WorldWideScience

Sample records for high demand occupations

  1. The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations.

  2. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  3. Simulation of annual electric lighting demand using various occupancy profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the effect on electric lighting demand of applying occupancy models of various resolution to climate-based daylight modelling. The lighting demand was evaluated for a building zone with the occupant always present, with occupancy corresponding to absence...... factors, based on an estimated annual mean occupancy, based on estimated 1-hour mean occupancy, and based on 2-min occupancy intervals. The results showed little difference in the annual electric lighting demand when the same occupancy profile was used every day, as opposed to when profiles were used...... where occupancy varied every day. Furthermore, the results showed that annual electric lighting demand was evaluated slightly conservatively when a mean absence factor was applied as opposed to using dynamic occupancy profiles....

  4. Demanding occupations and the retirement age in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Vermeer; Mauro Mastrogiacomo (DNB; VU; Netspar); Arthur van Soest (Tilburg University; Netspar)

    2014-01-01

    In the policy debate on increasing the statutory retirement age, the issue has been raised to make an exception for workers with demanding occupations, since health considerations may make it unreasonable to expect them to work longer. We use unique Dutch survey data to analyze the general public’s opinions on what are demanding occupations, to what extent it is justified that someone with a demanding occupation can retire earlier, and on the willingness to contribute to an earlier retireme...

  5. Do occupational demands explain the educational gradient in health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, S.C.; Künn-Nelen, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent occupation-specific demands explain the relationship between education and health. We concentrate on ergonomic, environmental, psychical, social and time demands. Merging the German Microcensus 2009 data with a dataset including detailed

  6. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality...... implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant...... when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we...

  7. Aligning Career and Technical Education with High-Wage and High-Demand Occupations in Tennessee. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokher, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the availability of career and technical education program areas in Tennessee high schools, concentrations (a three-or-more credit sequence in a program area) completed by 2007/08 high school graduates, and how these concentrations align with jobs in the labor market. It looks at how these outcomes differ, statewide and by…

  8. Aligning Career and Technical Education with High-Wage and High-Demand Occupations in Tennessee. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokher, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the availability of career and technical education program areas in Tennessee high schools, concentrations (a three-or-more credit sequence in a program area) completed by 2007/08 high school graduates, and how these concentrations align with jobs in the labor market. It looks at how these outcomes differ, statewide and by…

  9. The Role of Occupational Voice Demand and Patient-Rated Impairment in Predicting Voice Therapy Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, Barbara; Soni, Resha S; Moran, Kathleen; Lango, Miriam; Devarajan, Karthik; Jamal, Nausheen

    2018-05-01

    Examine the relationship among the severity of patient-perceived voice impairment, perceptual dysphonia severity, occupational voice demand, and voice therapy adherence. Identify clinical predictors of increased risk for therapy nonadherence. A retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with a chief complaint of persistent dysphonia at an interdisciplinary voice center was done. The Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) and the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) survey scores, clinician rating of dysphonia severity using the Grade score from the Grade, Roughness Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, occupational voice demand, and patient demographics were tested for associations with therapy adherence, defined as completion of the treatment plan. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was performed to establish thresholds for nonadherence risk. Of 166 patients evaluated, 111 were recommended for voice therapy. The therapy nonadherence rate was 56%. Occupational voice demand category, VHI-10, and V-RQOL scores were the only factors significantly correlated with therapy adherence (P demand are significantly more likely to be nonadherent with therapy than those with high occupational voice demand (P 40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting therapy nonadherence (P demand and patient perception of impairment are significantly and independently correlated with therapy adherence. A VHI-10 score of ≤9 or a V-RQOL score of >40 is a significant cutoff point for predicting nonadherence risk. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands: A grounded theory on stress and recovery among highly educated working young women entering male-dominated occupational areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Löve

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors underline the issue of stress-related health among young highly educated women. Major societal changes might provide more new challenges with considerably changed and expanded roles than were expected by earlier generations, especially among women. The quantity of young women with higher education has also increased threefold in Sweden in less than two decades and there are a growing number of young women that hereby break with traditional gender positions and enter new occupational areas traditionally dominated by men. The research questions in the present study were: “What is the main concern, regarding stress and recovery, among young highly educated working women breaking with traditional gender positions and entering male-dominated occupational areas?” and “How do they handle this concern?” We conducted open-ended interviews with 20 informants, aged 23–29 years. The results showed that the synergy between highly ambitious individuals and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands ended up in the informants’ constantly striving to find a balance in daily life (main concern. This concern refers to the respondents experiencing a constant overload of ambiguity and that they easily became entangled in a loop of stress and dysfunctional coping behavior, threatening the balance between stress and sufficient recovery. In order to handle this concern, the respondents used different strategies in balancing extensive ambition and a context overflowing with opportunities and demands (core category. This preliminary theoretical model deepens our understanding of how the increasing numbers of highly educated young women face complex living conditions endangering their possibility of maintaining health and work ability.

  11. Alternative demographic futures and the composition of the demand for labor, by industry and by occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serow, W J

    1981-01-01

    An effort is made in this discussion to demonstrate the effects of varying rates of population growth upon the industrial and occupational compositions of demand for labor. The discussion extends previous research activity that has demonstrated that changes in the composition of consumer demand are insensitive to alternative rates of population growth. The discussion begins with a replication of projections of consumer demand patterns under 3 alternative population projections and then transforms these results into projections of final demand by industrial sector, demand for labor by industrial sector, and demand for labor by occupational group. Projections of US household composition patterns are made for the 1980-2020 period. The size and composition of the population and households are derived from US Bureau of the Census Series 1, 2, and 3 projections. From these, projections of size and composition of the labor force are derived utilizing Bureau of Labor Statistics' to 1990. Projections of average earnings per worker, in the aggregate, are taken from Bureau of Economic Analysis projections. The results show that both labor force compositions are relatively insensitive to varying demographic patterns. The industrial composition reflects a continuation of already existing trends, but the occupational composition shows some tendency to move away from professional and highly skilled blue collar occupations and towards service and clerical occupations. The results contain a variety of implications for policy considerations concerning higher education and the proper functioning of the labor market. The relative decline in the number of professional and managerial workers, the groups who are most likely to possess a university degree, suggests that the prospects for conventional higher education might be even less bright than would be suggested by an inspection of trends in the size of the 18-24 year old population. Some mitigation of this possibly adverse trend is

  12. A novel complex air supply model for indoor air quality control via the occupant micro-environment demand ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Maozhu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protection of indoor air quality and human health can be achieved via ventilation, which has becomes one of the most important tasks for sustainable buildings. This approach also requires highly efficient and energy saving methods for modern building ventilations consisting of a set of parameters of the complex indoor system. Therefore, the advancement in understanding the characteristics of various ventilation methods is highly necessary. This study presents one novel air supply model for the complex occupant micro-environment demand control ventilations, to analyze the efficiency of various ventilation types. This model is established primarily according to the momentum and mass conservations, and goal of occupant micro-environment demand, which is a complex system with the characteristics of diversity and dynamic variation. As for different occupant densities, characteristics of outdoor air supply for controlling gaseous pollutant and three basic features of outdoor airflow supply reaching occupant micro-environment were obtained. This research shows that for various types of occupant density and storey height, the rising and descending rates of the demand outdoor airflow in mixing ventilation are higher than those under displacement ventilation conditions. In addition, since the structure is better designed and sewage flow is more efficient, the mixing ventilation also requires a much higher peak demand outdoor airflow than its counterpart. The increase of storey height will lead to a decline of pollutants in the breathing zone and the demand outdoor airflow. Fluctuations of air flow diffusion caused by the change of occupant density in architectural space, will lead to variations of outdoor airflow reaching occupant micro-environment. Accordingly, it would lead to the different peak values of demand outdoor airflow, and the difference becomes even significant if the occupant density increases. The variations of the air supply and fraction of air reaching the

  13. A longitudinal study of teachers' occupational well-being: Applying the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Theresa; Stebner, Ferdinand; Linninger, Christina; Kunter, Mareike; Leutner, Detlev

    2018-04-01

    The job demands-resources model (JD-R model; Bakker & Demerouti, 2014) is well established in occupational research, and the proposed processes it posits have been replicated numerous times. Thus, the JD-R model provides an excellent framework for explaining the occupational well-being of beginning teachers-an occupation associated with particularly high levels of strain and consequently, high attrition rates. However, the model's assumptions have to date mostly been tested piecewise, and seldom on the basis of longitudinal models. With a series of longitudinal autoregressive SEM models (N = 1,700) we tested all assumptions of the JD-R model simultaneously in one model with an applied focus on beginning teachers. We assessed self-reports of beginning teachers at three time waves: at the beginning and end (one and a half to two years later) of their preservice period, and again, one year later. Results revealed significant direct effects of resources (self-efficacy) on engagement, of demands (classroom disturbances) on strain (emotional exhaustion), and a significant reverse path of engagement on self-efficacy. Additionally, the results showed two moderation effects: Self-efficacy buffered the demands-strain relationship, while self-efficacy also predicted engagement, especially when disturbances were high. Thus, self-efficacy in classroom management plays an important role in the teachers' stress development process, as it will, in case of high classroom disturbances, not only buffer the strain-enhancing effects, but also boost engagement. Commitment was predicted directly by emotional exhaustion and engagement, but indirectly only by self-efficacy (via engagement). Thus, we provide strong empirical support for the JD-R model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L. Parker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies, compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries. Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands. This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  15. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stacey L; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M; Lentink, Corine R

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees' use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary study. Fifty-four employees provided data twice daily across one work week (on average, 7 daily entries). Supporting the hypotheses, prosocial energy management was positively related to job satisfaction. Moreover, employees with high job demands were less emotionally exhausted when using prosocial strategies. Contrary to predictions, when using organizing strategies, employees with low job demands had higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion. Under high job demands, greater use of organizing strategies was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher emotional exhaustion. Finally, use of meaning-related strategies was associated with higher emotional exhaustion when job demands were low. With this research, we position energy management as part of a resource investment process aimed at maintaining and improving occupational well-being. Our findings show that this resource investment will be more or less effective depending on the type of strategy used and the existing drain on resources (i.e., job demands). This is the first study to examine momentary effects of distinct types of work-related energy management strategies on occupational well-being.

  16. Demand Side Management for the European Supergrid: Occupancy variances of European single-person households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of a European Supergrid calls for research on aggregate electricity peak demand and Europe-wide Demand Side Management. No attempt has been made as yet to represent a time-related demand curve of residential electricity consumption at the European level. This article assesses how active occupancy levels of single-person households vary in single-person household in 15 European countries. It makes use of occupancy time-series data from the Harmonised European Time Use Survey database to build European occupancy curves; identify peak occupancy periods; construct time-related electricity demand curves for TV and video watching activities and assess occupancy variances of single-person households. - Highlights: ► Morning peak occupancies of European single households tale place between 7h30 and 7h40. ► Evening peaks take place between 20h10 and 20h20. ► TV and video activities during evening peaks make up about 3.1 GWh of European peak electricity load. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances vary across countries. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances can be used as input for Demand Side Management choices.

  17. Daily Use of Energy Management Strategies and Occupational Well-being: The Moderating Role of Job Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Stacey L.; Zacher, Hannes; de Bloom, Jessica; Verton, Thomas M.; Lentink, Corine R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationships among employees’ use of energy management strategies and two occupational well-being outcomes: job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that employees with high job demands would benefit more from using energy management strategies (i.e., including prosocial, organizing, and meaning-related strategies), compared to employees with low job demands. We tested this proposition using a quantitative diary ...

  18. Information demands of occupational health physicians and their attitude towards evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank; Verbeek, Jos

    2004-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the extent and nature of information demands among occupational health physicians and their attitude towards the application of evidence-based medicine in occupational health. Methods A questionnaire survey was carried out among a random sample of 159 physicians

  19. Exhaustion and Emotional Demands in China:A Large-Scale Investigation across Occupations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelly Z.Peng

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese economy moves toward a market-based model,employees are likely to face more emotional demands and exhaustion at work.However,there are some unique aspects to the emotional demands of work in the Chinese cultural context.We investigate emotional demands and exhaustion in China with a large-scale sample across the six major occupations identified by the Holland classification system.Results show that incumbents of social and enterprising jobs face higher emotional demands.Unexpectedly,exhaustion differs significantly between conventional and other types of jobs.Building on the Job Demand-Resources (JD-R) model,job crafting and the cultural context,we propose that the nonlinear relationship of emotional demands and exhaustion exists only when emotional intelligence is low.Our study may inform practitioners and policy makers in Chinese enterprises about emotional demands and exhaustion for various occupations and the importance of selection and training programs in emotional intelligence.

  20. The Impact of Work Demand and Gender on Occupational and Psychosocial Stress in Hispanic Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TePoel, Megan; Rohlman, Diane; Shaw, Meagan

    2017-04-26

    Hispanic farmworkers experience hazardous work conditions, language barriers, poverty, and limited healthcare access that increase their risk for health problems. We sought to characterize occupational and lifestyle stressors in farmworker couples and to examine the impact of seasonal work demand and gender on health outcomes. We administered surveys to 31 couples (N = 62) in May (low work demand) and September (high work demand) of 2012. Measures included acculturation, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, quality of life, decision latitude, support (supervisor, co-worker), and work-family conflict. This population did not report significant differences in stress in low and high work demand times. Women reported more work-family conflict (F = 19.06, p 0.0001; F = 11.28, p = 0.0015) and less supervisor support (F = 6.56, p = 0.0135). Women experienced more conflict between work and family and less support at work. This group reported low depressive symptomology and moderate levels of stress; a subset reported elevated levels. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  1. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy: Suggested Readings [and] Physical Therapy: Supply/Demand--Some Facts [and] Occupational Therapy: Supply and Demand--Some Facts. Information on Personnel Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Professions in Special Education, Reston, VA.

    Brought together are two fact sheets on the supply of and demand for physical therapists and occupational therapists. The fact sheets cite statistical data from the National Easter Seal Society, the American Physical Therapy Association, and the American Occupational Therapy Association. The cited facts focus on the need to recruit and retain…

  2. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  3. Future demands highly integrated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangler, Andreas [Rutronik Elektronische Bauelemente GmbH, Ispringen (Germany). Strategic Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The future energy supply with a high number of decentral power plants depends on the use of innovative system technology. It is a precondition for a well-functioning grid and power management over all voltage levels. (orig.)

  4. Information demands of occupational health physicians and their attitude towards evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Frederieke; Hulshof, Carel; van Dijk, Frank; Verbeek, Jos

    2004-08-01

    This study assessed the extent and nature of information demands among occupational health physicians and their attitude towards the application of evidence-based medicine in occupational health. A questionnaire survey was carried out among a random sample of 159 physicians practicing occupational medicine in The Netherlands. The questionnaire investigated the type and number of questions encountered in daily practice, the actions taken in response, the physicians' experience in using scientific databases on the Internet, and their attitude towards evidence-based medicine. The occupational health physicians' questions concerned medical, legal, and rehabilitation topics in particular. In pursuing answers to their questions, they generally chose to contact colleagues. Scientific databases were not consulted very often, although, in general, the attitude towards evidence-based medicine was positive. In addition to known barriers for practicing evidence-based medicine, occupational health physicians perceive a lack of scientific evidence in their field. The extensiveness of the field of knowledge in occupational health care was not regarded as an obstacle to their application of evidence-based medicine. Occupational health physicians have a demand for information on a broad range of topics, and, in most cases, their attitude towards evidence-based medicine is fairly positive. Besides education and training in evidence-based medicine, access to the Internet and the presence of a good knowledge infrastructure would help occupational health physicians use evidence-based medicine.

  5. Ambulance Work : Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Aasa, Ulrika

    2005-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel. A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a nat...

  6. Validity of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles for Assessing Upper Extremity Work Demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, L.; Soer, R.; Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Reneman, M.F.; van der Sluis, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) is used in vocational rehabilitation to guide decisions about the ability of a person with activity limitations to perform activities at work. The DOT has categorized physical work demands in five categories. The validity of this categorization

  7. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  8. High occupational stress and low career satisfaction of Korean surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hee; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Han, Hyung Joon; Jung, Cheol Woong; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is a demanding and stressful field in Korea. Occupational stress can adversely affect the quality of care, decrease job satisfaction, and potentially increase medical errors. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational stress and career satisfaction of Korean surgeons. We have conducted an electronic survey of 621 Korean surgeons for the occupational stress. Sixty-five questions were used to assess practical and personal characteristics and occupational stress using the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). The mean KOSS score was 49.31, which was higher than the average of Korean occupational stress (45.86) or that of other specialized professions (46.03). Young age, female gender, long working hours, and frequent night duties were significantly related to the higher KOSS score. Having spouse, having hobby and regular exercise decreased the KOSS score. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours and regular exercise were the independent factors associated with the KOSS score. Less than 50% of surgeons answered that they would become a surgeon again. Most surgeons (82.5%) did not want to recommend their child follow their career. Korean Surgeons have high occupational stress and low level of career satisfaction.

  9. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  10. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  11. A self-adaptive toll rate algorithm for high occupancy toll (HOT) lane operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increasing travel demands and insufficient traffic facility supplies have resulted in severe : traffic congestion. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane operations have been proposed as one of the most : applicable and cost-effective countermea...

  12. Validity of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles for Assessing Upper Extremity Work Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Soer, Remko; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Reneman, Michiel F.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) is used in vocational rehabilitation to guide decisions about the ability of a person with activity limitations to perform activities at work. The DOT has categorized physical work demands in five categories. The validity of this categorization is unknown. Aim of this study was to investigate whether the DOT could be used validly to guide decisions for patients with injuries to the upper extremities. Four hypotheses were tested. Methods A database including 701 healthy workers was used. All subjects filled out the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, from which an Upper Extremity Work Demands score (UEWD) was derived. First, relation between the DOT-categories and UEWD-score was analysed using Spearman correlations. Second, variance of the UEWD-score in occupational groups was tested by visually inspecting boxplots and assessing kurtosis of the distribution. Third, it was investigated whether occupations classified in one DOT-category, could significantly differ on UEWD-scores. Fourth, it was investigated whether occupations in different DOT-categories could have similar UEWD-scores using Mann Whitney U-tests (MWU). Results Relation between the DOT-categories and the UEWD-score was weak (rsp = 0.40; p<.01). Overlap between categories was found. Kurtosis exceeded ±1.0 in 3 occupational groups, indicating large variance. UEWD-scores were significantly different within one DOT-category (MWU = 1.500; p<.001). UEWD scores between DOT-categories were not significantly different (MWU = 203.000; p = .49). Conclusion All four hypotheses could not be rejected. The DOT appears to be invalid for assessing upper extremity work demands. PMID:21151934

  13. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  14. [A preliminary evaluation of mental status and an investigation of occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Q; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X H; Sun, K; Chen, S Z; Liu, A G; Luo, G L; Huang, W

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental status, level of occupational health knowledge, health behaviors, and occupational health knowledge demand in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants, and to provide a basis for formulating protective measures of occupational health for operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants. Methods: A cluster sampling was performed in regionally representative wind power plants in the wind power industry from May 2014 to June 2015, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and a self-made evaluation questionnaire were used to investigate the general status, mental health, and occupational health knowledge demand in 160 operating and maintenance workers. Results: Of all respondents, 26.9% had mental health issues. The awareness rate of infectious disease knowledge and preventive measures was 11.9%. Of all workers, 96.5% wanted to know the occupational hazard factors in the workplace, and 96.3% wanted to get the knowledge of the prevention of related diseases. Conclusion: Mental health issues in operating and maintenance personnel in wind power plants cannot be neglected and there is a high demand for occupational health services and related knowledge. Comprehensive intervention measures for health promotion in the workplace should be adopted to improve working environment, enhance individual mental health education, increase the level of occupational health management, and protect the health of workers.

  15. Main physical environmental drivers of occupant behaviour with regard to space heating energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the significant gap between the predicted energy performance of buildings and their measured actual performance. Uncertainties regarding behaviour of building occupants are one of the key factors limiting the ability of energy simulation tools to accurately predict...... real building energy requirements . The paper focuses on the particular topics of space heating energy demand related to the occupants habits of adjusting heating set-points. The parameters influencing the user interaction with the heating control system are analyzed in literature for residential......) environmental conditions and the occupants’ heating set-point preferences. The paper aims at providing a reliable basis for a more accurate description of control action models in performance simulation applications....

  16. Occupational voice demands and their impact on the call-centre industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy OM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the last decade there has been a growth in the call-centre industry in the UK, with a growing awareness of the voice as an important tool for successful communication. Occupational voice problems such as occupational dysphonia, in a business which relies on healthy, effective voice as the primary professional communication tool, may threaten working ability and occupational health and safety of workers. While previous studies of telephone call-agents have reported a range of voice symptoms and functional vocal health problems, there have been no studies investigating the use and impact of vocal performance in the communication industry within the UK. This study aims to address a significant gap in the evidence-base of occupational health and safety research. The objectives of the study are: 1. to investigate the work context and vocal communication demands for call-agents; 2. to evaluate call-agents' vocal health, awareness and performance; and 3. to identify key risks and training needs for employees and employers within call-centres. Methods and design This is an occupational epidemiological study, which plans to recruit call-centres throughout the UK and Ireland. Data collection will consist of three components: 1. interviews with managers from each participating call-centre to assess their communication and training needs; 2. an online biopsychosocial questionnaire will be administered to investigate the work environment and vocal demands of call-agents; and 3. voice acoustic measurements of a random sample of participants using the Multi-dimensional Voice Program (MDVP. Qualitative content analysis from the interviews will identify underlying themes and issues. A multivariate analysis approach will be adopted using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM, to develop voice measurement models in determining the construct validity of potential factors contributing to occupational dysphonia. Quantitative data will be

  17. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  18. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. Methodology To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professionals was calculated on the basis of empirical information on occupational mobility provided by the German Microcensus 2005 (Labour Force Survey). We also calculated how the supply of full-time equivalents (FTEs) will develop if current employment structures develop in the direction of employment behaviour in nursing professions in eastern and western Germany. We then compared these different supply scenarios with two demand projections ('status quo' and 'compression of morbidity' scenarios) from Germany's Federal Statistical Office. Results Our results show that, even as early as 2005, meeting demand for FTEs in nursing professions was not arithmetically possible when only persons with formal qualification in a nursing profession were taken into account on the supply side. When additional semi-skilled nursing professionals are included in the calculation, a shortage of labour in nursing professions can be expected in 2018 when the employment structure for all nursing professionals remains the same as the employment structure seen in Germany in 2005 (demand: 'status quo scenario'). Furthermore, given an employment structure as in eastern Germany, where more nursing professionals work on a full-time basis with longer working hours, a theoretical shortage of nursing professionals could be delayed until 2024. Conclusions Our analysis of occupational flexibility in the nursing field indicates that additional potential supply could be generated by especially training more young people

  19. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Tobias; Afentakis, Anja

    2013-06-05

    In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professionals was calculated on the basis of empirical information on occupational mobility provided by the German Microcensus 2005 (Labour Force Survey). We also calculated how the supply of full-time equivalents (FTEs) will develop if current employment structures develop in the direction of employment behaviour in nursing professions in eastern and western Germany. We then compared these different supply scenarios with two demand projections ('status quo' and 'compression of morbidity' scenarios) from Germany's Federal Statistical Office. Our results show that, even as early as 2005, meeting demand for FTEs in nursing professions was not arithmetically possible when only persons with formal qualification in a nursing profession were taken into account on the supply side. When additional semi-skilled nursing professionals are included in the calculation, a shortage of labour in nursing professions can be expected in 2018 when the employment structure for all nursing professionals remains the same as the employment structure seen in Germany in 2005 (demand: 'status quo scenario'). Furthermore, given an employment structure as in eastern Germany, where more nursing professionals work on a full-time basis with longer working hours, a theoretical shortage of nursing professionals could be delayed until 2024. Our analysis of occupational flexibility in the nursing field indicates that additional potential supply could be generated by especially training more young people for a nursing profession as they tend to

  20. [Pre-labor maternity leave for working women in physically demanding occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orly, Tivon-Fisher; Ido, Sot; Menahem, Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Pregnant women, when employed in physically demanding occupations, may encounter difficulties in carrying out their work throughout pregnancy. Many such "blue collar" workers are unable to proceed in strenuous work during advanced stages of pregnancy. However, scientific evidence is not sufficient to support the widely accepted assumption of health risks due to the hard work during pregnancy. Therefore, in Israel, as long as pregnancy is normal, and the good health of both the mother and fetus is maintained, such workers are not entitled to sick leave or any other form of compensation. Nevertheless, many agree that strenuous work is not suitable for pregnant women, as a medical survey partly demonstrates. Identification of this problem and review of relevant literature led to the formation of a committee by the Israeli National Council for Women's Health. We hereby summarize relevant literature, describe the committee's work and elaborate its recommendations, mainly to consider and establish a unique compensated pre-birth leave for pregnant women whose work is physically strenuous.

  1. Effects of occupational role conflict and emotional demands on subsequent psychological distress: a 3-year follow-up study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Tynes, Tore; Sterud, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To examine the impact of occupational role conflict and emotional demands on subsequent psychological distress. A randomly drawn cohort from the general Norwegian working-age population was followed up for 3 years (n = 12,550; response rate = 67%). Eligible respondents were in paid work during the reference week in 2006 and 2009 or temporarily absent from such work (n = 6,745; response rate = 68%). In the fully adjusted model, both high role conflict (odds ratios = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.03) and high emotional demands (odds ratios = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.69) were significant predictors of psychological distress. Additional significant predictors were low job control, bullying/harassment, and job insecurity (P < 0.05). Considering all of the evaluated work-related factors, role conflict and emotional demands contributed the most to the population risk of developing psychological distress.

  2. On occupational-appointment demands on radiation hygiene for medical radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usol'tsev, V.I.; Kuzin, V.I.; Tselikov, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the work was to determine occupational requirements on radiation hygiene for medical radiologists. To solve the problem using questionnaire, personal conversations with doctors, analysis of basis control and examinations volume and character of work on radiation hygiene were studied in 510 medical radiologists. Occupational requirements for these specialists were worked out on the basis the obtained data. 4 refs

  3. A high-resolution stochastic model of domestic activity patterns and electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgard, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Realistic time-resolved data on occupant behaviour, presence and energy use are important inputs to various types of simulations, including performance of small-scale energy systems and buildings' indoor climate, use of lighting and energy demand. This paper presents a modelling framework for stochastic generation of high-resolution series of such data. The model generates both synthetic activity sequences of individual household members, including occupancy states, and domestic electricity demand based on these patterns. The activity-generating model, based on non-homogeneous Markov chains that are tuned to an extensive empirical time-use data set, creates a realistic spread of activities over time, down to a 1-min resolution. A detailed validation against measurements shows that modelled power demand data for individual households as well as aggregate demand for an arbitrary number of households are highly realistic in terms of end-use composition, annual and diurnal variations, diversity between households, short time-scale fluctuations and load coincidence. An important aim with the model development has been to maintain a sound balance between complexity and output quality. Although the model yields a high-quality output, the proposed model structure is uncomplicated in comparison to other available domestic load models.

  4. Do traditional male role norms modify the association between high emotional demands in work, and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Hansen, Claus D.; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    analysis showed that participants with high MRNI-score were more affected by emotional demands in terms of their mental health than participants with lower MRNI-score. Conclusions The study confirms the association between emotional demands and absenteeism, and furthermore showed that the effect......Objectives Ambulance workers are exposed to high levels of emotional demands, which could affect sickness absence. Being a male dominated occupation, it is hypothesised that ambulance workers adhere to more traditional male role norms than men in other occupations. The aim is to investigate...... if adherence to traditional male role norms modifies the effect of emotional demands on sickness absence/presenteeism. Methods Data derive from MARS (Men, accidents, risk and safety), a two-wave panel study of ambulance workers and fire fighters in Denmark (n = 2585). Information was collected from...

  5. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men’s health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of...

  6. Does good leadership buffer effects of high emotional demands at work on risk of antidepressant treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects of emoti...... of emotional demands on antidepressant treatment, as an indicator of common mental disorders, are buffered by good leadership.......Emotionally demanding work has been associated with increased risk of common mental disorders. Because emotional demands may not be preventable in certain occupations, the identification of workplace factors that can modify this association is vital. This article examines whether effects...

  7. Travel demand management : a toolbox of strategies to reduce single\\0x2010occupant vehicle trips and increase alternate mode usage in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The report provides a suite of recommended strategies to reduce single-occupant vehicle traffic in the urban : areas of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, which are presented as a travel demand management toolbox. The : toolbox includes supporting research...

  8. Occupational stress in (inter)action: the interplay between job demands and job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, van N.; Jonge, de J.; Landsbergis, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses theoretical issues involving different interaction effects between job demands and job resources, accompanied by a thorough empirical test of interaction terms in the demand-control (DC) model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to employee health and

  9. Training and Occupational Choice of Highly Skilled Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Sarit Cohen; Zvika Eckstein

    2000-01-01

    The transition pattern of post schooling individuals, displaced workers and immigrants to the labor market has similar characteristics. Unemployment falls quickly as workers first find blue-collar jobs, followed by a gradual movement to white-collar occupations. For immigrants the transition includes the learning of the new country language as well as the skills demanded by the new labor market. This paper focuses on male immigrants who moved from the former Soviet Union to Israel and are cha...

  10. [Actual conditions of occupational health activities in small-scale enterprises in Japan: system for occupational health, health management and demands by small-scale enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Kumagai, S; Tabuchi, T; Tainaka, H; Andoh, K; Oda, H

    1999-11-01

    In order to clarify the real conditions of occupational health services (OHS) in small-scale enterprises (SSEs) in Japan, we analyzed questionnaires recovered from 765 SSEs in the area of a city neighboring Osaka City (recovery rate, 69.3%). The SSEs included 358 SSEs with 1 to 4 workers (46.8% of total SSEs), 203 with 5 to 9 (26.5%), 163 with 10 to 29 (21.3%) and 41 with 30 to 49 (5.4%). The main types of businesses were manufacturing (374, 48.9% of total SSEs), wholesale/retail trade/restaurants (153, 20.0%), community, social and personal services (132, 17.3%) and construction (72, 9.4%). Health examinations were performed in 47.7% of SSEs. The reason for the lack of examinations were "shortage of time" (33.3% of SSEs lacking health examination) and "employees do not want to be examined" (28.1%). Some health promotion measures were conducted in 29.2% of SSEs. Health examination (59.0% of SSEs), health promotion (36.5%), measure of mental health (25.9%) and information service for employers and employees (25.5%) were demanded by SSEs as OHS. Financial subsidies and economical incentives were demanded by 46.4% and 28.8% of SSEs, respectively. Regional occupational health center in this area was poorly known among SSEs (8.2%), but health examination (48.4%), information service (37.5%), assessment of work method and advice to improve (19.8%) and environment measurement (12.4%) are demanded of the center by SSEs.

  11. High-resolution stochastic integrated thermal–electrical domestic demand model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Thomson, Murray

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A major new version of CREST’s demand model is presented. • Simulates electrical and thermal domestic demands at high-resolution. • Integrated structure captures appropriate time-coincidence of variables. • Suitable for low-voltage network and urban energy analyses. • Open-source development in Excel VBA freely available for download. - Abstract: This paper describes the extension of CREST’s existing electrical domestic demand model into an integrated thermal–electrical demand model. The principle novelty of the model is its integrated structure such that the timing of thermal and electrical output variables are appropriately correlated. The model has been developed primarily for low-voltage network analysis and the model’s ability to account for demand diversity is of critical importance for this application. The model, however, can also serve as a basis for modelling domestic energy demands within the broader field of urban energy systems analysis. The new model includes the previously published components associated with electrical demand and generation (appliances, lighting, and photovoltaics) and integrates these with an updated occupancy model, a solar thermal collector model, and new thermal models including a low-order building thermal model, domestic hot water consumption, thermostat and timer controls and gas boilers. The paper reviews the state-of-the-art in high-resolution domestic demand modelling, describes the model, and compares its output with three independent validation datasets. The integrated model remains an open-source development in Excel VBA and is freely available to download for users to configure and extend, or to incorporate into other models.

  12. Psychological Flexibility as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Demands and Resources and Occupational Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Vladimir Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Valentini, Felipe

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the relations of job demands (work overload) and job resources (social support and autonomy) with subjective job well-being (job satisfaction, positive affects, negative affects), as well as the moderating role of personal resources (psychological flexibility at work) in such relationships. The sample consisted of 4,867 Brazilian workers, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 67 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the work overload was negatively associated with job satisfaction (β = -.06; p autonomy was positively associated with satisfaction (β = .08; p autonomy with positive affects (β = -.06; p job demands-resources theory, especially with respect to the relevance of personal resources for the promotion of occupational well-being.

