and damage, but not after controlling for traditional cardiac risk factors. Low physical activity, defined as exercise may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in SLE.
Noordam, R; Gunn, D A; van Drielen, K; Westgate, G; Slagboom, P E; de Craen, A J M; van Heemst, D
Multiple biomarkers have been associated with hair loss in women, but studies have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the associations between markers of cardiovascular disease risk (e.g. serum lipid levels and hypertension) and ageing [e.g. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)] with hair loss in a population of middle-aged women. In a random subgroup of 323 middle-aged women (mean age 61·5 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study, hair loss was graded by three assessors using the Sinclair scale; women with a mean score > 1·5 were classified as cases with hair loss. Every 1 SD increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was associated with a 0·65-times lower risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·46-0·91] of hair loss. For IGF-1 the risk was 0·68 times lower (95% CI 0·48-0·97) per 1 SD increase, independently of the other studied variables. Women with both IGF-1 and HDL cholesterol levels below the medians of the study population had a 3·47-times higher risk (95% CI 1·30-9·25) of having hair loss. Low HDL cholesterol and IGF-1 were associated with a higher risk of hair loss in women. However, further studies are required to infer causal relationships. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.
Kitamura, Akihiko; Noda, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masakazu; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Imano, Hironori; Ohira, Tetsuya; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu
The aim of this study was to identify the threshold level for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) to raise the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in a Japanese general population. A total of 8,132 men and women, aged 40 to 69 years with no history of stroke or CHD, completed the baseline risk factor surveys between 1975 and 1987. Systematic surveillance of cardiovascular disease incidence was performed through 2003 (the median follow-up period was 21.9 years), and 155 incidents of CHD were identified. We found a statistically significant association between non-HDL-cholesterol levels and the risk of CHD with a threshold around 140 mg/dL. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, this association did not change materially. The multivariable hazard ratio of CHD compared with that for levels of cholesterol resulted in the greatest improvement of integrated discrimination. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of CHD with a threshold around 140 mg/dL, suggesting that the optimal cut-off point for healthy per-sons to prevent increasing the risk of CHD might be around 140 mg/dL non-HDL-cholesterol.
Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R
(1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/- mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR. After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD, showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states.
Maeda, Hayato; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukuda, Mari; Ikeda, Yuki; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji
Tuna muscle consists of light and dark muscle in approximately equal proportions. However, besides for the light muscle of tuna, cod, sardine, and salmon, few researches have assessed the health-promoting functions of fish protein. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid storage and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of tuna dark muscle protein (TDMP) by obese type-2 diabetic/obese mice. Four-week-old male KK-Ay mice were separated into 2 dietary groups, with one group receiving a casein-based diet and the other receiving a diet with the substitution of part of the protein (50%, w/w) by TDMP (TDMP diet) for 4 wk. The TDMP diet significantly increased the content of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, partly due to the reduction of the expression of scavenger receptor class B member 1 in epididymal white adipose tissue. In addition, dietary TDMP decreased the content of hepatic triacylglycerol, which could be due to the enhancement of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 activity through the activation of the expression of the peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-α in the liver. These results suggest that TDMP could have the potential to prevent the development of obesity-related diseases by suppressing the storage of hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Rać, Michał; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz
Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been employed as a prescreening tool to reduce the amount of DNA sequencing. It could be a simple and cost-effective screening method for mutations and polymorphisms in exons 4, 5, and 6 of the CD36 gene, which encode the protein region responsible for the removal of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Genomic DNA was isolated from 306 Caucasian infants of Polish origin. Six single-nucleotide substitutions were detected by DHPLC and confirmed by direct sequencing. The A591T, G550A, and C572T alterations have not been described so far. Each of two nonsynonymous substitutions (Asp184Asn, Pro191Leu) was found in one subject (0.2% minor allele frequency). The results suggest that nonsynonymous alterations in the analyzed CD36 region are rare in Caucasians. DHPLC is a specific and cost-effective technique that may prove to be particularly useful for the identification of polymorphisms and mutations in the CD36 gene.
Age, abdominal obesity, and baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B responses to ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin in patients with metabolic syndrome.
Robinson, Jennifer G; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hsueh, Willa A; Rosen, Jeffrey B; Lin, Jianxin; Shah, Arvind K; Tomassini, Joanne E; Lowe, Robert S; Tershakovec, Andrew M
Treatment response to lipid-lowering therapy can vary in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) due to various patient demographic and baseline characteristics. This study assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and changes in lipid variables, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and attainment of prespecified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in MetS patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin. This is a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, 6-week parallel study in >1000 hypercholesterolemic subjects (median age of 59 years) with MetS and moderately high/high coronary heart disease risk who were treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 and 10/40 mg) or atorvastatin (10, 20, 40 mg). Factors that could affect these treatments were assessed by multivariate analysis. Increasing age, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 40/35 inches for men/women), and lower baseline hs-CRP were significant predictors of greater reductions in LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not for changes in HDL-C or apolipoprotein AI; effects of race and baseline triglycerides, non-HDL-C, LDL-C, or HDL-C levels were more limited. Age ≥ 65 years (versus obesity, gender (female > male) and lower baseline LDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and hs-CRP were associated with improved attainment for some of these targets. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance tertiles, and diabetes did not predict response for any efficacy variable. Ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment (versus atorvastatin) was a significant predictor for change in most efficacy variables. Treatment responses to ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin in at-risk patients with the MetS were related to age (≥ 65 years), abdominal obesity, and lower baseline hs
Rizzo, John A; Mallow, Peter J; Waters, Heidi C; Pokrywka, Gregory S
Meta-analyses of clinical trials have shown that using statins to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular events, and more intensive lowering of LDL-C further decreases the risk of occlusive vascular events. Lipoprotein studies suggest treating patients more aggressively when low-density lipoprotein particle (LDL-P) number is discordantly high in the presence of normal LDL-C levels. Failure to manage LDL-P numbers may lead to additional direct and indirect costs. This analysis modeled direct and indirect costs associated with cardiovascular events due to suboptimal treatment resulting from discordance between LDL-C and LDL-P levels. The analysis was conducted from the payer perspective and the employer perspective, respectively, over a 3-year time period. Clinical data were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based population study. The employer perspective included indirect costs and quality-adjusted life years in addition to the direct costs and cardiovascular disease events considered in the payer analysis. All costs are reported in 2011 dollars. From the payer perspective, managing LDL-C and LDL-P in comparison with LDL-C alone reduced costs ($21,212) and cardiovascular events (9 events). Similar patterns were observed for managing LDL-P alone in comparison with LDL-C. From the employer perspective, managing both LDL-P alone or in combination with LDL-C also resulted in lower costs, fewer cardiovascular disease events, and increased quality-adjusted life years in comparison with LDL-C. This analysis indicates that the benefits of additional testing to optimally manage LDL-P levels outweigh the costs of more aggressive treatment. These favorable results depended on the cost of drug therapy. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Tang, Jun; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Hogstad, Brandon; Merad, Miriam; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Reiner, Thomas
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are increasingly investigated in cancer immunology and are considered a promising target for better and tailored treatment of malignant growth. Although TAMs also have high diagnostic and prognostic value, TAM imaging still remains largely unexplored. Here, we
Jain, Meenakshi; Sawhney, Harjeet; Aggarwal, Neelam; Vashistha, Kala; Majumdhar, Siddarth
To study autoantibody titres against oxidized low density lipoprotein in preeclamsia. Ten millimeters of heparinized blood samples were collected from 20 primigravidae with severe preeclamsia (study group) and 20 gestation-matched normotensive primigravidae (control group). Concentration of malondialdehyde, metabolite of lipid peroxidation were measured in sera by HPLC and autoantibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins (obtained after oxidation with 2 mm CuSO(4)) were determined by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test and chi(2) test. Mean triglyceride levels were significantly (P /=1.32). In preeclamptic women, diastolic blood pressure, the amount of urinary protein excretion and the plasma level of urea were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with higher auto antibody titre. Titres of autoantibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein were similar in normotensive and preeclamptic women. In preeclamptic women, titres correlated positively with the severity of preeclampsia.
Bersot, Thomas P; Palaoğlu, K Erhan; Mahley, Robert W
Based on data from the Turkish Society of Cardiology and others, it is established that Turks have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Several risk factors are prominent in Turks: dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, and hypertension. The dyslipidemia is unique in that very low levels of HDL-C and typically "normal" LDL-C levels characterize the Turkish population. The low HDL-C levels appear to be genetic in origin and are largely independent of high triglyceride levels (73% of Turkish men and 94% of women with HDL-C 200 mg/dl). HDL-C levels are 10-15% mg/dl lower in Turks than seen in the United States or western Europe. Low HDL-C is a major risk factor; CHD risk increases 2-4% for every 1 mg/dl decrease in HDL-C levels. Existing treatment guidelines focus on plasma LDL-C levels and fail to take into account the continuous increase in CHD risk that occurs as HDL-C levels decrease. However, several studies show that patients with CHD or free of CHD but with multiple risk factors, who have low HDL-C and near optimal LDL-C, benefit very significantly from lipid-lowering therapy. Many of these patients with low HDL-C levels do not qualify for drug therapy based on existing guidelines. Therefore, we believe that unique guidelines must be developed to guide the treatment of low HDL-C Turkish patients. We suggest that treatment based on both the LDL-C level and the total cholesterol/HDL-C (TC/HDL-C) ratio is the best way to address treatment of patients with low HDL-C levels. The most effective drug treatment available presently in Turkey relies on lowering LDL-C levels to optimize the TC/HDL-C ratio.
Bowe, Benjamin; Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Zayed, Mohamed A.
Background and objectives The relationship between HDL cholesterol and all-cause mortality in patients with kidney disease is not clear. We sought to characterize the relationship of HDL cholesterol and risk of death and examine the association by eGFR levels. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We built a cohort of 1,764,986 men who were United States veterans with at least one eGFR between October of 2003 and September of 2004 and followed them until September of 2013 or death. Results Patients with low HDL cholesterol and low eGFR had a higher burden of comorbid illnesses. Over a median of 9.1 years (interquartile range, 7.7–9.4 years), 26,247 (40.1%), 109,222 (32.3%), 152,625 (29.2%), 113,785 (28.5%), and 139,803 (31.8%) participants with HDL cholesterol ≤25, >25 to 42 to 25 to 42 to <50 mg/dl) were associated with lower risk of death across all levels of eGFR. The lower risk was partially abrogated in those with high HDL cholesterol (≥50 mg/dl), and the risk of death was similar to the referent category among those with eGFR<30 or ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Analysis by HDL cholesterol deciles and spline analyses suggest that the relationship between HDL cholesterol and death follows a U-shaped curve. There was a significant interaction between eGFR and HDL cholesterol in that lower eGFR attenuated the salutary association of HDL cholesterol and risk of death (P for interaction <0.01). Presence of coronary artery disease attenuated the lower risk of high HDL cholesterol and all-cause mortality in those with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions Our results show a U-shaped relationship between HDL cholesterol and risk of all-cause mortality across all eGFR categories. The risk is modified by eGFR and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27515591
Effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile, low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, and antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein in relation to carotid intima media thickness in familial hypercholesterolemia
van Tits, Lambertus J. H.; Smilde, Tineke J.; van Wissen, Sanne; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Kastelein, John J. P.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.
Background: Little is known about the effects of statins on the quality of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in relation to atherosclerosis progression. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized trial of 325 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), we assessed the effects of high-dose
Talayero, Beatriz; Wang, Liyun; Furtado, Jeremy; Carey, Vincent J; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M
Human HDLs have highly heterogeneous composition. Plasma concentrations of HDL with apoC-III and of apoE in HDL predict higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The concentrations of HDL-apoA-I containing apoE, apoC-III, or both and their distribution across HDL sizes are unknown. We studied 20 normal weight and 20 obese subjects matched by age, gender, and race. Plasma HDL was separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography (anti-apoA-I, anti-apoC-III, anti-apoE), followed by nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations in normal weight and obese subjects were 65 and 50 mg/dl (P = 0.009), and total apoA-I concentrations were 119 and 118 mg/dl, respectively. HDL without apoE or apoC-III was the most prevalent HDL type representing 89% of apoA-I concentration in normal weight and 77% in obese (P = 0.01) individuals; HDL with apoE-only was 5% versus 8% (P = 0.1); HDL with apoC-III-only was 4% versus 10% (P = 0.009); and HDL with apoE and apoC-III was 1.5% versus 4.6% (P = 0.004). Concentrations of apoE and apoC-III in HDL were 1.5-2× higher in obese subjects (P ≤ 0.004). HDL with apoE or apoC-III occurred in all sizes among groups. Obese subjects had higher prevalence of HDL containing apoE or apoC-III, subfractions associated with CHD, whereas normal weight subjects had higher prevalence of HDL without apoE or apoC-III, subfractions with protective association against CHD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Kelishadi, Roya; Haghjooy Javanmard, Shaghayegh; Tajadini, Mohammad Hasan; Mansourian, Marjan; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ban, Matthew
Depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is prevalent the Middle East and North Africa. Some studies have documented associations between HDL-C and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate gene polymorphisms. We investigated the associations between SNP genotypes and HDL-C levels in Iranian students, aged 10-18 years. Genotyping was performed in 750 randomly selected participants among those with low HDL-C levels (below 5th percentile), intermediate HDL-C levels (5-95th) and high HDL-C levels (above the 95th percentile). Minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of the SNPs of interest were compared between the three HDL-C groups. The vast majority of pairwise comparisons of MAFs between HDL-C groups were significant. Pairwise comparisons between low and high HDL-C groups showed significant between-group differences in MAFs for all SNPs, except for APOC3 rs5128. Pairwise comparisons between low and intermediate HDL-C groups showed significant between-group differences in MAFs for all SNPs, except for APOC3 rs5128 and APOA1 rs2893157. Pairwise comparisons between intermediate and high HDL-C groups showed significant between-group differences in MAFs for all SNPs, except for ABCA1 APOC3 rs5128 and APOA1 rs2893157. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, sex, body mass index, low physical activity, consumption of saturated fats, and socioeconomic status, ABCA1 r1587K and CETP A373P significantly increased the risk of depressed HDL-C, and CETP Taq1 had a protective role. This study replicated several associations between HDL-C levels and candidate gene SNPs from genome-wide associations with HDL-C in Iranians from the pediatric age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kovanen, P T; Basu, S K; Goldstein, J L; Brown, M S
Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding activity was measured in whole homogenates and membranes prepared from fresh bovine adrenal cortex by an ultracentrifugation assay. The binding site for 125I-labeled LDL in isolated membranes shared the properties of the LDL receptor previously demonstrated in intact monolayers of cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. The amount of high affinity [125I]iodo-LDL-binding activity in the adrenal cortex was 6- to 12-fold higher than in the medulla of the same glands. Large amounts of high affinity [125I]iodo-LDL-binding activity were also present in the ovarian corpus luteum but not in the ovarian interstitium. Lesser amounts of high affinity binding activity were observed in 14 other bovine tissues. These results lend support to the concept that cells in the bovine adrenal cortex can obtain cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis through the receptor-mediated uptake of plasma LDL.
Full Text Available Yang Lv,1,2 Li-Yun Miao,2 Qiu-Fang Chen,1 Yan Li,2 Zhi-Xiang Shi,1 Xuan-Sheng Ding1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Respiration, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical College, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C has an inverse association with the incidence of lung cancer. However, whether it can be used as a predictive factor in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI still remains undefined. This research aimed at studying the relationship of serum HDL-C baseline level and HDL-C kinetics to EGFR mutation, the efficacy of EGFR-TKI, and the predictive value of PFS. The presence of mutation rate in the 192 patients with lung adenocarcinoma was compared within stratified groups. Levels of baseline HDL-C and kinetics of HDL-C were analyzed retrospectively in patients treated with EGFR-TKI harboring EGFR mutation. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of HDL-C. EGFR mutation rate of HDL-C high-level group was significantly higher than that of low-level group (59.0% vs 35.6%, P=0.001. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that high-level HDL-C was an independent predictive factor for EGFR gene mutation (P=0.005; odds ratio =0.417; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.227–0.768. Patients with a low level of HDL-C before therapy showed a progression of disease in most cases (P<0.001. According to HDL-C kinetics, patients who received EGFR-TKI treatment harboring EGFR mutation were divided into four groups. Univariate analysis showed that patients in nondecreased group had longer progression-free survival (P<0.001; hazard ratio =0.003; 95% CI, 0.001–0.018. Multivariate
Gong, Zhizhong; Qi, Yue; Zhao, Fan; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sun, Jiayi; Xie, Wuxiang; Li, Yan; Wang, Miao; Qin, Lanping; Wang, Ying; Hao, Yongchen; Zhang, Qingxuan; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Dong
To evaluate the association between very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers in patients with moderate and high risk of coronary heart disease. A total 363 statin-naïve patients with moderate and high risk of coronary heart disease were consecutively recruited from two hospitals in Shanxi and Henan provinces between October 2008 and June 2009. A standard questionnaire and physical examination were performed at baseline. Atorvastatin (20 mg/day) was administered to patients for 4 weeks. Venous blood samples after an overnight fast were collected before and after treatment for measuring VLDL-C and cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers. In qualitative analyses, the baseline level of cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers and their reduction after atorvastatin treatment were categorized into 3 tertile groups. (1) Of 363 patients, 283 patients with mean age of (55.43±9.01)years old with complete data were finally analyzed. The median level of baseline VLDL-C was 1.06 (0.65, 1.86) mmol/L. The median level of baseline cholesterol absorption marker (Campesterol) and cholesterol synthesis marker (Lathosterol) was 6.01 (3.78, 9.45) mg/L and 13.46 (8.30, 21.07) mg/L, respectively. (2) Partial correlation analysis and multiple regression showed the baseline level of VLDL-C was positively correlated with Campesterol (r=0.153, Pmarker, and further studies are needed to validate if inhibitor of cholesterol absorption (for example by Ezetimibe) could bring about more effective VLDL-C lowering effect in this patient cohort.