  13. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  14. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  15. [Occupational injuries and sickness absence: association with job demand, decision latitude, and life style in 2174 workers in the Veneto Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Mattioli, S; Baldasseroni, A; Bontadi, D; Capodicasa, E; Marzia, Vita; Mazzi, Maddalena; Patané, P; Torri, Paola; Marangi, G; Fadda, Emanuela; Priolo, G; Scoizzato, L; Maier, Elisabetta; Campo, G; Marchiori, L

    2008-01-01

    Stress was the most frequent (26,9%) health problem reported in a survey on the perception of working and health conditions in 5000 workers in the Veneto Region. The aim of the study was to investigate in the Veneto Region the association between occupational stress and events occurred in the previous 12 months: occupational accidents, or sickness absence for 10 or more consecutive days. Perceived occupational stress is correlated, according to Karasek's model, to high job demand (JD) and low decision latitude (DL). Using Karasek's questionnaire (to which questions on smoking and alcohol consumption were added), we examined 2174 subjects working in 30 companies with between 10 and 500 employees, who belonged to the occupational categories of industry and services that are more prevalent in the Veneto Region. The questionnaire was administered by the occupational physician during health surveillance. The subjects were classified on the basis of current exposure to psychosocial factors or, for subjects reporting an event, their exposure at that time. We identified the tertiles of JD and DL; data were submitted to the analysis of multiple logistic regression, estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated using the formula (pc (OR-1)/OR), where pc is the fraction of exposed cases. An elevated risk of occupational accidents was found in subjects with regular consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.0; IC = 1.2-3.5), in smokers smoking 10-20 (2.3; 1.3-3.8) or >20 cigarettes/day (3.8; 1.8-7.9), in the highest tertile of JD (2.29; 1.35-3.89) and in the lowest tertile of DL (1.6; 1.0-2.6). PAR was 37.6% for occupational factors (high JD and low DL), 44.5%for non-occupational factors (cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption), and 82.1% overall. The risk of sickness absence increased in subjects smoking 10-20 cigarettes (1.63 = 1.1-2.40), in the highest tertile of JD (1.5; 1.0-2.2) and in the lowest tertile of DL (1

  16. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  17. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease mortality among men with different occupational physical demands. A 30-year prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    , but less pronounced differences in risk factors for all-cause mortality between groups were found. Conclusions The risk factors for IHD and all-cause mortality, low physical fitness and low leisure-time physical activity are not identical for men with different physical work demands. Preventive initiatives......Objectives Men with high physical work demands have elevated cardiovascular strain, which may lead to enhanced atherosclerosis. Theoretically, the impact of risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may thus depend on physical work demands. The authors investigated this hypothesis. Design.......7%) from all-cause mortality. Similarities and differences in risk predictors were found between men with low (n=1219), medium (n=2636) and high (n=846) physical work demands. After control for potential confounders, high physical fitness conferred a reduced risk of IHD mortality only among men with high...

  18. Occupational stress and cardiovascular risk factors in high-ranking government officials and office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Taheri, Mahmoud; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Saadati Kanafi, Ali; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2014-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual's ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them. We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared. High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials. The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers.

  19. Emotional Demands, Emotional Labour and Occupational Outcomes in School Principals: Modelling the Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Aimee; Riley, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Most research into emotional labour is focussed on front-line service staff and health professionals, in short-term interactions. Little exists exploring the emotional labour involved in repeated on-going interactions by educational leaders with key stakeholders. This study explored the relationships between emotional demands, three emotional…

  20. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  1. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Tobias; Afentakis, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. Methodology To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professiona...

  2. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-12-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men's health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of thirteen researchers and health and safety stakeholders completed a critical literature review examining the intersection between masculinities and men's workplace health and safety in order to: (i) account for research previously undertaken in this area; (ii) identify themes that may inform our understanding of masculinity and workplace health and safety and; (iii) identify research and practice gaps in relation to men's workplace health and safety. In this paper we present key themes from this review. Recommendations are made regarding: (i) how to define gender; (ii) how to attend to and identify how masculinities may influence workers' identities, perceptions of occupational risks and how institutionalized practices can reinforce norms of masculinity; (iii) the importance of considering how masculinities may intersect with other variables (e.g. historical context, age, class, race, geographical location) and; (iv) the added significance of present-day labour market forces on men's occupational health and safety.

  3. Energy demand of occupant's spatial modification in residential buildings. Case study of Médéa, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Boukarta; Ewa, Berezowska-Azzag

    2018-03-01

    Housing is rated as one of the most commonly consuming energy field in terms of energy end-use with 41%. Regarding the transformations dealt by dwellers for functional and social uses. The aim of this paper is: Firstly, to highlight the non-controlled transformation process made by the occupant in Algeria; Secondly, to explore the impact of the energy load of such spatial transformations. The question is approached in two tracks, (i) Through Ecotect software's simulations (ii) and measurements through a collection of energy end-use data. Basically, the energy demand is bound to dwelling's spatial and socioeconomic criteria. Three cases studied showed consequently 2 positive and 1 negative energy load, in which two explanations may be given: Insulation quality that occupant is lacking facilities to improve may be stated as a physical explanation, as well as for the socio economic one, the density per dwelling plays a major role, but it is the income which explains within the two approaches more than 87% of the energy end use.

  4. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test for Combat Arms soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Sharp, Marilyn A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Baker, Todd A; Canino, Maria C; Zambraski, Edward J

    2017-11-01

    The United States Army sought to create a legally defensible, scientifically validated physical pre-employment screening test. The purpose of this study was to identify a single combination of predictor tests that would predict physical performance on all of the criterion measure task simulations relevant to the Combat Arms military occupational specialties. Concurrent validation. Data from 838 (608 males, 230 females) soldiers who completed both the criterion measure task simulations of a military occupational specialty and up to 14 predictor tests were used in the development of the test batteries. Stepwise regressions were used to identify test batteries that significantly predicted performance on the criterion measure task simulations of the military occupational specialties. Three test batteries were developed based on different subsets of the predictor tests: Test Battery 1 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump, and arm ergometer (adjusted R 2 =0.80-0.85, pTest Battery 2 consisted of the medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, and standing long jump (adjusted R 2 =0.79-0.80, pTest Battery 3 consisted of the standing long jump, 1-minute push-ups, 1-minute sit-ups, 300m sprint, and Illinois agility test (adjusted R 2 =0.55-0.71, pTest Battery 2 was selected as the Army's Occupational Physical Assessment Test. It was highly predictive of performance of the Combat Arms military occupational specialties, required no complex equipment, and covered a range of physical fitness domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. I Ain't Gonna Make It. Comparing Job Demands-Resources and Attrition Intention Between Senior Teachers and Senior Employees of Six Other Occupational Categories in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Teachers are often thought to retire early and have more stress and burnout than other human service professionals. In this article, we investigate attrition intention amongst senior teachers and senior employees of six other blue- and white-collar occupational categories using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. We followed a two-step approach. First, analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the level of job demands, resources, and attrition intention between occupations for male and female employees separately. Subsequently, multiple group path analysis was used to assess the invariance of the JD-R model across occupational groups and genders. We used representative data gathered in Flanders among 6,810 senior employees (45 years or older). Results indicate that there are differences in the determinants of attrition intention between men and women. The differences in attrition intention are minimal between occupations once controlled for job demands and resources. In addition, the JD-R model is largely invariant across white-collar occupations and gender. We provide support for both the energetic and motivational process of the JD-R model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Effective Management of High-Use/High-Demand Space Using Restaurant-Style Pagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The library landscape is changing at a fast pace, with an increase in the demand for study space including quiet, individualized study space; open group study space; and as enclosed group study space. In large academic libraries, managing limited high-demand resources is crucial and is partially being driven by the greater emphasis on group…

  7. The world energy demand in 2007: How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? June 9, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? The growth of energy demand continued to accelerate in 2007 despite soaring prices, to reach 2,8 % (+ 0,3 point compared to 2006). This evolution results from two diverging trends: a shrink in energy consumption in most of OECD countries, except North America, and a strong increase in emerging countries. Within the OECD, two contrasting trends can be reported, that compensate each other partially: the reduction of energy consumption in Japan (-0.8%) and in Europe (-1.2%), particularly significant in the EU-15 (-1.9%); the increase of energy consumption in North America (+2%). Globally, the OECD overall consumption continued to increase slightly (+0.5%), while electricity increased faster (2,1%) and fuels remained stable. Elsewhere, the strong energy demand growth remained very dynamic (+5% for the total demand, 8% for electricity only), driven by China (+7.3%). The world oil demand increased by 1% only, but the demand has focused even more on captive end usages, transports and petrochemistry. The world gasoline and diesel demand increased by around 5,7% in 2007, and represents 53% of the total oil products demand in 2007 (51% in 2006). If gasoline and diesel consumption remained quasi-stable within OECD countries, the growth has been extremely strong in the emerging countries, despite booming oil prices. There are mainly two factors explaining this evolution where both oil demand and oil prices increased: Weak elasticity-prices to the demand in transport and petrochemistry sectors Disconnection of domestic fuel prices in major emerging countries (China, India, Latin America) compared to world oil market prices Another striking point is that world crude oil and condensate production remained almost stable in 2007, hence the entire demand growth was supported by destocking. During the same period, the OPEC production decreased by 1%, mainly due to the production decrease in Saudi Arabia, that is probably more

  8. A Bibliometric Analysis of Highly Cited and High Impact Occupational Therapy Publications by American Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Brown, Ted; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2017-07-01

    A bibliometric analysis was completed of peer-reviewed literature from 1991-2015, written by American occupational therapists, to examine US high impact scholarship with "occupational therapy" and "occupational therapist(s)" used as keywords to search journal articles' publication title, abstract, author details, and keywords. Results included 1,889 journal articles from 1991-2015 published by American occupational therapists as first or corresponding author. Sixty-nine articles attained a TotalCitation 2015 ≥ 50 and 151 attained a Citation 2015 ≥ 5 indicating that they were the most highly cited literature produced in this period. Although the majority (58%) of this literature was published in occupational therapy-specific journals, 41% was published in interdisciplinary journals. Results illustrate that the volume of highly cited American occupational therapy peer-reviewed literature has grown over the last two decades. There is need for the profession to strategize methods to enhance the publication metrics of occupational therapy-specific journals to reduce the loss of high quality publications to external periodicals.

  9. ICT Solutions for Highly-Customized Water Demand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Cominola, A.; Castelletti, A.; Fraternali, P.; Guardiola, J.; Barba, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent deployment of smart metering networks is opening new opportunities for advancing the design of residential water demand management strategies (WDMS) relying on improved understanding of water consumers' behaviors. Recent applications showed that retrieving information on users' consumption behaviors, along with their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas where targeting water saving efforts, and to design user-tailored WDMS. In this study, we explore the potential of ICT-based solutions in supporting the design and implementation of highly customized WDMS. On one side, the collection of consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires big data analytics and machine learning techniques to extract typical consumption features from the metered population of water users. On the other side, ICT solutions and gamifications can be used as effective means for facilitating both users' engagement and the collection of socio-psychographic users' information. This latter allows interpreting and improving the extracted profiles, ultimately supporting the customization of WDMS, such as awareness campaigns or personalized recommendations. Our approach is implemented in the SmartH2O platform and demonstrated in a pilot application in Valencia, Spain. Results show how the analysis of the smart metered consumption data, combined with the information retrieved from an ICT gamified web user portal, successfully identify the typical consumption profiles of the metered users and supports the design of alternative WDMS targeting the different users' profiles.

  10. Audiovisual integration of speech falters under high attention demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Campbell, Ruth; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2005-05-10

    One of the most commonly cited examples of human multisensory integration occurs during exposure to natural speech, when the vocal and the visual aspects of the signal are integrated in a unitary percept. Audiovisual association of facial gestures and vocal sounds has been demonstrated in nonhuman primates and in prelinguistic children, arguing for a general basis for this capacity. One critical question, however, concerns the role of attention in such multisensory integration. Although both behavioral and neurophysiological studies have converged on a preattentive conceptualization of audiovisual speech integration, this mechanism has rarely been measured under conditions of high attentional load, when the observers' attention resources are depleted. We tested the extent to which audiovisual integration was modulated by the amount of available attentional resources by measuring the observers' susceptibility to the classic McGurk illusion in a dual-task paradigm. The proportion of visually influenced responses was severely, and selectively, reduced if participants were concurrently performing an unrelated visual or auditory task. In contrast with the assumption that crossmodal speech integration is automatic, our results suggest that these multisensory binding processes are subject to attentional demands.

  11. Estresse ocupacional e saúde: contribuições do Modelo Demanda-Controle Occupational stress and health: contributions of the Demand-Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos registra-se marcado esforço de construção de modelos teórico-metodológicos para avaliar características do trabalho e efeitos à saúde dos trabalhadores. Dentre os modelos propostos, o Modelo Demanda-Controle tem alcançado destaque. Esse modelo recorta duas dimensões no ambiente laboral: as demandas psicológicas e o controle do trabalhador sobre o próprio trabalho. O Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ é o instrumento proposto para medir essas dimensões do trabalho. Este estudo objetiva apresentar as bases teóricas e metodológicas do modelo demanda-controle, e discutir sua capacidade para identificar diferentes situações de trabalho no contexto brasileiro, a partir do uso do JCQ. Achados preliminares de dois estudos epidemiológicos, de corte transversal, são apresentados e discutidos. Os estudos avaliaram aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o JCQ, e a saúde mental dos trabalhadores, usando o SRQ-20. Os resultados apontaram boa capacidade do modelo demanda-controle para identificar diferentes situações de risco à saúde mental dos trabalhadores. Aspectos relacionados à demanda psicológica do trabalho estavam mais fortemente associados a elevadas prevalências de distúrbios psíquicos menores do que os aspectos referentes ao controle.In the last years, strong efforts have been made to construct theoretical and methodological models that evaluate work characteristics and health effects in occupational groups. Among the proposed models, the Demand-Control Model has had a worldwide use. This model identifies two job dimensions in the work situation: psychological job demand and job control. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ has been proposed as an instrument for measuring these work dimensions. This study aim to present the theoretical and methodological bases of the Demand-Control Model and to discuss this model capability to identify different work situations in the Brazilian context, using the JCQ

  12. High resolution heat atlases for demand and supply mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Möller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions of heat demand, low-carbon and renewable energy sources, and district heating are key elements in 100% renewable energy systems. Appraisal of district heating along with energy efficient buildings and individual heat supply requires a geographical representation of heat demand, energy efficiency and energy supply. The present paper describes a Heat Atlas built around a spatial database using geographical information systems (GIS. The present atlas allows for per-building calculations of potentials and costs of energy savings, connectivity to existing district heat, and current heat supply and demand. For the entire building mass a conclusive link is established between the built environment and its heat supply. The expansion of district heating; the interconnection of distributed district heating systems; or the question whether to invest in ultra-efficient buildings with individual supply, or in collective heating using renewable energy for heating the current building stock, can be based on improved data.

  13. High resolution heat atlases for demand and supply mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Significant reductions of heat demand, low-carbon and renewable energy sources, and district heating are key elements in 100% renewable energy systems. Appraisal of district heating along with energy efficient buildings and individual heat supply requires a geographical representation of heat...... demand, energy efficiency and energy supply. The present paper describes a Heat Atlas built around a spatial database using geographical information systems (GIS). The present atlas allows for per-building calculations of potentials and costs of energy savings, connectivity to existing district heat......, and current heat supply and demand. For the entire building mass a conclusive link is established between the built environment and its heat supply. The expansion of district heating; the interconnection of distributed district heating systems; or the question whether to invest in ultra-efficient buildings...

  14. Evaluation on the Occupational Information Access System as Used at Churchill High School. A Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Bruce; Adams, Daniel

    The Occupational Information Access System (OIAS) improves the accessibility of occupational labor market information for career planning. Its operation at Churchill High School is evaluated from several angels: the likes and dislikes of users; the effect of OIAS on users' knowledge of occupational information and on their career plans; why other…

  15. Musculoskeletal health and work ability in physically demanding occupations: study protocol for a prospective field study on construction and health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Lars-Kristian; Koch, Markus; Knardahl, Stein; Wærsted, Morten; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Forsman, Mikael; Holtermann, Andreas; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2014-10-16

    Musculoskeletal disorders have a profound impact on individual health, sickness absence and early retirement, particularly in physically demanding occupations. Demographics are changing in the developed countries, towards increasing proportions of senior workers. These senior workers may have particular difficulties coping with physically demanding occupations while maintaining good health. Previous studies investigating the relationship between physical work demands and musculoskeletal disorders are mainly based on self-reported exposures and lack a prospective design. The aim of this paper is to describe the background and methods and discuss challenges for a field study examining physical demands in construction and health care work and their prospective associations with musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. This protocol describes a prospective cohort study on 1200 construction and health care workers. Participants will answer a baseline questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal complaints, general health, psychosocial and organizational factors at work, work demands, work ability and physical activity during leisure. A shorter questionnaire will be answered every 6th months for a total of two years, together with continuous sickness absence monitoring during this period. Analysis will prospectively consider associations between self-reported physical demands and musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. To obtain objective data on physical exposures, technical measurements will be collected from two subgroups of N = 300 (Group A) and N = 160 (Group B) during work and leisure. Both group A and B will be given a physical health examination, be tested for physical capacity and physical activity will be measured for four days. Additionally, muscle activity, ground reaction force, body positions and physical activity will be examined during one workday for Group B. Analysis of associations between objectively measured

  16. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  17. A compound Poisson EOQ model for perishable items with intermittent high and low demand periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a stochastic EOQ-type model, with demand operating in a two-state random environment. This environment alternates between exponentially distributed periods of high demand and generally distributed periods of low demand. The inventory level starts at some level q, and decreases according

  18. Occupational Trends and Program Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rosenthal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of higher education that respond to the economic base in their region will remain competitive and be better positioned to obtain public funds and donor support. In addition to mandated program viability standards based on measures such as graduation rate, individual institutions and state coordinating boards can use ten-year occupational trend data to assess future program viability. We used an occupational demand model to determine whether academic programs can meet projected statewide needs for high demand and high growth occupations. For example, computer engineering, the highest growth rate occupation in Alabama, is projected to have 365 annual average job openings, with 93.6% total growth over ten years. But only 46 computer engineering majors graduate annually from all Alabama institutions of higher education. We recommend using an occupational demand model as a planning tool, decision-making tool, and catalyst for collaborative initiatives.

  19. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  20. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holendro Singh Chungkham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ, using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. RESULTS: Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42 between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68. The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  1. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  2. Occupancy-based demand response and thermal comfort optimization in microgrids with renewable energy sources and energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkas, C; Baldi, S.; Michailidis, I; Kosmatopoulos, EB

    2016-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy sources in microgrids can be achieved via demand response programs, which change the electric usage in response to changes in the availability and price of electricity over time. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint demand response management and

  3. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  4. Occupational hearing loss: tonal audiometry X high frequencies audiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on the occupational exposure show that noise has been reaching a large part of the working population around the world, and NIHL (noise-induced hearing loss is the second most frequent disease of the hearing system. Objective: To review the audiometry results of employees at the campus of the University of São Paulo, Bauru. Method: 40 audiometry results were analyzed between 2007 and 2008, whose ages comprised between 32 and 59 years, of both sexes and several professions: gardeners, maintenance technicians, drivers etc. The participants were divided into 2 groups: those with tonal thresholds within acceptable thresholds and those who presented auditory thresholds alterations, that is tonal thresholds below 25 dB (NA in any frequency (Administrative Rule no. 19 of the Ministry of Labor 1998. In addition to the Conventional Audiologic Evaluation (250Hz to 8.000Hz we also carried out High Frequencies Audiometry (9000Hz, 10000Hz, 11200Hz, 12500Hz, 14000Hz and 16000Hz. Results: According to the classification proposed by FIORINI (1994, 25.0% (N=10 they presented with NIHL suggestive audiometric configurations. The results of high frequencies Audiometry confirmed worse thresholds than those obtained in the conventional audiometry in the 2 groups evaluated. Conclusion: The use of high frequencies audiometry proved to be an important register as a hearing alteration early detection method.

  5. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  6. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    .6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. Results: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses......Purpose: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45–64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20...... exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were...

  7. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppm a )] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10 -5 ), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = -1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = -2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = -1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure-related disease aetiology. © The Author 2016; all rights

  8. Design of massively parallel hardware multi-processors for highly-demanding embedded applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, L.; Jan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Many new embedded applications require complex computations to be performed to tight schedules, while at the same time demanding low energy consumption and low cost. For implementation of these highly-demanding applications, highly-optimized application-specific multi-processor system-on-a-chip

  9. Demands made on high-purity copper for special purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettges, D.

    1977-01-01

    The properties (electrical resistivity, residual impurities) of high-purity copper produced on a technical scale are reported as well as its practical applications. The paper discusses a high-oxygen copper (SV) with low residual resistivity at low temperatures and an oxygen-free (hydrogen-stable) copper (BE electronic) with low gas content. The SV quality has been specially developed for use as stabilizer in superconductors while the BE quality is used in high and ultrahigh vacuum. (GSC) [de

  10. The Benefits of High School Experiences on Growth in Occupational Status in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated high school graduates' school-to-work transition by considering their post-school occupational skill levels. Using an ordinal growth model analysis, occupational status increased in an arch-shaped curve as the number of years after high school graduation also increased. This growth trajectory was further related to…

  11. Applying Occupational Health Theories to Educator Stress : Contribution of the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298978504; Leisink, P.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071055266; Schaufeli, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this chapter discusses the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in general terms. We address several variations of the model, including the JD-R model of burnout and the revised JD-R model. Moreover, we discuss several extensions of the model (engagement, performance and personal

  12. On the Demand for High-beta Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Simutin, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have documented that pension plan sponsors often monitor a fund’s performance relative to a benchmark. We use a first-difference approach to show that in an effort to beat benchmarks, fund managers controlling large pension assets tend to increase their exposure to high-beta stocks...

  13. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-10-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  14. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases

  15. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  16. Meeting the energy demand of high load density areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rillo, Carlos O.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the high cost of land and in some places, unavailability of land, the existing standard substation of Meralco (Manila Electric Company) can no longer be used in many places of Metro Manila. To cope with this problem, the GIS (Gas Insulated System) substation is now being resorted to. There are various schemes of developing a GIS substation, each fitted to certain particular conditions. Cost implications and design considerations were also briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  18. Career Technical Education: Keeping Adult Learners Competitive for High-Demand Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In today's turbulent economy, how can adult workers best position themselves to secure jobs in high-demand fields where they are more likely to remain competitive and earn more? Further, how can employers up-skill current employees so that they meet increasingly complex job demands? Research indicates that Career Technical Education (CTE) aligned…

  19. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, Judith K.

    2006-01-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in

  20. Effective public communication and marketing of high-occupancy-vehicle lanes : an agency perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Massachusetts Highway Department (MassHighway) opened the Southeast Expressway high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane on November 15, 1995. The 6-mi (9.6-km) contraflow lane, open to vehicles with at least three occupants, was MassHighways third at...

  1. Gender Differences in the Vocational Interests of Youth Considering High Job Growth and Green Energy Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Becky S.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…

  2. Amotivation and the Occupational Decision: An Investigation of Australian Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the occupational decision-related processes of senior high school students, in terms of the extent to which they may be amotivated in choosing a future occupation. Data were gathered using a newly developed questionnaire, which was largely adapted from a number of psychometrically proven instruments, and…

  3. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. METHODS: Non-targeted metabolomics

  4. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N

    2008-03-01

    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences.

  5. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  6. Worktime demands and work-family interference: Does worktime control buffer the adverse effects of high demands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether worktime control buffered the impact of worktime demands on work-family interference (WFI), using data from 2,377 workers from various sectors of industry in The Netherlands. We distinguished among three types of worktime demands: time spent on work according to one's

  7. Implementation elements for conversion of general-purpose freeway lane into high-occupancy-vehicle lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of a general-purpose freeway into a high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lane is an alternative to infrastructure addition for HOV system implementation. Research indicates that lane conversion is feasible technically if sufficient HOV usage and m...

  8. Application of Karasek's demand/control model a Canadian occupational setting including shift workers during a period of reorganization and downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M

    1997-01-01

    To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.

  9. The evaluation of high occupancy vehicle lanes on Sun Yat-Sen freeway in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, R.C. [National Chi Nan Univ., Nantou, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Weng, M.C. [Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.C. [National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)

    2005-06-30

    Travel demand in Taiwan, particularly intercity trips, has changed in response to the significant increase in domestic trade and economic activities. Most of Taiwan's population lives and works along the western corridor because there is a mountain range running north-south along the eastern coast. The existing transportation system includes highways, freeways, rail and aviation. The average travel time from Taipei to Koahsiung by the Sun Yat-Sen freeway can vary from 4 to 8 hours or more on weekends and holidays. The current capacity of the freeway is insufficient to accommodate the increasing travel demand. Many traffic management strategies such as ramp metering control, no tolls, and no tolls for high occupancy vehicles (HOV) have been proposed to alleviate traffic congestion. The government plans to reallocate one inner lane as an HOV lane in each direction at all times. However, this would require a preference survey to assess the drivers' decisions to use these HOV lanes at all times on the highway. In this study, 2 types of latent attributes, perceptions and attitudes were defined to analyze their effects on travelers' choice of HOV lanes. Revealed preference and stated preference data were collected and considered simultaneously to fully utilize the strength of each type. Travelers' decisions were found to be a function of socio-economic attributes, travel characteristics and perceptions of alternatives. A model system was developed to comprise a discrete choice model and the latent variable model's structural and measurement equations. It was concluded that the preferred choice was for the HOV lane to be used toll-free, by vehicles with 4 or more passengers, in which the HOV lane is separated from regular lanes with a guardrail. 8 tabs.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of an optimised internet-based speech-in-noise test for occupational high-frequency hearing loss screening: Occupational Earcheck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique C. J.; de Laat, Jan A. P. M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The "Occupational Earcheck'' (OEC) is a Dutch onlineself-screening speech-in-noise test developed for the detection of occupational high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). This study evaluates an optimised version of the test and determines the most appropriate masking noise. Design: The

  11. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, P.; Denny, E.; Flynn, D.; Mullane, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect. - Highlights: → Demand side resource model presented for use in unit commitment and dispatch calculations. → Benefits of demand side aggregation demonstrated specifically as a peaking unit and provider of reserve. → Potential to displace or defer construction of conventional peaking units.

  12. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanen, Jari J; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly demanding work situations. The aim of this study was to use the job demands-resources (JD-R model) to investigate whether job crafting buffers the negative impacts of four types of job demands (workload, emotional dissonance, work contents, and physical demands) on burnout and work engagement. A questionnaire study was designed to examine the buffering role of job crafting among 470 Finnish dentists. All in all, 11 out of 16 possible interaction effects of job demands and job crafting on employee well-being were significant. Job crafting particularly buffered the negative effects of job demands on burnout (7/8 significant interactions) and to a somewhat lesser extent also on work engagement (4/8 significant interactions). Applying job crafting techniques appeared to be particularly effective in mitigating the negative effects of quantitative workload (4/4 significant interactions). By demonstrating that job crafting can also buffer the negative impacts of high job demands on employee well-being, this study contributed to the JD-R model as it suggests that job crafting may even be possible under high work demands, and not only in resourceful jobs, as most previous studies have indicated. In addition to the top-down initiatives for improving employee well-being, bottom-up approaches such as job crafting may also be efficient in preventing burnout and enhancing work engagement.

  13. A theoretical model for oxygen transport in skeletal muscle under conditions of high oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, B J; Secomb, T W

    2001-11-01

    Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content of blood flowing along capillaries, intravascular resistance to oxygen diffusion, and myoglobin-facilitated diffusion are included. Parameter values are based on human skeletal muscle. The dependence of oxygen consumption on oxygen demand, perfusion, and capillary density are examined. When demand is moderate, the tissue is well oxygenated and consumption is slightly less than demand. When demand is high, capillary oxygen content declines rapidly with axial distance and radial oxygen transport is limited by diffusion resistance within the capillary and the tissue. Under these conditions, much of the tissue is hypoxic, consumption is substantially less than demand, and consumption is strongly dependent on capillary density. Predicted consumption rates are comparable with experimentally observed maximal rates of oxygen consumption.

  14. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. DESIGN: The design was a prospective cohort study. METHODS...... for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD.......: This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15...

  15. Information Literacy Skills Training: A Factor in Student Satisfaction with Access to High Demand Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of Business and Government, Law and Information Sciences students carried out at the University of Canberra, results showed that in-curricula information literacy skills training had a greater impact on students' satisfaction with access to high demand material than the purchase of additional copies of books. This paper will discuss…

  16. Rural Dilemmas in School-to-Work Transition: Low Skill Jobs, High Social Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-three employers in rural Arizona were interviewed concerning employer expectations, workplace opportunities, authority patterns, rewards, and social interaction at work regarding entry level workers directly out of high school. Available work was low skill with few rewards, yet demanded strong social skills and work ethic. Discusses…

  17. Planning and Enacting Mathematical Tasks of High Cognitive Demand in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgius, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This study offers an examination of two primary-grades teachers as they learn to transfer knowledge from professional development into their classrooms. I engaged in planning sessions with each teacher to help plan tasks of high cognitive demand, including anticipating and planning for classroom discourse that would occur around the task. A…

  18. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  19. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Satija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  20. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation...... of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect....... of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some...

  1. A Statist Political Economy and High Demand for Education in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Su Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1998 academic year, 84 percent of South Korea's high school "leavers" entered a university or college while almost all children went up to high schools. This is to say, South Korea is now moving into a new age of universal higher education. Even so, competition for university entrance remains intense. What is here interesting is South Koreans' unusually high demand for education. In this article, I criticize the existing cultural and socio-economic interpretations of the phenomenon. Instead, I explore a new interpretation by critically referring to the recent political economy debate on South Korea's state-society/market relationship. In my interpretation, the unusually high demand for education is largely due to the powerful South Korean state's losing flexibility in the management of its "developmental" policies. For this, I blame the traditional "personalist ethic" which still prevails as the

  2. Preliminary energy demand studies for Ireland: base case and high case for 1980, 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E W

    1981-01-01

    The framework of the Base Case and the High Case for 1990 for Ireland, related to the demand modules of the medium-term European Communities (EC) Energy Model, is described. The modules are: Multi-national Macre-economic Module (EURECA); National Input-Output Model (EXPLOR); and National Energy Demand Model (EDM). The final results of the EXPLOR and EDM are described; one set related to the Base Case and the other related to the High Case. The forecast or projection is termed Base Case because oil prices are assumed to increase with general price inflation, at the same rate. The other forecast is termed High Case because oil prices are assumed to increase at 5% per year more rapidly than general price inflation. The EXPLOR-EDM methodology is described. The lack of data on energy price elasticities for Ireland is noted. A comparison of the Base Case with the High Case is made. (MCW)

  3. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  4. Ubiquitous Green Computing Techniques for High Demand Applications in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Moya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  5. Ubiquitous green computing techniques for high demand applications in Smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater, Marina; Sanchez, Cesar; Ayala, Jose L; Moya, Jose M; Risco-Martín, José L

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  6. The relationship between demand and need for orthodontic treatment in high school students in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atisook, Pitraporn; Chuacharoen, Rattiya

    2014-07-01

    Orthodontic service is limited in Thailand and cannot meet the demand of the population. (1) To assess the need for orthodontic treatment (OT) using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) to analyze the relationship between demand and need for OT and (2) to compare the demand and need for OT between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 450 students aged 12- to 14-years-old in three government high schools in Bangkok. A constructed questionnaire was used to assess demand for OT Clinical examination was done by two orthodontists to determine the needfor OT using the IOTN RESULTS: Most of the students (74.0%) wished to have OT while only one-third (37.5%) had severe need, and one-third (34.4%) had moderate need for OT as judge by the DHC of the IOTN. The AC of the IOTN indicated that most students (55.8%) had mild or no need for OT Females (79%) demanded OT more than males (66% p-value = 0.033) but the need was similar in both sexes. Most functional factors had strong relationships with the demand for OTexcept lower teeth bite on palate, but none was found to be associated with need for OT All of the aesthetic factors had strong relationships with demand for OT There were significant relationships with needs in five categories, 1) crooked, crowded, or spacing teeth, 2) worried when speaking or smiling, 3) had suggestedfor OT 4) breath smell and halitosis, and 5) wanted to put on braces to be like other people or for fashionable reasons. Most of the students requested OT but females had significantly higher demand for OT than males. Most of the samples needed to have OT The aesthetic factors that had strong relationships with the need for OT were 1) crooked, crowded, or spacing teeth, 2) worried when speaking or smiling, 3) had suggested for T07 4) breath smell and halitosis, and 5) wanted to put on braces to be like otherpeople orfor fashionable reasons.

  7. Demand controlled ventilation in a bathroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    consumption during periods where the demand for ventilation is low and poor indoor climate during periods where the demand for ventilation is high. Controlling the ventilation rate by demand can improve the energy performance of the ventilation system and the indoor climate. This paper compares the indoor...... climate and energy consumption of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system for two different bathroom designs. The air change rate of the CAV system corresponded to 0.5h-1. The ventilation rate of the DCV system was controlled by occupancy and by the relative...

  8. Coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations for high-field electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, X. L.

    2008-01-01

    It is pointed out that in the framework of balance-equation approach, the coupled force-balance and particle-occupation rate equations can be used as a complete set of equations to determine the high-field transport of semiconductors in both strong and weak electron-electron interaction limits. We call to attention that the occupation rate equation conserves the total particle number and maintains the energy balance of the relative electron system, and there is no need to introduce any other term in it. The addition of an energy-drift term in the particle-occupation rate equation [Phys. Rev. B 71, 195205 (2005)] is physically inadequate for the violation of the total particle-number conservation and the energy balance. It may lead to a substantial unphysical increase of the total particle number by the application of a dc electric field

  9. Gender Inequality among Japanese High School Teachers: Women Teachers' Resistance to Gender Bias in Occupational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    This study explores gender inequality in the occupational culture of Japanese high school teachers with special focus on women teachers' resistance to gender-biased practices. It examines the effectiveness of official and informal teacher training programmes in raising awareness of gender issues. Through an ethnographic case study conducted in…

  10. Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of El Paso High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Moises

    The purpose of this study was to make a comprehensive survey of the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of high school sophomores and seniors in the El Paso and Ysleta school districts (El Paso, Texas). Group-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the information from the 590 randomly sampled students (5% of the…

  11. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck...... pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded...... to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p balance, measured as CEA (p

  12. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner; Aadahl, Mette; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45-64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were not at an increased risk of IHD [HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.59-2.06)]. An additive hazards model showed there were 18.0 (95% CI -0.01 to 36.0) additional cases of IHD per 10,000 person years among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work compared to nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. A detrimental additive interaction between strenuous OPA and low influence at work that could explain the additional cases of IHD among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work was indicated. The findings suggest that high influence at work may buffer some of the adverse effects of strenuous OPA on risk of IHD.

  13. Biological dosimetry in cases gives occupational high exposition to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A.

    1998-01-01

    From 1983 the cytogenetics dosimetry method it has been used as routine in the IRD laboratory in the period 1983 at 1997 but a high exposition occupational case the physical dosimeters happened in Brazil they were investigated through the cytogenetics dosimetry technique. This technique is employ when the dosimetry personal marks a high dose to 100 mSv (0,1 Gy) that is the cut-off minimum detected in the dosimetry cytogenetics

  14. High-Fidelity Simulation in Occupational Therapy Curriculum: Impact on Level II Fieldwork Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ozelie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiences provide experiential learning opportunities during artificially produced real-life medical situations in a safe environment. Evidence supports using simulation in health care education yet limited quantitative evidence exists in occupational therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in scores on the AOTA Fieldwork Performance Evaluation for the Occupational Therapy Student of Level II occupational therapy students who received high-fidelity simulation training and students who did not. A retrospective analysis of 180 students from a private university was used. Independent samples nonparametric t tests examined mean differences between Fieldwork Performance Evaluation scores of those who did and did not receive simulation experiences in the curriculum. Mean ranks were also analyzed for subsection scores and practice settings. Results of this study found no significant difference in overall Fieldwork Performance Evaluation scores between the two groups. The students who completed simulation and had fieldwork in inpatient rehabilitation had the greatest increase in mean rank scores and increases in several subsections. The outcome measure used in this study was found to have limited discriminatory capability and may have affected the results; however, this study finds that using simulation may be a beneficial supplement to didactic coursework in occupational therapy curriculums.

  15. Post occupancy evaluation of energy-efficient behavior in informal housing of high density area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D. N.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of energy-efficient building emphasizes the critical of efficiency in the use of water, electrical energy, and building materials, beginning with design, construction, to the maintenance of the building in the future. This study was conducted to observe the behavior of Energy Saving of the residents in performing everyday activities in the building. The observed variables are the consumption of natural resources (energy, material, water, and land) and the emissions of air, water, and land related to the environment and health. This research is a descriptive qualitative research with the method of data collection is the distribution of questionnaires and observation. The method of analyzing data is posted occupancy evaluation undertaken to obtain patterns of community-based behavior in urban areas. The informal high-density housing area is a typology of population settlements that found in many big cities in Indonesia. This community represents various community groups regarding occupation, education, income, and race. The results of the study concluded that there are five components of energy-saving behavioral formers in housing namely: residential building components, environmental components in occupancy, external occupancy components, components of social activities and elements of business

  16. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  17. Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality care in a hospital setting across Europe: The role of teamwork and positivity

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery Anthony; Panagopoulou Efharis; Costa Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals deal on a daily basis with several job demands – emotional, cognitive, organizational and physical. They must also ensure high quality care to their patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of job demands on quality of care and to investigate team (backup behaviors) and individual (positivity ratio) processes that help to shield that impact. Data was collected from 2,890 doctors and nurses in 9 European countries by means of questionnaires. Job demand...

  18. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  19. Research on Demand for Bus Transport and Transport Habits of High School Students in Žilina Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konečný Vladimír

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of demand for bus transport to examine determinants of demand and practices of high school students based on survey of their transport habits in Žilina Region. Transport habits of students are individual and variable in time. This group of passengers is dependent on public passenger transport services because of their travelling to schools. Significant part of demand for public passenger transport is also formed by this this group of passengers. The knowledge of student's transport habits may help in process of adaptation of offering and quality of transport serviceability what may subsequently stabilize demand for public passenger transport.

  20. Contribution of activation products to occupational exposure following treatment using high-energy photons in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, N.; Krestic-Vesovic, J.; Stojanovic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Lazarevic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2011-01-01

    When high-energy photon beams are used for irradiation in radiotherapy, neutrons that are the result of photonuclear reactions create activation products that affect the occupational dose of radiotherapy staff. For the assessment of activation products in situ gamma spectroscopy was performed parallel to dose-rate measurements following irradiation, by using a high-energy photon beam from a linear accelerator Elekta Precise (Elekta, Stockholm (Sweden)) used in radiotherapy. The major identified activation products were the following radioisotopes: 2 '8Al, 24 Na, 56 Mn, 5 4 M n, 187 W, 64 Cu and 62 Cu. Based on the typical workload and dose-rate measurement, the assessed additional annual occupational dose ranged from 1.7 to 0.25 mSv. As the measured dose rate arising from the activation products rapidly decreases as a function of time, the assessed additional dose is negligible after 10 min following irradiation. To keep the occupational dose as low as reasonably achievable, it is recommended to delay entrance to the therapy room at least 2-4 min, when high-energy photons are used. This would reduce the effective dose by 30 %. (authors)

  1. Analysis of occupational stress in a high fashion clothing factory with upper limb biomechanical overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Laura; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Cutilli, Piero; Siciliano, Eugenio; Di Donato, Angela; Di Nicola, Marta; Antonucci, Andrea; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Boscolo, Paolo; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2012-07-01

    To study job stress and upper limb biomechanical overload due to repetitive and forceful manual activities in a factory producing high fashion clothing. A total of 518 workers (433 women and 85 men) were investigated to determine anxiety, occupational stress (using the Italian version of the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire) and perception of symptoms (using the Italian version of the Somatization scale of Symptom Checklist SCL-90). Biomechanical overload was analyzed using the OCRA Check list. Biomechanical assessment did not reveal high-risk jobs, except for cutting. Although the perception of anxiety and job insecurity was within the normal range, all the workers showed a high level of job strain (correlated with the perception of symptoms) due to very low decision latitude. Occupational stress resulted partially in line with biomechanical risk factors; however, the perception of low decision latitude seems to play a major role in determining job strain. Interactions between physical and psychological factors cannot be demonstrated. Anyway, simultaneous long-term monitoring of occupational stress features and biomechanical overload could guide workplace interventions aimed at reducing the risk of adverse health effects.

  2. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  3. On-demand high-capacity ride-sharing via dynamic trip-vehicle assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Mora, Javier; Samaranayake, Samitha; Wallar, Alex; Frazzoli, Emilio; Rus, Daniela

    2017-01-17

    Ride-sharing services are transforming urban mobility by providing timely and convenient transportation to anybody, anywhere, and anytime. These services present enormous potential for positive societal impacts with respect to pollution, energy consumption, congestion, etc. Current mathematical models, however, do not fully address the potential of ride-sharing. Recently, a large-scale study highlighted some of the benefits of car pooling but was limited to static routes with two riders per vehicle (optimally) or three (with heuristics). We present a more general mathematical model for real-time high-capacity ride-sharing that (i) scales to large numbers of passengers and trips and (ii) dynamically generates optimal routes with respect to online demand and vehicle locations. The algorithm starts from a greedy assignment and improves it through a constrained optimization, quickly returning solutions of good quality and converging to the optimal assignment over time. We quantify experimentally the tradeoff between fleet size, capacity, waiting time, travel delay, and operational costs for low- to medium-capacity vehicles, such as taxis and van shuttles. The algorithm is validated with ∼3 million rides extracted from the New York City taxicab public dataset. Our experimental study considers ride-sharing with rider capacity of up to 10 simultaneous passengers per vehicle. The algorithm applies to fleets of autonomous vehicles and also incorporates rebalancing of idling vehicles to areas of high demand. This framework is general and can be used for many real-time multivehicle, multitask assignment problems.

  4. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  5. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  6. Delivering high quality hip fracture rehabilitation: the perspective of occupational and physical therapy practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie E; Lepore, Michael; Wong, Carin; Chang, Sun Hwa; Freeman, Lynn; Crum, Karen; Gillies, Heather; Nash, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The majority of post-acute hip fracture rehabilitation in the US is delivered in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Currently, there are limited guidelines that equip occupational and physical therapy practitioners with a summary of what constitutes evidence-based high quality rehabilitation. Thus, this study aimed to identify rehabilitation practitioners' perspectives on the practices that constitute high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 99 occupational and physical therapy practitioners working in SNFs in southern California. Purposive sampling of facilities was conducted to capture variation in key characteristics known to impact care delivery for this patient population (e.g., financial resources, staffing, and patient case-mix). Questions aimed to elicit practitioners' perspectives on high quality hip fracture rehabilitation practices. Each session was audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were systematically analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Seven themes emerged: objectives of care; first 72 h; positioning, pain, and precautions; use of standardized assessments; episode of care practices; facilitating insight into progress; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Clinical guidelines are critical tools to facilitate clinical decision-making and achieve desired patient outcomes. The findings of this study highlight the practitioners' perspective on what constitutes high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. This work provides critical information to advance the development of stakeholder-driven rehabilitation clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to verify the findings from other stakeholders (e.g., patients), ensure the alignment of our findings with current evidence, and develop measures for evaluating their delivery and relationship to desired outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation This study highlights occupational and physiotherapy therapy practitioners' perspectives on the cumulative best

  7. Exploratory study of a novel low occupancy vertex detector architecture based on high precision timing for high luminosity particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, Peter, E-mail: porel@hawaii.edu; Varner, Gary S.; Niknejadi, Pardis

    2017-06-11

    Vertex detectors provide space–time coordinates for the traversing charged particle decay products closest to the interaction point. Resolving these increasingly intense particle fluences at high luminosity particle colliders, such as SuperKEKB, is an ever growing challenge. This results in a non-negligible occupancy of the vertex detector using existing low material budget techniques. Consequently, new approaches are being studied that meet the vertexing requirements while lowering the occupancy. In this paper, we introduce a novel vertex detector architecture. Its design relies on an asynchronous digital pixel matrix in combination with a readout based on high precision time-of-flight measurement. Denoted the Timing Vertex Detector (TVD), it consists of a binary pixel array, a transmission line for signal collection, and a readout ASIC. The TVD aims to have a spatial resolution comparable to the existing Belle2 vertex detector. At the same time it offers a reduced occupancy by a factor of ten while decreasing the channel count by almost three orders of magnitude. Consequently, reducing the event size from about 1 MB/event to about 5.9 kB/event.

  8. Power systems balancing with high penetration renewables: The potential of demand response in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critz, D. Karl; Busche, Sarah; Connors, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Demand response for Oahu results in system cost savings. • Demand response improves thermal power plant operations. • Increased use of wind generation possible with demand response. • WILMAR model used to simulate various levels and prices of demand response. - Abstract: The State of Hawaii’s Clean Energy policies call for 40% of the state’s electricity to be supplied by renewable sources by 2030. A recent study focusing on the island of Oahu showed that meeting large amounts of the island’s electricity needs with wind and solar introduced significant operational challenges, especially when renewable generation varies from forecasts. This paper focuses on the potential of demand response in balancing supply and demand on an hourly basis. Using the WILMAR model, various levels and prices of demand response were simulated. Results indicate that demand response has the potential to smooth overall power system operation, with production cost savings arising from both improved thermal power plant operations and increased wind production. Demand response program design and cost structure is then discussed drawing from industry experience in direct load control programs

  9. Occupational low back pain in primary and high school teachers: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ghanipour, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of LBP. In this cross-sectional study, 586 asymptomatic teachers were randomly selected from 22 primary and high schools in Semnan city of Iran. Data on the personal, occupational characteristics, pain intensity, and functional disability as well as the prevalence and risk factors of LBP were collected using different questionnaires. Point, last month, last 6 months, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP were 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained for the high school teachers. The prevalence of LBP was significantly associated with age, body mass index, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P teachers appears to be high. High school teachers were more likely to experience LBP than primary school teachers. Factors such as age, body mass index, length of employment, job satisfaction, and work-related activities were significant factors associated with LBP in this teacher population. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High chromosomal instability in workers occupationally exposed to solvents and paint removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Campos, Mónica; Chuaire-Noack, Lilian; Sánchez-Corredor, Magda Carolina; Rondón-Lagos, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Painters are exposed to an extensive variety of harmful substances like aromatic hydrocarbons used as solvents and paint removers, some of which have shown clastogenic activity. These substances constitute a complex mixture of chemicals which contain well-known genotoxicants, such as Benzene, Toluene and Xylene. Thus, chronic occupational exposure to such substances may be considered to possess genotoxic risk. In Colombia the information available around the genotoxic damage (Chromosomal and DNA damage) in car paint shop workers is limited and the knowledge of this damage could contribute not only to a better understanding of the carcinogenic effect of this kind of substances but also could be used as biomarkers of occupational exposure to genotoxic agents. In this study, the genotoxic effect of aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 24 workers occupationally exposed and 24 unexposed donors, by using Cytogenetic analysis and comet assay. A high frequency of Chromosomal alterations was found in the exposed group in comparison with those observed in the unexposed group. Among the total of CAs observed in the exposed group, fragilities were most frequently found (100 %), followed by chromosomal breaks (58 %), structural (41.2 %) and numerical chromosomal alterations (21 %). Numerical chromosomal alterations, fragilities and chromosomal breaks showed significant differences between exposed and unexposed groups. Among the fragilities, fra(9)(q12) was the most frequently observed. DNA damage index was also significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group (p car paint shops workers and are also indicative of high chromosomal instability. The high frequency of both Chromosomal Alterations and DNA Damage Index observed in this study indicates an urgent need of intervention not only to prevent the increased risk of developing cancer but also to the application of strict health control and motivation to the use of

  11. Understanding the emission impacts of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) to high-occupancy toll (HOT) lane conversions: Experience from Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanzhi Ann; Liu, Haobing; Rodgers, Michael O; Guin, Angshuman; Hunter, Michael; Sheikh, Adnan; Guensler, Randall

    2017-08-01

    Converting a congested high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane into a high-occupancy toll (HOT) lane is a viable option for improving travel time reliability for carpools and buses that use the managed lane. However, the emission impacts of HOV-to-HOT conversions are not well understood. The lack of emission impact quantification for HOT conversions creates a policy challenge for agencies making transportation funding choices. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the case study of before-and-after changes in vehicle emissions for the Atlanta, Georgia, I-85 HOV/HOT lane conversion project, implemented in October 2011. The analyses employed the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) for project-level analysis with monitored changes in vehicle activity data collected by Georgia Tech researchers for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). During the quarterly field data collection from 2010 to 2012, more than 1.5 million license plates were observed and matched to vehicle class and age information using the vehicle registration database. The study also utilized the 20-sec, lane-specific traffic operations data from the Georgia NaviGAtor intelligent transportation system, as well as a direct feed of HOT lane usage data from the State Road and Tollway Authority (SRTA) managed lane system. As such, the analyses in this paper simultaneously assessed the impacts associated with changes in traffic volumes, on-road operating conditions, and fleet composition before and after the conversion. Both greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants were examined. A straight before-after analysis showed about 5% decrease in air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, when the before-after calendar year of analysis was held constant (to account for the effect of 1 yr of fleet turnover), mass emissions at the analysis site during peak hours increased by as much as 17%, with little change in CO 2 . Further investigation revealed that a large percentage decrease in criteria

  12. Crash safety concerns for out-of-position occupant postures: A look toward safety in highly automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Poplin, Gerald S; Shaw, Greg; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-04-09

    Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and airbags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out of position. We investigated the frequency, demographics, and injury outcomes for out-of-position occupants using NASS-CDS. A matched analysis was performed to compare injury outcomes for out-of-position passengers with in-position drivers involved in similar crashes. Finally, case studies for out-of-position occupants were examined in the Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database. Only 0.5% of occupants in NASS-CDS with a coded posture were out of position at the time of crash. Of the out-of-position occupants, being turned or seated sideways was almost as likely as being reclined. Out-of-position occupants were younger and less likely to be belted than their in-position counterparts. Analysis of the injury data indicated a trend that being out of position was associated with an elevated risk for serious injury. However, the number of out-of-position occupants was too small to provide a definitive or statistically significant conclusion on injury outcome. Though highly automated vehicles may eventually reduce the number of crashes and traffic fatalities in the future, there will be a transition period when these vehicles remain at risk from collisions with human-driven vehicles. These crashes could cause higher than anticipated rates of injury if occupants are less likely to be belted or tend to be in positions for which restraints are not optimized. This study highlights the need for future research on occupant response and

  13. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  15. Neck pain and postural balance among workers with high postural demands - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796

  16. Evaluation of high temperature gas reactor for demanding cogeneration load follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Modular nuclear reactor systems are being developed around the world for new missions among which is cogeneration for industries and remote areas. Like existing fossil energy counterpart in these markets, a nuclear plant would need to demonstrate the feasibility of load follow including (1) the reliability to generate power and heat simultaneously and alone and (2) the flexibility to vary cogeneration rates concurrent to demand changes. This article reports the results of JAEA's evaluation on the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) to perform these duties. The evaluation results in a plant design based on the materials and design codes developed with JAEA's operating test reactor and from additional equipment validation programs. The 600 MWt-HTGR plant generates electricity efficiently by gas turbine and 900degC heat by a topping heater. The heater couples via a heat transport loop to industrial facility that consumes the high temperature heat to yield heat product such as hydrogen fuel, steel, or chemical. Original control methods are proposed to automate transition between the load duties. Equipment challenges are addressed for severe operation conditions. Performance limits of cogeneration load following are quantified from the plant system simulation to a range of bounding events including a loss of either load and a rapid peaking of electricity. (author)

  17. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Ho; Kang, Chang Sun

    1998-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  18. [Relationship between occupational stress and working ability of workers in a petroleum processing enterprise in high altitude area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X M; Kang, H L; Shi, C B; Li, Y; Wu, Y F; Liu, Z H; Wang, G; Lei, H Y

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and working ability of workers in a petroleum processing enterprise in a high altitude area. Methods: A total of 728 workers in a petroleum processing enterprise at an altitude of 2850 m were subjected to a survey using Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) , Work Ability Index (WAI) Scale, Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) , Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) , and Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) from May 2014 to August 2016. Results: Of the 728 workers, 55 (7.6%) had a poor working ability, moderate in 262 (35.9%) , and good in 411 (56.5%). There were significant differences in WAI between the workers with different types of work, sexes, ages, and working years ( P occupational stress groups ( P Occupational stress is an influencing factor for the working ability of workers in the petroleum processing enterprise in the high altitude area. Hypoxia in high altitude area may further reduce the working ability. In order to reduce occupational stress and improve work ability, it should be considered to strengthen skills training, improve the working environment, and pay attention to mental health.

  19. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system......In this paper, application of demand response to accommodate maximum PV power in a low-voltage distribution network is discussed. A centralized control based on model predictive control method is proposed for the computation of optimal demand response on an hourly basis. The proposed method uses PV...

  20. Transactive Demand Side Management Programs in Smart Grids with High Penetration of EVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns, economic issues, and emerging new loads, such as electrical vehicles (EVs, the importance of demand side management (DSM programs has increased in recent years. DSM programs using a dynamic real-time pricing (RTP method can help to adaptively control the electricity consumption. However, the existing RTP methods, particularly when they consider the EVs and the power system constraints, have many limitations, such as computational complexity and the need for centralized control. Therefore, a new transactive DSM program is proposed in this paper using an imperfect competition model with high EV penetration levels. In particular, a heuristic two-stage iterative method, considering the influence of decisions made independently by customers to minimize their own costs, is developed to find the market equilibrium quickly in a distributed manner. Simulations in the IEEE 37-bus system with 1141 customers and 670 EVs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can better manage the EVs and elastic appliances than the existing methods in terms of power constraints and cost. Also, the proposed method can solve the optimization problem quick enough to run in real-time.

  1. GLIF – striving towards a high-performance on-demand network

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristina Gunne

    2010-01-01

    If you were passing through the Mezzanine in the Main Building a couple of weeks ago, you probably noticed the large tiled panel display showing an ultra-high resolution visualization model of dark matter, developed by Cosmogrid. The display was one of the highlights of the 10th Annual Global Lambda Grid Workshop demo session, together with the first ever transfer of over 35 Gbit/second from one PC to another between the SARA Computing Centre in Amsterdam and CERN.   GLIF display. The transfer of such large amounts of data at this speed has been made possible thanks to the GLIF community's vision of a new computing paradigm, in which the central architectural element is an end-to-end path built on optical network wavelengths (so called lambdas). You may think of this as an on-demand private highway for data transfer: by using it you avoid the normal internet exchange points and “traffic jams”. GLIF is a virtual international organization managed as a cooperative activity, wi...

  2. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  3. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33, as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA, this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72. Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  4. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2016-07-01

    The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: "Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?" The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of an optimised internet-based speech-in-noise test for occupational high-frequency hearing loss screening: Occupational Earcheck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique C J; de Laat, Jan A P M; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2017-11-01

    The "Occupational Earcheck" (OEC) is a Dutch online self-screening speech-in-noise test developed for the detection of occupational high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). This study evaluates an optimised version of the test and determines the most appropriate masking noise. The original OEC was improved by homogenisation of the speech material, and shortening the test. A laboratory-based cross-sectional study was performed in which the optimised OEC in five alternative masking noise conditions was evaluated. The study was conducted on 18 normal-hearing (NH) adults, and 15 middle-aged listeners with HFHL. The OEC in a low-pass (LP) filtered stationary background noise (test version LP 3: with a cut-off frequency of 1.6 kHz, and a noise floor of -12 dB) was the most accurate version tested. The test showed a reasonable sensitivity (93%), and specificity (94%) and test reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.84, mean within-subject standard deviation: 1.5 dB SNR, slope of psychometric function: 13.1%/dB SNR). The improved OEC, with homogenous word material in a LP filtered noise, appears to be suitable for the discrimination between younger NH listeners and older listeners with HFHL. The appropriateness of the OEC for screening purposes in an occupational setting will be studied further.

  6. Architectural Considerations for Highly Scalable Computing to Support On-demand Video Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    research were used to implement a distributed on-demand video analytics system that was prototyped for the use of forensics investigators in law...demand video intelligence; intelligent video system ; video analytics platform I. INTRODUCTION Video Analytics systems has been of tremendous interest...enforcement. The system was tested in the wild using video files as well as a commercial Video Management System supporting more than 100 surveillance

  7. Women's Representation in 60 Occupations from 1972 to 2010: More Women in High-Status Jobs, Few Women in Things-Oriented Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Lippa, Richard A.; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-orien...

  8. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  9. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lippa

    Full Text Available To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  10. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  11. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    ) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. METHODS/DESIGN: A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work......BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job...... groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...

  12. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  13. Underreporting on the MMPI-2-RF in a high-demand police officer selection context: an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T

    2014-09-01

    Positive response distortion is common in the high-demand context of employment selection. This study examined positive response distortion, in the form of underreporting, on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Police officer job applicants completed the MMPI-2-RF under high-demand and low-demand conditions, once during the preemployment psychological evaluation and once without contingencies after completing the police academy. Demand-related score elevations were evident on the Uncommon Virtues (L-r) and Adjustment Validity (K-r) scales. Underreporting was evident on the Higher-Order scales Emotional/Internalizing Dysfunction and Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction; 5 of 9 Restructured Clinical scales; 6 of 9 Internalizing scales; 3 of 4 Externalizing scales; and 3 of 5 Personality Psychopathology 5 scales. Regression analyses indicated that L-r predicted demand-related underreporting on behavioral/externalizing scales, and K-r predicted underreporting on emotional/internalizing scales. Select scales of the MMPI-2-RF are differentially associated with different types of underreporting among police officer applicants. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in farmers: an occupation group at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mateusz; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Golusiński, Paweł; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Łuczewski, Łukasz; Marszałek, Sławomir; Majchrzak, Ewa; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type worldwide, and 80 % of skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The main risk factor for developing BCC is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly high-dose exposure at a young age. Outdoor workers, particularly farmers, are at high risk of developing BCC. However, studies of BCC in this population are scant. To comprehensively evaluate all cases of BCC of the head and neck region treated during the years 2007-2013 at our hospital in Poland, and to compare the tumour characteristics in farmers to non-farmers. Retrospective analysis of 312 patients treated for head and neck BCC during the study period (2007-2013). Most patients (198 cases; 63 %) were males, with 114 females (37 %). Median age was 73 years (range 32-96 years). The most common tumour location was the nose and cheek (114 pts; 37 %) followed by the auricle (82 pts; 26 %), lips (54 pts; 18 %), scalp (26 pts; 8 %), and eye (36 pts; 12 %). The most common disease stage on presentation was stage T2 (104 pts, 33 %), followed by stage T1 (79 pts; 25 %), stage T3 (89 pts; 28 %), and stage T4 (40 pts; 14 %). By occupation, farmers accounted for 33 % of all patients (102 of 312 pts). The most common tumour localisations in the farmer subgroup were the nose and cheek (50 pts; 49 %; p farmer group were significantly younger than non-farmers (62 vs. 73 years; p Farmers were significantly more likely to present disease recurrence (27 vs. 12 % of cases; p farmers. It is therefore necessary to consider enhancing educational programmes and other preventative measures in this occupational group and to evaluate the effectiveness of such programmes.

  15. Occupational risk factors have to be considered in the definition of high-risk lung cancer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Gonzalez, M; Bourgkard, E; Courouble, N; Clément-Duchêne, C; Martinet, Y; Févotte, J; Paris, C

    2012-03-27

    The aim of this study was to compute attributable fractions (AF) to occupational factors in an area in North-Eastern France with high lung cancer rates and a past of mining and steel industry. A population-based case-control study among males aged 40-79 was conducted, including confirmed primary lung cancer cases from all hospitals of the study region. Controls were stratified by broad age-classes, district and socioeconomic classes. Detailed occupational and personal risk factors were obtained in face-to-face interviews. Cumulative occupational exposure indices were obtained from the questionnaires. Attributable fractions were computed from multiple unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 246 cases and 531 controls were included. The odds ratios (ORs) adjusted on cumulative smoking and family history of lung cancer increased significantly with the cumulative exposure indices to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crystalline silica, and with exposure to diesel motor exhaust. The AF for occupational factors exceeded 50%, the most important contributor being crystalline silica and asbestos. These AFs are higher than most published figures. This can be because of the highly industrialised area or methods for exposure assessments. Occupational factors are important risk factors and should not be forgotten when defining high-risk lung cancer populations.

  16. Social Demand of New Generation Information Network: Introduction to High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Kubota, Fumito

    In this section, first, current situation of traffic growth and penetration of broadband services are described. Then social demand, technical issues, and research trend for future information network in the United States, Europe, and Japan are described. Finally, a detailed construction of this book is introduced.

  17. Hazard rate for a two-channel protective system subject to a high demand rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Youngblood, R.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1989-01-01

    A basic figure of merit associated with a protective system for an industrial plant is the number of accidents expected to occur in the plant within a given period of time, with the system installed. By definition, in a plant equipped with a protective system, an accident can only happen if an initiating event (a demand) occurs while the protective system is unavailable, that is, while it is in one of its possible failed states. This means that the hazard rate or accident frequency depends on the demand rate and on the unavailability of the protective systems. It has long been recognized that the demand rate influences the unavailability of the protective system, and practical expressions incorporating that effect have been developed for single-channel (Lees, 1982) and multi-channel (Kumamoto and Henley 1978) protective systems. The effect has also been incorporated into a Markovian treatment of a plant protection system (Papazoglou and Cho, 1985). In a previous paper (Oliveira and Netto, 1987) a Markovian approach was used to derive analytical expressions for the evaluation of the plant hazard rate for a single-channel protective system, properly accounting for the effects of the demand and the repair rates. In this paper the authors present an extension of that model to the case of a plant equipped with a two-channel protective system

  18. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  19. High Levels Of Bed Occupancy Associated With Increased Inpatient And Thirty-Day Hospital Mortality In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Ladelund, Steen; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    to low bed occupancy rates. Being admitted to a hospital outside of normal working hours or on a weekend or holiday was also significantly associated with increased mortality. The health risks of bed shortages, including mortality, could be better documented as a priority health issue. Resources should......High bed occupancy rates have been considered a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy and an indicator of high productivity for hospitals. Hospitals with bed occupancy rates of above 85 percent are generally considered to have bed shortages. Little attention has been paid to the impact...... be allocated to researching the causes and effects of bed shortages, with the aim of creating greater interest in exploring new methods to avoid or reduce bed shortages....

  20. Relations of occupational stress to occupational class in Japanese civil servants : analysis by two occupational stress models

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaharada, Mariko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Sato, Tetsuro; Sato, Hirokazu; Kishi, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify relations between occupational stress and occupational class in Japanese civil servants, using two occupational stress models – the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model and the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model. The subjects were employees of three local public organizations. We distributed self-administered questionnaires and assessed occupational stress by ERI and JDC. We used seven occupational categories based on the Standard Occupational Classific...

  1. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks

  2. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  3. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  4. Occupational stress and biomechanical risk in a high fashion clothing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Laura; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Cutilli, Piero; Antonucci, Andrea; Di Donato, Angela; Siciliano, Eugenio; Cortini, Michela; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Boscolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial discomfort may amplify job-related risk factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate job stress in a high fashion clothing company with upper limb biomechanical overload due to repetitive and forceful manual activities. Biomechanical risk was analyzed and in part reduced using the OCRA Check list. A total of 518 workers (433 females and 85 males) were investigated to determine anxiety (by STAI 1 and 2), occupational stress (using the Italian version of the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire) and perception of symptoms. Final biomechanical assessment did not reveal high risk jobs, except for cutting. Although the perception of anxiety and job insecurity was within the normal range, all the workers showed a high level of job strain (correlated with the perception of symptoms) due, probably, to very low decision latitude. It was suggested that job strain may increase the perception of symptoms. Moreover, the result of this study indicates that musculoskeletal overload has to be further analyzed since its low level is not in agreement with the level of discomfort due to the repetitive tasks.

  5. The application of subjective job task analysis techniques in physically demanding occupations: evidence for the presence of self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Bates, Benjamin; Billing, Daniel C; Caputi, Peter; Carstairs, Greg L; Linnane, Denise; Middleton, Kane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if perceptions of physically demanding job tasks are biased by employee demographics and employment profile characteristics including: age, sex, experience, length of tenure, rank and if they completed or supervised a task. Surveys were administered to 427 Royal Australian Navy personnel who characterised 33 tasks in terms of physical effort, importance, frequency, duration and vertical/horizontal distance travelled. Results showed no evidence of bias resulting from participant characteristics, however participants who were actively involved in both task participation and supervision rated these tasks as more important than those involved only in the supervision of that task. This may indicate self-serving bias in which participants that are more actively involved in a task had an inflated perception of that task's importance. These results have important implications for the conduct of job task analyses, especially the use of subjective methodologies in the development of scientifically defensible physical employment standards. Practitioner Summary: To examine the presence of systematic bias in subjective job task analysis methodologies, a survey was conducted on a sample of Royal Australian Navy personnel. The relationship between job task descriptions and participant's demographic and job profile characteristics revealed the presence of self-serving bias affecting perceptions of task importance.