Gillard, Baiba K; Bassett, G Randall; Gotto, Antonio M; Rosales, Corina; Pownall, Henry J
Reverse cholesterol transport (transfer of macrophage-cholesterol in the subendothelial space of the arterial wall to the liver) is terminated by selective high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, mediated by scavenger receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1). We tested the validity of two models for this process: "gobbling," i.e. one-step transfer of all HDL-CE to the cell and "nibbling," multiple successive cycles of SR-B1-HDL association during which a few CEs transfer to the cell. Concurrently, we compared cellular uptake of apoAI with that of apoAII, which is more lipophilic than apoAI, using HDL-[(3)H]CE labeled with [(125)I]apoAI or [(125)I]apoAII. The studies were conducted in CHO-K1 and CHO-ldlA7 cells (LDLR(-/-)) with (CHO-SR-B1) and without SR-B1 overexpression and in human Huh7 hepatocytes. Relative to CE, both apoAI and apoAII were excluded from uptake by all cells. However, apoAII was more highly excluded from uptake (2-4×) than apoAI. To distinguish gobbling versus nibbling mechanisms, media from incubations of HDL with CHO-SR-B1 cells were analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and the distribution of apoAI, apoAII, cholesterol, and phospholipid among HDL species as a function of incubation time. HDL size gradually decreased, i.e. nibbling, with the concurrent release of lipid-free apoAI; apoAII was retained in an HDL remnant. Our data support an SR-B1 nibbling mechanism that is similar to that of streptococcal serum opacity factor, which also selectively removes CE and releases apoAI, leaving an apoAII-rich remnant. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Maeba, Ryouta; Kojima, Ken-Ichiro; Nagura, Michito; Komori, Aya; Nishimukai, Megumi; Okazaki, Tomoki; Uchida, Shunya
Current research suggests that dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with low cholesterol efflux capacity may accelerate atherosclerosis, particularly in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We previously reported that serum levels of plasmalogens closely correlated with HDL concentration, and could serve as a novel biomarker for atherosclerosis. In the present study, we analyzed the association of cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL with clinical and biochemical parameters, including plasmalogens, in CKD patients. We enrolled 24 mild-to-moderate CKD patients (CKD-3-4) and 33 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients nearing hemodialysis (CKD-5), and assessed physiological atherosclerotic scores, cholesterol efflux capacity, and plasmalogens levels in HDL. Furthermore, the effect of plasmalogen on cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was examined by in vitro studies with re-constituted HDL (rHDL) and HDL prepared from CKD-5 patient (ESRD-HDL) with additional phospholipids. There were significant differences in many parameters between the two groups. In particular, plasmalogens levels and cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL were significantly reduced in the CKD-5 group compared to those in the CKD-3-4 group (-35.1%, p < 0.001, -36.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that ethanolamine plasmalogen levels of HDL were independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacity (p = 0.045) and plaque scores (p = 0.035). In vitro studies also indicated that additional plasmalogens augmented cholesterol efflux ability of HDL. High plasmalogens concentrations in HDL may correlate with acceleration of cholesterol efflux and their decreased levels may promote atherosclerosis in advanced CKD patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Noda, Hiroyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ohtaka, Emiko; Ohta, Hitoshi
The aim of this study was to examine whether non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-cholesterol) raises the risk of coronary heart disease in a dose-response fashion in a non-obese population with low total cholesterol levels and high HDL-cholesterol levels, such as Japanese. A total of 30,802 men and 60,417 women, aged 40 to 79 years with no history of stroke or coronary heart disease, completed a baseline risk factor survey in 1993 under the auspices of the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study. Systematic mortality surveillance through 2003 identified 539 coronary heart disease deaths. The mean values for non-HDL-cholesterol were 140 mg/dL for men and 151 mg/dL for women. The corresponding mean values were 193 mg/dL and 208 mg/dL total cholesterol and 52 mg/dL and 57 mg/dL HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Men with non-HDL-cholesterol > or = 180 mg/dL had a two-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from coronary heart disease than did those with non-HDL-cholesterol or = 180 mg/dL versus cholesterol was 2.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 3.62) for men and 0.71 (0.37 to 1.34) for women. Higher concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease for men, but not for women.
Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant, E-mail: email@example.com; Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)
Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.
Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K.
Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.
Lee, Chi-Hang; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lim, Gek-Hsiang; Chan, Mark Y; Low, Adrian F; Tan, Kathryn C; Chia, Boon-Lock; Tan, Huay-Cheem
Serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is associated with risk of coronary artery disease. We correlated the serum level of cholesterol with coronary artery remodeling index of patients with coronary artery disease. A total of 120 patients with de novo lesions located in native coronary artery were studied. Remodeling index was based on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) interrogation of the lesions using the static approach, and was defined as external elastic membrane (EEM) area at lesion/average EEM area at proximal and distal reference segments. The average remodeling index was 0.9 (SD: 0.2). The remodeling index was not associated with any of the demographic and coronary risk factors. Stable angina was associated with a low remodeling index. Remodeling index correlated with white blood cell count and HDL-cholesterol, but not with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. In the multiple linear regression analysis, HDL-cholesterol and procedure indication were the only 2 significant predictors of remodeling index. An increase of 1 mg/dL of HDL-cholesterol resulted in a decrease of 0.003 (95% CI: 0.0001, 0.007; P = 0.046) in remodeling index, after adjusting for procedural indications. When stratified according to diabetic status, the negative correlation persisted in non-diabetic (P = 0.023), but not in diabetic, patients (P = 0.707). We found a negative correlation between HDL-cholesterol level and remodeling index. Diabetic status may have an influence on the observed relationship.
Mokdad Ali H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio has been reported to be as closely correlated with insulin resistance as is the fasting serum insulin concentration (FSI, and therefore it is seen as a clinically useful way to identify the concomitant presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, conflicting findings exist for the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with FSI by race/ethnicity. Methods The associations of FSI concentration, serum triglyceride concentrations, and HDL-C were analyzed using log-binomial regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis among nondiabetic adults (n = 2652, aged ≥ 20 years, 51.2% men in the United States. Results After adjustment for potential confounding effects, the prevalence ratio of hyperinsulinemia was 2.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.74 to 2.08 when using a single cutoff point of 3.5, and 2.23 (95% CI, 1.83 to 2.72 when using race/ethnicity-specific cutoff points of 3.0 for non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans and 2.0 for non-Hispanic blacks for the TG/HDL-C ratio. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting hyperinsulinemia was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.79, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.77, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.76 for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans, respectively. Conclusion There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and FSI among three major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Our results add further support to the notion that the TG/HDL-C ratio may be a clinically simple and useful indicator for hyperinsulinemia among nondiabetic adults regardless of race/ethnicity.
Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D
The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhao, L C; Zhou, L; Li, Y; Guo, M; Wu, Y F
To explore the relationship between early adulthood weight status and body weight changes from early adulthood to middle age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Data were obtained from China Multicenter Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology Study, which was conducted in 1998, 15 participants population samples aged from 35-59 years old from 12 provinces were selected by random cluster sampling. Approximately 1 000 men and women in each sample population were surveyed for cardiovascular disease risk factors, body weight at age 25 from all participants were also obtained. Body mass index (BMI) at the age of 25 years was calculated with the weight at 25 years and the height measured during the survey, participants were divided into underweight (BMIage of 25 and at the survey and was grouped into12.5 kg (n=3 064). The association of body weight status in early adulthood and body weight change from early adulthood to middle age with HDL-C level was examined by logistic regression model. The prevalence of low HDL-C in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity groups at age of 25 years were 10.7%(143/1 331), 15.5%(1 612/10 400), 16.3%(330/2 019) and 24.8%(33/133), respectively(P for trend 12.5 kg, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity at age of 25 years and subsequent weight gain till middle age were positively correlated with low HDL-C after adjusted other risk factors(all P for trend early adulthood and significant adult weight gain from early adulthood to middle age were both independently associated with marked increases in the risk of low HDL-C in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Thus, body weight control at early adulthood could be a key strategy to reduce the incidence of low HDL-C at middle-aged population.
Full Text Available The gene product ABCB1 (formerly MDR1 or P-glycoprotein is hypothesized to be involved in cholesterol cellular trafficking, redistribution and intestinal re-absorption. Carriers of the ABCB1:3435T allele have previously been associated with decreases in ABCB1 mRNA and protein concentrations and have been correlated with changes in serum lipid concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between the ABCB1:3435T>C polymorphism and changes in lipids in patients following statin treatment. Outpatients (n=130 were examined: 43 men (33%, 87 women (67%: treated with atorvastatin or simvastatin (all patients with equivalent dose of 20 or 40 mg/d simvastatin. Blood was taken for ABCB1:3435T>C genotyping, and before and after statin treatment for lipid concentration determination (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides. Change (Δ in lipid parameters, calculated as differences between measurements before and after treatment, were analyzed with multiple regression adjustments: gender, diabetes, age, body mass index, equivalent statin dose, length of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.029; multivariate p=0.036 and %ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.021; multivariate p=0.023 between patients with TT (-0.05 ± 0.13 g/l; -6.8% ± 20%; respectively and CC+CT genotypes (0.004 ± 0.15 g/l; 4.1 ± 26%; respectively. Reduction of HDL-C in homozygous ABCB1:3435TT patients suggests this genotype could be associated with a reduction in the benefits of statin treatment.
Mullan, Ronan Hugh
Acute phase apoprotein Serum Amyloid A (A-SAA), which is strongly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane (RA SM), induces angiogenesis, adhesion molecule expression, and matrix metalloproteinase production through the G-coupled receptor FPRL-1. Here we report alternative signaling through the high-density lipoprotein receptor scavenger receptor-class B type 1 (SR-B1). Quantitative expression\\/localization of SR-B1 in RA SM, RA fibroblast-like cells (FLCs), and microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) was assessed by Western blotting and immunohistology\\/fluorescence. A-SAA-mediated effects were examined using a specific antibody against SR-B1 or amphipathic alpha-Helical Peptides (the SR-B1 antagonists L-37pA and D-37pA), in RA FLCs and ECs. Adhesion molecule expression and cytokine production were quantified using flow cytometry and ELISA. SR-B1 was strongly expressed in the RA SM lining layer and endothelial\\/perivascular regions compared with osteoarthritis SM or normal control synovium. Differential SR-B1 expression in RA FLC lines (n = 5) and ECs correlated closely with A-SAA, but not tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 upregulation. A-SAA-induced interleukin-6 and -8 production was inhibited in the presence of anti-SR-B1 in human microvascular endothelial cells and RA FLCs. Moreover, D-37pA and L-37pA inhibited A-SAA-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule expression from ECs in a dose-dependent manner. As SR-B1 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and mediates A-SAA-induced pro-inflammatory pathways, a better understanding of A-SAA-mediated inflammatory pathways may lead to novel treatment strategies for RA.
Liu, Hongtao; Deng, Xia; Peng, Yudong; Zeng, Qiutang; Song, Zongren; He, Wenping; Zhang, Le; Gao, Gan; Xiao, Ting; Yu, Xuedong
Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been proposed an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the magnitude of this association in the general population varied considerably. To investigate the association of baseline non-HDL-C level with CHD risk in the general population by conducting a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the Pubmed and Embase until January 2017. Prospective observational studies that investigated the association between baseline non-HDL-C level and CHD risk in the general population were included. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for the highest vs. the lowest non-HDL-C category. Seven articles with 9 independent prospective studies involving 448,732 individuals were included. Meta-analysis showed that individuals with the highest non-HDL-C level at baseline were associated with greater risk of CHD (RR 1.79; 95% CI 1.68-1.91) than those in the lowest non-HDL-C level category. Subgroup analysis suggested that the risk of CHD seemed more pronounced among men (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.70-2.30) than among women (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.35-1.96). Higher baseline non-HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of CHD in the general population. This risk seems more pronounced in men than in women. However, gender difference in non-HDL-C level associated with CHD risk should be verified by more well-designed prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Saito, Isao; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Although low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), information regarding subtypes of stroke is very limited, especially in Asian populations. A prospective study was conducted among 30,736 individuals aged 40-69 years, who lived in nine communities in Japan and did not have a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CHD and stroke, including its subtypes, were assessed, and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated according to quintiles of HDL cholesterol using Cox proportional models adjusted for other CVD risk factors. We identified 296 CHD and 1712 stroke events over a median 15 yr of follow-up. HDL cholesterol concentration showed an inverse association with CHD in men and women. A low HDL cholesterol concentration slightly raised the risk for total strokes in men, but not in women. When analyzed by subtypes, we observed an inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol concentration and the incidence of lacunar infarction, with an adjusted HR for the lowest quintile of HDL cholesterol concentration compared with the highest quintile of 1.63 (95% CI, 1.00-2.66) in men and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.19-3.26) in women. HDL cholesterol concentration was positively associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a linear manner in women (p for trend = 0.028), but not in men. The associations of HDL cholesterol concentration with lacunar infarction and ICH may be related to different functional properties of HDL rather than to its protective function against lipid-rich atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Shakiba, Maryam; Khalili, Davood; Hadaegh, Farzad; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun
Recently, there are controversial findings on protective effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) against coronary heart disease (CHD) in some population. We aim to determine the effect of HDL-C on CHD in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Between February 1999 and August 2001, 3778 women aged 30 to 74 y, free of clinical cardiovascular diseases, were recruited and followed up to March 2010. HDL-C and other CHD risk factors were measured at baseline. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, the adjusted hazard ratio was calculated. During a median follow-up of 9.6 y, a total of 228 new CHD events occurred. In postmenopausal women, the adjusted hazard ratio for each standard deviation increase in HDL-C was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92). Among premenopausal women, a time varying model was fitted; the adjusted hazard ratio for each standard deviation increase of HDL-C among 30-year-old women was 2.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-7.29) but decreased by 5% for each year increase of age. Different effects of HDL-C in premenopausal and postmenopausal women were identified. During premenopausal period, the hazard of CHD increased by any increase of HDL-C level, but the amount of this increment gradually decreased over time, whereas during postmenopausal period, the hazard of CHD was inversely associated with HDL-C level. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yun, Yeo Min; Song, Junghan; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yongkang; Park, Taesung; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Seungman; Kim, Min Jin; Nho, Sun Jin; Oh, Kyung Won
For correct interpretation of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), the values should be comparable to reference values. We aimed to suggest a way to calibrate KNHANES HDL-C data from 2008 to 2015 to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference method values. We derived three calibration equations based on comparisons between the HDL-C values of the KNHANES laboratory and the CDC reference method values in 2009, 2012, and 2015 using commutable frozen serum samples. The selection of calibration equation for correcting KNHANES HDL-C in each year was determined by the accuracy-based external quality assurance results of the KNHANES laboratory. Significant positive biases of HDL-C values were observed in all years (2.85-9.40%). We created the following calibration equations: standard HDL-C=0.872×[original KNHANES HDL-C]+2.460 for 2008, 2009, and 2010; standard HDL-C=0.952×[original KNHANES HDL-C]+1.096 for 2012, 2013, and 2014; and standard HDL-C=1.01×[original KNHANES HDL-C]-3.172 for 2011 and 2015. We calibrated the biases of KNHANES HDL-C data using the calibration equations. Since the KNHANES HDL-C values (2008-2015) showed substantial positive biases compared with the CDC reference method values, we suggested using calibration equations to correct KNHANES data from these years. Since the necessity for correcting the biases depends on the characteristics of research topics, each researcher should determine whether to calibrate KNHANES HDL-C data or not for each study.
Apro, Johanna; Tietge, Uwe J F; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors.
Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori
Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.