  6. Impact of occupational stress on stroke across occupational classes and genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the association between incident stroke, occupational class and stress and to examine whether the association is found in both men and women in a prospective study of Japanese male and female workers. A total of 3190 male and 3363 female Japanese community-dwelling workers aged 65 or under with no history of cardiovascular disease were followed. Occupational stress was evaluated using a demand-control questionnaire. The impact on stroke was examined in stratified analyses of occupational classes. We identified 147 incident strokes (91 in men and 56 in women) during the 11-year follow-up period. Men with high strain jobs (combination of high job demand and low job control) were nearly three times more likely to suffer from a stroke than men with low strain jobs (combination of low job demand and high job control). Among male workers in low occupational classes (blue-collar and non-managerial work), job strain was associated with a higher risk of stroke. In contrast, there was no association between job strain and incident stroke among male workers in high occupational classes (white-collar and managerial work). No statistically significant differences were found for stroke incidence among the job characteristic categories in all the female participants. However, significant, over five-fold excess risks were found among white-collar and managerial female workers exposed to high job strain, compared with their counterparts with low strain jobs. Our study of Japanese workers provided supportive evidence for vulnerability to occupational stress among lower occupational class workers in males but not in females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational status moderates the association between current perceived stress and high blood pressure: evidence from the IPC cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernik, Emmanuel; Pannier, Bruno; Czernichow, Sébastien; Nabi, Hermann; Hanon, Olivier; Simon, Tabassome; Simon, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Frédérique; Bean, Kathy; Consoli, Silla; Danchin, Nicolas; Lemogne, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Although lay beliefs commonly relate high blood pressure to psychological stress exposure, research findings are conflicting. This study examined the association between current perceived stress and high blood pressure and explored the potential impact of occupational status on this association. Resting blood pressure was measured in 122,816 adults (84,994 men), aged ≥30 years (mean age ± standard deviation: 46.8±9.9 years), without history of cardiovascular and renal disease and not on either psychotropic or antihypertensive drugs. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg. Perceived stress in the past month was measured with the 4-item perceived stress scale. A total of 33,154 participants (27.0%) had high blood pressure (151±14/90±9 mmHg). After adjustment for all variables except occupational status, perceived stress was associated with high blood pressure (odds ratio for a 5-point increase: 1.06, 95% confidence interval: [1.03–1.09]). This association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for occupational status (odds ratio: 1.01 [0.99–1.04]). There was a significant interaction (phigh blood pressure among individuals of high occupational status (odds ratio: 0.91, [0.87–0.96]) but positively associated among those of low status (odds ratio: 1.10, [1.03–1.17]) or unemployed (odds ratio: 1.13, [1.03–1.24]). Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. The association between current perceived stress and blood pressure depends upon occupational status. This interaction may account for previous conflicting results and warrants further studies to explore its underlying mechanisms. PMID:23319539

  8. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and its relations with the occupational performance among public high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ferreira Calixto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms and identify their relationships with functional capacity for daily living and working activities among public high school teachers in Ceilândia/DF. Methodological procedures: This was a cross-sectional study with 61 teachers from four different schools. An initial questionnaire covering sociodemographic, clinical and occupational characteristics was used for initial assessment, with the Nordic Musculoskeletal questionnaire (musculoskeletal disorders and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (upper limb disorders. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The body areas most affected by musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months were: upper back (42.6%, lower back (41.7% and neck (39.3%. Greater impairment in the daily activities performance was observed among teachers who had some musculoskeletal symptom in the neck (p=.0001, shoulders (p=.001, back (p=.002, elbows (p=.002 or wrist and hand (p=.018. Additionally, it was observed greater interference in work activities among teachers who had some musculoskeletal symptom in the shoulders (p=.023 or elbows (p=.003. Conclusion: This scenario highlights the importance of including regular programs of health promotion and disorders prevention in high schools for correct orientation and to maintain these professionals functional capacity.

  9. High Demand, Core Geosciences, and Meeting the Challenges through Online Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher; Leahy, P. Patrick; Houlton, Heather; Wilson, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    As the geosciences has evolved over the last several decades, so too has undergraduate geoscience education, both from a standpoint of curriculum and educational experience. In the United States, we have been experiencing very strong growth in enrollments in geoscience, as well as employment demand for the last 7 years. That growth has been largely fueled by all aspects of the energy boom in the US, both from the energy production side and the environmental management side. Interestingly the portfolio of experiences and knowledge required are strongly congruent as evidenced from results of the American Geosciences Institute's National Geoscience Exit Survey. Likewise, the demand for new geoscientists in the US is outstripping even the nearly unprecedented growth in enrollments and degrees, which is calling into question the geosciences' inability to effectively reach into the largest growing segments of the U.S. College population - underrepresented minorities. We will also examine the results of the AGI Survey on Geoscience Online Learning and examine how the results of that survey are rectified with Peter Smith's "Middle Third" theory on "wasted talent" because of spatial, economic, and social dislocation. In particular, the geosciences are late to the online learning game in the United States and most faculty engaged in such activities are "lone wolves" in their department operating with little knowledge of the support structures that exist in such development. Yet the most cited barriers for faculty not engaging actively in online learning is the assertion that laboratory and field experiences will be lost and thus fight engaging in this medium. However, the survey shows that faculty are discovering novel approaches to address these issues, many of which have great application to enabling geoscience programs in the United States to meet the expanding demand for geoscience degrees.

  10. Recycling of water of high pressure cleaning of pipes. Phase 1. Quality demands and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Weers, A.W.; Zwaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    According to the regulation 6.1 in the current licence Surface Water Pollution Law (WVO, abbreviated in Dutch) of October 10, 1997, ECN carried out the first phase of a study on the title subject with respect to pipes applied in oil and gas exploration. In the present situation water of the so-called pipe-cleaner is transported via a seapipe after precipitation and membrane filtration. Next to the quality demands and economical aspects attention is paid to a number of environmental aspects

  11. Corrective economic dispatch and operational cycles for probabilistic unit commitment with demand response and high wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul; Golestaneh, Faranak; Gooi, Hoay Beng; Lin, Jeremy; Bavafa, Farhad; Terzija, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Suggesting a new UC mixing a probabilistic security and incentive demand response. • Investigating the effects of uncertainty on UC using chance-constraint programming. • Proposing an efficient spinning reserve satisfaction based on a new ED correction. • Presenting a new operational cycles way to convert binary variable to discrete one. - Abstract: We propose a probabilistic unit commitment problem with incentive-based demand response and high level of wind power. Our novel formulation provides an optimal allocation of up/down spinning reserve. A more efficient unit commitment algorithm based on operational cycles is developed. A multi-period elastic residual demand economic model based on the self- and cross-price elasticities and customers’ benefit function is used. In the proposed scheme, the probability of residual demand falling within the up/down spinning reserve imposed by n − 1 security criterion is considered as a stochastic constraint. A chance-constrained method, with a new iterative economic dispatch correction, wind power curtailment, and commitment of cheaper units, is applied to guarantee that the probability of loss of load is lower than a pre-defined risk level. The developed architecture builds upon an improved Jaya algorithm to generate feasible, robust and optimal solutions corresponding to the operational cost. The proposed framework is applied to a small test system with 10 units and also to the IEEE 118-bus system to illustrate its advantages in efficient scheduling of generation in the power systems.

  12. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  13. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  14. Department of Defense Physical Strength and Job Performance Survey: Report on the Ability of First-Term Enlisted Personnel to Perform Physically Demanding Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Barrie

    2002-01-01

    ... to perform physically demanding tasks. Within each service, 10 occupational specialties with moderate to high strength requirements were identified as the target populations for the DOD Physical Strength mid Job Performance Survey...

  15. Functional work breaks in a high-demanding work environment: an experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, André; Ghadiri, Argang; Singh, Usha; Wendsche, Johannes; Peters, Theo; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Work breaks are known to have positive effects on employees' health, performance and safety. Using a sample of twelve employees working in a stressful and cognitively demanding working environment, this experimental field study examined how different types of work breaks (boxing, deep relaxation and usual breaks) affect participants' mood, cognitive performance and neurophysiological state compared to a control condition without any break. In a repeated measures experimental design, cognitive performance was assessed using an auditory oddball test and a Movement Detection Test. Brain cortical activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Individual's mood was analysed using a profile of mood state. Although neurophysiological data showed improved relaxation of cortical state after boxing (vs. 'no break' and 'deep relaxation'), neither performance nor mood assessment showed similar results. It remains questionable whether there is a universal work break type that has beneficial effects for all individuals. Practitioner Summary: Research on work breaks and their positive effects on employees' health and performance often disregards break activities. This experimental field study in a stressful working environment investigated the effect of different work break activities. A universal work break type that is beneficial for this workplace could not be identified.

  16. How do Air Traffic Controllers Use Automation and Tools Differently During High Demand Situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Joshua M.; Mercer, Joey; Morey, Susan; Homola, Jeffrey; Gomez, Ashley; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a human-in-the-loop simulation, two air traffic controllers managed identical airspace while burdened with higher than average workload, and while using advanced tools and automation designed to assist with scheduling aircraft on multiple arrival flows to a single meter fix. This paper compares the strategies employed by each controller, and investigates how the controllers' strategies change while managing their airspace under more normal workload conditions and a higher workload condition. Each controller engaged in different methods of maneuvering aircraft to arrive on schedule, and adapted their strategies to cope with the increased workload in different ways. Based on the conclusions three suggestions are made: that quickly providing air traffic controllers with recommendations and information to assist with maneuvering and scheduling aircraft when burdened with increased workload will improve the air traffic controller's effectiveness, that the tools should adapt to the strategy currently employed by a controller, and that training should emphasize which traffic management strategies are most effective given specific airspace demands.

  17. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  18. A New Microwave Shield Preparation for Super High Frequency Range: Occupational Approach to Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaroushani, Vida; Khavanin, Ali; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of X-band frequency (a part of the super high frequency microwave) in the various workplaces would contribute to occupational exposure with potential of adverse health effects.  According to limited study on microwave shielding for the workplace, this study tried to prepare a new microwave shielding for this purpose. We used EI-403 epoxy thermosetting resin as a matrix and nickel oxide nanoparticle with the diameter of 15-35 nm as filler. The Epoxy/ Nickel oxide composites with 5, 7, 9 and 11 wt% were made in three different thicknesses (2, 4 and 6 mm). According to transmission / reflection method, shielding effectiveness (SE) in the X-band frequency range (8-12.5 GHz) was measured by scattering parameters directly given by the 2-port Vector Network Analyzer. The fabricated composites characterized by X-ray Diffraction and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The best average of shielding effectiveness in each thickness of fabricated composites obtained by 11%-2 mm, 7%-4 mm and 7%-6 mm composites with SE values of 46.80%, 66.72% and 64.52%, respectively. In addition, the 11%-6 mm, 5%-6 mm and 11%-4 mm-fabricated composites were able to attenuate extremely the incident microwave energy at 8.01, 8.51 and 8.53 GHz by SE of 84.14%, 83.57 and 81.30%, respectively. The 7%-4mm composite could be introduced as a suitable alternative microwave shield in radiation protection topics in order to its proper SE and other preferable properties such as low cost and weight, resistance to corrosion etc. It is necessary to develop and investigate the efficacy of the fabricated composites in the fields by future studies.

  19. Occupancy dynamics in a tropical bird community: unexpectedly high forest use by birds classified as non-forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Zipkin, Elise F.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Worldwide loss of biodiversity necessitates a clear understanding of the factors driving population declines as well as informed predictions about which species and populations are at greatest risk. The biggest threat to the long-term persistence of populations is the reduction and changes in configuration of their natural habitat. 2. Inconsistencies have been noted in the responses of populations to the combined effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. These have been widely attributed to the effects of the matrix habitats in which remnant focal habitats are typically embedded. 3. We quantified the potential effects of the inter-patch matrix by estimating occupancy and colonization of forest and surrounding non-forest matrix (NF). We estimated species-specific parameters using a dynamic, multi-species hierarchical model on a bird community in southwestern Costa Rica. 4. Overall, we found higher probabilities of occupancy and colonization of forest relative to the NF across bird species, including those previously categorized as open habitat generalists not needing forest to persist. Forest dependency was a poor predictor of occupancy dynamics in our study region, largely predicting occupancy and colonization of only non-forest habitats. 5. Our results indicate that the protection of remnant forest habitats is key for the long-term persistence of all members of the bird community in this fragmented landscape, including species typically associated with open, non-forest habitats. 6.Synthesis and applications. We identified 39 bird species of conservation concern defined by having high estimates of forest occupancy, and low estimates of occupancy and colonization of non-forest. These species survive in forest but are unlikely to venture out into open, non-forested habitats, therefore, they are vulnerable to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Our hierarchical community-level model can be used to estimate species-specific occupancy dynamics for focal

  20. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi

    2011-12-01

    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  2. Design of Demand Driven Return Supply Chain for High-Tech Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Tuzkaya, G.

    2010-01-01

    Many high-tech supply chain operate in a context of high process and market uncertainties due to shorter product life cycles. When introducing a new product, a company must manage the cost of supply, including the cost of returns over its short life cycle. The returns distribution looks like a

  3. Analysis of water supply and demand in high mountain cities of Bolivia under growing population and changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Asaoka, Y.; Fuchs, P.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, high mountain capital cities of Bolivia, strongly depend on the surface and subsurface runoff from partially glacierized catchments located in the Cordillera Real, Andes. Due to growing population and changing climate, the balance between water supply from the source catchments and demand for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower has become precarious in recent years as evidenced by a serious drought during the 2015-2016 El Nino event. To predict the long-term availability of water resources under changing climate, we developed a semi-distributed glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially glacierized high-altitude catchments. Two GCM projections (MRI-AGCM and INGV-ECHAM4) were used for the prediction with bias corrected by reanalysis data (ERA-INTERIM) and downscaled to target areas using data monitored at several weather stations. The model was applied to three catchments from which current water resources are supplied and eight additional catchments that will be potentially effective in compensating reduced runoff from the current water resource areas. For predicting the future water demand, a cohort-component method was used for the projection of size and composition of population change, considering natural and social change (birth, death and transfer). As a result, total population is expected to increase from 1.6 million in 2012 to 2.0 million in 2036. The water demand was predicted for given unit water consumption, non-revenue water rate (NWR), and sectorial percentage of water consumption for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. The results of hydrological simulations and the analysis of water demand indicated that water supply and demand are barely balanced in recent years, while the total runoff from current water resource areas will continue to decrease and unprecedented water shortage is likely to occur since around 2020 toward the middle of 21st century even

  4. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio......-diesel, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with present...... technology could obtain fairly high market shares given tax regulations possible in the present high-tax vehicle market....

  5. Convergence in Food Demand and Delivery: Do Middle-Income Countries Follow High-Income Trends?

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses food expenditures and food-sales data from 1990 to 2004 to examine whether food-consumption patterns and food-delivery-mechanism trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Results point to a high degree of convergence in global food systems. Middle-income countries appear to be following trends in high-income countries. Convergence is apparent in most important food-expenditure categories and in indicators of food-system modernization such as supermarke...

  6. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  7. Estimation of the Demand for Hospital Care After a Possible High-Magnitude Earthquake in the City of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambarén, Celso; Uyen, Angela; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Introduction A model prepared by National Civil Defense (INDECI; Lima, Peru) estimated that an earthquake with an intensity of 8.0 Mw in front of the central coast of Peru would result in 51,019 deaths and 686,105 injured in districts of Metropolitan Lima and Callao. Using this information as a base, a study was designed to determine the characteristics of the demand for treatment in public hospitals and to estimate gaps in care in the hours immediately after such an event. A probabilistic model was designed that included the following variables: demand for hospital care; time of arrival at the hospitals; type of medical treatment; reason for hospital admission; and the need for specialized care like hemodialysis, blood transfusions, and surgical procedures. The values for these variables were obtained through a literature search of the databases of the MEDLINE medical bibliography, the Cochrane and SciELO libraries, and Google Scholar for information on earthquakes over the last 30 years of over magnitude 6.0 on the moment magnitude scale. If a high-magnitude earthquake were to occur in Lima, it was estimated that between 23,328 and 178,387 injured would go to hospitals, of which between 4,666 and 121,303 would require inpatient care, while between 18,662 and 57,084 could be treated as outpatients. It was estimated that there would be an average of 8,768 cases of crush syndrome and 54,217 cases of other health problems. Enough blood would be required for 8,761 wounded in the first 24 hours. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a deficit of hospital beds and operating theaters due to the high demand. Sudden and violent disasters, such as earthquakes, represent significant challenges for health systems and services. This study shows the deficit of preparation and capacity to respond to a possible high-magnitude earthquake. The study also showed there are not enough resources to face mega-disasters, especially in large cities. Bambarén C , Uyen A

  8. Scaling the Information Processing Demands of Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; Jome, LaRae M.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Connacher, Christopher C.; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide additional validity evidence for a model of person-environment fit based on polychronicity, stimulus load, and information processing capacities. In this line of research the confluence of polychronicity and information processing (e.g., the ability of individuals to process stimuli from the environment…

  9. Analysis of stationary fuel cell dynamic ramping capabilities and ultra capacitor energy storage using high resolution demand data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, James R.; Jabbari, Faryar; Brouwer, Jacob; Mauzey, Josh L.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    Current high temperature fuel cell (HTFC) systems used for stationary power applications (in the 200-300 kW size range) have very limited dynamic load following capability or are simply base load devices. Considering the economics of existing electric utility rate structures, there is little incentive to increase HTFC ramping capability beyond 1 kWs -1 (0.4% s -1). However, in order to ease concerns about grid instabilities from utility companies and increase market adoption, HTFC systems will have to increase their ramping abilities, and will likely have to incorporate electrical energy storage (EES). Because batteries have low power densities and limited lifetimes in highly cyclic applications, ultra capacitors may be the EES medium of choice. The current analyses show that, because ultra capacitors have a very low energy storage density, their integration with HTFC systems may not be feasible unless the fuel cell has a ramp rate approaching 10 kWs -1 (4% s -1) when using a worst-case design analysis. This requirement for fast dynamic load response characteristics can be reduced to 1 kWs -1 by utilizing high resolution demand data to properly size ultra capacitor systems and through demand management techniques that reduce load volatility.

  10. The job demands-resources model of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, E; Bakker, A B; Nachreiner, F; Schaufeli, W B

    2001-06-01

    The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.

  11. Occupational stress and related factors among surgical residents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sanghee; Jo, Hye Sung; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-11-01

    The application rate for surgical residents in Korea has continuously decreased over the past few years. The demanding workload and the occupational stress of surgical training are likely causes of this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational stress and its related factors in Korean surgical residents. With the support of the Korean Surgical Society, we conducted an electronic survey of Korean surgical residents related to occupational stress. We used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) to measure occupational stress. We analyzed the data focused on the stress level and the factors associated with occupational stress. The mean KOSS score of the surgical residents was 55.39, which was significantly higher than that of practicing surgeons (48.16, P occupation rate and exercise were all significantly associated with KOSS score. Surgical residents have high occupational stress compared to practicing surgeons and other professionals. Their mean number of assigned patients, resident recruitment rate and exercise were all significantly associated with occupational stress for surgical residents.

  12. Study on a High Compression Processing for Video-on-Demand e-learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Ryutaro; Sakamoto, Ryota; Sugiura, Tokuhiro; Matsui, Hirokazu; Kato, Norihiko

    The authors proposed a high-quality and small-capacity lecture-video-file creating system for distance e-learning system. Examining the feature of the lecturing scene, the authors ingeniously employ two kinds of image-capturing equipment having complementary characteristics : one is a digital video camera with a low resolution and a high frame rate, and the other is a digital still camera with a high resolution and a very low frame rate. By managing the two kinds of image-capturing equipment, and by integrating them with image processing, we can produce course materials with the greatly reduced file capacity : the course materials satisfy the requirements both for the temporal resolution to see the lecturer's point-indicating actions and for the high spatial resolution to read the small written letters. As a result of a comparative experiment, the e-lecture using the proposed system was confirmed to be more effective than an ordinary lecture from the viewpoint of educational effect.

  13. High Job Demands, Still Engaged and Not Burned Out? The Role of Job Crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakanen, Jari J.; Seppälä, Piia; Peeters, Maria C W

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, employee well-being has been considered as resulting from decent working conditions arranged by the organization. Much less is known about whether employees themselves can make self-initiated changes to their work, i.e., craft their jobs, in order to stay well, even in highly

  14. Optical molecular fluorescence determination of ultra-trace beryllium in occupational and environmental samples using highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lori; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P; Ashley, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Exposures to beryllium (Be), even at extremely low levels, can cause severe health effects in a percentage of those exposed; consequently, occupational exposure limits (OELs) promulgated for this element are the lowest established for any element. This work describes the advantages of using highly alkaline dye solutions for determination of Be in occupational hygiene and environmental samples by means of an optical molecular fluorescence technique after sample extraction in 1-3% (w˖w -1 ) aqueous ammonium bifluoride (NH 4 HF 2 ). Improved attributes include the ability to further enhance the detection limits of Be in extraction solutions of high acidity with minimal dilution, which is particularly beneficial when NH 4 HF 2 solutions of higher concentration are used for extraction of Be from soil samples. Significant improvements in Be method detection limits (MDLs) are obtained at levels many-fold below those reported previously for this methodology. Notably, MDLs for Be of health organizations and regulatory agencies in the USA and internationally. Applications of enhanced Be measurements to air filter samples, surface wipe samples, soils and newly-designed occupational air sampler inserts are illustrated.

  15. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  16. Can Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Trigger On-Demand Drug Release from High-Tm Magnetoliposomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Nardoni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been used to trigger drug release from magnetoliposomes through a magneto-nanomechanical approach, where the mechanical actuation of the MNPs is used to enhance the membrane permeability. This result can be effectively achieved with low intensity non-thermal alternating magnetic field (AMF, which, however, found rare clinic application. Therefore, a different modality of generating non-thermal magnetic fields has now been investigated. Specifically, the ability of the intermittent signals generated by non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFS were used to verify if, once applied to high-transition temperature magnetoliposomes (high-Tm MLs, they could be able to efficiently trigger the release of a hydrophilic model drug. To this end, hydrophilic MNPs were combined with hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol to design high-Tm MLs. The release of a dye was evaluated under the effect of PEMFs for different times. The MNPs motions produced by PEMF could effectively increase the bilayer permeability, without affecting the liposomes integrity and resulted in nearly 20% of release after 3 h exposure. Therefore, the current contribution provides an exciting proof-of-concept for the ability of PEMFS to trigger drug release, considering that PEMFS find already application in therapy due to their anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Can Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Trigger On-Demand Drug Release from High-Tm Magnetoliposomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Martina; Della Valle, Elena; Liberti, Micaela; Relucenti, Michela; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Apollonio, Francesca; Petralito, Stefania

    2018-03-27

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used to trigger drug release from magnetoliposomes through a magneto-nanomechanical approach, where the mechanical actuation of the MNPs is used to enhance the membrane permeability. This result can be effectively achieved with low intensity non-thermal alternating magnetic field (AMF), which, however, found rare clinic application. Therefore, a different modality of generating non-thermal magnetic fields has now been investigated. Specifically, the ability of the intermittent signals generated by non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFS) were used to verify if, once applied to high-transition temperature magnetoliposomes (high-Tm MLs), they could be able to efficiently trigger the release of a hydrophilic model drug. To this end, hydrophilic MNPs were combined with hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol to design high-Tm MLs. The release of a dye was evaluated under the effect of PEMFs for different times. The MNPs motions produced by PEMF could effectively increase the bilayer permeability, without affecting the liposomes integrity and resulted in nearly 20% of release after 3 h exposure. Therefore, the current contribution provides an exciting proof-of-concept for the ability of PEMFS to trigger drug release, considering that PEMFS find already application in therapy due to their anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. Design of demand driven return supply chain for high-tech products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Ashayeri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design a responsive network for after-sale services of high-tech products. Design/methodology/approach: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and weighted max-min approach are integrated to solve a fuzzy goal programming model. Findings: Uncertainty is an important characteristic of reverse logistics networks, and the level of uncertainty increases with the decrease of the products’ life-cycle. Research limitations/implications: Some of the objective functions of our model are simplified to deal with non-linearities. Practical implications: Designing after-sale services networks for high-tech products is an overwhelming task, especially when the external environment is characterized by high levels of uncertainty and dynamism. This study presents a comprehensive modeling approach to simplify this task. Originality/value: Consideration of multiple objectives is rare in reverse logistics network design literature. Although the number of multi-objective reverse logistics network design studies has been increasing in recent years, the last two objective of our model is unique to this research area.

  19. C-ITS as Multidisciplinary Area with High Demand on Telecommunications Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS are concentrated on transportation systems with goal to improve usability, efficiency and safety of the existing as well as newly constructed transportation infrastructure. These concepts are associated with high society expectations that C-ITS will principally participate in resolving of continuously growing transportation challenges. C-ITS represents typical multidisciplinary area where effective cooperation of wide range of different disciplines is the key condition of the success. Possible approach to treatment of requirements on telecommunication services in C-ITS applications is presented.

  20. A narrative insight into disability pensioners' work experiences in highly gender-segregated occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Sofia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This study examined some plausible explanations for the higher rates of ill-health seen in extremely gender-segregated occupations. The focus was on the work experiences of disability pensioners with last jobs prior to pensioning characterized by segregated conditions (i.e., less than 10% of the employees of their own sex). Seven interviews were subjected to qualitative content analyses focusing on aspects of health selection, gender differences in work tasks, and in the work situation. The results show a negative health selection into occupations in which the participants constitute an extreme minority. There were some differences in work tasks between the gender in extreme minority and the other gender. Exposure to different stress factors related to the minority status included increased visibility, performance pressure, and harassment. Gender had been of main importance for differences in exposure, for assigning work tasks, and for interaction dynamics between the groups in majority and extreme minority. A combination of negative health selection, gender marking of work tasks, and group interaction dynamics related to group proportions and gender may play a role in cumulative health risks. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to identify mechanisms and interactions in this context in order to better understand possible relationships between occupational gender segregation and increased health risks.

  1. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, BongKyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, and health-related variables. Disability pension information was obtained through record linkage from the National Health Insurance Register. Nearly 20 % of the women and 15 % of the men were granted a disability pension during the follow-up period. The highest quartile of psychological job demands and the lowest quartile of decision latitude were associated with disability pensions when controlling for age, socioeconomic position, and health risk behaviours. In the final model, with adjustment also for health indicators and stress from outside the workplace, the hazard ratios for high strain jobs (i.e. high psychological demands in combination with low decision latitude) were 1.5 in men (95 % CI, 1.04-2.0) and 1.7 in women (95 % CI, 1.3-2.2). Stratifying for health at baseline showed that high strain tended to affect healthy but not unhealthy men, while this pattern was reversed in women. High psychological demands, low decision latitude, and job strain were all confirmed as independent risk factors for subsequent disability pensions. In order to increase chances of individuals remaining in the work force, interventions against these adverse psychosocial factors appear worthwhile.

  2. Assess the feasibility of the high-speed railway construction in China by measuring the traffic demand elastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Cao, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The traffic demand elastic is proposed as a new indicator in this study to measure the feasibility of the high-speed railway construction in a more intuitive way. The Matrix Completion (MC) and Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machine (S3VM) are used to realize the measurement and prediction of this index on the basis of the satisfaction investigation on the 326 inter-city railways in china. It is demonstrated that instead of calculating the economic benefits brought by the construction of high-speed railway, this indicator can find the most urgent railways to be improved by directly evaluate the existing railway facilities from the perspective of transportation service improvement requirements.

  3. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  4. A Web Based Educational Programming Logic Controller Training Set Based on Vocational High School Students' Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alper Efe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and develop aProgramming Logic Controller Training Set according to vocational high school students’ educational needs. In this regard, by using the properties of distance education the proposed system supported “hands-on” PLC programming laboratory exercises in industrial automation area. The system allowed students to access and control the PLC training set remotely. For this purpose, researcher designed a web site to facilitate students’ interactivity and support PLC programming. In the training set, Induction Motor, Frequency Converter and Encoder tripart controlled by Siemens Simatic S7-200 PLC controller by the help of SIMATIC Step 7 Programming Software were used to make the system more effective and efficient. Moreover, training set included an IP camera system allowing to monitor devices and pilot application. By working with this novel remote accessible training set, students and researchers recieved a chance to inhere self paced learning experiences. Also, The PLC training set offered an effective learning enviroenment for distance education, which is based on presenting the content on the web and opening it to the online users and provided a safe and economical solution for multiple users in a workplace to enhance the quality of education with less overall cost.

  5. High Electricity Demand in the Northeast U.S.: PJM Reliability Network and Peaking Unit Impacts on Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Henderson, Barron H; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2016-08-02

    On high electricity demand days, when air quality is often poor, regional transmission organizations (RTOs), such as PJM Interconnection, ensure reliability of the grid by employing peak-use electric generating units (EGUs). These "peaking units" are exempt from some federal and state air quality rules. We identify RTO assignment and peaking unit classification for EGUs in the Eastern U.S. and estimate air quality for four emission scenarios with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model during the July 2006 heat wave. Further, we population-weight ambient values as a surrogate for potential population exposure. Emissions from electricity reliability networks negatively impact air quality in their own region and in neighboring geographic areas. Monitored and controlled PJM peaking units are generally located in economically depressed areas and can contribute up to 87% of hourly maximum PM2.5 mass locally. Potential population exposure to peaking unit PM2.5 mass is highest in the model domain's most populated cities. Average daily temperature and national gross domestic product steer peaking unit heat input. Air quality planning that capitalizes on a priori knowledge of local electricity demand and economics may provide a more holistic approach to protect human health within the context of growing energy needs in a changing world.

  6. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high......A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high...... physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence....

  7. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  8. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  9. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  10. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  11. Ethical issues of genetic susceptibility testing for occupational diseases: opinions of trainees in a high-risk job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. J.; Rhebergen, M. D. F.; Kezic, S.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Verberk, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are

  12. STTR Phase I: Low-Cost, High-Accuracy, Whole-Building Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Demand Control Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallstrom, Jason; Ni, Zheng Richard

    2018-05-15

    This STTR Phase I project assessed the feasibility of a new CO2 sensing system optimized for low-cost, high-accuracy, whole-building monitoring for use in demand control ventilation. The focus was on the development of a wireless networking platform and associated firmware to provide signal conditioning and conversion, fault- and disruptiontolerant networking, and multi-hop routing at building scales to avoid wiring costs. Early exploration of a bridge (or “gateway”) to direct digital control services was also explored. Results of the project contributed to an improved understanding of a new electrochemical sensor for monitoring indoor CO2 concentrations, as well as the electronics and networking infrastructure required to deploy those sensors at building scales. New knowledge was acquired concerning the sensor’s accuracy, environmental response, and failure modes, and the acquisition electronics required to achieve accuracy over a wide range of CO2 concentrations. The project demonstrated that the new sensor offers repeatable correspondence with commercial optical sensors, with supporting electronics that offer gain accuracy within 0.5%, and acquisition accuracy within 1.5% across three orders of magnitude variation in generated current. Considering production, installation, and maintenance costs, the technology presents a foundation for achieving whole-building CO2 sensing at a price point below $0.066 / sq-ft – meeting economic feasibility criteria established by the Department of Energy. The technology developed under this award addresses obstacles on the critical path to enabling whole-building CO2 sensing and demand control ventilation in commercial retrofits, small commercial buildings, residential complexes, and other highpotential structures that have been slow to adopt these technologies. It presents an opportunity to significantly reduce energy use throughout the United States a

  13. The assessment of occupational protection conditions in workplaces with high levels of exposure to natural radiation. Report from a technical committee meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure from natural radiation is, in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, estimated to contribute to more than 80 percent of the world-wide annual collective dose from occupational exposure, uranium mining excluded. The Agency's Radiation Safety Standards Series, the Requirements, and the Safety Guides (jointly sponsored by the Agency and the International Labour Office), address the control of occupational exposures from natural sources of radiation. In addition, some Safety Reports on specific issues are in the process of being finalized. Following upon recommendations to the Agency from its Member States to provide further guidance on the control of occupational exposure to natural radiation, a Technical Committee Meeting on Assessment of Occupational Radiation Protection Conditions in Workplaces with High Levels of Exposure to Natural Radiation was held in Vienna from 7 to 11 May 2001. The objective of the meeting was to produce an inventory of problem areas, make an assessment of the problem and propose a draft work plan for the Agency, This IAEA Working Material includes the report from the meeting, including the presentations made. Based on the recommendations made by the Technical Committee, a work plan is being initiated, implying that more attention will be paid to occupational exposure from natural radiation sources in the Occupational Radiation Protection programme

  14. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  15. Occupational accidents among middle and high school students of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida M Fischer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and identify their risk factors among students in two municipalities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools of the municipalities of Santo Antonio do Pinhal and Monteiro Lobato, Brazil. A stratified probabilistic sample was drawn from public middle and high schools of the study municipalities. A total of 781 students aged 11 to 19 years participated in the study. Students attending middle and high school answered a comprehensive questionnaire on living and working conditions, as well as aspects of work injuries, and health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate risk factors of previous and present occupational injuries. RESULTS: Of 781 students, 604 previously had or currently have jobs and 47% reported previous injuries. Among current workers (n=555, 38% reported injuries on their current job. Risk factors for work injuries with statistically significant odds ratio >2.0 included attending evening school, working as a housekeeper, waiter or brickmaker, and with potentially dangerous machines. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the need of restricting adolescent work and support communities to implement social promotion programs.

  16. Occupational accidents among middle and high school students of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Frida M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and identify their risk factors among students in two municipalities. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools of the municipalities of Santo Antonio do Pinhal and Monteiro Lobato, Brazil. A stratified probabilistic sample was drawn from public middle and high schools of the study municipalities. A total of 781 students aged 11 to 19 years participated in the study. Students attending middle and high school answered a comprehensive questionnaire on living and working conditions, as well as aspects of work injuries, and health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate risk factors of previous and present occupational injuries. RESULTS: Of 781 students, 604 previously had or currently have jobs and 47% reported previous injuries. Among current workers (n=555, 38% reported injuries on their current job. Risk factors for work injuries with statistically significant odds ratio >2.0 included attending evening school, working as a housekeeper, waiter or brickmaker, and with potentially dangerous machines. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the need of restricting adolescent work and support communities to implement social promotion programs.