Full Text Available BackgroundIncreased triglycerides (TGs and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are established as diabetic risks for nondiabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among TG, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, and early-phase insulin secretion in normoglycemic and prediabetic subjects.MethodsWe evaluated 663 Japanese subjects who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. On the basis of these results, the subjects were divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=341, isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG; n=211, isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT; n=71, and combined IFG and IGT (IFG+IGT; n=40. Insulin secretion was estimated by the insulinogenic index (IGI (Δinsulin/Δglucose [30 to 0 minutes] and disposition index (DI (IGI/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.ResultsIn prediabetic subjects (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG+IGT, linear regression analyses revealed that IGI and DI were positively correlated with HDL-C levels. Moreover, in subjects with i-IGT and (IFG+IGT, but not with i-IFG, the indices of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with the log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. In both the subjects with i-IGT, multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that DI was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively with log-transformed TG and TG/HDL-C ratio. On the other hand, in subjects with NGT, there was no association between insulin secretion and lipid profiles.ConclusionThese results revealed that serum TG and HDL-C levels have different impacts on early-phase insulin secretion on the basis of their glucose tolerance status.
Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Nagata, Masaharu; Kitazono, Takanari; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Konta, Tsuneo; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Narita, Ichiei; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kondo, Masahide; Asahi, Koichi; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi
The impact of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:HDL-C) ratio on chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. Longitudinal cohort study. 124,700 participants aged 39 to 74 years in the Japanese Specific Health Check and Guidance System, including 50,392 men, 74,308 women, 102,900 without CKD, and 21,800 with CKD. Quartiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period. Incident CKD in participants without CKD, and progression of CKD in participants with CKD. In the entire study population, higher quartile of TG:HDL-C ratio at baseline was significantly associated with greater decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period, even after adjustment for confounding factors. A higher ratio was associated with higher risk of incident CKD in participants without CKD and higher risk of rapid decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion in participants with CKD. Higher TG:HDL-C ratio was more strongly associated with decline in eGFR (P for interaction = 0.002) and with incident CKD (P for interaction = 0.05) in participants with diabetes than without diabetes. Short observation period and single measurement of all variables. A higher TG:HDL-C ratio affects the decline in eGFR and incidence and progression of CKD in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still unclear, and the current technique of using radioisotopes has clinical limitation. However, the current study techniques or methods excellently elucidate the functional aspects of ...
Although there is widespread acceptance that total cholesterol (TC) value reference ranges should be based on epidemiological rather than statistical considerations, the epidemiological action limits for Iow-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are still incomplete and only statistical reference ranges for apolipoprotein B ...
Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne
Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...
Shimizu, Yuji; Nakazato, Mio; Sekita, Takaharu; Koyamatsu, Jun; Kadota, Koichiro; Yamasaki, Hironori; Goto, Hisashi; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro
Our previous study reported that categorizing diabetes patients according to the serum triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratio is useful for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis, as a high TG-HDL ratio in patients with diabetes constitutes risk factors for atherosclerosis. Another study showed that a high hemoglobin level is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis. However, no previous studies have examined the association between the hemoglobin level and diabetes categorized by the TG-HDL ratio. In order to investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,733 (1,299 men and 2,434 women) Japanese participants 30-89 years of age undergoing a general health checkup. We investigated the association between the hemoglobin levels and the incidence of diabetes in all subjects, who were divided into tertiles according to the TG-HDL ratio. Diabetes was defined as an HbA1c (NGSP) level of ≥ 6.5% and/or the initiation of glucose-lowering or insulin therapy. Of the 265 diabetes patients identified in this study, 116 had a high TG-HDL ratio (high TG-HDL diabetes) and 71 had a low TG-HDL ratio (low TG-HDL diabetes). Independent from classical cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariate odds ratio of a 1 SD (standard deviation) increment in hemoglobin (1.30 g/dL for men, 1.16 g/dL for women) was 1.04 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.88-1.22) for all patients with diabetes, 1.44 (95%CI: 1.17-1.77) for the patients with high TG-HDL diabetes and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for the patients with low TG-HDL diabetes. The hemoglobin level is positively associated with high TG-HDL diabetes and inversely associated with low TG-HDL diabetes. These findings suggest that measuring the hemoglobin level is clinically relevant for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes categorized according to the TG-HDL ratio.
Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena
The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dashty Rahmatabady, Monireh; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Levels, Johannes; de Vries, Marcel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Rezaee, Farhad
Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis
Ghodsi, Saeed; Meysamie, Alipasha; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Ghalehtaki, Reza; Esteghamati, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Asgari, Fereshteh; Gouya, Mohammad M
Non-HDL-C as a valuable predictor of premature atherosclerosis, coronary events like first Myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality has a high accuracy of measurement both in fasting and non-fasting individuals. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can promote the development of diabetes mellitus, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. A common pathway for cross linking of metabolic abnormalities and non-HDL-C has been suggested. In this study we aimed to describe the potential association between non-HDL cholesterol fractions and metabolic syndrome. Data of third national surveillance of the risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007) were analyzed. We defined metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria for 2125 subjects aging 25-64 years. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal cut-points for the diagnosis of MetS. The curves were depicted for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and difference of total non-HDL-C and LDL-C (Differential cholesterol or Diff-C) as predictors of MetS. Logistic regression was also performed in a complex sample analysis scheme. The area under the curve (AUC) with 95% Confidence intervals of total non-HDL-C was computed. Values were 0.693 (0.670-0.715) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.719 (0.697-0.740) for ATPIII criteria. The optimal non-HDL-C cut-point we recommend for both criteria is 153.50 mg/dl (sensitivity: 75.7%, specificity: 57.2%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 73.2%, specificity: 57.1%, with IDF). Using IDF criteria, the accuracy of predictors were greater in non-diabetic subjects. AUC of Diff-C in DM (-) vs. DM (+) were 0.786 (0.765-0.807) vs. 0.627(0.549-0.705). Adults with high non-HDL-C were 4.42 times more likely to have ATPIII-defined MetS (≥190 vs. < 190 mg/dL). Elevated Diff-C corresponded to increased risk of the MetS (ORs: 10.71 and 26.29 for IDF and ATP
Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that regulate metabolic processes, including obesity. The levels of circulating miRNAs are affected by metabolic changes in obesity, as well as in diet-induced weight loss. Circulating miRNAs are transported by high-density lipoproteins (HDL but the regulation of HDL-associated miRNAs after diet-induced weight loss has not been studied. We aim to determine if HDL-associated miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 levels are altered by diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males.HDL were isolated from 47 subjects following 12 weeks weight loss comparing a high protein diet (HP, 30% of energy with a normal protein diet (NP, 20% of energy. HDL-associated miRNAs (miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 at baseline and after 12 weeks of weight loss were quantified by TaqMan miRNA assays. HDL particle sizes were determined by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of human HDL constituents were measured immunoturbidometrically or enzymatically.miR-16, miR-17, miR-126, miR-222 and miR-223 were present on HDL from overweight and obese subjects at baseline and after 12 weeks of the HP and NP weight loss diets. The HP diet induced a significant decrease in HDL-associated miR-223 levels (p = 0.015, which positively correlated with changes in body weight (r = 0.488, p = 0.032. Changes in miR-223 levels were not associated to changes in HDL composition or size.HDL-associated miR-223 levels are significantly decreased after HP diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese males. This is the first study reporting changes in HDL-associated miRNA levels with diet-induced weight loss.
Pan, Liting; Lu, Guoping; Chen, Zhenyue
Our aim was to examine whether the combined use of apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was useful before routine clinical lipid measurement in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD). In total, 826 patients were enrolled and they were classified into a CHD group (532 cases) and a normal group (294 cases) according to the results of coronary angiography. Laboratory data including fasting lipid profile were obtained after an overnight fast. Serum apoB/apoA1 ratio and non-HDL-C were calculated. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the cross-sectional association between the apoB/apoA1 ratio, non-HDL-C, and CHD. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to determine the value of apoB/apoA1 ratio and non-HDL-C in the diagnosis of CHD. The associations with an increased risk of CHD were much stronger for the apoB/apoA1 ratio [odds ratio (OR)=8.941, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.363-18.323] than for non-HDL-C (OR=1.373, 95% CI 1.163-1.622). The patients in the top quartile of the apoB/apoA1 distribution had an OR of 7.321 (95% CI 3.891-13.771) compared with those in the bottom quartile. Patients with combined high levels of apoB/apoA1 and non-HDL-C (N=92, 79.31%) had the highest risk of CHD. The combined use of apoB/apoA1 ratio and non-HDL-C (0.762; 95% CI 0.677-0.847) showed greater receiver operating characteristics area than its individual components or other lipid profiles. The combination of apoB/apoA1 and non-HDL-C had even greater predictive value than its individual components or other lipid profiles.
Full Text Available 9261091 Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. Ste...in oxidation and its pathobiological significance. PubmedID 9261091 Title Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological
Ko, Dennis T; Alter, David A; Guo, Helen; Koh, Maria; Lau, Geoffrey; Austin, Peter C; Booth, Gillian L; Hogg, William; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Lee, Douglas S; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wilkins, John T; Tu, Jack V
The prognostic importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a specific risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease has been challenged by recent clinical trials and genetic studies. This study sought to reappraise the association of HDL-C level with CV and non-CV mortality using a "big data" approach. An observational cohort study was conducted using the CANHEART (Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team) dataset, which was created by linking together 17 different individual-level data sources. People were included if they were between 40 and 105 years old on January 1, 2008, living in Ontario, Canada, without previous CV conditions or severe comorbidities, and had an outpatient fasting cholesterol measurement in the year prior to the inception date. The primary outcome was cause-specific mortality. A total of 631,762 individuals were included. The mean age of our cohort was 57.2 years, 55.4% were women, and mean HDL-C level was 55.2 mg/dl. There were 17,952 deaths during a mean follow-up of 4.9 ± 0.4 years. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 8.1 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.6 per 1,000 person-years for women. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were more likely to have low incomes, unhealthy lifestyle, higher triglycerides levels, other cardiac risk factors, and medical comorbidities. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were independently associated with higher risk of CV, cancer, and other mortality compared with individuals in the reference ranges of HDL-C levels. In addition, individuals with higher HDL levels (>70 mg/dl in men, >90 mg/dl in women) had increased hazard of non-CV mortality. Complex associations exist between HDL-C levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle, comorbidity factors, and mortality. HDL-C level is unlikely to represent a CV-specific risk factor given similarities in its associations with non-CV outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rizzo, M; Berneis, K.
A predominance of small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been accepted as an emerging cardiovascular risk factor by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. LDL size seems to be an important predictor of cardiovascular events and progression of coronary heart disease and evidences suggests that both quality (particularly small, dense LDL) and quantity may increase cardiovascular risk. However, other authors have suggested that LDL size measurement does no...
Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A
Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
E.P.C. Kilsdonk (Liesbeth); T. van Gent (Teus); A. van Tol (Arie)
markdownabstractAbstract Plasma HDL can be classified according to their apolipoprotein content into at least two types of lipoprotein particles: lipoproteins containing both apo A-I and apo A-II (LP A-I/A-II) and lipoproteins with apo A-I but without apo A-II (LP A-I). LP A-I and LP A-I/A-II
Full Text Available High levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL are a primary initiating event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the antiatherogenic effect of polyphenols has been shown to be exerted via a mechanism unrelated to their antioxidant capacity and to stem from their interaction with specific intracellular or plasma proteins. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the main polyphenol in pomegranate, punicalagin, with apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB100 that surrounds LDL. Punicalagin bound to ApoB100 at low concentrations (0.25–4 μM. Upon binding, it induced LDL influx to macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 2.5-fold. In contrast, another polyphenol which binds to ApoB100, glabridin, did not affect LDL influx. We further showed that LDL influx occurs specifically through the LDL receptor, with LDL then accumulating in the cell cytoplasm. Taken together with the findings of Aviram et al., 2000, that pomegranate juice and punicalagin induce plasma LDL removal and inhibit macrophage cholesterol synthesis and accumulation, our results suggest that, upon binding, punicalagin stimulates LDL influx to macrophages, thus reducing circulating cholesterol levels.
Atrahimovich, Dana; Khatib, Soliman; Sela, Shifra; Vaya, Jacob; Samson, Abraham O
High levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are a primary initiating event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the antiatherogenic effect of polyphenols has been shown to be exerted via a mechanism unrelated to their antioxidant capacity and to stem from their interaction with specific intracellular or plasma proteins. In this study, we investigated the interaction of the main polyphenol in pomegranate, punicalagin, with apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB100) that surrounds LDL. Punicalagin bound to ApoB100 at low concentrations (0.25-4 μM). Upon binding, it induced LDL influx to macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 2.5-fold. In contrast, another polyphenol which binds to ApoB100, glabridin, did not affect LDL influx. We further showed that LDL influx occurs specifically through the LDL receptor, with LDL then accumulating in the cell cytoplasm. Taken together with the findings of Aviram et al., 2000, that pomegranate juice and punicalagin induce plasma LDL removal and inhibit macrophage cholesterol synthesis and accumulation, our results suggest that, upon binding, punicalagin stimulates LDL influx to macrophages, thus reducing circulating cholesterol levels.
Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim...... of this study was to determine the prevalence of serum oxLDL in postmenopausal women and to identify possible associations of clinical and laboratory features with oxLDL in these patients. METHOD: After clinical examination and completing a clinical questionnaire, an ultrasound examination of both carotid...... arteries was conducted and blood was drawn from 533 postmenopausal women. oxLDL concentration was determined using proton NMR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Oxidized LDL was detected in 12.4% (95% confidence interval 9.7-15.5) of postmenopausal women with a median of 0.18 mg/dl (interquartile range 0...
Wanders, A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.; Siebelink, E.; Katan, M.B.
Background -Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary
Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of "Suioh", raw sweet potato leaves. "Suioh" prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
Izuhara, Masayasu; Ono, Koh; Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Shizuta, Satoshi; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Horie, Takahiro; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Baba, Osamu; Nishino, Tomohiro; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi
To determine whether low HDL-C is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in patients with known CAD. We evaluated 10,391 patients who underwent PCI from January 2005 to December 2007. In total, 3838 (36.9%) patients had low HDL-C (HDL-C <40 mg/dL in males and <50 mg/dL in females) and 6553 (63.1%) patients had normal HDL-C based on measurements on admission. The unadjusted 5-year incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke) was significantly higher in the low HDL-C group than in the normal HDL-C group (17.6% vs. 14.0%, P < 0.0001). However, after adjusting for confounders, low HDL-C was not associated with a higher risk of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.19; P = 0.19). There was no significant interaction between the effect of low HDL-C on MACE and several subgroup factors including age, sex, clinical presentation of CAD, statins use, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and serum triglycerides level. Low HDL-C, as compared with normal HDL-C, was not associated with higher 5-year risk of MACE in patients who underwent PCI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D
Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.
Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).
Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia
Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P JUPITER, cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with incident CVD in individuals on potent statin therapy but not at baseline. For both baseline and on-statin analyses, HDL particle number was the strongest of 4 HDL-related biomarkers as an inverse predictor of incident events and biomarker of residual risk. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian
Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.
Prassl, Ruth; Pregetter, Magdalena; Amenitsch, Heinz; Kriechbaum, Manfred; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Chapman, John M; Laggner, Peter
The potential physiological significance of the nanophase transition of neutral lipids in the core of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is dependent on whether the rate is fast enough to integrate small (+/-2 degrees C) temperature changes in the blood circulation. Using sub-second, time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering technology with synchrotron radiation, we have monitored the dynamics of structural changes within LDL, which were triggered by temperature-jumps and -drops, respectively. Our findings reveal that the melting transition is complete within less than 10 milliseconds. The freezing transition proceeds slowly with a half-time of approximately two seconds. Thus, the time period over which LDL particles reside in cooler regions of the body readily facilitates structural reorientation of the apolar core lipids. Low density lipoproteins, the biological nanoparticles responsible for the transport of cholesterol in blood, are shown to act as intrinsic nano-thermometers, which can follow the periodic temperature changes during blood circulation. Our results demonstrate that the lipid core in LDL changes from a liquid crystalline to an oily state within fractions of seconds. This may, through the coupling to the protein structure of LDL, have important repercussions on current theories of the role of LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo
Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition, high-density lipoprotein raising, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis: insights from ILLUSTRATE (Investigation of Lipid Level Management Using Coronary Ultrasound to Assess Reduction of Atherosclerosis by CETP Inhibition and HDL Elevation).
Nicholls, Stephen J; Tuzcu, E Murat; Brennan, Danielle M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Nissen, Steven E
Despite favorable effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib failed to slow atherosclerosis progression and increased mortality. We investigated the relationship between lipid changes and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Intravascular ultrasound was performed at baseline and follow-up in 910 participants randomized to torcetrapib/atorvastatin or atorvastatin monotherapy. The relationship between changes in lipoprotein levels and the primary intravascular ultrasound end point, change in percent atheroma volume, was investigated. Compared with atorvastatin monotherapy, torcetrapib raised HDL-C by 61%, lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 20%, raised serum sodium (0.44+/-0.14 mmol/L, P=0.02), and lowered serum potassium (0.11+/-0.02 mmol/L, P<0.0001). Despite substantial increases in HDL-C, no effect was found of torcetrapib on percent atheroma volume. In torcetrapib-treated patients, an inverse relationship was observed between changes in HDL-C and percentage atheroma volume (r=-0.17, P<0.001). Participants with regression had greater increases in HDL-C (mean+/-SE, 62.9+/-37.4% versus 54.0+/-39.1%, P=0.002). Compared with the lowest quartile, torcetrapib-treated patients in the highest quartile of HDL-C change showed the least progression (-0.31+/-0.27 versus 0.88+/-0.27%, P=0.001). The highest on-treatment HDL-C quartile showed significant regression of percent atheroma volume (-0.69+/-0.27%, P=0.01). In multivariable analysis, changes in HDL-C levels independently predicted the effect on atherosclerosis progression (P=0.001). The majority of torcetrapib-treated patients demonstrated no regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Regression was only observed at the highest HDL-C levels. Torcetrapib raised serum sodium and lowered potassium, consistent with an aldosterone-like effect, which may explain the lack of favorable effects in the
DULLAART, RPF; HOOGENBERG, K; GROENER, JEM; DIKKESCHEI, LD; ERKELENS, DW; DOORENBOS, H
The activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein is instrumental in the distribution of cholesteryl ester between lipoproteins in plasma. We measured the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma, designated cholesteryl ester transfer activity, as the rate of cholesteryl ester
Pala, Daniela; Barbosa, Priscila Oliveira; Silva, Carla Teixeira; de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Freitas, Fatima Rodrigues; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Freitas, Renata Nascimento de
The açai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius), which is native to the Brazilian Amazon region, was shown to have high polyphenols and MUFA contents. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of açai consumption on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, the transfer of lipids to HDL (which is a relevant HDL function), and some biomarkers of redox metabolism. Forty healthy volunteer women aged 24 ± 3 years consumed 200 g of açai pulp/day for 4 weeks; their clinical variables and blood sample were obtained before and after this period. Açai pulp consumption did not alter anthropometric parameters, systemic arterial pressure, glucose, insulin and total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein (apo) B, but it did increase the concentration of apo A-I. Açai consumption decreased the ROS, ox-LDL and malondialdehyde while increasing the activity of antioxidative paraoxonase 1. Overall, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was increased. Regarding the transfer of plasma lipids to HDL, açai consumption increased the transfer of cholesteryl esters (p = 0.0043) to HDL. Unesterified cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride transfers were unaffected. The increase in apo A-I and the cholesteryl ester transfer to HDL after the açai intake period suggests that an improvement in the metabolism of this lipoprotein occurred, and it is well known that HDL is protective against atherosclerosis. Another important finding was the general improvement of the anti-oxidant defences elicited by açai consumption. Our data indicate that açai has favourable actions on plasma HDL metabolism and anti-oxidant defence; therefore açai could have a beneficial overall role against atherosclerosis, and it is a consistently good candidate to consider as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian
Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from...... genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL...... receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies...
Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with insulinemia in adolescents Triglicéridos y colesterol de lipóproteína de alta densidad asociados con insulina en adolescentes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between lipids and insulin concentration in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 350 adolescents aged 14-19 years old from a public high school in Guadalajara, in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, was conducted. Fasting insulin concentration was determined using microparticle enzyme immunoassay; total cholesterol and triglycerides were detected by standard enzymatic procedures; and low- and high-density lipoproteins were found using standard precipitation methods. Statistical analysis included linear multivariate regression. RESULTS: Serum triglycerides were associated positively with insulin fasting (beta= 0.003, p= 0.0001 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was negatively associated with insulin fasting in male adolescents 18-19 years old (beta= -0.03, p= 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between triglycerides and insulin and between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin are already present in adolescence.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre lípidos e insulina en adolescentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en 350 adolescentes de 14 a 19 años de preparatoria pública en Guadalajara, Jal., México. La insulina se midió por inmunoensayo enzimático de micropartícula, el colesterol total y triglicéridos por pruebas enzimáticas estándares, y las lipoproteínas de baja y alta densidad por métodos de precipitación. Se utilizó análisis de regresión lineal multivariada. RESULTADOS: Los triglicéridos se asociaron en forma positiva con insulina (beta= 0.003, p= 0.0001 y la lipoproteína de alta densidad se asoció en forma negativa con insulina en varones de 18-19 años de edad (beta= -0.03, p= 0.012. CONCLUSIONES: En los adolescentes, los triglicéridos y las lipoproteínas de alta densidad están asociados con la insulinemia.
Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.
Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...
TriGlycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes in screening for metabolic syndrome in the chinese obese children: a cross section study.
Liang, Jianfeng; Fu, Junfen; Jiang, Youyun; Dong, Guanping; Wang, Xiumin; Wu, Wei
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is prevalant in China, especially according to the pediatric obesity group. Based on the MS-CHN2012 definition for Chinese children and adolescents the need to explore and establish a convienent MS screening become imminent. This study aims to investigate the optimal cut-off values, compare the accuracy for the (TriGlycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C)) (TG/HDL-C) ratio and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) indexs to identify Metabolic Syndrome in obese pediatric population in China. A total sample of 976 children (female 286 male 690, BMI > = 95 percentile) aged from 6-16 years underwent a medical assessment including a physical examination and investigations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test to identify the components of Metabolic Syndrome. The validity and accuracy between TG/HDL-C ratio and HOMA-IR were compared by Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC). TG/HDL-C ratio achieved a larger ROC Area under Curve (AUC = 0.843) than HOMA-IR indexes (0.640, 0.625 for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR respectively) to screen for Metabolic Syndrome. The cut-off values for MS were: TG/HDL-C ratio > 1.25 (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 75%), HOMA1-IR > 4.59 (sensitivity: 58.7%; specificity: 65.5%) and HOMA2-IR > 2.76 (sensitivity: 53.2%; specificity: 69.5%). The results kept robust after stratified by gender, age group and pubertal stage. TG/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator than the HOMA-IR to screen for a positive diagnosis for MS. Furthermore, the TG/HDL-C ratio was superior to the HOMA-IR indexes even after the control of possible confusions from the gender, age group and puberty stage. TG/HDL-C ratio proved a better index than HOMA-IR in screening for MS in obese children and adolescents. TG/HDL-C ratio has a discriminatory power in detecting potential MS in the Chinese obese pediatric
Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lapicka-Bodzioch, K; Bodzioch, M; Krüll, M; Kielar, D; Probst, M; Kiec, B; Andrikovics, H; Böttcher, A; Hubacek, J; Aslanidis, C; Suttorp, N; Schmitz, G
Familial high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-deficiency syndromes are caused by mutations of the ABCA1 gene, coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. We have developed a homogeneous assay based on 52 primer sets to amplify all 50 ABCA1 exons and approximately 1 kb of its promoter. The assay allows for convenient amplification of the gene from genomic DNA and easy mutational analysis through automatic sequencing. It obviates the need to use mRNA preparations, which were difficult to handle and posed a risk to miss splice junction or promoter mutations. The application of the test to the molecular analysis of a new patient with familial HDL-deficiency (Tangier disease) led to a discovery of two novel ABCA1 mutations: C2665del and C4457T.
The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of insulin resistance but not of β cell function in a Chinese population with different glucose tolerance status.
Zhou, Meicen; Zhu, Lixin; Cui, Xiangli; Feng, Linbo; Zhao, Xuefeng; He, Shuli; Ping, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Yuxiu
Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance. Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR > 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated different phases of insulin secretion, the subjects were divided into two groups, and the lower group was defined as having inadequate β cell compensation. Logistic regression models and accurate estimates of the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were obtained. In all of the subjects, TG/HDL, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and TG were significantly associated with IR. The AUROCs of TG/HDL-C and TG were 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.66-0.75) and 0.71 (95 % CI: 0.65-0.75), respectively. The optimal cut-offs of TG/HDL-C and TG for IR diagnosis were 1.11 and 1.33 mmol/L, respectively. The AUROCs of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were 0.66 and 0.65, respectively, but they were not acceptable for IR diagnosis. TG/HDL-C,LDL-C/HDL-C and TG were significantly associated with HOMA-β, but AUROCs were less than 0.50; therefore, the lipid ratios could not be predictors of basal β cell dysfunction. None of the lipid ratios was associated with early-phase insulin secretion. Only TG/HDL-C and
Castellani, Lawrence W; Nguyen, Cara N; Charugundla, Sarada; Weinstein, Michael M; Doan, Chau X; Blaner, William S; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Lusis, Aldons J
Apolipoprotein AII (apoAII) transgenic (apoAIItg) mice exhibit several traits associated with the insulin resistance (IR) syndrome, including IR, obesity, and a marked hypertriglyceridemia. Because treatment of the apoAIItg mice with rosiglitazone ameliorated the IR and hypertriglyceridemia, we hypothesized that the hypertriglyceridemia was due largely to overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) by the liver, a normal response to chronically elevated insulin and glucose. We now report in vivo and in vitro studies that indicate that hepatic fatty acid oxidation was reduced and lipogenesis increased, resulting in a 25% increase in triglyceride secretion in the apoAIItg mice. In addition, we observed that hydrolysis of triglycerides from both chylomicrons and VLDL was significantly reduced in the apoAIItg mice, further contributing to the hypertriglyceridemia. This is a direct, acute effect, because when mouse apoAII was injected into mice, plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly increased within 4 h. VLDL from both control and apoAIItg mice contained significant amounts of apoAII, with approximately 4 times more apoAII on apoAIItg VLDL. ApoAII was shown to transfer spontaneously from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to VLDL in vitro, resulting in VLDL that was a poorer substrate for hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase. These results indicate that one function of apoAII is to regulate the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, with HDL serving as a plasma reservoir of apoAII that is transferred to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in much the same way as VLDL and chylomicrons acquire most of their apoCs from HDL.
Dalton, Brad S; Fassett, Rob G; Geraghty, Dominic P; De Ryke, Rex; Coombes, Jeff S
Relationships between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and endothelial function in hemodialysis patients have yet to be investigated. Furthermore, current reporting of endothelial function data using flow-mediated dilatation has recognised limitations. The aims of the study were to determine the relationship between low-density lipoproteins and endothelial function in hemodialysis patients and to investigate the validity of determining the area under the curve for data collected during the flow-mediated dilatation technique. Brachial artery responses to reactive hyperemia (endothelial-dependent) and glyceryl trinitrate (endothelial-independent) were assessed in 19 hemodialysis patients using high-resolution ultrasound. Lipid profiles and other factors known to effect brachial artery reactivity were also measured prior to the flow-mediated dilatation technique. There were no significant relationships between serum low-density lipoproteins and endothelial-dependent or -independent vasodilation using absolute change (mm), relative change (%), time to peak change (s) or area under the curve (mm x s). In hemodialysis patients with atherosclerosis, area under the curve analysis showed a significantly (p<0.05) decreased endothelial-dependent response (mean+/-S.D.: 19.2+/-17.4) compared to non-atherosclerotic patients (42.3+/-28.6). However, when analysing these data using absolute change, relative change or time to peak dilatation, there were no significant differences between the two groups. In summary, there was no relationship between low-density lipoproteins and endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. In addition, area under the curve analysis of flow-mediated vasodilatation data may be a useful method of determining the temporal vascular response during the procedure.
Win M. Kyi
Full Text Available Background: Some populations are more susceptible to atherosclerotic diseases than others. Indians had a higher mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD than Chinese and Malays. Antibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ab-oxLDL are produced as an immune response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL. The difference in prevalence of CHD among the ethnic groups may be related to the immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine the serum Ab-oxLDL levels and lipid profile among the three major Malaysian ethnic groups.Methods: The participants of this study were 150 healthy subjects consisting of 50 Malays, 50 Chinese and 50 Indians. Serum Ab-oxLDL was measured by enzyme immunoassay method. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was measured by precipitation method and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was calculated using Friedewald formula.Results: AboxLDL level [adjusted mean (95% of CI] was highest in Malays [1404 (1202-1607 mU/mL] followed by Chinese [1026 (829-1223 mU/mL] and Indians [954 (744-1163 mU/mL] (P = 0.006 and HDL-C level was highest in Chinese [1.53 (1.44-1.61 mmol/L] followed by Malays [1.44 (1.35-1.53 mmol/L] and Indians [1.35 (1.26-1.45 mmol/L] (P = 0.035.Conclusion: Our results indicate that Ab-oxLDL and HDL-C levels differed by ethnic and AboxLDL may have antiatherogenic properties among Malaysian ethnic groups. (Med J Indones 2012;21:18-22Keywords: Antibodies to oxLDL, coronary heart disease, ethnic groups, LDL, lipid profile
Koeijvoets, Kristel C. M. C.; Wiegman, Albert; Rodenburg, Jessica; Defesche, Joep C.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.
Studies on the clinical consequences of different low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor genotypes in adult patients have yielded conflicting results. We hypothesized that children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) provide a better model to perform genotype-phenotype analyses than adults. We
SNP in apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase genes significantly (P < 0.05) affected total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein. More likely, the interaction of apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase significantly affect total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein.
Vickers, Kasey C.; Maguire, Colin T.; Wolfert, Robert; Burns, Alan R.; Reardon, Michael; Geis, Richard; Holvoet, Paul; Morrisett, Joel D.
Plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) have been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lp-PLA2 is the sole enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipids on LDL particles in atherosclerotic plaques. We have studied the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and oxLDL in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) tissues and in matched plasmas. In extracts from CEA anatomical segments, the levels of oxLDL were s...
Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Monteiro, A.M.; SILVA, F.R.O.; L. Gomes; VIEIRA, N.D.; Gidlund, Magnus; Figueiredo Neto, A.M.
We report here the observation of the enhancement of Europium-tetracycline complex emission in Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) solutions. Europium emission band of tetracycline solution containing Europium (III) chloride hexahydrate was tested to obtain effective enhancement in the presence of native LDL and oxidized LDL. Europium emission lifetime in the presence of lipoproteins was measured, resulting in a simple method to measure the lipoproteins quantity in an aqueous solution at physiologi...
Li, L; Pownall, H J
(,Although plasma HDL(2) cholesterol concentration stands in inverse relation to risk for atherosclerotic disease, little is known about the mechanism of the apparent cardioprotection. In mouse P388D1 macrophages, HDL(2) at a low concentration (ACAT), the enzyme that catalyzes esterification of intracellular cholesterol. The effects of HDL(2) on ACAT synthesis, degradation, and intracellular translocation were investigated in mouse P388D1 macrophages. HDL(2) at a low concentration enhanced ACAT synthesis but not total ACAT mass. Immunocytochemical studies showed that in the absence of lipoproteins, ACAT associated primarily with the perinuclear region of the cell. The addition of HDL(2), however, induced the transfer of ACAT to vesicular structures and the cell periphery adjacent to the plasma membrane. Subfractionation combined with immunoprecipitation complemented these observations and showed that HDL(2) promoted the transfer of ACAT to the plasma membrane fraction. Brefeldin A, which inhibits vesicular protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi compartment in mammalian cells, blocked ACAT translocation and partially restored ACAT activity. These results suggest that HDL(2) is an initiating factor in a signal transduction pathway that leads to intracellular ACAT translocation and inactivation.
Hendriks, W L; van der Boom, H; van Vark, L C; Havekes, L M
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) stimulates the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in different cell types, including macrophages, through bridging of LPL between lipoproteins and extracellular heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG). Because macrophages produce LPL and because modified lipoproteins are present in the arterial wall in vivo, we wondered whether LPL also enhances the uptake of oxidized LDL by J774 macrophages. LDL samples with different degrees of oxidation, as evaluated by relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) as compared with native LDL are used as well as native and acetylated LDL. Addition of 5 microg/ml LPL to the J774 cell culture medium stimulated the binding of both native LDL and moderately oxidized LDL (REM < 3.5) 50-100-fold, and their uptake was stimulated approx. 20-fold. The LPL-mediated binding of native LDL and moderately oxidized LDL was dose-dependent. Preincubation of the cells with heparinase (2.4 units/ml) inhibited the stimulatory effect of LPL, indicating that this LPL-mediated stimulation was due to bridging between the lipoproteins and HSPG. The binding to J774 macrophages of severely oxidized LDL (REM=4.3) was stimulated less than 3-fold by LPL, whereas its uptake was not stimulated significantly. The binding and uptake of acetylated LDL (AcLDL) were not stimulated by LPL, although the LPL-molecule itself does bind to AcLDL. Measurements of the cellular lipid content showed that addition of LPL also stimulated the accumulation in the cells of cholesteryl ester derived from both native LDL and moderately oxidized LDL in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that our results present experimental evidence for the hypothesis that LPL serves as an atherogenic component in the vessel wall.
Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))
The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.
Tacken, P J; Beer, F D; Vark, L C; Havekes, L M; Hofker, M H; Willems Van Dijk K
The apolipoprotein (apo)E receptor 2 (apoER2) is a recently cloned member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family, showing a high homology with both the LDLR and the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor (VLDLR). In the present study, the binding characteristics of the apoER2 with respect to apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were investigated. VLDL was isolated from both apoE-deficient mice and mice expressing the human APOE2 (Arg(158)-->Cys) and APOE3-Leiden isoforms on an Apoe(-/-),Ldlr(-/-) double knock-out background. apoE-rich rabbit beta-VLDL was used as a positive control for binding. Binding experiments performed with Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human apoER2 showed that the receptor was able to bind VLDL containing either of the apoE isoforms, as well as the apoE-deficient VLDL. Hence, in contrast with the VLDLR, the apoER2 is not strictly dependent on apoE for VLDL binding. Since LPL has been shown to enhance the binding of lipoproteins to several members of the LDLR family, including the LDLR-related protein, VLDL receptor, gp330 and the LDLR itself, VLDL binding experiments were performed in the presence of LPL. Addition of LPL resulted in a significant increase in apoER2 binding for all VLDL fractions used in this study. In conclusion, lipoprotein binding of VLDL to the apoER2 is enhanced in the presence of LPL, and is not restricted to apoE-containing lipoproteins.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy and estrogen plus progestin replacement therapy alter serum levels of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. However, HDL cholesterol levels in women vary considerably in response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT. A significant portion of the variability of these levels has been attributed to genetic factors. Therefore, we investigated the influence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1 gene polymorphisms on HDL levels in response to postmenopausal HRT. We performed a prospective cohort study on 54 postmenopausal women who had not used HRT before the study and had no significant general medical illness. HRT consisted of conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate continuously for 1 year. The lipoprotein levels were measured from blood samples taken before the start of therapy and after 1 year of HRT. ESR1 polymorphism (MspI C>T, HaeIII C>T, PvuII C>T, and XbaI A>G frequencies were assayed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A general linear model was used to describe the relationships between HDL levels and genotypes after adjusting for age. A significant increase in HDL levels was observed after HRT (P = 0.029. Women with the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype showed a statistically significant increase in HDL levels after HRT (P = 0.032. No association was found between other ESR1 polymorphisms and HDL levels. According to our results, the ESR1 PvuII TT genotype was associated with increased levels of HDL after 1 year of HRT.
High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in the EXAMINE (Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes With Alogliptin Versus Standard of Care) Trial.
Hwang, You-Cheol; Morrow, David A; Cannon, Christopher P; Liu, Yuyin; Bergenstal, Richard; Heller, Simon; Mehta, Cyrus; Cushman, William; Bakris, George L; Zannad, Faiez; White, William B
We sought to assess the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) by utilizing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome. Study participants enrolled in the EXAMINE trial, were stratified by baseline hsCRP levels (3 mg/l) and were also sub-divided into 4 groups according to baseline hsCRP (≤3 or >3 mg/l) and achieved LDL-C (3 mg/l, respectively (P3 mg/l, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.42 (1.13, 1.78; P=0.002) for MACE compared with patients with hsCRP C and low hsCRP, low LDL-C and high hsCRP, high LDL-C and low hsCRP, and high LDL-C and high hsCRP levels, respectively (PC level. Clinical trials registration number: NCT00968708. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Hirano, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Shuhei; Kubota, Mitsunobu; Maeda, Shusaku; Yoneda, Masayasu; Yamane, Kiminori; Kira, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Kohno, Nobuoki
A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) is a common feature of metabolic syndrome. We have reported that Japanese-Americans who share a virtually identical genetic makeup with native Japanese, but who have lived Westernized lifestyles for decades, have lower HDLC levels and a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared with native Japanese. However, the impact of low HDLC level on type 2 diabetes is unclear. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether serum HDLC level was associated with development of type 2 diabetes and if the effect might be modified by lifestyle. We examined 1,133 non-diabetic Japanese-Americans and 1,072 non-diabetic Japanese, who underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were followed for an average of 8.8 and 7.0 years, respectively. We analyzed whether serum HDLC level is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes based on the Cox proportional hazards model. After adjustment for age and sex, hazard ratios for development of type 2 diabetes per unit of serum HDLC level (mmol/L) were 0.292 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.186-0.458, P < 0.0001) among Japanese-Americans and 0.551 (95% CI 0.375-0.88, P = 0.0023) among native Japanese. Comparable hazard ratios after further adjustment for category of OGTT and body mass index were 0.981 (95% CI 0.970-0.993, P = 0.0018) and 0.991 (95% CI 0.980-1.002, P = 0.112), respectively. HDLC level was associated with development of type 2 diabetes in both Japanese-Americans and native Japanese. However, these results suggest that the impact of high-density lipoprotein on glucose metabolism might be affected by lifestyle.
Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.
Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C
The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A
lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited...... by the receptor associated protein, a known ligand for members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. Preincubation with heparin decreased the receptor binding of apolipoprotein A-V, indicating that overlap exists between the recognition sites for these receptors and for heparin. A double mutant...
Concentration of Smaller High-Density Lipoprotein Particle (HDL-P) Is Inversely Correlated With Carotid Intima Media Thickening After Confounder Adjustment: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Kim, Daniel Seung; Li, Yatong K; Bell, Griffith A; Burt, Amber A; Vaisar, Tomas; Hutchins, Patrick M; Furlong, Clement E; Otvos, James D; Polak, Joseph F; Arnan, Martinson Kweku; Kaufman, Joel D; McClelland, Robyn L; Longstreth, W T; Jarvik, Gail P
Recent studies have failed to establish a causal relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), shifting focus to other HDL measures. We previously reported that smaller/denser HDL levels are protective against cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to determine which of small+medium HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) or large HDL-P was more strongly associated with carotid intima-media thickening (cIMT) in an ethnically diverse cohort. In cross-sectional analyses of participants from the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated the associations of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured small+medium versus large HDL-P with cIMT measured in the common and internal carotid arteries, through linear regression. After adjustment for CVD confounders, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and small+medium HDL-P remained significantly and inversely associated with common (coefficient=-1.46 μm; P=0.00037; n=6512) and internal cIMT (coefficient=-3.82 μm; P=0.0051; n=6418) after Bonferroni correction for 4 independent tests (threshold for significance=0.0125; α=0.05/4). Large HDL-P was significantly and inversely associated with both cIMT outcomes before HDL-C adjustment; however, after adjustment for HDL-C, the association of large HDL-P with both common (coefficient=1.55 μm; P=0.30; n=6512) and internal cIMT (coefficient=4.84 μm; P=0.33; n=6418) was attenuated. In a separate sample of 126 men, small/medium HDL-P was more strongly correlated with paraoxonase 1 activity (rp=0.32; P=0.00023) as compared to both total HDL-P (rp=0.27; P=0.0024) and large HDL-P (rp=0.02; P=0.41) measures. Small+medium HDL-P is significantly and inversely correlated with cIMT measurements. Correlation of small+medium HDL-P with cardioprotective paraoxonase 1 activity may reflect a functional aspect of HDL responsible for this finding. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the
Liang, Shuang; Hu, Yanyan; Liu, Caihong; Qi, Jianhong; Li, Guimei
Low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) levels have been proven to be positively associated with HDL-C, but few studies were based on the dataset of children or adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship among IGF-1, HDL-C and the metabolic syndrome in Chinese nondiabetic obese children and adolescents. As a cross-sectional study, this study includes 120 obese Chinese children and adolescents and 120 healthy ones. The obese subjects were divided into two groups based on using 1.03 mmol/L as a threshold value for HDL-C. Clinical examination and laboratory examinations were assessed for all participants. Obese subjects had significantly lower IGF-1SDS and higher Height SDS than those in the control group. Among 120 obese children and adolescents, 22 (18.3 %) subjects had an HDL-C level obese subjects with low HDL-C. According to the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis, IGF-1 SDS is significantly associated with low HDL-C(OR 0.518, 95 % CI 0.292-0.916; P = 0.024), after being adjusted for age, gender, pubertal status, BMI SDS, SBP, DBP, HOMR-IR, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT and uric acid. In addition, IGF-1 SDS is significantly correlated with the level of serum HDL-C in study population (r = 0.19, P = 0.003). Based on logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender and pubertal status, the increased IGF-1 SDS was associated with a decreased probability of metabolic syndrome (OR 0.555, 95 % CI 0.385-0.801; P = 0.002) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR 0.582, 95 % CI 0.395-0.856; P = 0.006), but no significant correlation with hypertension. Obese children had lower IGF-1SDS and taller stature compared with the control group. Low levels of IGF-1 SDS were associated with low levels of HDL-C in chinese nondiabetic obese children and
Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén
Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL.
Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Qing-Wang; Li, Wen-Ye; Hu, Jian-Hong; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Shan
A modified protocol of neutral comet assay was utilized to assess the effect of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on the DNA integrity of boar freezing-thawing semen. The results demonstrated that the method was high sensitive and easier manipulation and LDL significantly protected sperm DNA integrity (psperm DNA in cryopreservation 0 day and 30 days (p>0.05).
Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey
lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. METHODS AND RESULTS: Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate...... pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...
A Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Increased Serum Amyloid A Related Inflammation in High-Density Lipoproteins from Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and How This Association Was Augmented by Poor Glycaemic Control
Full Text Available Inflammatory atherosclerosis is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Normally high-density lipoproteins (HDL protect against atherosclerosis; however, in the presence of serum amyloid-A- (SAA- related inflammation this property may be reduced. Fasting blood was obtained from fifty subjects with T1DM, together with fifty age, gender and BMI matched control subjects. HDL was subfractionated into HDL2 and HDL3 by rapid ultracentrifugation. Serum-hsCRP and serum-, HDL2-, and HDL3-SAA were measured by ELISAs. Compared to control subjects, SAA was increased in T1DM subjects, nonsignificantly in serum (P=0.088, and significantly in HDL2(P=0.003 and HDL3(P=0.005. When the T1DM group were separated according to mean HbA1c (8.34%, serum-SAA and HDL3-SAA levels were higher in the T1DM subjects with HbA1c ≥ 8.34%, compared to when HbA1c was 0.05. This cross-sectional study demonstrated increased SAA-related inflammation in subjects with T1DM that was augmented by poor glycaemic control. We suggest that SAA is a useful inflammatory biomarker in T1DM, which may contribute to their increased atherosclerosis risk.
Full Text Available Glycemic management is central in prevention of small vessel and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. With the plethora of newer medications and recommendations for a patient centered approach, more information is necessary to match the proper drug to each patient. We showed that BARI 2D, a five-year trial designed to compare two different glycemic treatment strategies, was suitable for assessing different responses according to different phenotypic characteristics. Treatment with insulin sensitizing medications such as thiazolidinediones and metformin was more effective in improving glycemic control, particularly in the more insulin resistant patient, when compared to the insulin provision strategy using insulin and or sulfonylureas. Triglyceride and high density lipoprotein ratio (TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio was found to be a readily available and practical biomarker that helps to identify the insulin resistant patient. These results support the concept that not all medications for glycemic control work the same in all patients. Thus, tailored therapy can be done using phenotypic characteristics rather than a “one-size-fits-all approach.”
Isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 23 studies in the Asia-Pacific region.
Huxley, Rachel R; Barzi, Federica; Lam, Tai Hing; Czernichow, Sebastien; Fang, Xianghua; Welborn, Tim; Shaw, Jonathan; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zimmet, Paul; Jee, Sun Ha; Patel, Jeetesh V; Caterson, Ian; Perkovic, Vlado; Woodward, Mark
Previous studies have suggested that there is a novel dyslipidemic profile consisting of isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level that is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, and that this trait may be especially prevalent in Asian populations. Individual participant data from 220 060 participants (87% Asian) in 37 studies from the Asia-Pacific region were included. Low HDL-C (HDL coronary heart disease and 739 stroke events. There was an inverse relationship between low HDL-C with coronary heart disease in all individuals (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.31-1.87). In Asians, isolated low levels of HDL-C were as strongly associated with coronary heart disease risk as low levels of HDL-C combined with other lipid abnormalities (hazard ratio, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.27-2.19] versus 1.63 [95% CI, 1.24-2.15], respectively). There was no association between low HDL-C and stroke risk in this population (hazard ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.78 to 1.17] with nonisolated low HDL-C and 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-1.00] with isolated low HDL-C). Isolated low HDL-C is a novel lipid phenotype that appears to be more prevalent among Asian populations, in whom it is associated with increased coronary risk. Further investigation into this type of dyslipidemia is warranted.
Nakamura, Akihiko; Niimura, Hideshi; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takezaki, Toshiro; Morita, Emi; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Nishida, Yuichiro; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Suzuki, Sadao; Ohnaka, Keizo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo
Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele) among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (pmultiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.
Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Callahan, Alfred
AND RESULTS: The SPARCL trial randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and no known coronary heart disease and LDL-C between 100 and 190 mg/dL to either atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. Baseline assessment included SBP, DBP and measurements of low-density lipoprotein....... There were no interactions between any of these baseline variables and the effect of treatment on outcome strokes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent stroke or TIA and no coronary heart disease, only lower baseline HDL-C predicted the risk of recurrent stroke with HDL-C, triglycerides, and LDL/HDL ratio......OBJECTIVE: To explore the relative contributions of baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and lipoproteins on the risk of recurrent stroke or first major cardiovascular event (MCVE) and their potential impact on the benefit of statin treatment. METHODS...
Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...
Ellison R Curtis
Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to examine whether ε4 carrier status modifies the relation between body mass index (BMI and HDL. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study included 657 families with high family risk scores for coronary heart disease and 588 randomly selected families of probands in the Framingham, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, and Utah Family Health Tree studies. We selected 1402 subjects who had ε4 carrier status available. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the interaction between BMI and ε4 allele carrier status on HDL after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, alcohol intake, mono- and poly-unsaturated fat intake, exercise, comorbidities, LDL, and family cluster. Results The mean (standard deviation age of included subjects was 56.4(11.0 years and 47% were male. Adjusted means of HDL for normal, overweight, and obese BMI categories were 51.2(± 0.97, 45.0(± 0.75, and 41.6(± 0.93, respectively, among 397 ε4 carriers (p for trend Conclusion Our findings do not support an interaction between ε4 allele status and BMI on HDL.
Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study
Balluz Lina S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.
Karmanskii, I.M.; Kovaleva, G.G.; Viktorova, L.N.; Shpikiter, V.O.
The authors previously postulated, on the basis of changes observed in the structural stability of low-density lipoproteins during treatment with pepsin or aortic cathepsin, that enzymatic modifications may lead to potentiation of the atherogenic properties of the lipoproteins. They also reported that treatment of lipoproteins with trypsin causes an increase in their binding with aortic glycosaminoglycans and to increased degradation by fibroblasts of patients with hereditary hypercholesterolemia. Limited proteolysis of lipoproteins with pepsin facilitated their binding with fibronectin. In this paper the authors investigate the uptake and degradation of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages after their limited hydrolysis by pepsin, an analog of tissue cathepsin D. The lipoproteins were isolated from the serum of healthy blood donors by ultracentrifugation. Iodination of the proteins with I 125 was carried out by the iodine monochloride method. Uptake and retention of the labelled lipoprotein were measured with a gamma counter. The increased uptake of the proteins, partially hydrolized by pepsin, was accompanied by their more intense degradation by macrophages.
Bernini, F; Via, D P; Bocan, T M; Gotto, A M; Smith, L C
We have previously reported that Fab fragments of IgGs modified by lactosamination (lac-Fab) can direct macromolecules, including low density lipoproteins (LDL), to the liver. In the present paper we demonstrate that lac-Fab that is specific for LDL is an effective and selective hypolipoprotein agent. A plasma pool of about 60 mg/dl of apoprotein B (apo B) was induced in rats by bolus injection of human LDL (hLDL), which increased the cholesterol value to about 150 mg/dl. Three hours after injection of the highest dose of lac-Fab, the total cholesterol decreased to 80 mg/dl, compared to 120 mg/dl in control animals. Studies conducted with 131I-tyramine-cellobiose-labeled LDL indicated that the liver was the only organ in which lac-Fab increased LDL uptake and degradation. The effect of lac-Fab was dose-dependent. With amounts of lac-Fab between 13 to 42 mg/kg body weight, the amount of hLDL cleared through the lac-Fab mechanism ranged from 30% to 70% of the initial pool. Analysis of the plasma lipoprotein subfractions revealed that high density lipoprotein levels were not affected. Histologic examination of liver sections after sequential injection of fluorescently labeled hLDL and lac-Fab indicated specific uptake in the hepatocytes when compared to control sections obtained from animals injected with Dil-LDL alone. The uptake of fluorescent LDL induced by lac-Fab was completely prevented by a co-injection of an excess of asialofetuin. We conclude that lac-Fab that is specific for LDL is a selective hypolipoproteinemic agent and a specific carrier to the hepatocytes.