  17. Occupational accidents among middle and high school students of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Frida M; Martins, Ignez S; Oliveira, Denize C; Teixeira, Liliane R; Latorre, Maria do Rosario D; Cooper, Sharon P

    2003-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and identify their risk factors among students in two municipalities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public schools of the municipalities of Santo Antonio do Pinhal and Monteiro Lobato, Brazil. A stratified probabilistic sample was drawn from public middle and high schools of the study municipalities. A total of 781 students aged 11 to 19 years participated in the study. Students attending middle and high school answered a comprehensive questionnaire on living and working conditions, as well as aspects of work injuries, and health conditions. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to estimate risk factors of previous and present occupational injuries. Of 781 students, 604 previously had or currently have jobs and 47% reported previous injuries. Among current workers (n=555), 38% reported injuries on their current job. Risk factors for work injuries with statistically significant odds ratio >2.0 included attending evening school, working as a housekeeper, waiter or brickmaker, and with potentially dangerous machines. The study results reinforce the need of restricting adolescent work and support communities to implement social promotion programs.

  18. High quantitative job demands and low coworker support as risk factors for neck pain: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Wal, G. van der; Mechelen, W. van

    2001-01-01

    Study Design. A 3-year prospective cohort study among 1334 workers was conducted. Objective. To determine whether the work-related psychosocial factors of quantitative job demands, conflicting job demands, skill discretion, decision authority, supervisor support, coworker support, and job security

  19. Highly efficient method for 125I-radiolabeling of biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Hee; Shim, Ha Eun; Yun, Seong-Jae; Kim, Hye Rim; Mushtaq, Sajid; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Sang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Jeon, Jongho

    2016-04-19

    In this report, we present a rapid and highly efficient method for radioactive iodine labeling of trans-cyclooctene group conjugated biomolecules using inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. Radioiodination reaction of the tetrazine structure was carried out using the stannylated precursor 2 to give 125 I-labeled azide ([ 125 I]1) with high radiochemical yield (65±8%) and radiochemical purity (>99%). For radiolabeling application of [ 125 I]1, trans-cyclooctene derived cRGD peptide and human serum albumin were prepared. These substrated were reacted with [ 125 I]1 under mild condition to provide the radiolabeled products [ 125 I]6 and [ 125 I]8, respectively, with excellent radiochemical yields. The biodistribution study of [ 125 I]8 in normal ICR mice showed significantly lower thyroid uptake values than that of 125 I-labeled human serum albumin prepared by a traditional radiolabeling method. Therefore [ 125 I]8 will be a useful radiolabeled tracer in various molecular imaging and biological studies. Those results clearly demonstrate that [ 125 I]1 will be used as a valuable prosthetic group for radiolabeling of biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectrum of high resolution computed tomography findings in occupational lung disease: experience in a tertiary care institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna, Satija; Ojha, U C; Kumar, Sanyal; Gupta, Rajiv; Gothi, Dipti; Pal, R S

    2013-01-01

    To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD). Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans) gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total) demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5%) with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%). Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4%) with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a powerful and reliable tool not only for diagnosis, but also for

  1. Spectrum of High Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Occupational Lung Disease: Experience in a Tertiary Care Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satija Bhawna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the spectrum of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT findings in occupational lung disease in industrial workers and to assess the utility of International classification of HRCT for occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICHOERD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of radiological data (radiographs and computed tomography chest scans gathered over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012 of industrial workers in an organised sector who presented with respiratory complaints. The HRCT findings were evaluated using ICHOERD. Results: There were 5 females and 114 males in the study, with a mean age of 49 years. These workers were exposed to different harmful agents including silica, asbestos, cotton dust, metal dust, iron oxide, organic dust, rubber fumes, plastic fumes, acid fumes, and oil fumes. There were 10 smokers in the study. The radiograph of chest was normal in 53 patients. 46% of these normal patients (21.8% of total demonstrated positive findings on HRCT. When the radiograph was abnormal, HRCT provided more accurate information and excluded the other diagnosis. The HRCT findings were appropriately described using the ICHOERD. Bronchiectasis was the most common finding (44.5% with mild central cylindrical bronchiectasis as the most common pattern. Pleural thickening was seen in 41 patients (34.5%. Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymphnodes were seen in 10 patients (8.4% with egg-shell calcification in 1 patient exposed to silica. Bronchogenic carcinoma was seen in 1 patient exposed to asbestos. Conclusions: Occupational lung disease is a common work related condition in industrial workers even in the organized sector. Though chest radiograph is the primary diagnostic tool, HRCT is the undisputed Gold Standard for evaluation of these patients. Despite the disadvantage of radiation exposure, low dose CT may serve as an important tool for screening and surveillance. The ICHOERD is a

  2. High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Chen, Ren-Yin; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2011-04-25

    The association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is inconsistent because of an exposure bias caused by outer-ear measurements of noise levels among workers. This study used hearing loss values (HLVs) measured at 4 kHz and 6 kHz in both ears as a biomarker to investigate the chronic effects of noise exposure on hypertension in 790 aircraft-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into a high hearing loss (HL) group (n = 214; average HLVs ≥ 30 decibel [dB] at 4 kHz or 6 kHz bilaterally; 83.1 ± 4.9 A-weighted decibel [dBA]), a median HL group (n = 302; 15 ≤ average HLVs workers had 1.48-fold (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.02-2.15; p = 0.040) and 1.46-fold (95%CI = 1.03-2.05; p = 0.031) higher risks of hypertension relative to the low HL workers. Employment duration was significantly and positively correlated with the risk of hypertension among workers with average HLVs ≥ 15 dB at 4 kHz (p hearing loss is a good biomarker of occupational noise exposure and that noise-induced hearing loss may be associated with the risk of hypertension.

  3. Inkjet metrology: high-accuracy mass measurements of microdroplets produced by a drop-on-demand dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, R Michael; Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2009-10-15

    We describe gravimetric methods for measuring the mass of droplets generated by a drop-on-demand (DOD) microdispenser. Droplets are deposited, either continuously at a known frequency or as a burst of known number, into a cylinder positioned on a submicrogram balance. Mass measurements are acquired precisely by computer, and results are corrected for evaporation. Capabilities are demonstrated using isobutyl alcohol droplets. For ejection rates greater than 100 Hz, the repeatability of droplet mass measurements was 0.2%, while the combined relative standard uncertainty (u(c)) was 0.9%. When bursts of droplets were dispensed, the limit of quantitation was 72 microg (1490 droplets) with u(c) = 1.0%. Individual droplet size in a burst was evaluated by high-speed videography. Diameters were consistent from the tenth droplet onward, and the mass of an individual droplet was best estimated by the average droplet mass with a combined uncertainty of about 1%. Diameters of the first several droplets were anomalous, but their contribution was accounted for when dispensing bursts. Above the limits of quantitation, the gravimetric methods provided statistically equivalent results and permit detailed study of operational factors that influence droplet mass during dispensing, including the development of reliable microassays and standard materials using DOD technologies.

  4. Gender specific analysis of occupational diseases of the low back caused by carrying, lifting or extreme trunk flexion—use of a prevention index to identify occupations with high prevention needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Markus; Liebers, Falk; Seidler, Andreas; Gravemeyer, Stefan; Latza, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Background Gender specific analysis of the occupational disease of the lumbar spine caused by carrying, lifting, or extreme trunk flexion in Germany (OD No.2108) with the aim to identify areas of focus for prevention and research with a prevention index (PI). Methods Data from the German Statutory Accident Insurance stratified by gender are shown. Results From 2002 until 2009 there were 2,877 confirmed cases of an OD No. 2108 (40.1% male and 59.1% female). The PI indicated the highest prevention need for female nursing/midwifery associate professionals and male building frame and related trades workers. Patient transfer and working in extremely bent posture were the most frequent exposures. Conclusions The identified occupations with high need for prevention among men come from nearly all major occupational groups whereas women cluster in occupational groups from the health and care sectors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:233–244, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24243091

  5. Could High Mental Demands at Work Offset the Adverse Association Between Social Isolation and Cognitive Functioning? Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, A Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Löffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-11-01

    The study investigated whether high mental demands at work, which have shown to promote a good cognitive functioning in old age, could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Based on data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study, the association between cognitive functioning (Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test B) and social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale) as well as mental demands at work (O*NET database) was analyzed via linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and sampling weights. Cognitive functioning was significantly lower in socially isolated individuals and in individuals working in low mental demands jobs-even in old age after retirement and even after taking into account the educational level. An interaction effect suggested stronger effects of mental demands at work in socially isolated than nonisolated individuals. The findings suggest that working in high mental-demand jobs could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. Further research should evaluate how interventions that target social isolation and enhance mentally demanding activities promote a good cognitive functioning in old age. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Does the Presence of High Need for Recovery Affect the Association Between Perceived High Chronic Exposure to Stressful Work Demands and Work Productivity Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K

    2016-06-01

    Employers have increasingly been interested in decreasing work stress. However, little attention has been given to recovery from the exertion experienced during work. This paper addresses the question: how does the presence of high need for recovery (HNFR) affect the association between perceived high chronic exposure to stressful work demands (PHCE) and work productivity loss (WPL)?. Data were from a population-based survey of 2219 Ontario workers. The Work Limitations Questionnaire was used to measure WPL. The relationship between HNFR and WPL was examined using four multiple regression models. Our results indicate that HNFR affects the association between PHCE and WPL. They also suggest that PHCE alone significantly increases the risk of WPL. Our results suggest that HNFR as well as PHCE could be an important factor for workplaces to target to increase worker productivity.

  7. 27 CFR 70.81 - Notice and demand for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and demand for tax... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Notice and Demand § 70.81 Notice and demand for tax. (a) General... demanding payment thereof. Such notice shall be given as soon as possible and within 60 days. However, the...

  8. 27 CFR 70.82 - Payment on notice and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demand. 70.82 Section 70.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Collection of Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Notice and Demand § 70.82 Payment on notice and demand. Upon receipt of notice and demand from the appropriate TTB officer, there shall be paid at the place...

  9. Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Miranda A G; Rutte, Christel G

    2005-01-01

    The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers. A 3-way interaction between time management, work demands, and autonomy was hypothesized: The combination of high work demands and low autonomy was predicted to lead to burnout for teachers low in time management and not, or to a lesser extent, for those high in time management. This hypothesis is confirmed for emotional exhaustion, the most predictive dimension of teacher burnout, and partly confirmed for the personal accomplishment dimension. Generalizability to other contactual occupations is discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A High-Resolution Spatially Explicit Monte-Carlo Simulation Approach to Commercial and Residential Electricity and Water Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Nagle, Nicholas N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Surendran Nair, Sujithkumar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for high resolution spatially explicit estimates for energy and water demand has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy and water consumption, many are provided at a course spatial resolution or rely on techniques which depend on detailed region-specific data sources that are not publicly available for many parts of the U.S. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may therefore not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more flexible Monte-Carlo simulation approach to high-resolution residential and commercial electricity and water consumption modeling that relies primarily on publicly available data sources. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model is both applicable to a wide range of regions and reflective of uncertainties in model results. Key words: Energy Modeling, Water Modeling, Monte-Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Quantification Acknowledgment This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  11. Study of current and planned high occupancy vehicle lane use: performance and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.; Westbrook, F.

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of a nationwide study of HOV lanes: their characteristics and performance as traffic congestion mitigating and rideshare enhancing facilities. The study took the form of telephone interviews with a variety of planning agencies in each of the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii over the period April through June 1985, with subsequent receipt of the most current documentation on regional HOV lane operations. The most up-to-date evidence on each lane's performance is presented: its hourly and peak period person throughput vis-a-vis the highway's adjacent, conventional mixed traffic lane(s), its vehicle throughput and occupancy, travel speed and travel time savings for HOVs, lane rule violation rates, lane construction and maintenance costs and accident data. Estimates are provided of the growth in ridesharing over the life of the HOV-only lanes, of the number of vehicles removed from the highway through ridesharing, and of the subsequent fuel savings attributable to HOV lane projects. The relationship between bus patronage and carpool/vanpool mode adoption is looked at, and it is concluded that both forms of HOV can do well on properly planned lanes. The authors also point out the very partial nature of the existing evidence upon which to base HOV lane project evaluation, and the subsequent difficulty associated with ''selling'' the HOV lane concept to many planners and members of the public. They identify those characteristics associated with clearly successful HOV lane projects. Finally, the current state of planning for new HOV lanes in cities around the nation is described, and the major reasons given for rejection or abandonment of HOV lane projects are discussed.

  12. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  13. Occupational rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Maria M; Slavin, Raymond G

    2003-05-01

    This article aims to define occupational rhinitis, classify its various causes, review the steps in its diagnosis, and describe its nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic principles of management. Occupational rhinitis frequently coexists with asthma but also occurs alone. Although it does not have the same impact as occupational asthma, occupational rhinitis causes distress, discomfort, and work inefficiency. By concentrating on the patient's workplace, the clinician has an opportunity to practice preventive medicine: to recognize substances in the patient's micro- and macroenvironment that are causing the problems and then to intervene by altering the environment or removing the patient from the environment.

  14. Evidence from EXAFS for Different Ta/Ti Site Occupancy in High Critical Current Density Nb3Sn Superconductor Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Steve M; Tarantini, Chiara; Lee, Peter J; Brown, Michael D; Sung, ZuHawn; Ghosh, Arup K; Larbalestier, David C

    2018-03-19

    To meet critical current density, J c , targets for the Future Circular Collider (FCC), the planned replacement for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high field performance of Nb 3 Sn must be improved, but champion J c values have remained static for the last 10 years. Making the A15 phase stoichiometric and enhancing the upper critical field H c2 by Ti or Ta dopants are the standard strategies for enhancing high field performance but detailed recent studies show that even the best modern wires have broad composition ranges. To assess whether further improvement might be possible, we employed Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) to determine the lattice site location of dopants in modern high-performance Nb 3 Sn strands with J c values amongst the best so far achieved. Although Ti and Ta primarily occupy the Nb sites in the A15 structure, we also find significant Ta occupancy on the Sn site. These findings indicate that the best performing Ti-doped stand is strongly sub-stoichiometric in Sn and that antisite disorder likely explains its high average H c2 behavior. These new results suggest an important role for dopant and antisite disorder in minimizing superconducting property distributions and maximizing high field J c properties.

  15. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  16. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  17. High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle Rollover Accidents and Injuries to U.S. Army Soldiers by Reported Occupant Restraint Use, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael C; Giffin, Robert P; Pakulski, Kraig A; Davis, W Sumner; Bernstein, Stephen A; Wise, Daniel V

    2017-05-01

    The high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) is a light military tactical vehicle. During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S. Army modified the HMMWV into a combat vehicle by adding vehicle armor, which made the vehicle more difficult to control and more likely to roll over. Consequently, reports of fatal rollover accidents involving up-armored HMMWVs began to accumulate during the up-armoring period (August 2003 to April 2005). Furthermore, the lack of occupant restraint use prevalent in a predominantly young, male, and enlisted military population compounded the injuries resulting from these accidents. In this retrospective case series analysis, we describe the characteristics of U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents, occupants, and injuries reported worldwide from fiscal year 1992 to 2013 based on reported occupant restraint use. We conducted all analyses using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SAS version 9.1. Because this analysis does not constitute human subjects research, no institutional review board review was required. First, we obtained U.S. Army HMMWV accident records from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center, and selected those records indicating a HMMWV rollover had occurred. Next, we successively deduplicated the records at the accident, vehicle, occupant, and injury levels for descriptive analysis of characteristics at each level. For each occupant position, we calculated relative, attributable, and population attributable risks of nonfatal and fatal injury based on reported occupant restraint use. Finally, we analyzed body part injured and nature of injury to characterize the injury patterns that HMMWV occupants in each position sustained based on restraint use. We performed a χ 2 test of homogeneity to assess differences in injury patterns between restrained and unrestrained occupants. A total of 819 U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents worldwide were reported from October 1991 through May 2013 involving 821 HMMWVs and

  18. Evaluation of flexible demand-side load-following reserves in power systems with high wind generation penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Ntomaris, A.V.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a two-stage stochastic programming joint energy and reserve day-ahead market structure is proposed in order to procure the required load-following reserves to tackle with wind power production uncertainty. Reserves can be procured both from generation and demand-side. Responsive

  19. Relationship between occupational stress and depressive mood among interns and residents in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon; Lee, Sunhwa; Choi, Yoon Hee

    2015-06-01

    Occupational stress can have a harmful effect on the individual both physically and psychologically. In Korea, occupational stress of physician is rarely demonstrated. Although it is well reported that physicians tend to have a high incidence of minor psychiatric disorders, the magnitude of the problem remains unclear. Interns and residents are thought to be under substantial amount of stress, and tend to have psychiatric disorder. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the occupational stress and depression of residents. The participants of this study were surgical and medical residents in a tertiary hospital in Korea. For measurement of occupational stress, we used an occupational stress scale. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of depression, we used the Beck Depression Inventory. Female doctors showed higher degree of occupational stress than the males. The interns and chief residents showed higher degree of occupational stress than the other residents. Interestingly, in this study, most of the participants experienced a depressive mood. Compared with the general population, job demand and culture of workplace were high. Occupational stress was the only significant predictor of a depressive mood. Hospital residents experience a high degree of occupational stress leading to a depressed mood due to various risk factors. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the occupational stress of residents early, to encourage positive competition and peer and social support, and to help improve the residents' ability to cope with stress.

  20. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  1. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn; Theorell, T

    1998-01-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material...

  2. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation ...

  3. Use of percentile rank sum method in identifying repetitive high occupational radiation dose jobs in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Ko, H.S.; Kim, S.H.; Kang, C.S.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation dose (ORD) at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORD data of existing plants. Through the data analysis, it is required to identify what are the jobs of repetitive high ORD at the nuclear power plant. In general the point value method commonly used, over-estimates the role of mean and median values to identify the high ORD jobs which can lead to misjudgment. In this study, Percentile Rank Sum Method (PRSM) is proposed to identify repetitive high ORD jobs, which is based on non-parametric statistical theory. As a case study, the method is applied to ORD data of maintenance and repair jobs at Kori units 3 and 4 that are pressurized water reactors with 950 MWe capacity and have been operated since 1986 and 1987, respectively in Korea. The results were verified and validated, and PRSM has been demonstrated to be an efficient method of analyzing the data. (authors)

  4. Analysis and modeling of active occupancy of the residential sector in Spain: An indicator of residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Rodríguez, M.A.; Santiago, I.; Trillo-Montero, D.; Torriti, J.; Moreno-Munoz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The growing energy consumption in the residential sector represents about 30% of global demand. This calls for Demand Side Management solutions propelling change in behaviors of end consumers, with the aim to reduce overall consumption as well as shift it to periods in which demand is lower and where the cost of generating energy is lower. Demand Side Management solutions require detailed knowledge about the patterns of energy consumption. The profile of electricity demand in the residential sector is highly correlated with the time of active occupancy of the dwellings; therefore in this study the occupancy patterns in Spanish properties was determined using the 2009–2010 Time Use Survey (TUS), conducted by the National Statistical Institute of Spain. The survey identifies three peaks in active occupancy, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. This information has been used to input into a stochastic model which generates active occupancy profiles of dwellings, with the aim to simulate domestic electricity consumption. TUS data were also used to identify which appliance-related activities could be considered for Demand Side Management solutions during the three peaks of occupancy. -- Highlights: •Active occupancy profiles of Spanish dwellings has been obtained and modeled from Time Use Survey data. •Occupancy profiles resulting from the model can be used to model domestic energy consumption. •The presence of three peaks of active occupation was verified, which coincide with morning, noon and evening. •Manual and incentive-based DSM programmes are considered the most suitable for Spanish dwellings. •TV electricity consumption becomes important at aggregate level

  5. Speed and path control for conflict-free flight in high air traffic demand in terminal airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ali

    To accommodate the growing air traffic demand, flights will need to be planned and navigated with a much higher level of precision than today's aircraft flight path. The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) stands to benefit significantly in safety and efficiency from such movement of aircraft along precisely defined paths. Air Traffic Operations (ATO) relying on such precision--the Precision Air Traffic Operations or PATO--are the foundation of high throughput capacity envisioned for the future airports. In PATO, the preferred method is to manage the air traffic by assigning a speed profile to each aircraft in a given fleet in a given airspace (in practice known as (speed control). In this research, an algorithm has been developed, set in the context of a Hybrid Control System (HCS) model, that determines whether a speed control solution exists for a given fleet of aircraft in a given airspace and if so, computes this solution as a collective speed profile that assures separation if executed without deviation. Uncertainties such as weather are not considered but the algorithm can be modified to include uncertainties. The algorithm first computes all feasible sequences (i.e., all sequences that allow the given fleet of aircraft to reach destinations without violating the FAA's separation requirement) by looking at all pairs of aircraft. Then, the most likely sequence is determined and the speed control solution is constructed by a backward trajectory generation, starting with the aircraft last out and proceeds to the first out. This computation can be done for different sequences in parallel which helps to reduce the computation time. If such a solution does not exist, then the algorithm calculates a minimal path modification (known as path control) that will allow separation-compliance speed control. We will also prove that the algorithm will modify the path without creating a new separation violation. The new path will be generated by adding new

  6. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    in England and Wales from 1851 to 1979–1983, and these studies have provided key data on social inequalities in health. Death certificate studies have been used for identification of occupational groups with high excess risks from specific diseases. Follow-up studies require linkage of individual records......The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken...

  7. The health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Hansen, J V; Burr, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and leisure-time physical activity are considered to provide similar health benefits. The authors tested this hypothesis. Methods A representative sample of Danish employees (n=7144, 52% females) reported levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity in 2005...... was rejected. In a dose-response manner, occupational physical activity increased the risk for LTSA, while leisure-time physical activity decreased the risk for LTSA. The findings indicate opposing effects of occupational and leisure-time physical activity on global health....... disease, social support from immediate superior, emotional demands, social class and occupational or leisure-time physical activity showed a decreased risk for LTSA among workers with moderate (HR 0.85, CI 0.72 to 1.01) and high (HR 0.77, CI 0.62 to 0.95) leisure-time physical activity in reference...

  8. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  9. Occupational health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  10. An online expert network for high quality information on occupational safety and health: cross-sectional study of user satisfaction and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Many people have difficulties finding information on health questions, including occupational safety and health (OSH) issues. One solution to alleviate these difficulties could be to offer questioners free-of-charge, online access to a network of OSH experts who provide tailored, high-quality

  11. Science Achievement and Occupational Career/Technical Education Coursetaking in High School: The Class of 2005. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Karen; Wun, Jolene; Green, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The definition of CTE (career/technical education) used by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) includes, at the high school level, family and consumer sciences education, general labor market preparation, and occupational education (Bradby and Hoachlander 1999; Bradby and Hudson 2007). Most researchers focus on occupational…

  12. Occupational lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  13. [Occupational stress and early health effects in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X M; Li, S; Zhang, Q Y; Wang, C; Ji, Y Q; Wang, J; Shi, J

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise and the association between occupational stress and early health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia. Methods: In August 2015, stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 1 097 migrant workers in an electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The Job Demand-Autonomy Questionnaire and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to investigate occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance, and Burnout Inventory, depression scale, and self-management sleep questionnaire were used to investigate the early health effects of occupational stress. Results: In these migrant workers, the detection rates of occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance were 69.8%(766/1 097) and 11.9%(131/1 097). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the workers who had occupational stress with the types of high workload and effort-reward imbalance had significantly higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who did not have these two types of occupational stress ( P workers who had occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance had a significantly higher ability to predict the risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who had occupational stress with the type of high workload ( P health effects, such as job burnout, depressive tendency, and insomnia, in the migrant workers in this electronics manufacturing service enterprise. The workers who have occupational stress with the type of effort-reward imbalance have higher risks of job burnout and depressive tendencies than those who have occupational stress with the type of high workload.

  14. Mean Occupation Function of High-redshift Quasars from the Planck Cluster Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Dutta, Alankar; Myers, Adam D.

    2018-06-01

    We characterize the distribution of quasars within dark matter halos using a direct measurement technique for the first time at redshifts as high as z ∼ 1. Using the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) catalog for galaxy groups and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR12 quasar data set, we assign host clusters/groups to the quasars and make a measurement of the mean number of quasars within dark matter halos as a function of halo mass. We find that a simple power-law fit of {log} =(2.11+/- 0.01) {log}(M)-(32.77+/- 0.11) can be used to model the quasar fraction in dark matter halos. This suggests that the quasar fraction increases monotonically as a function of halo mass even to redshifts as high as z ∼ 1.

  15. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  16. Job demands, resources and mental health in UK prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, G; Clements, A J; Hart, J

    2017-08-01

    Research findings indicate that working as a prison officer can be highly stressful, but the aspects of work that predict their mental health status are largely unknown. To examine, using elements of the demands-resources model, the extent to which work pressure and several potential resources (i.e. control, support from managers and co-workers, role clarity, effective working relationships and positive change management) predict mental health in a sample of UK prison officers. The Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used to measure job demands and resources. Mental health was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-28. The effects of demands and resources on mental health were examined via linear regression analysis with GHQ score as the outcome. The study sample comprised 1267 prison officers (86% male). Seventy-four per cent met 'caseness' criteria for mental health problems. Job demands, poor interpersonal relationships, role ambiguity and, to a lesser extent, low job control and poor management of change were key predictors of mental health status. The findings of this study can help occupational health practitioners and psychologists develop structured interventions to improve well-being among prison officers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Gray

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the first phase of a longitudinal study underway in Australia to ascertain the broad health benefits of specific types of biophilic design for workers in a building site office. A bespoke site design was formulated to include open plan workspace, natural lighting, ventilation, significant plants, prospect and views, recycled materials and use of non-synthetic materials. Initial data in the first three months was gathered from a series of demographic questions and from interviews and observations of site workers. Preliminary data indicates a strong positive effect from incorporating aspects of biophilic design to boost productivity, ameliorate stress, enhance well-being, foster a collaborative work environment and promote workplace satisfaction, thus contributing towards a high performance workspace. The longitudinal study spanning over two years will track human-plant interactions in a biophilic influenced space, whilst also assessing the concomitant cognitive, social, psychological and physical health benefits for workers.

  18. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  19. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  20. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... November 3, 2015 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  1. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  2. Hotel housekeeping occupational stressors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Matthew H. T.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is evident in the Norwegian hotel industry and requires urgent attention as portrayed in Annbjørg’s housekeeping managerial occupation. Annbjørg’s occupational stressors derived from weak control of and support for demanding jobs in the housekeeping department and possibly under-reward in comparison to her tireless efforts. Hence, this case study provides a platform for educators, trainers, managers, students and learners to critically examine, discuss and argue managerial occupational...

  3. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  4. Occupational health

    OpenAIRE

    Coosemans, R.

    1997-01-01

    Health at work and healthy work environments are among the most valuable assets of individuals, communities and countries. Nowadays, new broader approach is promoted, recognizing the fact that occupational health is a key, but not a unique element of workers’ health. Workers health is a public health approach to resolving the health problems of working populations including all determinants of health recognized as targets of risk management. It focuses on primary prevention of occupational an...

  5. Occupational Mobility of Low Income Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifman, Lawrence

    This dissertation is primarily concerned with assessing the impact of changes in the aggregate labor supply-demand balance on the upward occupational mobility of lower income workers. The empirical analysis indicates that the size of inter-occupational flows is cyclically sensitive, given relative wages. As the labor market tightens, the…

  6. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  7. Occupation and mental health in a national UK survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Stephen Alfred; Rasul, F R; Head, J; Singleton, N

    2011-02-01

    To measure the prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD) by occupation in a representative sample of Great Britain and to identify occupations with increased and decreased risk of CMD. A cross-sectional interview-based survey was carried out including 5,497 working male and female respondents, 16-64 years from a stratified random survey of private households in Britain. Occupations were classified by the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) into four groups: major, sub-major, minor and constituent unit groups. Common Mental Disorder was measured by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Major SOC groups with higher prevalence of common mental disorder included clerical and secretarial, sales, and personal and protective services whereas craft and related, 'other' professional occupations and plant and machine operatives had lower prevalence compared to 13% overall prevalence in all adults. In sub-major SOC groups managers and administrators, teaching professionals, clerical and secretarial, 'other' sales and personal service occupations had higher prevalence whereas many professional and skilled occupations had lower prevalence. Specific SOC unit groups with higher prevalence included primary and secondary teachers, welfare community, youth workers, security staff, waiters, bar staff, nurse auxiliaries and care assistants. General managers in government and large organizations (OR=2.79, 95% CI 1.41-5.54), managers in transport and storing (OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.18-5.03), buyers and mobile sales persons (OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.09-5.60), sales occupations (NES) (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.19) and clerks (NES) (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.59-4.61) had increased risk of common mental disorder relative to specialist managers adjusting for social and financial factors and physical ill-health. Occupations with higher risk of common mental disorder may be typified by high levels of job demands, especially emotional demands and lack of job security. The reasons why occupations have low

  8. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: sero prevalence and analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)

  9. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  10. Supplement to the "Compendium of Occupational Profiles at the Skilled Blue- and White-collar Worker Level." Situations and Trends: Supply and Demand for Skilled Workers. CEDEFOP Panorama. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Burkart

    A study examined the supply and demand for skilled workers in the following sectors throughout the member countries of the European Community: agriculture (including horticulture and forestry); food industry and trades; hotels, restaurants, and catering industry; tourism; transport; textile industry; textile clothing; leather; wood; building…

  11. A Turkish translation of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/LONG) adapted for young workers in high-risk jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Emine; Esin, Melek Nihal

    2016-03-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSDs) represent 10-40% of all occupational diseases in many industrialized countries. Young workers are frequently exposed to toxic substances and chemicals in the workplace. The occupational conditions of young workers can impose a high level of risk for the occurrence of OSDs. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) was developed in English as a new, comprehensive, standardized tool with which to screen for OSDs. The purpose of this study was to translate the NOSQ-2002 into Turkish and to culturally adapt the long version of the instrument for use with young workers in jobs with high risk for the occurrence of OSDs. Forward and back translations were carried out. Problematic items were modified until the Turkish-language version achieved a satisfactory consensus with the original version of the NOSQ-2002. The final Turkish version was tested in 40 randomly selected young workers with and without OSDs who were studying in the fields of hairdressing, jewelry making, and car mechanics at vocational training schools run by the National Education Ministry. When the original questionnaire had been translated into the target language, a first consensus version was evaluated by an expert panel. The expert panel determined that 36 questions (63.2%) in the Turkish version required some level of modification in order to facilitate clear understanding. Cognitive interviews were then performed. After some modification, the final Turkish version was established and tested among young workers. The new Turkish version of the NOSQ is a comprehensible, reliable, and useful tool that can be applied to young workers in specific occupations. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  13. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  14. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  16. Occupational stressors in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikpeyma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsNursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is  a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamworking in a variety of situations and provision  of 24-hour delivery of care .Occupational stress is a major factor of Staff sickness an  absenteeism.This study investigates the main occupational stressors in nursing profession in the  hope of identification and reducing it.MethodsIn this study a questionnaire consisting of three parts:demoghraphic data,the nurses  background and questions about occupational stress from Revised index fulfilled by 140 nurses.ResultsLack of reward for work well done(48/6%, Heavy workload(46/4% ,lack of Participation in decisions (39/3% , poor Control of work place(38/4%and lack of job  development (36/4% have been the main sources of Occupational stress for nurses.chronic  diseases, Night Shift working and working hours were positively associated with occupstional  stress.Conclusion Analysis indicated that effects of work factors on occupational stress are more than demoghraphic data. The findings of this study can assist health service organisations to provide an attractive working climate in order to decrease side effects and consequences of occupational stress. Furthermore, understanding this situation can help to develop coping strategies in order to reduce work-related stress.

  17. Assessment of occupational exposure to magnetic fields in high-voltage substations (154/34.5 kV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helhel, S.; Ozen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes the survey of magnetic field measurements taken in 154/31.5 kV substations in the city of Antalya for occupational exposure assessment. For measurements, three substations have been taken into account, where four occupants are present for each 8 h of shift, which means 12 occupants are present during the day. Operator desks at three different substations read a lowest magnetic field of 0.3 μT at minimum loaded season and reached up to 1 μT at maximum loaded season, which means operators exposed to a magnetic field of ≥ 0.3 μT 8 h d -1 . In switch gear regions, maximum magnetic field reading is 23 μT at minimum loaded season and reached up to 70 μT. Outdoor magnetic field measurement at circuit breaker region goes up to 62 μT with respect to operator heights. (authors)

  18. Metrics to assess injury prevention programs for young workers in high-risk occupations: a scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite legal protections for young workers in Canada, youth aged 15–24 are at high risk of traumatic occupational injury. While many injury prevention initiatives targeting young workers exist, the challenge faced by youth advocates and employers is deciding what aspect(s of prevention will be the most effective focus for their efforts. A review of the academic and grey literatures was undertaken to compile the metrics—both the indicators being evaluated and the methods of measurement—commonly used to assess injury prevention programs for young workers. Metrics are standards of measurement through which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed. Methods: A PICO framework was used to develop search terms. Medline, PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, CCOHS, PsychINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, Google Scholar and the grey literature were searched for articles in English, published between 1975-2015. Two independent reviewers screened the resulting list and categorized the metrics in three domains of injury prevention: Education, Environment and Enforcement. Results: Of 174 acquired articles meeting the inclusion criteria, 21 both described and assessed an intervention. Half were educational in nature (N=11. Commonly assessed metrics included: knowledge, perceptions, self-reported behaviours or intentions, hazardous exposures, injury claims, and injury counts. One study outlined a method for developing metrics to predict injury rates. Conclusion: Metrics specific to the evaluation of young worker injury prevention programs are needed, as current metrics are insufficient to predict reduced injuries following program implementation. One study, which the review brought to light, could be an appropriate model for future research to develop valid leading metrics specific to young workers, and then apply these metrics to injury prevention programs for youth.