Biswas, Hope H.; Gordon, Aubree; Nuñez, Andrea; Perez, Maria Angeles; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva
Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus of worldwide importance, with approximately 4 billion people across 128 countries at risk of infection, and up to 390 million infections and 96 million clinically apparent cases estimated annually. Previous in vitro studies have shown that lipids and lipoproteins play a role in modifying virus infectivity. However, the relationship between development of severe dengue and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, is unclear. We analyzed data from 789 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases and 447 other febrile illnesses (OFI) in a prospective pediatric hospital-based study in Managua, Nicaragua between August 2005 and January 2013, using three different classifications of dengue severity: World Health Organization (WHO) 1997, WHO 2009, and standardized intervention categories. Total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels decreased over the course of illness and were generally lower with increasing dengue severity, regardless of classification scheme. Greater decreases in LDL-C than HDL-C were observed among dengue-positive patients compared to patients with OFI and among severe dengue compared to mild dengue cases. Furthermore, daily cholesterol levels declined with daily albumin blood levels. To examine the effect of cholesterol at presentation on subsequent risk of development of severe dengue, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable modified Poisson models. We found that lower total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels at presentation were associated with subsequent risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome using the WHO 1997 dengue severity classification, and thus that the reduction in LDL-C is likely driving the decreases observed in total serum cholesterol levels among dengue-positive patients. Our results suggest that cholesterol blood levels are important correlates of dengue
Yahya, Reyhana; Mulder, Monique T; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Williams, Monique; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E
We present the case history of 2 patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor-negative compound heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who did not receive lipoprotein apheresis. We describe the subsequent effect of all lipid-lowering medications during their life course including resins, statins, ezetimibe, nicotinic acid/laropiprant, mipomersen, and lomitapide. These cases tell the story of siblings affected with this rare disease, who are free of symptoms but still are at a very high cardiovascular disease risk, and their treatment from childhood. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Ling; Wang, Yu; Liang, Yong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Aiqian; Fu, Jianjie; Jiang, Guibin
Male BALB/c mice fed with either a regular or high fat diet were exposed to 0, 5 or 20 mg/kg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) for 14 days. Increased body weight, serum glucose, cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were observed in mice given a high fat diet. However, all PFOS-treated mice got reduced levels of serum lipid and lipoprotein. Decreasing liver glycogen content was also observed, accompanied by reduced serum glucose levels. Histological and ultrastructural examination detected more lipid droplets accumulated in hepatocytes after PFOS exposure. Moreover, transcripitonal activity of lipid metabolism related genes suggests that PFOS toxicity is probably unrelevant to PPARα's transcription. The present study demonstrates a lipid disturbance caused by PFOS and thus point to its role in inhibiting the secretion and normal function of low density lipoproteins.
Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Fouchier, Sigrid W; Motazacker, Mohammad M; Nelson, Jessica K; Defesche, Joep C; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Kastelein, John J P; Kees Hovingh, G; Zelcer, Noam
Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that IDOL (also known as MYLIP) contributes to variation in circulating levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). IDOL, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, is a recently identified post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Briefly, IDOL promotes degradation of the LDLR thereby limiting LDL uptake. Yet the exact role of IDOL in human lipoprotein metabolism is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying and functionally characterizing IDOL variants in the Dutch population and to assess their contribution to circulating levels of LDL-C. We sequenced the IDOL coding region in 677 individuals with LDL-C above the 95th percentile adjusted for age and gender (high-LDL-C cohort) in which no mutations in the LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 could be identified. In addition, IDOL was sequenced in 560 individuals with baseline LDL-C levels below the 20th percentile adjusted for age and gender (low-LDL-C cohort). We identified a total of 14 IDOL variants (5 synonymous, 8 non-synonymous, and 1 non-sense). Functional characterization of these variants demonstrated that the p.Arg266X variant represents a complete loss of IDOL function unable to promote ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of the LDLR. Consistent with loss of IDOL function, this variant was identified in individuals with low circulating LDL-C. Our results support the notion that IDOL contributes to variation in circulating levels of LDL-C. Strategies to inhibit IDOL activity may therefore provide a novel therapeutic venue to treating dyslipidaemia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.
Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.
Lipoproteins such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are known to interact with drugs and other solutes in blood. These interactions have been examined in the past by methods such as equilibrium dialysis and capillary electrophoresis. This chapter describes an alternative approach that has recently been developed for examining these interactions by using high-performance affinity chromatography. In this method, lipoproteins are covalently immobilized to a solid support and used within a column as a stationary phase for binding studies. This approach allows the same lipoprotein preparation to be used for a large number of binding studies, leading to precise estimates of binding parameters. This chapter will discuss how this technique can be applied to the identification of interaction models and be used to differentiate between systems that have interactions based on partitioning, adsorption or mixed-mode interactions. It is also shown how this approach can then be used for the measurement of binding parameters for HDL and LDL with drugs. Examples of these studies are provided, with particular attention being given to the use of frontal analysis to examine the interactions of R- and S-propranolol with HDL and LDL. The advantages and possible limitations of this method are described. The extension of this approach to other types of drug-lipoprotein interactions is also considered. PMID:25392741
Do genetic modifiers of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels also modify their response to a lifestyle intervention in the setting of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus?: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study.
Huggins, Gordon S; Papandonatos, George D; Erar, Bahar; Belalcazar, L Maria; Brautbar, Ariel; Ballantyne, Christie; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Knowler, William C; Pownall, Henry J; Wing, Rena R; Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides are cardiovascular risk factors susceptible to lifestyle behavior modification and genetics. We hypothesized that genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies as associated with HDL-C or triglyceride levels modify 1-year treatment response to an intensive lifestyle intervention, relative to a usual care of diabetes mellitus support and education. We evaluated 82 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent 31 loci demonstrated by genome-wide association studies to be associated with HDL-C and triglycerides, in 3561 participants who consented for genetic studies and met eligibility criteria. Variants associated with higher baseline HDL-C levels, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) rs3764261 and hepatic lipase (LIPC) rs8034802, were found to be associated with HDL-C increases with intensive lifestyle intervention (P=0.0038 and 0.013, respectively) and had nominally significant treatment interactions (P=0.047 and 0.046, respectively). The fatty acid desaturase-2 rs1535 variant, associated with low baseline HDL-C (P=0.017), was associated with HDL-C increases with intensive lifestyle intervention (0.0037) and had a nominal treatment interaction (P=0.035). Apolipoprotein B (rs693) and LIPC (rs8034802) single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed nominally significant associations with HDL-C and triglyceride changes with intensive lifestyle intervention and a treatment interaction (P<0.05). Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4082919) showed the most significant triglyceride treatment interaction in the full cohort (P=0.0009). This is the first study to identify genetic variants modifying lipid responses to a randomized lifestyle behavior intervention in overweight or obese individuals with diabetes mellitus. The effects of genetic factors on lipid changes may differ from the effects on baseline lipids and are modifiable by behavioral intervention.
Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentrations and Association of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations With Incident Coronary Heart Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Lin, Gen-Min; Liu, Kiang; Colangelo, Laura A; Lakoski, Susan G; Tracy, Russell P; Greenland, Philip
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in numerous but not all observational studies, and whether low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) alter this association is unknown. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012), we prospectively assessed the association of hs-CRP concentrations with incident CHD in participants who did not receive lipid-lowering therapy, as well as in those with LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL (n = 3,106) and those with LDL-C concentrations of 130 mg/dL or greater (n = 1,716) at baseline (2000-2002). Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the associations after adjustment for socioeconomic status, traditional risk factors, body mass index, diabetes, aspirin use, kidney function, and coronary artery calcium score. Loge hs-CRP was associated with incident CHD in participants with LDL-C concentrations of 130 mg/dL or higher (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.60) but not in those with LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.05; P for interaction = 0.003). As a whole, loge hs-CRP was not associated with incident CHD in participants who had not received lipid-lowering therapy at baseline (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.20) and who had mean LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL. These findings suggest that LDL-C concentrations might be a moderator of the contribution of hs-CRP to CHD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Treatment of high-risk patients with ezetimibe plus simvastatin co-administration versus simvastatin alone to attain National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals.
Feldman, Theodore; Koren, Michael; Insull, William; McKenney, James; Schrott, Helmut; Lewin, Andrew; Shah, Sukrut; Sidisin, Michelle; Cho, Meehyung; Kush, Debra; Mitchel, Yale
This study assessed whether the co-administration of ezetimibe and simvastatin would be more effective than simvastatin monotherapy in allowing high-risk patients to achieve a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goal of /=130 mg/dl and meeting National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk equivalent were randomized to 1 of 4 daily treatments for 23 weeks: simvastatin 20 mg (n = 253), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 10 mg (n = 251), ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 20 mg (n = 109), and ezetimibe 10 mg plus simvastatin 40 mg (n = 97). In all groups, patients not at goal had their simvastatin doses doubled at weeks 6, 12, and/or 18, up to a maximum of 80 mg. The primary efficacy objective was LDL cholesterol goal attainment (treatment. Ezetimibe plus any dose of simvastatin produced greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and allowed more patients to achieve goal after 5 weeks (p <0.001) and at the end of the study (p <0.001) than simvastatin 20 mg alone. At 5 weeks, 75%, 83%, and 87% of patients receiving ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20, and 40 mg had LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl compared with 46% of patients receiving simvastatin 20 mg. In patients who started on ezetimibe plus simvastatin 10, 20 and 40 mg, 33%, 22%, and 12%, respectively, required simvastatin titration during the study compared with 68% of patients who started on simvastatin 20 mg. The corresponding median simvastatin doses used were 10, 20, 40, and 40 mg, respectively. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin was well tolerated, with an overall safety profile similar to that of simvastatin monotherapy. Thus, through the dual inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis, ezetimibe plus simvastatin allowed more patients to reach LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl at a lower simvastatin dose and with fewer dose titrations than simvastatin monotherapy.
Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.
Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong
The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.
Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.
Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...
Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G
Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through lipoproteins, blood pressure, glucose, and C-reactive protein. Approximately 90 000 participants from Copenhagen were included in a Mendelian randomization design with mediation analyses. Associations were examined using conventional measurements of body mass index and intermediate variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood pressure, and possibly also through elevated nonfasting glucose levels; however, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated C-reactive protein levels were not mediators in genetic analyses. The 3 intermediate variables that explained the highest excess risk of IHD from genetically determined obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. The increased IHD risk because of obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and through elevated blood pressure. Our results suggest that there may be benefit to gain by reducing levels of these risk factors in obese individuals not able to achieve sustained weight loss. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Qi, Yue; Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Fan; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Dong
Experimental studies have shown that cholesterol-overloaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can promote the formation of apolipoprotein E (APOE)-containing HDL, a process correcting the atherogenic function of cholesterol-overloaded HDL. The objective of the study was to explore whether APOE-containing HDL can attenuate the defective impact of cholesterol-overloaded HDL on the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans. We measured APOE-HDL cholesterol (APOE-HDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), and HDL particle number in 1112 participants aged 45 to 74 years at baseline in a community-based cohort study. Cholesterol molecules per HDL particle (HDL-C/P ratio) were calculated as the ratio of HDLC to HDL particle number. The ratio of APOE-HDLC to total HDLC (APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio) was calculated to assess the relative proportion of APOE-HDLC in total HDLC. The HDL-C/P ratio was strongly correlated with APOE-HDLC (partial-r: 0.615). Participants with cholesterol-overloaded HDL (indicated by the highest level of the HDL-C/P ratio) had a high APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio. Baseline cholesterol-overloaded HDL significantly increased the 10-year risk of incident CHD (hazard ratio = 2.42; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-8.32), but this was attenuated by an increased APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio. Participants with high HDL-C/P ratio and APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio had a 42% lower risk, whereas those with a high HDL-C/P ratio and low APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio had a 2.54-fold higher risk, than those with low HDL-C/P ratio and APOE-HDLC/HDLC ratio after multiple adjustments. Cholesterol-overloaded HDLs are related with increased APOE-containing HDL species. APOE-containing HDL was found to attenuate the impact of cholesterol-overloaded HDL on increased incident CHD risk, suggesting that APOE-containing HDL may correct the dysfunction of cholesterol-overloaded HDL. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haka, Abigail S; Grosheva, Inna; Singh, Rajesh K; Maxfield, Frederick R
The plasmin/plasminogen system is involved in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which it stimulates disease are not fully defined. A key event in atherogenesis is the deposition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on arterial walls where it is modified, aggregated, and retained. Macrophages are recruited to clear the lipoproteins, and they become foam cells. The goal of this study was to assess the role of plasmin in macrophage uptake of aggregated LDL and foam cell formation. Plasminogen treatment of macrophages catabolizing aggregated LDL significantly accelerated foam cell formation. Macrophage interaction with aggregated LDL increased the surface expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and plasminogen activator activity, resulting in increased ability to generate plasmin at the cell surface. The high local level of plasmin cleaves cell-associated aggregated LDL, allowing a portion of the aggregate to become sequestered in a nearly sealed, yet extracellular, acidic compartment. The low pH in the plasmin-induced compartment allows lysosomal enzymes, delivered via lysosome exocytosis, greater activity, resulting in more efficient cholesteryl ester hydrolysis and delivery of a large cholesterol load to the macrophage, thereby promoting foam cell formation. These findings highlight a critical role for plasmin in the catabolism of aggregated LDL by macrophages and provide a new context for considering the atherogenic role of plasmin.
Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.
A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. METHODS: In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01. The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5% and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001. L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.
Schroder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Fíto, Montserrat; Weinbrenner, Tanja; Covas, Maria-Isabel
Findings on the association of alcohol consumption and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesion, are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of total alcohol consumption and type of alcoholic beverage with circulating plasma LDL oxidation. This cross-sectional study included data of circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) from a subpopulation of 587 men and women enrolled in a population-based survey conducted in 2000 in Girona (Spain). Multivariate analysis was performed to describe the independent association of alcohol consumption and ox-LDL. Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with high in vivo ox-LDL levels in the present population. The consumption of 10 g of alcohol was associated with an increase of 2.40 U/L of ox-LDL (p = 0.002). Adjustment for dietary variables, leisure-time physical activity, educational level, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glycemia, triglycerides, diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures only slightly modified this association (p = 0.003). In this full adjusted model the consumption of 10 g of alcohol per day was associated with an increase of 2.11 U/L of ox-LDL. Consumption of wine (ml/day) was associated with increasing ox-LDL levels (p = 0.029), however, attenuated after controlling for alcohol. No significant relationship of ox-LDL with alcohol-independent consumption of wine, beer, and spirits was observed. Alcohol consumption was independently and directly associated with circulating ox-LDL in the present population.
Fang, Fei; Zhu, Xue-Yan; Chen, Chen; Li, Jing; Chen, Da-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun
An anionic glycosylated polysulfone (PSf) membrane was prepared as a high-affinity adsorbent for low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The UV-induced grafting of acrylic acid to the membrane was followed by amidation and a 'thiol-yne' click reaction to achieve glycosylation and sulfonation. Membrane modification was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These tests revealed that the chemical compositions of the membranes' surfaces were easily regulated by controlling the 'thiol-yne' click reaction through the feed ratio of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-β-d-glucopyranose and sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate. LDL adsorption and desorption rates were estimated using an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay, which revealed that the obtained anionic glycosylated PSf membrane had a higher affinity for LDL than either glycosylated or sulfonated membranes alone. The combination of glycosyl and sulfonyl groups enhanced the membranes' affinities for LDL. The modified PSf membrane had an excellent biocompatibility and adsorbed a large amount of LDL, making it a promising material for LDL apheresis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbents normally contain negative charged ligand to induce electrostatic interaction with the positively charged regions of LDL. Furthermore, saccharide is another common component which share in most of the LDL-adsorbents and the LDL-receptor (LDLR). Such structural similarity impels us to investigate the synergistic effect of anionic and saccharide on LDL recognition. For this purpose, an anionic glycosylated membrane of which surface composition can be controlled by click reaction with mutable glycosyl/sulfonyl ratios was prepared. The obtained membrane showed better LDL adsorption/desorption property and the adsorption amount for LDL at an optimum feed ratio. This finding highlights the role of synergistic effect of anionic and saccharide, which offer a new strategy for
Rusiñol, A; Verkade, H; Vance, J E
The intracellular site of assembly of hepatic very low density lipoproteins has been investigated. Two endoplasmic reticulum fractions and Golgi vesicles (relatively free from endosomal contamination) were isolated from rat liver and the luminal contents were released. The apoB-containing entities
Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki
The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is crucial for cholesterol homeostasis and deficiency in LDLR functions cause hypercholesterolemia. LDLR is a type I transmembrane protein that requires O-glycosylation for stable expression at the cell surface. It has previously been suggested that LDL...
Allijn, Iris Eva; Leong, W.; Tang, J.; Gianella, A.; Mieszawska, A.J.; Fay, F.; Ma, G.; Russell, S.; Callo, C.B.; Gordon, R.E.; Korkmaz, E.; Post, J.A.; Zhao, Yihming; Gerritsen, H.; Storm, Gerrit; Thran, A.; Proksa, R.; Daerr, H.; Fuster, V.; Fisher, E.A.; Fayad, Z.A.; Mulder, W.J.M.; Cormode, D.P.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL
Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei
Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...
Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vermeer, M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Koppele, J. te; Princen, H.M.G.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van
In patients with diabetes, non-enzymatic glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. α-Dicarbonyl compounds were identified as intermediates in the non-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported in patients with
Sniderman, A.D.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maximalist low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering strategies such as lowering LDL as much as possible or, alternatively, using the most potent LDL-lowering regimens have become increasingly popular. Almost all attention has focused on the potential advantages of these approaches
Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Henrik Kjaerulf; Benn, Marianne
The effect of mutations on phenotype is often overestimated because of ascertainment bias. We determined the effect of background population on cholesterol phenotype associated with specific mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the relative importance of background populati...
Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the composition of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and the proportion of VLDL to total apolipoprotein B (apoB) particles in patients with hypertriglyceridemia caused by excess VLDL. METHODS: Subjects were selected from 2023 consecutive patients attending the
Fairoozy, Roaa Hani; Cooper, Jackie; White, Jon
Background and aims: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulat...
Emerson Silva Lima
Full Text Available Diversos estudos clínicos, epidemiológicos e experimentais têm mostrado de maneira incontestável a relação entre dosagem sérica dos níveis de lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL e doença cardiovascular. Baixos níveis de HDL estão presentes em aproximadamente 10% da população e representam um dos mais freqüentes achados de dislipidemia nos pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Esses níveis reduzidos de HDL poderiam ser incapazes de efetivamente eliminar o excesso de colesterol das paredes vasculares, contribuindo para o fenômeno inflamatório que caracteriza a patogênese da aterosclerose nas suas fases iniciais. Outros inúmeros estudos têm convincentemente mostrado que a HDL também exerce efeitos diretos sobre os processos inflamatórios, por exemplo, através da modulação da expressão de diversas proteínas de fase aguda. Além disso, a HDL também possui diversos outros efeitos antiaterogênicos, como efeitos antioxidantes, inibição da agregação plaquetária e da migração de monócitos. O presente artigo faz uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o metabolismo da HDL e suas principais ações na prevenção da doença arterial coronariana.Several experimental, clinical and epidemiological researches have shown the incontestable causal relationship between low high-density lipoprotein (HDL plasma concentrations and cardiovascular pathology on an atherosclerotic basis. Low HDL levels characterize about 10% of the general population and they represent the most frequent dyslipidemia in patients with coronary artery disease. Reduced HDL concentrations would be unable to effectively eliminate the cholesterol excess at the vascular wall, contributing to the inflammatory phenomenon that characterizes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis since its initial phases. Results of numerous studies reasonably allow supposing that HDL is able to exert, also directly, anti-inflammatory actions through the modulation of
Huang, Xiaoqin; He, Dan; Ming, Jia; He, Yubin; Zhou, Champion; Ren, Hui; He, Xin; Wang, Chenguang; Jin, Jingru; Ji, Liang; Willard, Belinda; Pan, Bing; Zheng, Lemin
Adhesion of disseminating tumor cells to vascular endothelium is a pivotal starting point in the metastasis cascade. We have shown previously that diabetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has the capability of promoting breast cancer metastasis, and this report summarizes our more recent work studying the role of abnormal HDL in facilitating the adhesion of the circulating tumor cells to the endothelium. This is an initiating step in breast cancer metastasis, and this work assesses the role of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in this process. MDA-MB-231, MCF 7, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with normal HDL from healthy controls (N-HDL), HDL from breast cancer patients (B-HDL), or HDL from breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BD-HDL), and the cell adhesion abilities were determined. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. The effect of PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA on adhesion was also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin from breast cancer patients and breast cancer patients complicated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined. Our results indicate that BD-HDL promoted an increase in breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the cells surface of both breast cancer and HUVEC cells, along with the activation of PKC. Increased tumor cell (TC)-HUVEC adhesion, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression induced by BD-HDL, could be inhibited by staurosporine and PKC siRNA. In addition, a Db/db type 2 diabetes mouse model has more TC-Vascular Endothelium adhesion compared to a normal model. However, BD patients have a lower expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in their tumor tissues. BD-HDL facilitates the adhesion of tumor cells to vascular endothelium by upregulating the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, thereby promoting the initial progression of breast cancer metastasis
Hu, Ching-Yun; Lee, Chia-Lin; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Wang, Jun-Sing; Lee, I-Te; Song, Yuh-Min; Fu, Chia-Po; Ling, Jiin-Tsae; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Shih-Yi
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is usually estimated by the Friedewald formula (FF) calculated from three parameters, namely, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We aimed to develop a new and simple formula (NF) for LDL-C estimation. This cross-sectional study enrolled two study populations (a testing group, n=16,749, and a validation group, n=4940). Linear regression analysis was used in the testing group to investigate the association between measured LDL-C (mLDL-C) and TC concentration, and was verified in the validation group. The NF yielded an estimated LDL-C (eLDL-C) equal to 0.75 × total cholesterol-0.6465 (mmol/L). For the subjects with TC between 2.58 and 7.74 mmol/L, the difference between mLDL-C and eLDL-C using the NF was less than that from the FF (testing group: -0.04 to -0.20 vs. -0.28 to -0.38 mmol/L; validation group: 0.01 to -0.12 vs. -0.23 to -0.30 mmol/L; p7.74 mmol/L, respectively. In the Chinese population, the accuracy of eLDL-C measurement with the NF was better than that with the FF, especially in subjects with TC levels between 2.58 and 7.74 mmol/L. The NF is simple and may be used for screening as well as for follow-up of patients on lipid lowering agents.
Cao, Ye; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Zhong, Rui; Lei, Yu; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin
Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.
Cao Ye; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China); Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhong Rui [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China); Lei Yu [Chengdu Blood Center, Chengdu 610041 (China); Sun Kang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610052 (China)
Polyanion ligands such as acrylic acid (AA) and heparin were grafted on PBT Nonwoven Fabrics (PBTNF) to study their effect on the adsorption of low density lipoprotein (LDL). These modified PBTNFs were characterized by Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy. The blood compatibilities of the modified PBTNFs were examined using in vitro hemolysis rate (HR), platelet adhesion, total protein (TP) and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results showed that direct immobilized heparin could improve PBTNF-PAA's blood compatibility and decrease the adsorption capability of useful high density lipoprotein, but would possess so low bioactivity that could not further improve the absorption of LDL and TC. Since the PBTNF-PAA55-Heparin adsorbent had quite good adsorption selectivity for these proteins, it can be an excellent candidate for depletion of LDL with good blood compatibility.
Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo
accumulation and, thus, atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and applied it in 16 patients with maturity-onset diabetes (type 2) and 29 healthy control subjects. Autologous 131I-labeled LDL...... plasma insulin levels in diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport may be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that lipoprotein flux into the arterial wall is increased in people with diabetes, possibly explaining the accelerated development of atherosclerosis....... in patients with diabetes and control subjects, respectively (P2.5%/h and 5.3+/-1.6%/h (P
Huang, Yuli; Wu, Yu; Yang, You; Li, Wensheng; Lu, Jianhua; Hu, Yunzhao
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is considered to be a risk factor for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but this remains controversial. This study investigated the role of Lp-PLA2 in young Chinese patients with ACS. 228 young patients (aged ≤55 years) with ACS and 237 age-matched controls were included. Lp-PLA2 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lp-PLA2 levels were significantly correlated with smoking, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ox-LDL levels (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.26-8.38), smoking (OR = 3.50, 95%CI = 1.75-7.0), triglyceride (OR = 1.76, 95%CI = 1.08-2.87), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.14-3.90) and ox-LDL (OR = 2.98, 95%CI = 1.72-5.1) were independently associated with ACS risk in young patients. Lp-PLA2 was associated with risk of ACS in young patients when adjusted for traditional risk factors, including age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride and hs-CRP (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 1.10-3.56). When further adjusted for ox-LDL levels, the association between Lp-PLA2 and ACS became insignificant (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 0.90-3.17). Lp-PLA2 was a marker of oxidative stress and inflammation, rather than an independent risk factor for ACS in young Chinese patients.
Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.
Vickers, Kasey C.; Maguire, Colin T.; Wolfert, Robert; Burns, Alan R.; Reardon, Michael; Geis, Richard; Holvoet, Paul; Morrisett, Joel D.
Plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) have been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lp-PLA2 is the sole enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipids on LDL particles in atherosclerotic plaques. We have studied the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and oxLDL in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) tissues and in matched plasmas. In extracts from CEA anatomical segments, the levels of oxLDL were significantly associated with the levels of Lp-PLA2 protein (r = 0.497) and activity (r = 0.615). OxLDL and Lp-PLA2 mass/activity were most abundant in the carotid bifurcation and internal segments where plaque was most abundant. In extracts from CEA atheroma, the levels of oxLDL and Lp-PLA2 were significantly correlated (r = 0.634). In matched plasma and atheroma extracts, the levels of Lp-PLA2 were negatively correlated (r = − 0.578). The ratio of Lp-PLA2 to oxLDL was higher in atheromatous tissue (277:1) than in normal tissue (135:1) and plasma (13:1). Immunohistochemical experiments indicated that in plaques, oxLDL and Lp-PLA2 existed in overlapping but distinctly different distribution. Fluorescence microscopy showed both oxLDL and Lp-PLA2 epitopes on the same LDL particle in plasma but not in plaque. These results suggest that the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and oxLDL in the atherosclerotic plaque is different from that in the plasma compartment. PMID:19359705
Ito, Kumie; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hidekatsu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Sato, Ryo; Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Tada, Norio
Cholesterol levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL), which contains low-density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron (CM) remnant, have been proven to perform a significant predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) better than LDL-cholesterol regardless of triglyceride (TG) levels. The present study investigated the relevance of TG-rich lipoproteins (IDL, VLDL, CM) to Framingham risk score (FRS) predictive of 10-year CHD risk. Lipoprotein profiles (cholesterol levels of HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL, CM) in Japanese men (n = 487) who underwent medical check-up were determined by using our developed anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (AEX-HPLC). Total-cholesterol (TC), TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and hemoglobin (Hb) A1c were measured by routine methods. The lipoprotein profiles, non-HDL-cholesterol, TC, and TG were examined on these associations with FRS. The lipid levels except for CM-cholesterol were significantly different between two groups (low FRS, cholesterol were significantly and positively correlated with FRS. Among them, the significant association of non-HDL-cholesterol to FRS was noted (r = 0.411, P cholesterol, IDL-cholesterol in TG-rich lipoproteins was significantly correlated with FRS in independently of BMI. These correlation results were similarly found even when the part of the study subjects (n = 348) without the drug therapy for hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension was investigated. These results suggest that IDL-cholesterol may serve as a useful marker for CHD risk in Japanese men with increased non-HDL-cholesterol. © 2013.
Simonetta Geninatti Crich
Full Text Available Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17 are lipophilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI agents that display high affinity for low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles. However, on binding to LDL, Gd-DO3A-diph shows a decreased hydration that results in a lower enhancement of water proton relaxation rate. Conversely, GdAAZTAC17 displays a strong relaxation enhancement at the imaging fields. Each LDL particle can load up to 100 and 400 UNITS of Gd-DO3A-diph and Gd-AAZTAC17, respectively. Their LDL adducts are taken up by human hepatoblastoma G2 (HepG2 and melanoma B16 tumor cells when added to the incubation medium. T, measurements of the labeled cells indicate that Gd-AAZTAC17 is significantly more efficient than Gd-DO3A-diph. Furthermore, it has been found that HepG2 hepatoma cells can internalize higher amounts of Gd-AAZTAC17 than B16 cells and the involvement of LDL receptors (LDLRs has been demonstrated in competition assays with free LDL. Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct proved to be an efficient probe in the magnetic resonance (MR visualization of subcutaneous tumors in animal models obtained by injecting B16 melanoma cells into the right flank of mice. Finally, confocal microscopy validation of the distribution of LDL-based probes in the tumor has been obtained by doping the Gd-AAZTAC17/LDL adduct with a fluorescent phospholipid moiety.
Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K
Background: One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. Materials and Methods: We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20–70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P < 0.05. Pearsons correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. Conclusion: This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method. PMID:28251110
Chellan, Bijoy; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Hofmann Bowman, Marion A
Enzyme-modified nonoxidized low-density lipoprotein (ELDL) is present in human atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective is to understand the mechanisms of ELDL uptake and its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). Transformation of murine aortic SMCs into foam cells in response to ELDL was analyzed. ELDL, but not acetylated or oxidized LDL, was potent in inducing SMC foam cell formation. Inhibitors of macropinocytosis (LY294002, wortmannin, amiloride) attenuated ELDL uptake. In contrast, inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis (dynasore, sucrose) and inhibitor of caveolae-/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis (filipin) had no effect on ELDL uptake in SMC, suggesting that macropinocytosis is the main mechanism of ELDL uptake by SMC. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is not obligatory for ELDL-induced SMC foam cell formation, but primes SMC for the uptake of oxidized LDL in a RAGE-dependent manner. ELDL increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, cytosolic calcium, and expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in wild-type SMC but not in RAGE(-/-) SMC. The macropinocytotic uptake of ELDL is regulated predominantly by intracellular calcium because ELDL uptake was completely inhibited by pretreatment with the calcium channel inhibitor lacidipine in wild-type and RAGE(-/-) SMC. This is in contrast to pretreatment with PI3 kinase inhibitors which completely prevented ELDL uptake in RAGE(-/-) SMC, but only partially in wild-type SMC. ELDL is highly potent in inducing foam cells in murine SMC. ELDL endocytosis is mediated by calcium-dependent macropinocytosis. Priming SMC with ELDL enhances the uptake of oxidized LDL. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
L.P.L. van de Vijver (Lucy)
textabstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. In the Netherlands, it is responsible for 40% of all deaths. Major risk factors for CVD are identified such as smoking, high cholesterol level and hypertension. Other important determinants of
Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Zijlstra, Felix; Badlou, Bahram; de Vries, Marcel; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Spek, C. Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad
Hedgehog is one of the major morphogens and fulfils critical functions in both the development and maintenance of the vasculature. Hedgehog is highly hydrophobic and its diffusion toward target tissues remains only partly understood. In Drosophila, hedgehog transport via lipophorins is relevant for
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia is common in uremia, and represents an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Methods To investigate the effects of hemodialysis (HD duration on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL compositions and lipopolytic activities, 20 patients on 5 to 7 years hemodialysis were followed-up during 9 years. Blood samples were drawn at T0 (beginning of the study, T1 (3 years after initiating study, T2 (6 years after initiating study and T3 (9 years after initiating study. T0 was taken as reference. Results Triacylglycerols (TG values were correlated with HD duration (r = 0.70, P Conclusion Despite hemodialysis duration, VLDL-LDL metabolism alterations are aggravated submitting patients to a greater risk of atherosclerosis.
Gülle, Saniye; Bak, Mustafa; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Can, Demet; Karabay, Ozalp
Membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration) is an apheresis technique by which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In this study, we aim to discuss the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed by providing alternative vascular routes in two siblings with familial hypercholesterolemia who did not respond to medical treatment and diet. Of the two siblings, one was nine years old and the other one was three-and-a-half years old. Of the total of 78 apheresis processes performed, 24 were done via a permanent subclavian catheter, 36 were done via a subsequently provided arteriovenous fistula, and 18 were done via an arteriovenous graft. We observed a mean reduction in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (61.6%), LDL cholesterol (65.5%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (38.6%). We noted that cascade filtration apheresis was effective in decreasing the LDL cholesterol in plasma, and no serious complications were noted. The success of the apheresis program depends on well-functioning blood access. An arteriovenous fistula may be the best route for the long-term treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, which requires complication-free apheresis treatments.
Dr. Ajayakumar Koorma
The purpose of the present study was to find out the effect of aerobic exercise programme with different intensities on blood pressure and low density lipoproteins among middle aged women. For this purpose, thirty middle aged women residing at various places around Kannur Town, Kerala, were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects were ranged from 35 to 45 years. They were divided into three equal groups, each group consisted of ten subjects, in which experimental group - I underwent aer...