  19. Attrition, burnout, job dissatisfaction and occupational therapy managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeger, M M; Walker, K F

    1992-01-01

    At a time when there is growing concern about the person-power shortages in occupational therapy, there is a need to address reasons why therapists leave the job market. Two job-related reasons for attrition are burnout and job dissatisfaction. The burnout phenomenon occurs as a result of personnel shortages, high-stress demands on therapists, the severity and complexity of client's problems, and the therapist's own ''worker personality.'' Bureaucratic constraints, limited advancement, issues related to a profession which is made up predominantly of women, lack of autonomy, and type of management and supervision are factors that contribute to job dissatisfaction. Occupational therapy managers can consider the causes of burnout and job dissatisfaction and initiate resources to retain therapists. Managers can increase the job benefits, such as flexible working hours, take steps to reduce stress in the workplace, offer career laddering opportunities, and promote staff development. By identifying the causes for attrition and by addressing those causes, the threat of losing therapists from the work force may be averted. Respondents (n = 106) to a survey of occupational therapy managers indicated that job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition of registered occupational therapists were not major problems in their settings. They reported a variety of strategies to reduce job dissatisfaction, burnout, and attrition. When these problems were present, managers cited bureaucratic red tape, lack of opportunity for advancement, and increasing role demands as contributing factors.

  20. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr. Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and

  1. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Overgaard, Kristian; Ektor-Andersen, John; Mortensen, Ole S; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-09

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands

  2. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and interleukin-6 response to high-volume mechanically demanding exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbickas, Vaidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Brazaitis, Marius; Satkunskiene, Danguole; Unikauskas, Alvydas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in response to severe muscle-damaging exercise. Young healthy men (N = 10) performed a bout of mechanically demanding stretch-shortening cycle exercise consisting of 200 drop jumps. Voluntary and electrically induced knee extension torque, serum BDNF levels, and IL-6 levels were measured before and for up to 7 days after exercise. Muscle force decreased by up to 40% and did not recover by 24 hours after exercise. Serum BDNF was decreased 1 hour and 24 hours after exercise, whereas IL-6 increased immediately and 1 hour after but recovered to baseline by 24 hours after exercise. IL-6 and 100-Hz stimulation torque were correlated (r = -0.64, P exercise. In response to acute, severe muscle-damaging exercise, serum BDNF levels decrease, whereas IL-6 levels increase and are associated with peripheral fatigue. Muscle Nerve 57: E46-E51, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Gender inequalities in occupational health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucía; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender inequalities in employment and working conditions, the work-life balance, and work-related health problems in a sample of the employed population in Spain in 2007, taking into account social class and the economic sector. Gender inequalities were analyzed by applying 25 indicators to the 11,054 workers interviewed for the VI edition of the National Working Conditions Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), stratifying by occupational social class and economic sector. More women than men worked without a contract (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.51-2.21) and under high-effort/low-reward conditions (1.14:1.05-1.25). Women also experienced more sexual harassment (2.85:1.75-4.62), discrimination (1.60:1.26-2.03) and musculoskeletal pain (1.38:1.19-1.59). More men than women carried out shift work (0.86:0.79-0.94), with high noise levels (0.34:0.30-0.40), and high physical demands (0.58:0.54-0.63). Men also suffered more injuries due to occupational accidents (0.67:0.59-0.76). Women white-collar-workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a temporary contract (1.34:1.09-1.63), be exposed to psychosocial hazards and discrimination (2.47:1.49-4.09) and have occupational diseases (1.91:1.28-2.83). Gender inequalities were higher in the industry sector. There are substantial gender inequalities in employment, working conditions, and work-related health problems in Spain. These gender inequalities are influenced by social class and the economic sector, and should be considered in the design of public policies in occupational health. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Career-related parental support of adolescents with hearing loss: relationships with parents' expectations and occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of parents' occupational status and expectations regarding persons with hearing loss to career-related support they provide their deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) adolescent children. Thirty-eight parents completed the Evaluation of Occupational Competence Scale (Weisel & Cinamon, 2005), the Evaluation of Family Competence Scale (Caprara, Regalia, Scabini, Barbaranelli, & Bandura, 2004), the Career-Related Parent Support Scale (Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003), and a background questionnaire. Parents' occupational expectations were positively correlated with their family expectations regarding deaf persons. Parents' occupational status contributed to expectations of success for deaf persons in prestigious occupations with high communication demands. Different types of expectations contributed to career-related parental support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. Voluntary medical male circumcision: matching demand and supply with quality and efficiency in a high-volume campaign in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Hally R; Kileo, Baldwin; Curran, Kelly; Plotkin, Marya; Adamu, Tigistu; Hellar, Augustino; Koshuma, Sifuni; Nyabenda, Simeon; Machaku, Michael; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Fimbo, Bennett

    2011-11-01

    The government of Tanzania has adopted voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important component of its national HIV prevention strategy and is scaling up VMMC in eight regions nationwide, with the goal of reaching 2.8 million uncircumcised men by 2015. In a 2010 campaign lasting six weeks, five health facilities in Tanzania's Iringa Region performed 10,352 VMMCs, which exceeded the campaign's target by 72%, with an adverse event (AE) rate of 1%. HIV testing was almost universal during the campaign. Through the adoption of approaches designed to improve clinical efficiency-including the use of the forceps-guided surgical method, the use of multiple beds in an assembly line by surgical teams, and task shifting and task sharing-the campaign matched the supply of VMMC services with demand. Community mobilization and bringing client preparation tasks (such as counseling, testing, and client scheduling) out of the facility and into the community helped to generate demand. This case study suggests that a campaign approach can be used to provide high-volume quality VMMC services without compromising client safety, and provides a model for matching supply and demand for VMMC services in other settings.

  6. Effectiveness of daylighting design and occupant visual satisfaction in a LEED gold laboratory building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Ying; Oswald, Anne [Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yang, Xiaodi [School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Using daylight as primary light source has been widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce building energy demand and enhance indoor environment quality. However, to design and operate a building to make full use of daylight, which is a dynamic light source, to meet diverse occupant needs remains a challenge. This paper reports a post-occupancy study of the visual environment in a laboratory building on a university campus, and puts a spotlight on the building occupants as it examines the effectiveness of the daylighting design and systems integration in creating a visual environment to support occupant comfort and satisfaction while reducing artificial lighting demand. Results show generally high satisfaction with daylit work environment and positive effect of the horizontal shading strategy. Issues about the integration between daylighting and electric lighting systems and level of occupant control are identified and discussed for improving the effectiveness of daylighting and enhancing the quality of the visual environment in the building of study. A multiple-tool methodology is developed and tested, which included occupant surveys, interviews, illuminance measurements, continuous data loggers, fisheye-lens camera and glare-identifying software, and documentation of spatial settings, systems features, and user behavior. (author)

  7. The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing-Yee (Emily Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS; and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN. We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian

  8. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, Bongkyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, a...

  9. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  10. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    most common cancer type in the present series, 373 361 cases) was larger, and there was a tendency of physically demanding occupations to show SIRs below unity. Women in occupations which require a high level of education have, on average, a higher age at first child-birth and elevated breast cancer...... workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low SIRs were found for farmers, gardeners and teachers. Our study was able to repeat most of the confirmed associations between...... with the lung cancer risk among farmers, gardeners and teachers. The occupational risk patterns were quite similar in all main histological subtypes of lung cancer. Bladder cancer is considered as one of the cancer types most likely to be related to occupational carcinogens. Waiters had the highest risk...

  11. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  12. Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators with demanded low uncertainties using single reading head angle encoders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yandayan, Tanfer; Akgoz, S Asli; Asar, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators is carried out in TUBITAK UME using an angle comparator to ensure direct traceability to the SI unit of plane angle, radian (rad). The device is a specially designed air-bearing rotary table fitted with a commercially available angular encoder utilizing a single reading head. It is shown that high-resolution electronic autocollimators in the large measurement range (e.g. ±1000 arcsec) can be calibrated with an expanded uncertainty of 0.035 arcsec (k = 2) in conventional dimensional laboratory conditions, applying good measurement strategy for single reading head angle encoders and taking simple but smart precautions. Description of the angle comparator is presented with various test results derived using different high-precision autocollimators, and a detailed uncertainty budget is given for the calibration of a high-resolution electronic autocollimator. (paper)

  13. The health paradox of occupational and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, A; Hansen, J V; Burr, H; Søgaard, K; Sjøgaard, G

    2012-03-01

    Occupational and leisure-time physical activity are considered to provide similar health benefits. The authors tested this hypothesis. A representative sample of Danish employees (n=7144, 52% females) reported levels of occupational and leisure-time physical activity in 2005. Long-term sickness absence (LTSA) spells of ≥3 consecutive weeks were retrieved from a social-transfer payment register from 2005 to 2007. 341 men and 620 females experienced a spell of LTSA during the period. Cox analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, chronic disease, social support from immediate superior, emotional demands, social class and occupational or leisure-time physical activity showed a decreased risk for LTSA among workers with moderate (HR 0.85, CI 0.72 to 1.01) and high (HR 0.77, CI 0.62 to 0.95) leisure-time physical activity in reference to those with low leisure-time physical activity. In contrast, an increased risk for LTSA was shown among workers with moderate (HR 1.59, CI 1.35 to 1.88) and high (HR 1.84, CI 1.55 to 2.18) occupational physical activity referencing those with low occupational physical activity. The hypothesis was rejected. In a dose-response manner, occupational physical activity increased the risk for LTSA, while leisure-time physical activity decreased the risk for LTSA. The findings indicate opposing effects of occupational and leisure-time physical activity on global health.

  14. Occupation, hobbies, and acute leukemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul D; Shore, David L; Rauscher, Garth H; Sandler, Dale P

    2005-10-01

    Occupational and industrial exposures have been implicated in the etiology of leukemia, yet uncertainty remains regarding potential high risk occupations. We examined the associations between self-reported occupations and hobbies and acute leukemia risk using data from 811 cases and 637 controls participating in a case-control study in the U.S. and Canada. We found that several occupations may increase the risk of acute leukemia, particularly occupations related to petroleum products, rubber, nuclear energy, munitions, plastics, and electronics manufacturing. Differences were noted according to histological type. Other occupations and hobbies were not clearly associated with risk.

  15. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  16. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  17. Occupational injuries in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Arrayed, A; Hamza, A

    1995-10-01

    A study was conducted to show the problem of occupational injuries in Bahrain and try to highlight some solutions that may help to prevent or reduce workplace hazards. The data for occupational injuries between 1988 to 1991 from the social insurance records were reviewed and analysed. The data were summarized, grouped and tabulated according to age, sex, nationality, work place, type of injuries, cause and site of injury. Data were analysed statistically, frequencies were computed and results represented graphically. The study shows that there was a decline in the number of injuries in 1990 and 1991 due to a slow-down of economic activities in general in the Arabian Gulf region during the Gulf War. It also shows that Asian workers are at a high risk of occupational injuries.

  18. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...... and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response....

  19. Occupational hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Paz-Fuchs, Amir; Ronen, Yaël

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis and a critique of the law governing the employment relationship between Israeli employers and Palestinian employees in industries operating in the West Bank. \\ud \\ud Through an analysis of Israeli jurisprudence it highlights the intersection among different areas of law: choice of law, public international law (in particular the law of occupation), and labor law. The article explores the tensions that this intersection creates: first, between the importance t...

  20. Harnessing the power of demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  1. Rotary bending as a mean for improving micro-cleanliness of stainless steels for high demanding applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourisseau Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are used for automotive or medical applications which require a high fatigue resistance correlated to a high level of micro-cleanliness. A methodology based on rotary bending tests carried out on wires or bars has been defined to determine the material’s endurance limit (after 100 millions cycles and identify the largest subcutaneous inclusions or precipitates where failures initiate. This methodology has been applied to EN 1.4568 spring wires. Failures were found to initiate both at oxide inclusions and AlN precipitates. For the same size, AlN precipitates were observed to be more critical towards crack initiation than oxide inclusions, due to their angular shape and lower thermal expansion at high temperatures. However, oxide inclusions larger than the AlN maximum size strongly impact the material’s fatigue limit, and their density and size should be reduced.

  2. Examining the sources of occupational stress in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Yap, C; Mason, S

    2016-12-01

    Previous work has established that health care staff, in particular emergency department (ED) personnel, experience significant occupational stress but the underlying stressors have not been well quantified. Such data inform interventions that can reduce cases of occupational mental illness, burnout, staff turnover and early retirement associated with cumulative stress. To develop, implement and evaluate a questionnaire examining the origins of occupational stress in the ED. A questionnaire co-designed by an occupational health practitioner and ED management administered to nursing, medical and support staff in the ED of a large English teaching hospital in 2015. The questionnaire assessed participants' demographic characteristics and perceptions of stress across three dimensions (demand-control-support, effort-reward and organizational justice). Work-related stressors in ED staff were compared with those of an unmatched control group from the acute ear, nose and throat (ENT) and neurology directorate. A total of 104 (59%) ED staff returned questionnaires compared to 72 staff (67%) from the acute ENT/neurology directorate. The ED respondents indicated lower levels of job autonomy, management support and involvement in organizational change, but not work demand. High levels of effort-reward imbalance and organizational injustice were reported by both groups. Our findings suggest that internal ED interventions to improve workers' job control, increase support from management and involvement in organizational change may reduce work stress. The high levels of effort-reward imbalance and organizational injustice reported by both groups may indicate that wider interventions beyond the ED are also needed to address these issues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High atmospheric demand for water can limit forest carbon uptake and transpiration as severely as dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Daniel Tyler Roman; Koong Yi; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips; Kimberly A. Novick

    2016-01-01

    When stressed by low soil water content (SWC) or high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), plants close stomata, reducing transpiration and photosynthesis. However, it has historically been difficult to disentangle the magnitudes of VPD compared to SWC limitations on ecosystem-scale fluxes. We used a 13 year record of eddy covariance measurements from a forest in south...

  4. Answering Contextually Demanding Questions: Pragmatic Errors Produced by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined irrelevant/incorrect answers produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (7-9-year-olds and 10-12-year-olds) and normally developing children (7-9-year-olds). The errors produced were divided into three types: in Type 1, the child answered the original question incorrectly, in Type 2, the child gave a…

  5. [Study the impacts of diagnosis on occupational noise-induced deafness after bring into the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Chen, H; Huang, W X; Guo, J J; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2017-11-20

    Objective: Study of the results and the degree on occupational noise-induced deafness in-to the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value, in order to provide theoretical basis for the re-vision of diagnostic criteria on occupational noise-induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was con-ducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. Based on the re-sults of the 3 hearing test for each test interval greater than 3 days in the hospital, the best threshold of each frequency was obtained, and based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2007 edition, Chi square test, t test and variance analysis were used to measure SPSS21.0 data, their differences are tested among the means of speech frequency and the high frequency weighted value into different age group, noise ex-posure group, and diagnostic classification between different dimensions. Results: 1. There were totally 168 cases in accordance with the study plan, male 154 cases, female 14 cases, the average age was 41.18 ±6.07 years old. 2. The diagnosis rate was increased into the weighted value of different high frequency than the mean value of pure speech frequency, the weighted 4 kHz frequency increased by 13.69% (χ(2)=9.880, P =0.002) , 6 kHz increased by 15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) and 4 kHz+6 kHz increased by15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) , the difference was statistically significant. The diagnostic rate of different high threshold had no obvious differ-ence between the genders. 3. The age groups were divided into less than or equal to 40years old group (A group) and 40-50 years old group (group B) , there were higher the diagnostic rate between high frequency weighted 4 kHz (A group χ(2)=3.380, P =0.050; B group χ(2)=4.054, P =0.032) , weighted 6 kHz (A group χ(2)=6.362, P =0.012; B group χ(2

  6. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  7. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  8. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  9. Cost-utility analysis of immune tolerance induction therapy versus on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VII for hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasekh HR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Rasekh1, Ali Imani1, Mehran Karimi2, Mina Golestani11Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Management and Pharmacoeconomics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran, 2University of Shiraz Medical Sciences, Hematology Research Center, Shiraz, IranBackground: In developing countries, the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors is presently the most challenging and serious issue in hemophilia management, direct costs of clotting factor concentrates accounting for >98% of the highest economic burden absorbed for the health care of patients in this setting. In the setting of chronic diseases, cost-utility analysis, which takes into account the beneficial effects of a given treatment/health care intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, is likely to be the most appropriate approach.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of immune tolerance induction (ITI therapy with plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates versus on-demand treatment with recombinant-activated FVIIa (rFVIIa in hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors from an Iranian Ministry of Health perspective.Methods: This study was based on the study of Knight et al, which evaluated the cost-effectiveness ratios of different treatments for hemophilia A with high-responding inhibitors. To adapt Knight et al's results to the Iranian context, a few clinical parameters were varied, and cost data were replaced with the corresponding Iranian estimates of resource use. The time horizon of the analysis was 10 years. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed, varying the cost of the clotting factor, the drug dose, and the administration frequency, to test the robustness of the analysis.Results: Comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the three ITI protocols and the on-demand regimen with rFVIIa shows that all three ITI protocols dominate the on-demand regimen with r

  10. Marine Occupations in the Texas Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnerney, Beryl; Clark, Donald L.

    Marine career information is provided, intended for use by high school students, counselors, teachers, and curriculum developers. Material was gathered from a review of occupational publications, including extended use of the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (D.O.T.), and from interviews of persons employed in marine occupations in…

  11. Occupational Structure in European Countries: What do Forecasts Predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vishnevskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the future occupational structure of the labour force in European members of the Organisation for Co-operation and Development (OECD. Occupational structure forecasts allow researchers to evaluate the quality of job openings and, consequently, overall future labour market performance. Identification of demand for certain occupations in Europe can facilitate assessment of whether processes occurring in the Russian labour market are consistent with global trends. The paper discusses the methodology of labour force forecasting and basic research approaches to the prediction of occupational structure changes. It emphasizes the dynamics of demand for representatives of certain occupations in Europe by identifying the fastest growing and declining occupations and suggests possible reasons for changing demand. The paper demonstrates that the main occupational trend over the next decade will consist in the increasing importance of professionals, as well as technicians and associate professionals. The increase in demand for health professionals and representatives of occupations providing scientific and technological innovation will be most significant. At the same time, it is expected that demand for elementary occupations will also rise. This process will evolve simultaneously with the decrease in the total number of skilled and semi-skilled blue-collar occupations due to globalization and the reduction of industrial production in developed economies. The ongoing “mechanization” of many job functions will not eliminate the need for occupations such as cleaners, labourers, domestic servants or personal workers. The need for these jobs allow employees with low levels of education to enter the labour market rather than depending on the social benefit system. Another tendency for all countries with developed economies will be reduced demand for many whitecollar occupations as modern computer technologies and the automation of many

  12. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: both low and high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability of leaving...... theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers’ abilities....

  13. Occupation and the relevance of primatology to occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W

    1993-06-01

    The adaptive functions of occupation during the phylogenetic history of the human species and the ontogenetic development of individual primates re examined through a review of relevant research of wild and captive nonhuman primates. This review suggests that the effectiveness of occupation as a therapeutic medium throughout life span development is fundamentally tied to humankind's phylogenetic history. It is accordingly argued that there is considerable justification to maintain occupational therapy's historical commitment to therapeutic occupation as the profession's primary treatment modality. To support this commitment, questions to guide practice and research are identified that emanate from the primate literature and that are highly germane to the therapeutic process in occupational therapy. These questions address: (a) the relationship between the press of the various environments in which occupational therapists practice and subsequent opportunities availed to patients for engagement in occupation; (b) the relationship between the extent to which patients are or are not empowered to exert real control over their use of time and their eventual development of disabling conditions; and (c) the therapeutic efficacy of occupation as compared with other treatment approaches that are not comparably holistic.

  14. Status of Occupational Health and Safety and Related Challenges in Expanding Economy of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Ezra J; Ngowi, Aiwerasia V; Mamuya, Simon H D

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety is related with economic activities undertaken in the country. As the economic activities grow and expand, occupational injuries and diseases are more likely to increase among workers in different sectors of economy such as agriculture, mining, transport, and manufacture. This may result in high occupational health and safety services demand, which might be difficult to meet by developing countries that are prioritizing economic expansion without regard to their impact on occupational health and safety. To describe the status of occupational health and safety in Tanzania and outline the challenges in provision of occupational health services under the state of an expanding economy. Tanzania's economy is growing steadily, with growth being driven by communications, transport, financial intermediation, construction, mining, agriculture, and manufacturing. Along with this growth, hazards emanating from work in all sectors of the economy have increased and varied. The workers exposed to these hazards suffer from illness and injuries and yet they are not provided with adequate occupational health services. Services are scanty and limited to a few enterprises that can afford it. Existing laws and regulations are not comprehensive enough to cover the entire population. Implementation of legislation is weak and does not protect the workers. Most Tanzanians are not covered by the occupational health and safety law and do not access occupational health services. Thus an occupational health and safety services strategy, backed by legislations and provided with the necessary resources (competent experts, financial and technological resources), is a necessity in Tanzania. The existing legal provisions require major modifications to meet international requirements and standards. OHS regulations and legislations need refocusing, revision, and strengthening to cover all working population. Capacities should be improved through training and research

  15. [Occupational differences in exposure to hazardous work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Chiara; d'Errico, A; Cardano, M; Perini, F; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been aimed at describing organizational and psychosocial conditions of the Italian workforce by occupational group, and they have been mainly conducted within specific occupations. The present study aimed at identifying specific groups of occupations which have unfavourable profiles from the point of view of exposure to specific organizational factors and psychosocial risks, and to physical, chemical and ergonomic risks, and analyzing their distribution by worker age. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4,195 workers in the Piedmont Region who were members of the CGIL Trade Union (Italian General Confederation of Labour), who answered a self-administered questionnaire in 2000, aimed at assessing chemical, physical, and ergonomic risks, accidents, and psychosocial factors connected with work organization and work tasks. Psychosocial risks were assessed via three scales aimed at measuring the degree of control, psychophysical demands, and worker satisfaction. The proportion of workers exposed to the above mentioned risks was analysed according to occupational group. This group was then compared with all other groups taken together, according to prevalence of high strain condition (combination of high demand and low control) and HSUR condition (High Strain Unfairly Rewarded; combination of high strain and low satisfaction). Among males aged 25-44 years, restricted to the occupation groups with more than ten workers in high strain condition, significantly higher proportions of stress were observed in leather workers and shoemakers, paper factory workers, rubber workers, crane and bridge crane operators, plastic workers, painters, transport drivers and carpenters. For many of these groups, excesses were confirmed for the HSUR condition. Among subjects aged over 44 years, a higher risk for high strain was confirmed in rubber workers, transport drivers and carpenters. In addition, machine tool operators, assembly line and mechanical workers in this

  16. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Pregnancy after the age of 35 as a pregnancy of high obstetric risk – the demand for education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Stobnicka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The age is the basic factor influencing the woman's fertility. The older woman is, the biological fertility is reduced. A  woman reaches the maximum fertility at the age of 20-25 years, after which fertility gradually decreases, until the age of 35, when it drastically decreases. Late motherhood is associated with an increased risk of complications for woman and developing fetus’s health. Pregnancy after the age of 35 is considered a high-risk pregnancy since the possibility of the development of abnormalities in the functioning of the woman's body and the course of pregnancy and childbirth. The phenomenon of postponing motherhood for a time when a woman acquires a good education and a stable financial situation requires undertaking educational and information activities about the biological, psychological and social consequences of late motherhood. It is definitely better to plan maternity at the most optimal age to minimize the risk of pregnancy and health of the child complications.

  19. Vacuum-assisted closure downgrades reconstructive demands in high-risk patients with severe lower extremity injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakagia, D; Karadimas, E; Drosos, G; Ververidis, A; Kazakos, D; Lazarides, M; Verettas, D

    2009-01-01

    Primary soft tissue reconstruction in complex leg injuries is mandatory in order to protect exposed tissues; however, it may be precluded by the patient's clinical status or by local wound conditions. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the use of negative pressure as an adjunct to delayed soft tissue reconstruction in patients with complex lower limb trauma. Forty-two patients with 49 complex lower limb injuries were treated with Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) 48 hours after bone fixation, vascular repair and surgical debridement. Wound swab cultures were obtained before and after every VAC application. Duration of therapy, wound flora, final reconstructive technique required, outcome and follow-up period were retrieved from medical records. Twenty-four male and eighteen female patients were recruited, with a mean age of 47 years. All were treated with VAC therapy for 15-42 days. Reconstruction was delayed due to the patients' critical condition, advanced age, medical co-morbidities, heavily exuding wounds and questionable viability of soft tissues. Patients were followed up for 90-895 days. Two wounds healed spontaneously, 6 were managed with delayed direct suture, 31 with split thickness skin grafts and 9 required local cutaneous, fasciocutaneous or muscular flaps. One patient died due to fat embolism. Wound bacterial flora progressively decreased in all but one patient. Scar formation was aesthetically acceptable by the patients while function depended on the initial injury. Negative pressure is a safe and effective adjunct to delayed soft tissue reconstruction in high-risk patients with severe lower extremity injuries, minimizing reconstructive requirements and therefore postoperative morbidity.

  20. Changes in structure and preferential cage occupancy of ethane hydrate and ethane-methane mixed gas hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Takahara, N; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    Structural changes and preferential cage occupancies were examined for ethane hydrate and ethane-methane mixed gas hydrates with five compositions in a pressure range of 0.2 to 2.8 GPa at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy showed the following structural changes. The initial structure, structure I (sI), of ethane hydrate was retained up to 2.1 GPa without any structural change. For the mixed hydrates, sI was widely distributed throughout the region examined except for the methane-rich and lower pressure regions, where sII and sH appeared. Above 2.1 GPa ethane hydrate and all of the mixed hydrates decomposed into ice VI and ethane fluid or methane-ethane fluid, respectively. The Raman study revealed that occupation of the small cages by ethane molecules occurred above 0.1 GPa in ethane hydrate and continued up to decomposition at 2.1 GPa, although it was thought that ethane molecules were contained only in the large cage.

  1. What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults' occupational performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2016-01-01

    critically appraised 13 of 995 detected papers. Extracted data were presented and summarised descriptively. Results Eight high-quality papers showed that occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy using cognitive, behavioural and environmental strategies may significantly improve......Abstract Title What are the short-term and long-term effects of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy in the home on older adults’ occupational performance? A systematic review Background There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the effectiveness of home......-based occupational therapy for older adults aimed at improving occupational performance by practicing activities and tasks. Aim This review synthesizes and discusses evidence for the effectiveness of occupation-focused and occupation-based occupational therapy for older adults at home. Material and methods Peer...

  2. Miscanti-1: Human occupation during the arid Mid-Holocene event in the high-altitude lakes of the Atacama Desert, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Lautaro; Loyola, Rodrigo; Cartajena, Isabel; López, Patricio; Santander, Boris; Maldonado, Antonio; de Souza, Patricio; Carrasco, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an interdisciplinary study of the Miscanti-1 archaeological site, located in the Holocene terrace deposits accumulated on the eastern margin of Miscanti Lake (4120 m.a.s.l.), northern Chile (23.7° S, 67.7° W). The human response to environmental and climatic variability in the Mid-Holocene (9500-4500 cal yr BP) is discussed through the zooarchaeological, lithic and paleoenvironmental records. We propose that, due to the increased aridity of the period, Miscanti Lake became a brackish paleowetland that attracted discrete groups of hunter-gatherers from lower elevation Andean areas. In contrast with the high frequency of human occupations known for the humid Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene (12600-9500 yr cal BP), the Miscanti-1 site is one of the few occupations recorded in the Atacama Highlands during the Mid-Holocene period. Data analysis suggests logistic and short-term campsite use for hunting the wild camelids that were attracted by the wetlands and fresh water (8100-8300 yr cal BP). In contrast to previous proposals for this period, we propose that access to high altitude environments did not cease, but was made possible by a shift to highly scheduled mobility and a specialized bifacial technology. Finally, the temporal and spatial links of Miscanti-1 are discussed in a regional context.

  3. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Brighenti-Zogg

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max. In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day. VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12, 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in physical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%, when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group.

  4. Physical Workload and Work Capacity across Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie; Mundwiler, Jonas; Schüpbach, Ulla; Dieterle, Thomas; Wolfer, David Paul; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel; Miedinger, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine physical performance criteria of different occupational groups by investigating physical activity and energy expenditure in healthy Swiss employees in real-life workplaces on workdays and non-working days in relation to their aerobic capacity (VO2max). In this cross-sectional study, 337 healthy and full-time employed adults were recruited. Participants were classified (nine categories) according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988 and merged into three groups with low-, moderate- and high-intensity occupational activity. Daily steps, energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents and activity at different intensities were measured using the SenseWear Mini armband on seven consecutive days (23 hours/day). VO2max was determined by the 20-meter shuttle run test. Data of 303 subjects were considered for analysis (63% male, mean age: 33 yrs, SD 12), 101 from the low-, 102 from the moderate- and 100 from the high-intensity group. At work, the high-intensity group showed higher energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps and activity at all intensities than the other groups (pphysical activity between the occupational groups on non-working days. VO2max did not differ across groups when stratified for gender. The upper workload limit was 21%, 29% and 44% of VO2max in the low-, moderate- and high-intensity group, respectively. Men had a lower limit than women due to their higher VO2max (26% vs. 37%), when all groups were combined. While this study did confirm that the average workload limit is one third of VO2max, it showed that the average is misrepresenting the actual physical work demands of specific occupational groups, and that it does not account for gender-related differences in relative workload. Therefore, clinical practice needs to consider these differences with regard to a safe return to work, particularly for the high-intensity group. PMID:27136206

  5. A Second Look at the Process of Occupational Feminization and Pay Reduction in Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas

    2018-04-01

    Using the IPUMS-USA data for the years 1960-2015, this study examines trends in the effect of occupational feminization on occupational pay in the U.S. labor market and explores some of the mechanisms underlying these trends. The findings show that the (negative) association between occupational feminization and occupational pay level has declined, becoming insignificent in 2015. This trend, however, is reversed after education is controlled for at the individual as well as the occupational level. The two opposite trends are discussed in light of the twofold effect of education: (1) the entry of women into occupations requiring high education, and (2) the growing returns to education and to occupations with higher educational requirements. These two processes have concealed the deterioration in occupational pay following feminization. The findings underscore the significance of structural forms of gender inequality in general, and occupational devaluation in particular.

  6. Combining high resolution water use data from smart meters with remote sensing and geospatial datasets to investigate outdoor water demand and greenness changes during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, K.; Ajami, N.; Urata, J.; Marx, A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrastructure modernization, information technology, and the internet of things are impacting urban water use. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), also known as smart meters, is one forthcoming technology that holds the potential to fundamentally shift the way customers use water and utilities manage their water resources. Broadly defined, AMI is a system and process used to measure, communicate, and analyze water use data at high resolution intervals at the customer or sub-customer level. There are many promising benefits of AMI systems, but there are also many challenges; consequently, AMI in the water sector is still in its infancy. In this study we provide insights into this emerging technology by taking advantage of the higher temporal and spatial resolution of water use data provided by these systems. We couple daily water use observations from AMI with monthly and bimonthly billing records to investigate water use trends, patterns, and drivers using a case study of the City of Redwood City, CA from 2007 through 2016. We look across sectors, with a particular focus on water use for urban irrigation. Almost half of Redwood City's irrigation accounts use recycled water, and we take this unique opportunity to investigate if the behavioral response for recycled water follows the water and energy efficiency paradox in which customers who have upgraded to more efficient devices end up using more of the commodity. We model potable and recycled water demand using geospatially explicit climate, demographic, and economic factors to gain insight into various water use drivers. Additionally, we use high resolution remote sensing data from the National Agricultural Imaging Program (NAIP) to observe how changes in greenness and impervious surface are related to water use. Using a series of statistical and unsupervised machine learning techniques, we find that water use has changed dramatically over the past decade corresponding to varying climatic regimes and drought

  7. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  8. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  9. [Which occupational groups in a hospital are particularly stressed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K; Drexler, H; Fischmann, W; Uter, W; Kiesel, J

    2011-07-01

    Increasing workload in health professionals and resulting health consequences have frequently been reported. We analysed the results from an employee attitude survey within a network of workplace health promotion and compared three occupational groups of a university hospital with two samples of employees of other industries. The survey was conducted in the years 2005, 2006 and 2007 using a standardized method, addressing 1748 employees of six companies. In order to compare specific occupational groups, both within the hospital and amongst different companies, five occupational groups were selected (medical profession, nursing service and administration of the hospital, academics of another company and employees of a financial service provider). Some results were specific for an occupational group, such as lower back pain and skin diseases in nurses and exhaustion in clinicians. Regarding several items the responses of employees of the hospital's administration were similar to that of the medical professionals and differed significantly from the responses of administrative and related employees in other companies. Employees of all occupational groups of the hospital were often frustrated and felt their work was not appreciated. Frequent demands included improved work atmosphere, better appreciation of work and better information regarding innovations. The analysis of standardized survey results specific for companies and occupational groups is an appropriate way to identify targets of health promotion. Constant over three surveys, again a high burden of stress was found in health care workers even affecting the administrative staff, regarding several work-related stress factors. According to our results activities to improve the working conditions in hospitals are urgently needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Relationship between occupational stress and burnout among Chinese teachers: a cross-sectional survey in Liaoning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ramos, Aaron; Wu, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2015-07-01

    Teaching has been reported to be one of the most stressful occupations in the world. Few studies have been conducted to explore the effects of occupational stress on burnout among teachers in developing countries. This study aimed to explore the relationship between occupational stress and burnout among teachers in primary and secondary schools in the Liaoning Province of China. A questionnaire that assessed occupational stress comprised of Karasek's job content questionnaire (JCQ), Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (ERI), and burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was distributed to 681 teachers in primary and secondary schools. A total of 559 effective respondents became our final study subjects. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression analyses were performed through the use of SPSS 17.0 to explore the association between occupational stress and burnout. A high level of emotional exhaustion was significantly associated with high extrinsic effort, high overcommitment, low skill discretion, and high job demand. A high level of cynicism was associated with low reward, low skill discretion, high overcommitment, and low supervisor support. The low level of professional efficacy was associated with low coworker support, low reward, low skill discretion, and high job demand. Compared to the JCQ, the ERI was more likely to explain the burnout of teachers in our study. Occupational stress proved to be associated with dimensions of burnout among Chinese teachers. It is important for administrators of primary and middle schools to note that strategies to decrease teachers' occupational stress seem to be crucial to enhance physical and mental health of teachers in China.