Sahu, Suchanda; Chawla, Rajinder; Uppal, Bharti
Current recommendations of the Adult Treatment Panel and Adolescents Treatment Panel of National Cholesterol Education Program make the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in serum the basis of classification and management of hypercholesterolemia. A number of direct homogenous assays based on surfactant/solubility principles have evolved in the recent past. This has made LDL-C estimation less cumbersome than the earlier used methods. Here we compared one of the direct homogeno...
Jessup, W; Darley-Usmar, V; O'Leary, V; Bedwell, S
The concentration-dependent effects of a series of lipoxygenase inhibitors and antioxidants on the macrophage-mediated oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Their influence on macrophage 5-lipoxygenase pathway activity was also studied over the same concentration range. No correlation between inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and of macrophage-mediated oxidation of LDL was observed. The capacity of the compounds to prevent cell-mediated modification of LDL could be...
Malhotra, Jyoti; Tonorezos, Emily S.; Rozenberg, Marina; Vega, Gloria L.; Sklar, Charles A.; Chou, Joanne; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Eshelman-Kent, Debra A.; Janiszewski, Peter; Ross, Robert; Oeffinger, Kevin C.
Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Small density lipoproteins are atherogenic but have not been studied in this population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 110 ALL survivors (mean age, 24.3 years) to determine prevalence of small dense LDL (pattern B) phenotype in ALL survivors and identify associated factors. Lipid subfractions were measured using Vertical Auto Profile-II. Participants with greater than 50% o...
Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control. Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol
Full Text Available The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā, Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā, and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.
Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.
A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…
Sun, Pengchao; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Haiying; Liang, Qian; Zhang, Xuexiao; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Yongxing
Submicron emulsions (SEs) is an advanced formulation that possesses good biocompatibility, high loading of hydrophobic drugs, and good stability through autoclave sterilization. To enhance tumor targeting and tumor cell uptake, SEs could be modified with positive charge and targeting moieties. In the present study, three formulations were prepared: Docetaxel-loaded SEs (DocSEs), cationic DocSEs (DocCSEs), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) targeted peptide-RLT (CEKLKEAFRLTRKRGLKLA) modified DocCSEs (RLT-DocCSEs). The optimized RLT-DocCSEs showed a particle size 182.2±10nm, a zeta potential 39.62±2.41mV, and a loading efficiency of Docetaxel (Doc) 98%. RLT-DocCSEs demonstrated sustained release in 96h and was stable for two months at 4°C. Compared to DocSEs and DocCSEs, RLT-DocCSEs caused significantly more PC-3 cell inhibition and cell apoptosis. RLT-DocCSEs also showed more cellular uptake and slower cellular elimination than that of DocSEs and DocCSEs. The present study indicated RLT-DocCSEs could be a potential formulation for injection of anti-cancer therapeutics with increased tumor targeting and anti-tumor efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Nan; Miao, Jinhong; Sun, Pengchao; Liang, Qian; Hua, Haiying; Xu, Yusheng; Zhao, Yongxing
Docetaxel (Doc) is a potent chemotherapy for cancer but its application is limited by poor water solubility and high risk of side effects. To improve these issues, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) targeted peptide-RLT (CEKLKEAFRLTRKRGLKLA) modified Docetaxel-loaded submicron emulsions (RLT-DocSEs) had been developed. Docetaxel-loaded SEs (DocSEs) and cationic DocSEs (DocCSEs) were also prepared for comparison. To evaluate the tumor-targeting ability and anti-tumor efficacy, DocSEs, DocCSEs, and RLT-DocSEs were administrated intravenously to rats respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of three formulations were significantly different. In vivo distribution study was conducted in mice and the results indicated that RLT-DocSEs possessed increased tumor targeting ability than DocSEs and DocCSEs. RLT-DocSEs also resulted in a higher tumor inhibition rate and a better anti-tumor efficacy in mice. All the results suggested that RLT-DocSEs could be a potential formulation for the injection of Doc with enhanced tumor targeting and anti-tumor efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Klingel, Reinhard; Fassbender, Thurid; Fassbender, Cordula; Göhlen, Britta
Extracorporeal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is an established and highly effective therapy for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) not adequately responding to diet and drug therapy alone. Based on different methodology, five treatment options of LDL apheresis are available and in widespread practical use in Germany. All methods are safe and demonstrate equivalent efficacy of reducing LDL cholesterol with respect to the single apheresis session as well as during long-term treatment. Owing to methodological properties all methods also exhibit characteristics of additional plasma protein elimination, which do not impair, but in part, increase the beneficial therapeutic effect of LDL apheresis. Fibrinogen reduction has to be mentioned as an example. The lipidfiltration system is based on plasmafiltration previously named membrane differential filtration (MDF), synonymous with double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP). The new term lipidfiltration was the result of technological progress leading to a significant improvement of the efficiency. The system consists of a novel lipid filter with enhanced sieving characteristics and capacity, and is completed by an enhanced therapy machine with an optimized heating unit.
Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M
Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy.
Guttman, Miklos; Betts, Gina N; Barnes, Helen; Ghassemian, Majid; van der Geer, Peter; Komives, Elizabeth A
The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates internalization of a large number of proteins and protein-lipid complexes and is widely implicated in Alzheimer's disease. The cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 (LRP1-CT) can be phosphorylated by activated protein-tyrosine kinases at two NPXY motifs in LRP1-CT; Tyr 4507 is readily phosphorylated and must be phosphorylated before phosphorylation of Tyr 4473 occurs. Pull-down experiments from brain lysate revealed numerous proteins binding to LRP1-CT, but the results were highly variable. To separate which proteins bind to each NPXY motif and their phosphorylation dependence, each NPXY motif microdomain was prepared in both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms and used to probe rodent brain extracts for binding proteins. Proteins that bound specifically to the microdomains were identified by LC-MS/MS, and confirmed by Western blot. Recombinant proteins were then tested for binding to each NPXY motif. The NPXY(4507) (membrane distal) was found to interact with a large number of proteins, many of which only bound the tyrosine-phosphorylated form. This microdomain also bound a significant number of other proteins in the unphosphorylated state. Many of the interactions were later confirmed to be direct with recombinant proteins. The NPXY(4473) (membrane proximal) bound many fewer proteins and only to the phosphorylated form.
Full Text Available Nanoparticles of heavy materials such as gold can be used as markers in quantitative electron microscopic studies of protein distributions in cells with nanometer spatial resolution. Studying nanoparticles within the context of cells is also relevant for nanotoxicological research. Here, we report a method to quantify the locations and the number of nanoparticles, and of clusters of nanoparticles inside whole eukaryotic cells in three dimensions using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM tomography. Whole-mount fixed cellular samples were prepared, avoiding sectioning or slicing. The level of membrane staining was kept much lower than is common practice in transmission electron microscopy (TEM, such that the nanoparticles could be detected throughout the entire cellular thickness. Tilt-series were recorded with a limited tilt-range of 80° thereby preventing excessive beam broadening occurring at higher tilt angles. The 3D locations of the nanoparticles were nevertheless determined with high precision using computation. The obtained information differed from that obtained with conventional TEM tomography data since the nanoparticles were highlighted while only faint contrast was obtained on the cellular material. Similar as in fluorescence microscopy, a particular set of labels can be studied. This method was applied to study the fate of sequentially up-taken low-density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated to gold nanoparticles in macrophages. Analysis of a 3D reconstruction revealed that newly up-taken LDL-gold was delivered to lysosomes containing previously up-taken LDL-gold thereby forming onion-like clusters.
AMG 145, a monoclonal antibody against PCSK9, facilitates achievement of national cholesterol education program-adult treatment panel III low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals among high-risk patients: an analysis from the LAPLACE-TIMI 57 trial (LDL-C assessment with PCSK9 monoclonal antibody inhibition combined with statin thErapy-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 57).
Desai, Nihar R; Giugliano, Robert P; Zhou, Jing; Kohli, Payal; Somaratne, Ransi; Hoffman, Elaine; Liu, Thomas; Scott, Robert; Wasserman, Scott M; Sabatine, Marc S
This study sought to define the ability of AMG 145, a monoclonal antibody directed against proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9), to enable subjects at high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events to achieve National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) parameters for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other lipid goals. Many patients at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events are unable to achieve the NCEP-ATP III LDL-C goal of III criteria, we compared the proportion of subjects achieving the NCEP-ATP III recommended LDL-C goal of treatment arms. Other outcomes included the triple goals of LDL-C <70 mg/dl, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <100 mg/dl, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) <80 mg/dl. During the dosing interval, more than 90% of subjects in both of the top dose groups every 2 weeks and every 4 weeks attained this lipid target over the dosing interval, with similar success rates for the triple lipid goal. PCSK9 inhibition with AMG 145 enables high-risk patients to achieve established lipid goals. If this therapy demonstrates efficacy for reducing cardiovascular events with a favorable safety profile in ongoing phase 3 trials, we believe it will have major public health implications. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Citarella, Anna; Linder, Marie; Kieler, Helle; Berglind, Ingegärd Anveden; Sundström, Anders; Wettermark, Björn; Andersen, Morten
Persistence to statins is low, in part due to lack of perception of cardiovascular (CV) risk. High values of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) might increase the motivation for patients to be persistent. We investigated whether the baseline LDL-C value influences the discontinuation of statin treatment in patients with and without previous CV events. A cohort study was performed using information from the Swedish national registers concerning dispensed drugs, hospital contacts, cause of death, and socioeconomic status, and linked with data from clinical laboratories. Incident statin users 20 years of age or older and starting treatment between 2006 and 2007 were identified and followed for 1 year. Baseline LDL-C level was defined as the last available laboratory test result during 6 months before the index statin dispensing. Cox regression was used to study discontinuation and estimate the effect on persistence of the baseline LDL-C value adjusting for sex, age, income, comorbidity, previous CV events, type of prescriber, and country of birth. Subgroup analyses stratifying by previous CV events and by diagnosis of diabetes among subjects without previous CV events were performed. A total of 29,389 patients were identified; 35.4% had a previous CV event. A high baseline LDL-C value was associated with a lower discontinuation rate (hazard ratio (HR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.91) in patients without previous CV events. When stratifying further by diabetes diagnosis, the association was confirmed only in patients without diabetes. No association between LDL-C and persistence was found in patients with previous CV events. High levels of LDL-C were positively associated with statin persistence in newly treated diabetes patients without previous CV events.
Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Seo, Makoto; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Awata, Takuya; Komoda, Tsugikazu; Katayama, Shigehiro
This study aimed to explore the potential of polyacrylamide-gel disc electrophoresis (PAGE) for lipoprotein profiling in clinical practice. Blood samples were collected from 146 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid parameters were assayed by PAGE, including small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (n = 41), and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant cholesterol (n = 37). We also used a commercial kit to measure small, dense LDL (n = 41). By PAGE, we obtained the percentage of the area under the curve (AUC %) of each peaks and calculated respective AUC% x total cholesterol (AUC%xTC) values. The calculated values of LDL-AUC%xTC, small LDL-AUC%xTC, and HDL-AUC%xTC values were correlated well with values from homogeneous assay for LDL-cholesterol, small, dense LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol assays (r = 0.94, 0.81, and 0.89, respectively). PAGE combined with measurement of total cholesterol and triglycerides provides a rapid evaluation of anti- or pro-atherogenic lipoproteins and a simple profiling system for both the "quantity" and "quality" of lipoproteins, allowing a better assessment of the risk of coronary artery diseases. This article discusses several methods for simple and rapid lipid profiling and outlines some recent patents relevant to the methods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown. We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan. The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. Results A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0% of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation, and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45. The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Conclusions Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia.
Suppression of cholesterol synthesis in cultured fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia by her own low density lipoprotein density fraction. A possible role of apolipoprotein E
Havekes, L.; Vermeer, B.J.; Wit, E. de
The suppression of cellular cholesterol synthesis by low density lipoprotein (LDL) from a normal and from a homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic subject was measured on normal fibroblasts and on fibroblasts derived from the same homozygous familial hypercholesterolemic patient. On normal
Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNFα and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis.
Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S; Chock, P Boon; Stadtman, Earl R
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 microM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 microM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation.
Grammer, Tanja B.; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Silbernagel, Günther; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Wieland, Heinrich; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Scharnagl, Hubert
Aims The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in average diameter of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were associated with total and cardiovascular mortality. Methods and results We studied 1643 subjects referred to coronary angiography, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 398 patients died, of these 246 from cardiovascular causes. We calculated average particle diameters of LDL from the composition of LDL obtained by β-quant...
Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K
These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary...
Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.
This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.
Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Zelcer, Noam
The hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway is essential for clearing circulating LDL and is an important therapeutic target for treating cardiovascular disease. Abundance of the LDLR is subject to both transcriptional and nontranscriptional control. Here, we highlight a new post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling LDLR function via ubiquitination of the receptor by the E3-ubiquitin ligase inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). IDOL is a recently identified transcriptional target of the liver X receptors. Acting as an E3-ubiquitin ligase IDOL promotes ubiquitination of the LDLR, thereby marking it for lysosomal degradation. The determinants required for degradation of the LDLR by IDOL have been largely identified. IDOL also targets two related lipoprotein receptors, the very low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein E receptor 2. Despite several similarities, the IDOL, and PCSK9 pathways for controlling LDLR abundance seem independent of each other. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified IDOL as a locus influencing variability in circulating levels of LDL, thereby highlighting the possible role of IDOL in human lipoprotein metabolism. Transcriptional induction of IDOL by liver X receptor defines a new post-transcriptional pathway for controlling LDLR abundance and LDL uptake independent of sterol regulatory element binding proteins. Targeting IDOL activity may offer a novel therapeutic approach complementary to statins for treating cardiovascular disease.
Common variation in cholesteryl ester transfer protein : Relationship of first major adverse cardiovascular events with the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio
Kappelle, Paul; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hillege, Hans J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
BACKGROUND: The preference of the apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoA-I ratio over the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in cardiovascular risk prediction is disputed. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is instrumental in lipoprotein remodelling and affects the cholesterol content in
Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a metabolic disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait characterized by an increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL level. The disease is caused by several different mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Although early identification of individuals carrying the defective gene could be useful in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the techniques available for determining the number of the functional LDL receptor molecules are difficult to carry out and expensive. Polymorphisms associated with this gene may be used for unequivocal diagnosis of FH in several populations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the genotype distribution and relative allele frequencies of three polymorphisms of the LDL receptor gene, HincII1773 (exon 12, AvaII (exon 13 and PvuII (intron 15, in 50 unrelated Brazilian individuals with a diagnosis of heterozygous FH and in 130 normolipidemic controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes by a modified salting-out method. The polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP. The FH subjects showed a higher frequency of A+A+ (AvaII, H+H+ (HincII1773 and P1P1 (PvuII homozygous genotypes when compared to the control group (P<0.05. In addition, FH probands presented a high frequency of A+ (0.58, H+ (0.61 and P1 (0.78 alleles when compared to normolipidemic individuals (0.45, 0.45 and 0.64, respectively. The strong association observed between these alleles and FH suggests that AvaII, HincII1773 and PvuII polymorphisms could be useful to monitor the inheritance of FH in Brazilian families.
Frodermann, Vanessa; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Wierts, Laura; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; van Santbrink, Peter J; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C A
Modulation of immune responses may form a powerful approach to treat atherosclerosis. It was shown that clearance of apoptotic cells results in tolerance induction to cleared Ags by dendritic cells (DCs); however, this seems impaired in atherosclerosis because Ag-specific tolerance is lacking. This could result, in part, from decreased emigration of DCs from atherosclerotic lesions because of the high-cholesterol environment. Nonetheless, local induction of anti-inflammatory responses by apoptotic cell clearance seems to dampen atherosclerosis, because inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance worsens atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed whether i.v. administration of oxLDL-induced apoptotic DCs (apop(ox)-DCs) and, as a control, unpulsed apoptotic DCs could modulate atherosclerosis by inducing tolerance. Adoptive transfer of apop(ox)-DCs into low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice either before or during feeding of a Western-type diet resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+) tolerogenic splenic DCs, with a concomitant increase in regulatory T cells. Interestingly, both types of apoptotic DCs induced an immediate 40% decrease in Ly-6C(hi) monocyte numbers and a 50% decrease in circulating CCL2 levels, but only apop(ox)-DC treatment resulted in long-term effects on monocytes and CCL2 levels. Although initial lesion development was reduced by 40% in both treatment groups, only apop(ox)-DC treatment prevented lesion progression by 28%. Moreover, progressed lesions of apop(ox)-DC-treated mice showed a robust 45% increase in collagen content, indicating an enhanced stability of lesions. Our findings clearly show that apoptotic DC treatment significantly decreases lesion development, but only apop(ox)-DCs can positively modulate lesion progression and stability. These findings may translate into a safe treatment for patients with established cardiovascular diseases using patient-derived apop(ox)-DCs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of
Tsai, Ying-Ying; Rainey, William E; Bollag, Wendy B
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retentio