  12. Survey of occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers working in one of the districtsof Tehran municipality in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshavarzian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim Although sweepers are one of the high risk groups for HIV and HBV infections; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into high risk behaviors of sweepers. The aim of this study was to determine occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers who are working in district twenty, Tehran municipality.   MethodsThis study is a descriptive-analytical type. A convenience sample included 400 sweepers working in district twenty, Tehran municipality were selected by simple sampling. Demographic and occupational high risk behavior lead to infection inventories were two instruments for collecting data in the present study. Reliability and validity of scales had estimated. Statistical analysis of data was performed with SPSS 16 software for Windows.   Results Thirty percents of sweepers had a history of needle stick injuries and 35/5% of them had a history of cuts of hand from blades existing rubbishes. %25/5 of sweepers had not action encounter to discarded syringes and needles in streets and other places.   In the case of needle stick injury occurred, 2/5 percent of sweepers were washing damaged organ with clean water, 3/8% with soap and water and 7/8% with alcohol. 0/5% of them were sent out blood of damaged organ with pressure, 11 percent reported the incident to a doctor to get post-exposure treatment and 74/5% had not action. 4/8% of sweepers never wear gloves for collecting garbage and only 54% of sweepers were using gloves regularly. 4/8% of sweepers were never using boots when collecting garbage and only 41/5% of sweepers were using boots regularly . 65 percent of sweepers reported that municipal contractors provides boots and gloves and 53 percents of them reported that these tools are unsafe and thin.   Conclusion  Results of this study demonstrated that there are numerous occupational high risk behaviors which may lead to infection in sweepers. Educational talks were given to sweepers and municipal

  13. Understanding well-being and learning of Nigerian nurses: a job demand control support model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Yvonne; van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dam, Karen; Mistiaen, Wilhelm; Nikolova, Irina

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether Nigerian nurses' emotional exhaustion and active learning were predicted by job demands, control and social support. Limited research has been conducted concerning nurses' work stress in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Accordingly, it is not clear whether work interventions for improving nurses' well-being in these countries can be based on work stress models that are developed in Western countries, such as the job demand control support model, as well as on empirical findings of job demand control support research. Nurses from Nurses Across the Borders Nigeria were invited to complete an online questionnaire containing validated scales; 210 questionnaires were fully completed and analysed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Emotional exhaustion was higher for nurses who experienced high demands and low supervisor support. Active learning occurred when nurses worked under conditions of high control and high supervisor support. The findings suggest that the job demand control support model is applicable in a Nigerian nursing situation; the model indicates which occupational stressors contribute to poor well-being in Nigerian nurses and which work characteristics may boost nurses' active learning. Job (re)design interventions can enhance nurses' well-being and learning by guarding nurses' job demands, and stimulating job control and supervisor support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  15. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  16. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  17. An Experimental QoE Performance Study for the Efficient Transmission of High Demanding Traffic over an Ad Hoc Network Using BATMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications are attracting great attention from the research, industry, and end-user communities. The latter are increasingly claiming for higher levels of quality and the possibility of consuming multimedia content from a plethora of devices at their disposal. Clearly, the most appealing gadgets are those that communicate wirelessly to access these services. However, current wireless technologies raise severe concerns to support extremely demanding services such as real-time multimedia transmissions. This paper evaluates from QoE and QoS perspectives the capability of the ad hoc routing protocol called BATMAN to support Voice over IP and video traffic. To this end, two test-benches were proposed, namely, a real (emulated testbed and a simulation framework. Additionally, a series of modifications was proposed on both protocols’ parameters settings and video-stream characteristics that contributes to further improving the multimedia quality perceived by the users. The performance of the well-extended protocol OLSR is also evaluated in detail to compare it with BATMAN. From the results, a notably high correlation between real experimentation and computer simulation outcomes was observed. It was also found out that, with the proper configuration, BATMAN is able to transmit several QCIF video-streams and VoIP calls with high quality. In addition, BATMAN outperforms OLSR supporting multimedia traffic in both experimental and simulated environments.

  18. Stress in highly demanding IT jobs: transformational leadership moderates the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Apostel, Ella; Antoni, Conny H

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate transformational leadership as a potential moderator of the negative relationship of time pressure to work-life balance and of the positive relationship between time pressure and exhaustion. Recent research regards time pressure as a challenge stressor; while being positively related to motivation and performance, time pressure also increases employee strain and decreases well-being. Building on the Job Demand-Resources model, we hypothesize that transformational leadership moderates the relationships between time pressure and both employees' exhaustion and work-life balance such that both relationships will be weaker when transformational leadership is higher. Of seven information technology organizations in Germany, 262 employees participated in the study. Established scales for time pressure, transformational leadership, work-life balance, and exhaustion were used, all showing good internal consistencies. The results support our assumptions. Specifically, we find that under high transformational leadership the impact of time pressure on exhaustion and work-life balance was less strong. The results of this study suggest that, particularly under high time pressure, transformational leadership is an important factor for both employees' work-life balance and exhaustion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. How Does the Presence of High Need for Recovery Affect the Association Between Perceived High Chronic Exposure to Stressful Work Demands and Work Productivity Loss?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employers have increasingly been interested in decreasing work stress. However, little attention has been given to recovery from the exertion experienced during work. This paper addresses the question: how does the presence of high need for recovery (HNFR) affect the association between

  20. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  1. Occupational citizenships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2016-01-01

    Health workers are an overlooked category in the growing literature on health and citizenship. In this article I describe a 2012–2013 nationwide conflict in the public Health care sector in Burkina Faso to explore how ideas about citizenship were mobilized in a situation of political agitation. I...... examine how public health care is done in a context of material deprivation, technological shortage, and great demand from the population. Three distinct repertoires of practice, routine, and bureaucracy are identified, through which health workers strive to make meaning of their work and engage...... in the practice of public Health care. Drawing on these findings, I argue that adopting a citizenship framework offers an opportunity to improve our understanding of the multiple ways in which health workers manage the difficulties related to being (health professionals) and doing (professional Health care...

  2. History of occupational exposure to natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.

    1993-01-01

    From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Estimating Employment Dynamics across Occupations and Sectors of Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cörvers, Frank; Dupuy, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the demand for workers by sector and occupation using system dynamic OLS techniques to account for the employment dynamics dependence across occupations and sectors of industry. The short run dynamics are decomposed into intra and intersectoral dynamics. We find that employment by occupation and sector is significantly affected by the short run intersectoral dynamics, using Dutch data for the period 1988-2003. On average, these intersectoral dynamics account for 20%...

  4. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organization of occupational health and safety services is not yet resilient enough to handle the growing demands for workers' health in the context of industrialization. ... Commonly observed hazards in the workplace include occupational noise and ... Exposure to dust in textile and cement factories greatly exceeded ...

  5. Occupational balance: exploring the relationships among daily occupations and their influence on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Catherine L

    2004-10-01

    In this lecture, I have reviewed theoretical discussions and definitions of occupational balance, findings from selected studies, and highlighted some methods for measuring aspects of occupational balance. Are any of these ideas directly applicable to occupational therapy practice, education and research? Consider the hassles of everyday life, and add the complicating factors of illness, injury, disability, and limited income. Life, and the pursuit of necessary, desirable and obligatory occupations, can become overwhelming. Given that occupational therapists aim to enable individuals, regardless of ability, to successfully engage in a range of occupations, the answer to the question is yes. Furthering our understanding of occupational balance can improve our ability to serve individual clients and society. In 2001, Fearing stated in her Muriel Driver Memorial Lecture: We will not only recognize and value the skill of maintaining balance, our own and that of our clients, but we will live it. Balance will not be viewed as a set of scales that has equal parts such as work on one side and play on the other but rather the kind of balance that comes from being centred so that we act from a stable base. From that stable base, we will gain a keen sensitivity to rhythm--knowing when to move and when to let go. (Fearing, 2001 pp. 214-215) Perhaps these reflections have added a little coherence to the study of occupational balance. Occupational balance is a relative state, recognizable by a happy or pleasant integration of life activities and demands. There are indicators of imbalance, more so than tangible ways to measure it, and once recognized occupational therapists have the strategies to help restore a sense of occupational balance. Given our collective history and skill in client-centred practice, occupational therapists are capable of both advancing this line of inquiry and attaining occupational balance for ourselves and our clients.

  6. Occupational applications of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, P.

    1987-01-01

    A large population of workers are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in various occupational environments which often necessitates protection. Since ultraviolet radiation may create other environmental problems an occupational hazard- and protection evaluation can be complicated. Threshold Limit Values adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) on ultraviolet radiation are used in most countries as guidelines for risk assessment and control measures. This review addresses the levels of ultraviolet radiation met in occupational environments, its measurement and evaluation, and discusses different protection methods. Ultraviolet lasers are beginning to find their way into industrial processes but are still limited in number and they will not be covered here. Emphasis is on broad band incoherent radiation in high risk environments such as welding, and on the evaluation of protective eyewear, see-through curtains and plastics. Other occupational risks associated with the emission of ultraviolet radiation are discussed

  7. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  8. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  9. Training mid-career internists to perform high-quality colonoscopy: a pilot training programme to meet increasing demands for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Ghassemzadeh, Nicole K; Jackson, Christian S; Juma, David; Strong, Richard M

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. Despite a recent rise in CRC screening there remains an increasing demand for colonoscopy, yet a limited supply of gastroenterologists who can meet this need. To determine if a mid-career general internist (GIN) could be trained to perform high-quality colonoscopes via an intensive training programme. A GIN trained 2-3 days/week, 4-5 hours/day, for 7 months with an experienced gastroenterologist. Their independent performance was then compared with that of a gastroenterology attending (GA), with and without a gastroenterology fellow (GF). The primary outcome was to compare caecal intubation rates, adenoma detection rates (ADRs), interval CRC rates and complications between the three groups. 989 patients were initially included in the study, and 818 were included in the final analysis. Caecal intubation rates were 95%, 94% and 93% for the GIN, GA+GF and GA, respectively (p=0.31). The overall polyp detection rates were 68%, 39% and 44% among the GIN, GA+GF and GA, respectively (pdemand for colonoscopists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  11. Force Structure. DOD Needs to Integrate Data into Its Force Identification Process and Examine Options to Meet Requirements for High-Demand Support Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ...) will continue to meet its requirements using an all-volunteer force. The Army, in particular, has faced continuing demand for large numbers of forces, especially for forces with support skills...

  12. Fuel rod analysis to respond to high burnup and demanding loading requirements. Probabilistic methodology recovers design margins narrowed by degrading fuel thermal conductivity and progressing FGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, R; Heins, L; Sontheimer, F [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    The proof that fuel rods will safely withstand all loads arising from inpile service conditions is generally achieved through the assessment of a number of design criteria by using a conservative analysis methodology in conjunction with design limits ``on the safe side``. The classical approach is the application of a fuel rod code to the Worst Case which is defined by the combination of most unfavorable conditions and assumptions with respect to the criterion under consideration. As it is evident that the deterministic construction of such Worst Cases imply an (unknown but) intuitively very high degree of conservatism, it is not surprising that this will develop to cause problems the more demanding fuel insertion conditions have to be anticipated (increased burnup, high efficiency loading schemes, etc.). A certain relief can be gained form cautious revisions of single design limits based on grown performance experience. But this increase of knowledge allows as well to change the established deterministic ``go/no-go`` conception into a better differentiating assessment methodology by which the quantification of the implied conservatism and the remaining design margins is possible: the Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). Principles and elements of the PDM are described. An essential prerequisite is a best-estimate fuel rod code which incorporates the latest state of knowledge about potential performance limiting phenomena (e.g. burnup degradation of fuel oxide thermal conductivity) as Siemens/KWU`s CARO-E does. An example is given how input distributions for rod data and model parameters transfer into a frequency distribution of maximum rod internal pressure, and indications are given how this is to be interpreted in view of a probabilistically re-formulated design criterion. The PDM provides a realistic conservative assessment of design criteria and will thus recover design margins for increasingly aggravated loading conditions. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Fuel rod analysis to respond to high burnup and demanding loading requirements. Probabilistic methodology recovers design margins narrowed by degrading fuel thermal conductivity and progressing FGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, R.; Heins, L.; Sontheimer, F.

    1997-01-01

    The proof that fuel rods will safely withstand all loads arising from inpile service conditions is generally achieved through the assessment of a number of design criteria by using a conservative analysis methodology in conjunction with design limits ''on the safe side''. The classical approach is the application of a fuel rod code to the Worst Case which is defined by the combination of most unfavorable conditions and assumptions with respect to the criterion under consideration. As it is evident that the deterministic construction of such Worst Cases imply an (unknown but) intuitively very high degree of conservatism, it is not surprising that this will develop to cause problems the more demanding fuel insertion conditions have to be anticipated (increased burnup, high efficiency loading schemes, etc.). A certain relief can be gained form cautious revisions of single design limits based on grown performance experience. But this increase of knowledge allows as well to change the established deterministic ''go/no-go'' conception into a better differentiating assessment methodology by which the quantification of the implied conservatism and the remaining design margins is possible: the Probabilistic Design Methodology (PDM). Principles and elements of the PDM are described. An essential prerequisite is a best-estimate fuel rod code which incorporates the latest state of knowledge about potential performance limiting phenomena (e.g. burnup degradation of fuel oxide thermal conductivity) as Siemens/KWU's CARO-E does. An example is given how input distributions for rod data and model parameters transfer into a frequency distribution of maximum rod internal pressure, and indications are given how this is to be interpreted in view of a probabilistically re-formulated design criterion. The PDM provides a realistic conservative assessment of design criteria and will thus recover design margins for increasingly aggravated loading conditions. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Caffeine and energy drink use by combat arms soldiers in Afghanistan as a countermeasure for sleep loss and high operational demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Riviere, Lyndon A; Williams, Kelly W; McGurk, Dennis; Lieberman, Harris R

    2018-03-11

    Combat deployments are characterized by high operational demands with limited opportunities for sleep leading to fatigue and degraded cognitive and operational performance. Caffeine in moderate doses is recognized as an effective intervention for physical and cognitive decrements associated with sleep loss. This report is based on data collected by two separate, independently conducted surveys administered in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. It assessed caffeine use and sleep disruption among U.S. Army combat soldiers (J-MHAT 8; n = 518) and among deployed soldiers with different military assignments (USARIEM Deployment Survey; n = 260). Daily caffeine intake assessed in the J-MHAT 8 survey averaged 404 ± 18 mg. In the USARIEM Deployment Survey, intake was 303 ± 29 mg and was significantly higher among combat arms soldiers (483 ± 100 mg) compared to combat service support personnel (235 ± 23 mg). In both surveys, over 55% of total caffeine intake was from energy drinks. Additional sources of caffeine included coffee, tea, sodas, gum, candy, and over-the-counter medications. Higher caffeine intake was not associated with ability to fall asleep at night or wake-up in the morning (J-MHAT 8 survey). Higher caffeine consumption was associated with disrupted sleep from high operational tempo and nighttime duties of combat operations. Overall caffeine consumption and energy drink use in Afghanistan was greater than among non-deployed soldiers and civilians. Caffeine was frequently used as a countermeasure during night operations to offset adverse effects of sleep loss on physical and cognitive function, consistent with current Department of the Army recommendations.

  15. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  16. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  17. THE OCCUPATIONS OF NONCOLLEGE GOING YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEATH, BRIAN C.; LITTLE, J. KENNETH

    THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF YOUNG MEN AND CONDITIONS AFFECTING THEIR AMBITIONS AND FULFILLMENT WERE REPORTED. A SAMPLE OF 4,186 MEN WERE LOCATED FOR A FOLLOWUP 7 YEARS AFTER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION. THE PARENTS WERE ASKED TO REPORT CURRENT OCCUPATION FOR THEIR SONS, EDUCATION FOLLOWING HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION, MARITAL STATUS, AND MILITARY STATUS. THE…

  18. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  19. The Job Demands-Resources Model in China: Validation and Extension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model assumes that employee health and well-being result from the interplay between job demands and job resources. Based on its openheuristic nature, the JD-R model can be applied to various occupational settings, irrespective of the particular demands and resources

  20. Organisational Communication and Its Relationships with Occupational Stress of Primary School Staff in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobile, John

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is an important issue for most occupations and often arises when the demands of the workplace become excessive or aspects of work are unpleasant. If left unmanaged occupational stress can lead to a range of outcomes that can cost organisations dearly, including burnout, physical sickness, absenteeism and turnover. Some aspects…

  1. A comparison of some of the characteristics of patients with occupational and non-occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axon, E J; Beach, J R; Burge, P S

    1995-04-01

    Occupational asthma is the most frequently diagnosed occupational lung disease reported to the SWORD (Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease) scheme. However, diagnosing occupational asthma is not straightforward, and establishing a link with work may be difficult. This study was undertaken to determine the differences between patients with occupational asthma and those with non-occupational asthma which might help in their diagnosis. Information was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 subjects aged 18-65 years at each of two clinics--one for patients with occupational asthma and one for those with cryptogenic and environmental asthma. Replies were received from 26 patients with occupational asthma (87%) and 29 patients with non-occupational asthma (97%). The age of onset was significantly higher for those with occupational asthma (42.6 vs 20.7 years). Significantly more subjects with occupational asthma reported improvement on holiday, whereas no significant difference was found in the numbers reporting worsening of symptoms on work days. Those with occupational asthma were less likely to report seasonal variation in symptoms, exacerbation by allergies, pets and stress, or a family history of asthma. Subjects with occupational asthma were more likely to become unemployed (50% vs 3%). Recognition of some of these features in a patient's history may help in the difficult task of differentiating occupational from non-occupational asthma, potentially avoiding the need for exhaustive investigations in some patients. The high prevalence of holiday improvement among subjects with non-occupational asthma suggested that domestic or environmental allergies arising outside the workplace may have been making an important contribution to ongoing symptoms in these subjects.

  2. Radiation protection and occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, B.M.; Carter, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines trends in occupational and public health standard setting including those which apply to radiation protection practices. It is the authors' contention that while regulators, unions and employees demand higher standards of radiation protection and industry attempts to comply with tight controls of radiation exposure in the workplace, these standards are out of step with standards applied to health away from the workplace, recreational activity and other areas of industrial hygiene. The ultimate goal of an improvement in the health of the nation's workforce may no longer be visible because it has been submerged beneath the predominating concern for one aspect of health in the workplace. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  3. An Occupational Paradox: Why Do We Love Really Tough Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Penny F; McNeill, Margaret M; Dukes, Susan F

    2018-04-01

    Sometimes we come upon unexpected or counterfactual results during research that make us wonder and lead us into unknown territory. Such was the experience of a team of Air Force researchers exploring aeromedical evacuation crew members' experiences of safety and patient care concerns throughout the en route care system. To explore what it is about the aeromedical evacuation crew members' occupation that generates a strong motivation to the mission despite the demands it places on its workers. Eight focus groups were conducted with 69 Air Force aeromedical evacuation and staging facility active duty, Air National Guard, and Air Force Reserve Command nurses and medical technicians between May 2012 and April 2013 at 5 locations in the contiguous and outside the contiguous United States. An unexpected finding was that despite the austere nature of the Air Force en route care mission and the acuity of the patients being transported, nurses and medical technicians were passionate about bringing home the wounded, sick, and injured warriors and were committed to providing the best and safest care possible. It is plausible that a high level of commitment and mission focus contributes significantly to the safety and well-being of those transported. Still, we must wonder why nurses and technicians voluntarily serve in such a demanding and sometimes dangerous occupation, and yet find such a high degree of satisfaction and contentment with this type of job. ©2018 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  4. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  5. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  6. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...

  7. Occupational stress in the ED: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhashis; Qayyum, Hasan; Mason, Suzanne

    2017-07-01

    Occupational stress is a major modern health and safety challenges. While the ED is known to be a high-pressure environment, the specific organisational stressors which affect ED staff have not been established. We conducted a systematic review of literature examining the sources of organisational stress in the ED, their link to adverse health outcomes and interventions designed to address them. A narrative review of contextual factors that may contribute to occupational stress was also performed. All articles written in English, French or Spanish were eligible for conclusion. Study quality was graded using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-five full-text articles were eligible for inclusion in our systematic review. Most were of moderate quality, with two low-quality and two high-quality studies, respectively. While high demand and low job control were commonly featured, other studies demonstrated the role of insufficient support at work, effort-reward imbalance and organisational injustice in the development of adverse health and occupational outcomes. We found only one intervention in a peer-reviewed journal evaluating a stress reduction programme in ED staff. Our review provides a guide to developing interventions that target the origins of stress in the ED. It suggests that those which reduce demand and increase workers' control over their job, improve managerial support, establish better working relationships and make workers' feel more valued for their efforts could be beneficial. We have detailed examples of successful interventions from other fields which may be applicable to this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Uncertainties in neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration for occupancy estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Azimil Gani; Rahman, Haolia; Kim, Jung-Kyung; Han, Hwataik [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Demand control ventilation is employed to save energy by adjusting airflow rate according to the ventilation load of a building. This paper investigates a method for occupancy estimation by using a dynamic neural network model based on carbon dioxide concentration in an occupied zone. The method can be applied to most commercial and residential buildings where human effluents to be ventilated. An indoor simulation program CONTAMW is used to generate indoor CO{sub 2} data corresponding to various occupancy schedules and airflow patterns to train neural network models. Coefficients of variation are obtained depending on the complexities of the physical parameters as well as the system parameters of neural networks, such as the numbers of hidden neurons and tapped delay lines. We intend to identify the uncertainties caused by the model parameters themselves, by excluding uncertainties in input data inherent in measurement. Our results show estimation accuracy is highly influenced by the frequency of occupancy variation but not significantly influenced by fluctuation in the airflow rate. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability and validity of the present method based on passive environmental conditions for estimating occupancy in a room from the viewpoint of demand control ventilation applications.

  9. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kajiura, Mitsugu; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women) from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.

  10. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  11. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  12. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  13. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  14. Linking Foreign Language to Occupational Education in a Rural High School: Foreign Language with Criminal Justice and Travel & Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, William R.

    Ticonderoga High School (New York) has succeeded in increasing enrollments in foreign language courses beyond the college bound, Regents-level students who usually choose such courses. The school is located in the Adirondack Mountains, a region that, in the past decade, has seen increases both in prison construction and in tourism by…

  15. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Risk Factors Related to High Risk Occupational Groups in Kazeroon, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Beheshti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases. Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella. Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  16. The U-Shapes of Occupational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane Naja; Kircher, Philipp; Manovskii, Iourii

    2015-01-01

    Using administrative panel data on the entire Danish population we document a new set of facts characterizing occupational mobility. For most occupations, mobility is U-shaped and directional: not only low but also high wage earners within an occupation have a particularly large probability...... to leave. The facts conflict with several existing theories that are used to account for endogeneity in occupational choice, but it is shown analytically that the patterns are explained consistently within a theory of vertical sorting under absolute advantage that includes learning about workers' abilities....

  17. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  18. [Occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manufacturing service and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y Q; Li, S; Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, X M

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate occupational stress in assembly line workers in electronics manu-facturing service (EMS) and related influencing factors. Methods: From June to October, 2015, a cross-sectional survey was performed for 5 944 assembly line workers in EMS (observation group) and 6 270 workers from other posts (non-assembly line workers and management personnel; control group) using the self-made questionnaire for basic information, job demand-control (JDC) model questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire to collect respondents' basic information and occupational stress. Results: The observation group had significantly lower work autonomy, social support, and work reward scores than the control group (2.72 ± 0.63/3.64 ± 0.68/4.06 ± 0.80 vs 3.00 ± 0.67/3.83 ± 0.68/4.24 ± 0.75, t =23.53, 15.41, and 12.70, all P occupational stress determined by JDC and ERI models than the control group (64.5%/12.7% vs 52.6%/9.9%, χ 2 =182.26 and 23.41, both P 60 hours/week, and sleeping time occupational stress in JDC model; education background of Bachelor's degree or above, working time >60 hours/week, and sleeping timeoccupational stress in ERI model, while female sex and a high monthly income reduced the risk of occupational stress in ERI model. Conclusion: Assembly line workers in EMS are a relatively vulnerable group and have a high degree of occupational stress. Working time >60 hours/week and sleeping time occupational stress.

  19. High-resolution paleoenvironmental context for human occupations during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe (MIS 11, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivals, Florent; Ziegler, Reinhard

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution paleoecological proxies, such as stable isotopes or tooth microwear in large mammals, are often used for their potential to deliver information about the paleodietary traits of individuals and populations at the time of death. Such proxies are of interest in high resolution sites because they provide accurate data regarding the diet of large herbivores as well as the habitats that were available at the time of formation of the site, and by inference can detect seasonality in the formation of the assemblages. The integration of two techniques, tooth mesowear and microwear, applied to Middle Pleistocene assemblages of large herbivores from Steinheim and Heppenloch did not indicate seasonality at any of the two sites, most likely due to low resolution and time averaging of the dietary signal. However, the combination of the two proxies was highly informative for reconstructing the paleodiets of the large herbivores. The two paleodietary proxies provided consistent results that permitted us to propose a reconstruction of the paleodiets and habitats available at each site.

  20. Academic Task Demand in the 21st-Century, High-Stakes-Accountability School: Mapping the Journey from Poor [To Fair to Good to Great] to Excellent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Nehring, James; Carey, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on theoretical and empirical research concerning the relationship between academic work and student learning, this article explores the following questions: What skills are required to execute the academic tasks teachers assign on a daily basis? How do teachers and administrators interpret the task demands represented in instructional…

  1. Sex, Occupational Membership, and the Measurement of Psychological Androgyny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This study examines the relationship of androgyny to occupational membership. It was hypothesized that: (1) persons in stereotypically masculine occupations would be characterized by high levels of masculininity; (2) workers in a typically feminine occupation would rate themselves as highly feminine; and (3) androgynous individuals would be…

  2. Final report : Occupational gap analysis, volume 2 Wood Buffalo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The general economy of the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta has improved in recent years due to the expansion of the oil sand industry. Many of the oil sands projects are situated in the southern part of the region and are serviced out of Lac LaBiche. This paper examines the implications of this economic growth for the regional supply and demand of workers in key occupational categories. In particular, it projects employment opportunities that are directly attributed to the regional economic expansion, and assesses whether there will be an adequate supply of workers to meet the demand for new and replacement employees. The report includes: an overview of the regional economy; a population forecast for the region and the demand for workers in selected occupations; an analysis of whether or not the new labour force entrants will choose the selected occupations; and, a supply and demand analysis. 7 tabs., 2 figs., 5 appendices

  3. The selection of occupancy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An estimate of the proportion of time that an area is occupied by radiation workers is often used in radiological protection to permit relaxation of exposure rate limits above those for continuous occupation. This proportion is known as an occupancy factor and is used most frequently in X-ray facilities. The strategy for controlling the external exposure of radiation workers must be decided before occupancy factors are selected for the design of the radiation protection facilities. When shielding has to be designed the occupancy factor effects the design objectives and permits increased exposure rates at the shield surface. It is useful to note that the selection of occupancy factors with due regard to the expected spatial variation of the exposure rate can help to reduce the range of the worker's radiation exposure because field gradients are usually steeper close to the shield. When other hazards, such as internal exposure, and other constraints, such as cost of the space consumed, are added, the selection of the optimum set of occupancy factors is more difficult. Two zone occupancy factors are discussed in this paper and proposals are made for a strategy to be used when there is more than one hazard and the designer has to meet constraints imposed by limitations of the facilities available. An important feature of the strategy is the avoidance of high radiation exposure to small groups of workers. The errors involved in assessment of the actual dose received by the radiation worker must be taken into account and in particular the selection of the higher exposure rate limits must be made with attention to the accident potential

  4. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  5. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-11-25

    We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Cross-sectional study. We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20-59 years old. Individuals with occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. High job stress among firefighters was associated with both the occurrence of occupational injury, and also with an increased frequency of injuries. Therefore, job stress should be addressed to prevent occupational injuries among firefighters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. African Immigrants in Low-Wage Direct Health Care: Motivations, Job Satisfaction, and Occupational Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington-Ward, Yolanda

    2017-06-01

    This study explores motivations, job satisfaction, and overall perceived occupational mobility for African immigrants working in low-wage direct health care occupations. The study uses qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sample of thirty African immigrant workers in the greater Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Results show that four major themes captured the motivations of interviewees for doing direct care work: passion for care work, quick money, easily obtained employment, and direct care work as a pathway to other health occupations. The majority of the interviewees were satisfied with their jobs, yet almost all of them saw their occupations as temporary or transitional employment. Most of the interviewees also saw their jobs as lacking occupational mobility. In light of the increased national demand for direct care workers, the growing numbers of immigrants in the direct care labor force, and the high turnover and low retention rates of direct care workers overall, the study suggests that more must be done to make direct care work attractive and rewarding for African immigrant workers.

  7. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  8. Outsourcing occupational health services. Critical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Dianne

    2002-02-01

    Successful management of an outsourcing relationship produces a highly interactive, flexible relationship between two organizations. The unique skills and resources of the service provider can be leveraged by the purchasing organization to achieve its business goals. Occupational and environmental health nurses can orchestrate this process and implement this important management tool in the provision of quality occupational health services.

  9. Individual susceptibility to occupational contact dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, Sanja; Visser, Maaike J.; Verberk, Maarten M.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational Contact Dermatitis (OCD) is one of the most common work-related diseases. High risk occupations are in health care, hairdressing, food sector and metal industry. OCD tends to become chronic; persistent OCD often results in impaired quality of life and loss of work ability. The purpose

  10. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  11. Exploring stories of occupational engagement in a regional secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Karen; Cox, Diane L; Ward, Kath

    2016-09-02

    This paper focuses on the occupational experiences of five men living within a forensic mental health unit over a year. This study used a descriptive qualitative case study methodology to explore the meaning and value placed on daily life (activities, occupations and routines), and how this changed over time. The men's stories showed a complex picture of their experiences of daily life. This study demonstrated the impact of the environment on the men and the ongoing challenge of the need to balance treatment/therapy with security demands and opportunities. Three interrelated themes were identified: (1) Power and Occupation; (2) Therapy or Punishment; (3) Occupational Opportunities within Restrictions. These findings serve as a reminder to clinical teams to reassess the value of occupations attributed by their patients and the impact of the secure environment, whilst also acknowledging the potential for occupations to have a negative impact on well-being.

  12. Occupational Characteristics and Cognitive Aging in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability...... was assessed by 4 cognitive ability tests at ages 60, 70, and 80. RESULTS: Individuals in more intellectually challenging occupations had higher cognitive ability (r = .27-.38, p occupations performed more poorly (r = -.12 and -.13 at ages 50 and 60, p ..., the one in the more intellectually challenging occupation had lower subsequent cognitive ability. The association of physical hazards with lower cognitive ability level did not remain after adjustment for the basic demographics, and none of the occupational characteristics were associated with cognitive...

  13. Stress ocupacional no ensino: um estudo com professores dos 3º ciclo e ensino secundário Occupational stress in teaching: a study with high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rui Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com 689 professores portugueses, a leccionarem nos terceiro ciclo e ensino secundário. Foram avaliados indicadores de stress, "burnout", saúde física e satisfação profissional. Observaram-se valores significativos de stress ocupacional (perto de 40%, e de "burnout" (10% na exaustão emocional, 3% na baixa realização pessoal e 1% na despersonalização, vários problemas de saúde física e valores de insatisfação profissional perto dos 20%. As análises de regressão múltipla apontaram diferentes variáveis preditoras para as três dimensões do "burnout" (62% de variância explicada na exaustão emocional, 16% na realização pessoal e 13% na despersonalização. As análises discriminantes e "t-test" para amostras independentes demonstraram maior stress ocupacional nas mulheres, nos professores mais velhos, nos profissionais com vínculos profissionais mais precários, nos professores com mais horas de trabalho e com mais alunos em sala de aula. No final, apresentam-se as limitações do estudo e as implicações para a investigação futura.This work was done with 689 Portuguese high school teachers. We evaluated the stress, burnout, physical health and professional fulfilment. The results revealed very significant levels of occupational stress (percentages near 40%, a different frequency of burnout in the three appraised dimensions (10% in emotional exhaustion, 3% in reduced personal accomplishment and 1% in depersonalization, various physical health problems and values of professional dissatisfaction close to 20%. Multiple regression analysis pointed different predictors' variables for the three dimensions of burnout (more than 60% of explained variance for emotional exhaustion, 16% for personal accomplishment and 13% for depersonalization. The discriminant analysis and "t-test" for independent samples allowed us to verify more occupational problems (in different variables in the following groups: women

  14. Occupational burnout among nursing personel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wieder-Huszla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational stress and the related burnout syndrome is undoubtedly one of the most important challenges for public health. Objectives . The objective of the study was identifying occupational burnout among nurses. Material and methods . The questionnaire was responded by 408 professionally active male and female nurses, working in the territory of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. In the evaluation of occupational burnout the standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was applied. Results . Mean values of the level of occupational burnout for the study group amounted to 39.3 ± 30.9 with regard to emotional exhaustion, 30.64 ± 27.89 with respect to the depersonalization subscale and 66.26 ± 27.94 – the lowered level of job satisfaction. Conclusions . 1. The studied nursing personnel showed symptoms of occupational burnout in all dimensions of the syndrome, i.e. high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as well as low job satisfaction. 2. Individuals with higher education scored lower on the emotional exhaustion scale. 3. Emotional exhaustion is influenced by workplace and position.

  15. Alcohol use and misuse: What are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Alain

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Methods Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Results Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Conclusion Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to

  16. Alcohol use and misuse: what are the contributions of occupation and work organization conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain

    2008-09-24

    This research examines the specific contribution of occupation and work organization conditions to alcohol use and misuse. It is based on a social-action model that takes into account agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Data come from a representative sample of 10,155 workers in Quebec, Canada. Multinomial regression models corrected for sample design effect have been used to predict low-risk and high-risk drinking compared to non-drinkers. The contribution of occupation and work organization conditions (skill used, decision authority, physical and psychological demands, hours worked, irregular work schedule, harassment, unionization, job insecurity, performance pay, prestige) have been adjusted for family situation, social network outside the workplace, and individual characteristics. Compared to non-qualified blue-collars, both low-risk and high-risk drinking are associated with qualified blue-collars, semi-qualified white-collars, and middle managers; high-risk drinking is associated with upper managers. For constraints-resources related to work organization conditions, only workplace harassment is an important determinant of both low-risk and high-risk drinking, but it is modestly moderated by occupation. Family situation, social support outside work, and personal characteristics of individuals are also associated with alcohol use and misuse. Non-work factors mediated/suppressed the role of occupation and work organization conditions. Occupation and workplace harassment are important factors associated with alcohol use and misuse. The results support the theoretical model conceptualizing alcohol use and misuse as being the product of stress caused by constraints and resources brought to bear simultaneously by agent personality, structures of daily life, and macro social structures. Occupational alcohol researchers must expand their theoretical perspectives to avoid erroneous conclusions about the specific role of the

  17. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  18. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees’ well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37 in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market’s departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers’ well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288, we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities.

  19. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  20. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  1. Occupational accident and disease claims, work-related stress and job satisfaction of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattig, Birte; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the

  2. Imaging in occupational lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Kavakama, Jorge Issamu; Rodrigues, Reynaldo Tavares

    2006-01-01

    This chapter consists of a review of the literature regarding radiographic and tomographic characteristics of the principal occupational respiratory diseases (silicosis and asbestosis). Special attention is given to the practical relevance of high-resolution computed tomography, which is the most sensitive and specific method of identifying and quantifying the extent of pleural and parenchymal lesions related to such diseases. (author)

  3. The Effects of Demand-Responsive Parking on Transit Usage and Congestion: Evidence From Sfpark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Parking is a serious issue in many urban areas, especially those experiencing rapid population growth. To address this problem, some cities have implemented demand-responsive pricing programs, where parking prices vary depending on the occupancy rate...

  4. EXPLANATION OF VARIATION IN DEMAND FOR FARM CREDIT IN MISSOURI

    OpenAIRE

    Ashlock, Tara; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzed the demand for farm credit in Missouri. Results suggested that financial leverage, government payments, occupation of farm operators, average farm acreages, value of land and buildings and types of farm operation had significant influence on farm credit usage. The study highlighted the potential for credit rationing.

  5. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  6. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  7. Measurement of surface contamination by certain antineoplastic drugs using high-performance liquid chromatography: applications in occupational hygiene investigations in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, F M; Floridia, L; Pietropaolo, A M; Tavazzani, M; Colombi, A

    1999-01-01

    Within the context of continuing interest in occupational hygiene of hospitals as workplaces, the authors report the results of a preliminary study on surface contamination by certain antineoplastic drugs (ANDs), recently performed in eight cancer departments of two large general hospitals in Milan, Italy. Since reliable quantitative information on the exposure levels to individual drugs is mandatory to establish a strong interpretative framework for correctly assessing the health risks associated with manipulation of ANDs and rationally advise intervention priorities for exposure abatement, two automated analytical methods were set up using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the measurement of contamination by 1) methotrexate (MTX) and 2) the three most important nucleoside analogue antineoplastic drugs (5-fluorouracil 5FU, Cytarabin CYA, Gemcytabin GCA) on surfaces such as those of preparation hoods and work-benches in the pharmacies of cancer wards. The methods are characterized by short analysis time (7 min) under isocratic conditions, by the use of a mobile phase with a minimal content of organic solvent and by high sensitivity, adequate to detect surface contamination in the 5-10 micrograms/m2 range. To exemplify the performance of the analytical methods in the assessment of contamination levels from the target analyte ANDs, data are reported on the contamination levels measured on various surfaces (such as on handles, floor surfaces and window panes, even far from the preparation hood). Analyte concentrations corresponding to 0.8-1.5 micrograms of 5FU were measured on telephones, 0.85-28 micrograms/m2 of CYA were measured on tables, 1.2-1150 micrograms/m2 of GCA on furniture and floors. Spillage fractions between 1-5% of the used ANDs (daily use 5FU 7-13 g; CYA 0.1-7.1 g; GCA 0.2-5 g) were measured on the disposable polythene-backed paper cover sheet of the preparation hood.

  8. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  9. Palliative care in home care: perceptions of occupational therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gomez Portela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at understanding and reflecting on the perceptions of occupational therapists regarding the implementation of palliative care in home care. This is an exploratory, qualitative study, through semi-structured interviews, conducted in the second semester of 2012 with eight occupational therapists with experience in palliative care in the city of São Paulo. Content analysis identified four themes: characterization and professional trajectory in the field, understanding the concepts of palliative care, home care and palliative care, and occupational therapy and palliative care in home care. The results suggest that the role of the occupational therapist in this field has taken place at different levels of health care, being addressed to people with varying needs. The use of the concept of palliative care by the interviewees exceeds the notion of end of life, following the changes in the epidemiological transition. They understand that professional services follow the trend of national palliative care services with focus on specialized levels, but manifest the importance of its implementation in primary and home care. Among the barriers to practice, they identified the complexity of “being at home “, peculiarities of palliative care with high cost demands, lack of infrastructure and implementation of the current policy. Professional training and scientific roduction in the area were viewed as inadequate, although they identified a call for change. The interviewees recognized palliative care in home care as a strong professional field, but one still requiring study and discussions regarding its limits and conditions of implementation, especially in the Unified Health System.

  10. Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety is aimed at physicians and researchers in the wide-ranging discipline of occupational and ... The main objectives of Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety are to publish high quality scientific articles , to maximize the citation rate of the ...

  11. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Glossary References About Us Search Hazardous Agents Occupational Diseases High Risk Jobs Non-Occupational Activities Industries Job ... Findings Haz-Map®: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases by Jay A. Brown, M.D., M.P. ...

  12. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  14. Priority Setting for Occupational Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting priority occupational carcinogens is important for cancer prevention efforts; however, standardized selection methods are not available. The objective of this paper was to describe the methods used by CAREX Canada in 2015 to establish priorities for preventing occupational cancer, with a focus on exposure estimation and descriptive profiles. Methods: Four criteria were used in an expert assessment process to guide carcinogen prioritization: (1 the likelihood of presence and/or use in Canadian workplaces; (2 toxicity of the substance (strength of evidence for carcinogenicity and other health effects; (3 feasibility of producing a carcinogen profile and/or an occupational estimate; and (4 special interest from the public/scientific community. Carcinogens were ranked as high, medium or low priority based on specific conditions regarding these criteria, and stakeholder input was incorporated. Priorities were set separately for the creation of new carcinogen profiles and for new occupational exposure estimates. Results: Overall, 246 agents were reviewed for inclusion in the occupational priorities list. For carcinogen profile generation, 103 were prioritized (11 high, 33 medium, and 59 low priority, and 36 carcinogens were deemed priorities for occupational exposure estimation (13 high, 17 medium, and 6 low priority. Conclusion: Prioritizing and ranking occupational carcinogens is required for a variety of purposes, including research, resource allocation at different jurisdictional levels, calculations of occupational cancer burden, and planning of CAREX-type projects in different countries. This paper outlines how this process was achieved in Canada; this may provide a model for other countries and jurisdictions as a part of occupational cancer prevention efforts. Keywords: cancer prevention, carcinogen exposure, occupational health

  15. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  16. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  17. Occupational Stress and Quality of Life in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Moraes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To reduce the work related to stress and the psychosocial risk is not only an imperative question, but also moral. This epistemological study aims to verify the presence of the occupational stress and quality of life related to health in nursing professionals. We used three questionnaires: (a Socio Demographic Questionnaire, (b Job Strain Scale, and (c Item Short Form Health Survey. Statistical analysis was performed between the questionnaires, analysis of variance (ANOVA and simple and multiple linear regression. It was found that 60.8% of the participants see the high demand of work, 71.8% high control on the developed activity and 85.5% low social support. Related to eight dominant of quality of life, the most damaged are: pain (µ = 61.87 and vitality (µ = 62.25. It was concluded that although in most sample experiences an intermediary risk situation to stress, the quality of life showed a damaged.

  18. Occupational stress among Swedish audiologists in clinical practice: Reasons for being stressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Holm, Lucas; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Notsten, Margareta; Turunen Taheri, Satu

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports on the application of a Swedish translation of the audiologist occupational stress questionnaire (AOSQ) on audiologists working in Sweden. The relations between AOSQ scores and perceived effort, perceived rewards, coping strategies at work, demographic variables such as salary, education length, practise length, and practice type were tested. A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the AOSQ, effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, and demographic questions. Four-hundred and four Swedish licensed audiologists working with clients. The Swedish AOSQ translation demonstrated high inter-item correlations and high internal consistency. Several stress factors were identified: time spent at work, accountability, leadership at the workplace, paperwork and practice demands, equipment and clinical protocols, own health concerns, and job control. The outcome on the complete AOSQ questionnaire was related to perceived effort, perceived rewards, coping strategies at work, and age. The Swedish AOSQ translation seems to provide a valid measure of occupational stress among audiologists.

  19. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  20. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  1. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  2. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  3. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  4. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  6. Occupational risk from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that a real and concrete elevation of cancer cases has to be expected in all groups of occupationally irradiated perons. The risk figure one should use for mortality is 0.1% per rem of whole body dose. The mean dose registered for these persons lies well below the maximum permissible dose. In Germany there are about 0.2 rem per year in medical people and below 0.5 rem per year in the nuclear industry. But there are risk groups working in situations with typical higher exposure. In medicine, these are for example nurses working with radium implants in radiotherapy units, technicians doing cardiac catheterization and cholangiogrammes, nurses and physicians holding very young patient during X-ray investigations. In the nuclear industry there are also high level and low level working areas. Highest doses are generally delivered to personnel who are engaged from outside for revision and cleaning procedures

  7. Job satisfaction, burnout and turnover intention in occupational therapists working in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Still, Megan

    2013-10-01

    Employee wellbeing is an important issue for mental health services. Poor employee wellbeing (i.e., high levels of burnout or low job satisfaction) is associated with poorer consumer outcomes and higher staff turnover. This study set out to examine factors related to job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists in mental health. Thirty-four occupational therapists (response rate approximately 60%) in a metropolitan public mental health service participated in a whole-of-service workforce survey. The survey included measures of job satisfaction, turnover intention, burnout, job hindrances, job challenges and job resources and questions about positive and negative aspects of positions and factors that attracted employees to their current position. Burnout was associated with lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with rewards (remuneration and recognition) as well as cognitively challenging work. The variables most significantly associated with poorer wellbeing (higher turnover intention and burnout) were recipient contact demands (perception that contact with service users or families was demanding), and feelings of stress or fatigue. This study provides a detailed analysis of factors associated with job satisfaction, turnover intention and burnout in a group of occupational therapists working in mental health. To promote workforce wellbeing and enhanced retention, interventions to minimise burnout should be implemented and evaluated. These strategies should focus on enhancing job resources such as supervisor support, feedback and participation in decision making as well as building the personal resilience of occupational therapists working in mental health. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Transitioning From Occupational Therapy Student To Practicing Occupational Therapist: First Year of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombie, Randy P; Antanavage, Meredith E

    2017-04-01

    This research examined the transition from occupational therapy student to practicing occupational therapist over the course of one's first year of professional employment, as recalled by a sample of occupational therapists. Surveys were mailed to 500 occupational therapists randomly selected from membership in the American Occupational Therapy Association resulting in 202 returned surveys. Median year of graduation was 1998, ranging from 1967 to 2014. In general, respondents indicated the transition was positive. Having a mentor was related to high job satisfaction and good clinical fit, while supervising an occupational therapy assistant and low self-confidence were viewed as negative impact factors. Recent graduates presented with lower ratings of a positive transition and higher ratings of likelihood of experiencing burnout and initial job stress than earlier graduates. Recommendations for improving the transition experience are presented.

  9. Experiences of burnout and coping strategies utilized by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Paterson, Margo L; Lysaght, Rosemary M; von Zweck, Claudia M

    2012-04-01

    Work-related stress and burnout have been found to lead to job dissatisfaction, low-organizational commitment, absenteeism, and high turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine the burnout experiences of occupational therapists practicing in Ontario and to describe the practice implications and coping strategies employed. Data for this mixed methods study were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Areas of Worklife Survey, focus groups, and interviews in the hermeneutics tradition. High levels of emotional exhaustion were reported by 34.8% of participants, high levels of cynicism by 43.5%, and low professional efficacy by 24.6%. Practice issues included excessive demands on time, conflict, and lack of autonomy and respect. Coping strategies included spending time with family and maintaining professional/personal balance, control of work responsibilities, maintaining a sense of humor, and self-awareness/self-monitoring. This study contributes to understanding the practice challenges for occupational therapists, factors that contribute to therapist burnout, and strategies employed to maintain competent practice.

  10. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) is considered as a potentially effective tool to compensate generation intermittency imposed by renewable sources. Further, DR can instigate to offer optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Being a sizable load together...... with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...... price based scheduling followed by a demand dispatch based central control and a local voltage based adaptive control, to realize HP demand flexibility. Two-step control architecture, namely local primary control encompassed by the central coordinative control, is proposed to implement...

  11. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  12. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  13. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  14. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  16. Occupational stress, mental health and coping among information technology professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Jakkula V.; Chandraiah, K.

    2012-01-01

    Backround: Experience of occupational stress is inevitably involved in the execution of any type of work. Stress has an adaptive value. It motivates the individual to attend to the task and get rid of the tension or demand the unattended task produced. Materials and Methods : The study was planned to investigate the differences between executives and shop floor workers on occupational stress, mental health, job satisfaction and coping. A random sample of 200 executives and shop floor employee...

  17. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  18. Case-study of a user-driven prosthetic arm design: bionic hand versus customized body-powered technology in a highly demanding work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Wolf; Thali, Michael J; Egger, David

    2018-01-03

    Prosthetic arm research predominantly focuses on "bionic" but not body-powered arms. However, any research orientation along user needs requires sufficiently precise workplace specifications and sufficiently hard testing. Forensic medicine is a demanding environment, also physically, also for non-disabled people, on several dimensions (e.g., distances, weights, size, temperature, time). As unilateral below elbow amputee user, the first author is in a unique position to provide direct comparison of a "bionic" myoelectric iLimb Revolution (Touch Bionics) and a customized body-powered arm which contains a number of new developments initiated or developed by the user: (1) quick lock steel wrist unit; (2) cable mount modification; (3) cast shape modeled shoulder anchor; (4) suspension with a soft double layer liner (Ohio Willowwood) and tube gauze (Molnlycke) combination. The iLimb is mounted on an epoxy socket; a lanyard fixed liner (Ohio Willowwood) contains magnetic electrodes (Liberating Technologies). An on the job usage of five years was supplemented with dedicated and focused intensive two-week use tests at work for both systems. The side-by-side comparison showed that the customized body-powered arm provides reliable, comfortable, effective, powerful as well as subtle service with minimal maintenance; most notably, grip reliability, grip force regulation, grip performance, center of balance, component wear down, sweat/temperature independence and skin state are good whereas the iLimb system exhibited a number of relevant serious constraints. Research and development of functional prostheses may want to focus on body-powered technology as it already performs on manually demanding and heavy jobs whereas eliminating myoelectric technology's constraints seems out of reach. Relevant testing could be developed to help expediting this. This is relevant as Swiss disability insurance specifically supports prostheses that enable actual work integration. Myoelectric and

  19. Preventive occupational health interventions in the meat processing industry in upper-middle and high-income countries: a systematic review on their effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, B.J.; Soer, R.; de Boer, M.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Brouwer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of occupational health interventions in the meat processing industry on work and health-related outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched. Studies were included when they

  20. Preventive occupational health interventions in the meat processing industry in upper-middle and high-income countries : a systematic review on their effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of occupational health interventions in the meat processing industry on work and health-related outcomes. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched. Studies were included when they

  1. The impact of occupational stress factors on temporary work disability related to arterial hypertension and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Jovanović, Jovica; Jovanović, Jovana; Šarac, Ivana; Jovanović, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    To determine which specific groups of occupational stress factors influence the duration of temporary work disability related to arterial hypertension and joint complications/co-morbidities. Workers (n = 1398; 1009 in the exposed group, 389 in the control group) with arterial hypertension who worked at one workplace for a minimum of 10 years were divided into 10 subgroups, depending on the presence of joint complications/co-morbidities. The intensity of seven groups of occupational stress factors, the total score of Occupational Stress Index (OSI) and the average number of lost working days during 1 year were analysed. The number of lost working days due to arterial hypertension and joint complications/co-morbidities was significantly higher in the exposed group. In all subgroups of the exposed group there was a high correlation between the number of lost working days and the total OSI score. Specific occupational stress factors were associated with specific complications: High Demands with chronic myocardial infarction, Strictness with cerebral haemorrhage, Conflict/Uncertainty with cerebral infarction, Extrinsic Time Pressure with acute myocardial infarction, and Avoidance/Symbolic Aversiveness with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. There are specific groups of occupational stress factors which can influence the duration of work disability associated with certain complications and co-morbidities of arterial hypertension.

  2. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  3. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  4. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  5. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  6. Practical protective tools for occupational exposure: 1) double focus spectacles for the aged with highly refracted glass lens 2) remodeled barrier for radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, S; Yabe, S; Takamura, A; Ishizaki, H; Aizawa, S

    2000-11-30

    Two practical protective tools for occupational exposure for neurointerventional radiologists are presented. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of double focus spectacles for the aged with a highly refracted glass lens (special spectacles for the aged) for radiation protection of the crystalline lens of the eye in comparison with other spectacles on the market, based on the measurement of film density which was obtained by exposure of X-ray through those spectacles. As a result of the film densitometry mentioned above, the effectiveness of special spectacles for the aged in radiation protection was nearly equal to the effectiveness of a goggle type shield which is made with a 0.07 mm lead-equivalent plastic lens. The second purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the protective barrier, which we remodeled for cerebral angiography or neuroendovascular therapy, for radiation exposure, based on the measurement in a simulated study with a head phantom, and on the measurement of radiation exposure in operaters during procedures of clinical cases. In the experimental study radiation exposure in supposed position of the crystalline lens was reduced to about one third and radiation exposure in supposed position of the gonadal glands was reduced to about one seventh, compared to radiation exposure without employing the barrier. The radiation exposure was monitored at the left breast of three radiologists, in 215 cases of cerebral angiography. Employing the barrier in cerebral angiography, average equivalent dose at the left breast measured 1.49mu Sv during 10 min of fluoroscopy. In three kinds of neuroendovascular therapy in 40 cases, radiation exposure in an operator was monitored in the same fashion and the dose was recorded less than the result reported in previous papers in which any protective barrier have not been employed in the procedure (1,2). As a result, the two above mentioned protective tools are

  7. Occupational stress and depression in Korean employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Jin; Kim, Ji Yong; Chang, Sei Jin; Fiedler, Nancy; Koh, Sang Baek; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Kang, Dong Mug; Kim, Yong Kyu; Choi, Young Ho

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze what aspects of occupational stress predict depression among Korean workers, and determine which components of occupational stress or job characteristics is more strongly associated with depression. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8,522 workers (21-65 years of age) from a nationwide sample were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographics, job characteristics, depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and occupational stress assessed by the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS). Multivariate analyses show that inadequate social support (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.52, 1.66) and discomfort in occupational climate (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18, 1.32) were more important risk factors for depression than organizational injustice, job demand and job control. Compared to the 'business activities' industries, 'recreational, cultural and sporting activities' (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.80, 6.58), 'hotel and restaurants' (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.92, 5.80), 'real estate and renting and leasing' (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.13, 4.44), 'wholesale and retail' (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.28, 2.67), 'transportation' (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.11, 3.07), and 'financial institute and insurance' (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.48) industries had significantly greater risk of depression after controlling for gender, age, marital status, duration of employment and all subscale of KOSS. The finding that inadequate social support and discomfort in occupational climate is a better predictor of depressive symptoms than organizational injustice in Korea, indicates that the newly developed KOSS has cultural relevance for assessing occupational stress in Korea. Future studies need to understand factors such as "emotional labor" within certain industries where increased risk for depression is observed.

  8. Marketing occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M J; Harris, J C

    1981-01-01

    A very basic part of marketing success is determining areas of your business in which you have a competitive advantage. In drafting a marketing plan for the Denver Clinic, the competitive advantages group practices have in the area of occupational health were quickly realized. This competitive edge is presented along with the Denver Clinic's marketing strategies and plans to capitalize on occupational healthcare advantages.

  9. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  10. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  11. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  12. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  13. Demand for CAM Practice at Hospitals in Japan: A Population Survey in Mie Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Togo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have been provided at hospitals along with conventional medicine in industrialized nations. Previous studies conducted in Japan revealed high proportion of Japanese had experience of using CAM, but failed to discuss how it should be provided. The present study aims to clarify the demand for CAM practice at hospitals in Japan. A questionnaire consisting of 41 questions was mailed to 10 000 adults randomly selected from the electoral roll of Mie prefecture, Japan in January 2007. The questionnaire asked the subjects about demand for CAM practice at hospitals, types of CAM therapy to be provided and associated reasons. Sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, experience and purpose of CAM use, and information resource for CAM were also surveyed. Completed answers were collected from 2824 (28.6% respondents. Two thousand and nineteen (71.5% of the respondents demanded CAM practice at hospitals with the most likely reason of “patients can receive treatment under the guidance of a physicians”. The three most popular CAM therapies were Kampo, acupressure/massage/Shiatsu and acupuncture/moxibustion. The demand was positively associated with gender, ages of 40–59 years, annual household incomes of 5–7 million yen, occupation of specialist and technical workers and sales workers and poor health status. Higher demand was observed among those who used both CAM and conventional medical therapies for curative purposes. In conclusion, Japanese show a high demand for CAM practice, hoping to use CAM for curative purposes with monitoring by physicians at hospitals.

  14. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  15. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  16. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  17. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  18. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  19. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  20. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  1. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  2. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  3. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  4. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  5. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  6. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints in environmental and occupational health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Hansen, Ase M

    2007-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in environmental and occupational health is increasing due to increasing demands on information about health risks from unfavourable exposures. Biomarkers provide information about individual loads. Biomarkers of intermediate endpoints benefit in comparison with biomarkers...... of exposure from the fact that they are closer to the adverse outcome in the pathway from exposure to health effects and may provide powerful information for intervention. Some biomarkers are specific, e.g., DNA and protein adducts, while others are unspecific like the cytogenetic biomarkers of chromosomal...... health effect from the result of the measurement has been performed for the cytogenetic biomarkers showing a predictive value of high levels of CA and increased risk of cancer. The use of CA in future studies is, however, limited by the laborious and sensitive procedure of the test and lack of trained...

  7. High prevalence of malnutrition and deranged relationship between energy demands and food intake in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, A; Poulose, R; Kulshreshtha, I; Chautani, A M; Madan, K; Hadda, V; Guleria, R

    2017-07-01

    The relation between dietary intake and metabolic profile in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Patients with NSCLC were recruited and their caloric requirement and resting energy expenditure (REE) were calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation and Katch-McArdle formula respectively. Hypermetabolic state was defined as REE more than 10% above the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Body composition parameters were calculated by bioelectric impedance method. The 24-h dietary intake method and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool assessed nutritional intake. One hundred and forty-eight subjects were included (87% males). Of these, 46.6% subjects were hypermetabolic and 31% cachexic, with lower calorie and protein intakes than recommended, although per cent of total energy derived from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar. Hypermetabolic patients had lower BMI, though the per cent deficit in energy and protein consumption was similar. Cachexia was associated with lower BMR but not with deficit in energy or protein consumption. No correlation was seen between dietary intake and body composition parameters. The calorie and protein intake of NSCLC patients is lower than recommended. The discordance between elevated REE and dietary intake implies that the relationship between increased energy demands and food intake may be altered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1984-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  9. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1981-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  10. An online expert network for high quality information on occupational safety and health: cross-sectional study of user satisfaction and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhebergen Martijn DF

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people have difficulties finding information on health questions, including occupational safety and health (OSH issues. One solution to alleviate these difficulties could be to offer questioners free-of-charge, online access to a network of OSH experts who provide tailored, high-quality information. The aim of this study was to assess whether network quality, respectively information quality, as perceived by the questioners, is associated with questioners' overall satisfaction and to explore the impact of the information received on questioners' knowledge, work and work functioning. Methods We evaluated the experiences of OSH questioners with the online network ArboAntwoord.com over a two-year period. In this network, approximately 80 qualified experts are available to answer OSH questions. By means of a questionnaire, we assessed questioners' overall satisfaction with the network, whether the network was user-friendly, easily accessible and easy to handle and whether the information provided was complete, applicable and received in a timely manner. The impact of the information on questioners' knowledge, work or work functioning was explored with seven questions. In the study period, 460 unique OSH questioners asked 851 OSH questions. In total, 205 of the 460 questioners completed the questionnaire (response rate 45%. Results Of the responders, 71% were satisfied with the ArboAntwoord network. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the applicability of the information had a positive influence on the questioners' overall satisfaction (OR = 16.0, 95% CI: 7.0-36.4. Also, user friendliness of the network (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.6 and completeness of the information provided (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.8 were positively related to the questioners' satisfaction. For 74% of the questioners, the information helped to increase their knowledge and understanding. Overall, 25% of the questioners indicated that the received

  11. An online expert network for high quality information on occupational safety and health: cross-sectional study of user satisfaction and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2011-11-23

    Many people have difficulties finding information on health questions, including occupational safety and health (OSH) issues. One solution to alleviate these difficulties could be to offer questioners free-of-charge, online access to a network of OSH experts who provide tailored, high-quality information. The aim of this study was to assess whether network quality, respectively information quality, as perceived by the questioners, is associated with questioners' overall satisfaction and to explore the impact of the information received on questioners' knowledge, work and work functioning. We evaluated the experiences of OSH questioners with the online network ArboAntwoord.com over a two-year period. In this network, approximately 80 qualified experts are available to answer OSH questions. By means of a questionnaire, we assessed questioners' overall satisfaction with the network, whether the network was user-friendly, easily accessible and easy to handle and whether the information provided was complete, applicable and received in a timely manner. The impact of the information on questioners' knowledge, work or work functioning was explored with seven questions. In the study period, 460 unique OSH questioners asked 851 OSH questions. In total, 205 of the 460 questioners completed the questionnaire (response rate 45%). Of the responders, 71% were satisfied with the ArboAntwoord network. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the applicability of the information had a positive influence on the questioners' overall satisfaction (OR = 16.0, 95% CI: 7.0-36.4). Also, user friendliness of the network (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.6) and completeness of the information provided (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.8) were positively related to the questioners' satisfaction. For 74% of the questioners, the information helped to increase their knowledge and understanding. Overall, 25% of the questioners indicated that the received information improved their work, work functioning

  12. THE ELASTICITY OF EXPORT DEMAND FOR US COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.

  13. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming ha...

  14. Epidemiology of occupational injuries by nationality in Qatar: Evidence for focused occupational safety programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Peralta, Ruben; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-09-01

    Occupational injuries are the second leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar. Given the wide diversity of the country's migrant worker populations at risk, this study aimed to analyse and describe the epidemiology of these injuries based on the workers nationality residing in Qatar. A retrospective analysis of trauma registry data on occupational-related injuries was conducted. The analysis included all patients [aged ≥18 years] admitted to the Level I Hamad Trauma Center, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Out of 6555 trauma admissions, 2015 (30.7%) patients had occupational injury. The admitted Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 4.3 per 100 occupational injury related trauma admissions. Overall non-fatal occupational injury rate was 37.34 per 100,000 workers, whereas fatal injury rate was 1.58 per 100,000 workers. Most of the workers experiencing occupational injuries were from Nepal (28%), India (20%) and Bangladesh (9%). Fatal occupational injuries were predominately among Indians (20%), Nepalese (19%), and Filipinos/Bangladeshis (both 8%). Filipinos had the highest admitted CFR at 8.2 deaths per 100 trauma admissions with the next highest being Indians and Indonesians (4.2 per 100 trauma admissions). During the study period, the incidence of severe occupational injuries decreased despite a simultaneous increase in the worker population within Qatar. Almost one in four occupational injuries was a major trauma (ISS≥16). Nepalese and Indian workers represented 29% and 18% of all major trauma cases. Non-fatal occupational injuries appear to follow a pattern distinct from fatal ones. High-risk worker populations as defined by those with high admitted CFRs, experiencing the most severe or fatal injuries, must be the focus of targeted risk factor analysis and occupational safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  16. BURNOUT AND OCCUPATIONAL PARTICIPATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Hakan; Huri, Meral; Bağış, Nilsun; Başıbüyük, Onur; Şahin, Sedef; Umaroğlu, Mutlu; Orhan, Kaan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and occupational participation limitation among dental students in a dental school in Turkey. Four hundred fifty-eight dental students (females=153; males=305) were included in the study. The age range varied from 17-to-38 years. Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Version (MBI-SV) and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to gather data. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and Kruskall-Wallis test for independent groups were used for data analyses. The results indicated that 26% of all the students have burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion (25%), cynicism (18%), and academic efficacy (14%). The results showed that burnout is statistically significant in relation to demographics (pstudents showed considerably decreased occupational performance and satisfaction scores, which suggested occupational participation limitations. Occupational performance and satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while directly correlated with reduced academic efficacy (pburnout and occupational participation limitation can be seen among dental students. Students with burnout may also have occupational participation limitation. Enriching dental education programs with different psychological strategies may be useful for education of healthy dentists and improve the quality of oral and dental health services.

  17. Work-based physiological assessment of physically-demanding trades: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Groeller, Herb

    2003-03-01

    Technological advances, modified work practices, altered employment strategies, work-related injuries, and the rise in work-related litigation and compensation claims necessitate ongoing trade analysis research. Such research enables the identification and development of gender- and age-neutral skills, physiological attributes and employment standards required to satisfactorily perform critical trade tasks. This paper overviews a methodological approach which may be adopted when seeking to establish trade-specific physiological competencies for physically-demanding trades (occupations). A general template is presented for conducting a trade analyses within physically-demanding trades, such as those encountered within military or emergency service occupations. Two streams of analysis are recommended: the trade analysis and the task analysis. The former involves a progressive dissection of activities and skills into a series of specific tasks (elements), and results in a broad approximation of the types of trade duties, and the links between trade tasks. The latter, will lead to the determination of how a task is performed within a trade, and the physiological attributes required to satisfactorily perform that task. The approach described within this paper is designed to provide research outcomes which have high content, criterion-related and construct validities.

  18. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  19. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period