WorldWideScience

Sample records for high critical beta

  1. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  2. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  4. High harmonic fast waves in high beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki

    1995-04-01

    High harmonic fast magnetosonic wave in high beta/high dielectric plasmas is investigated. including the finite-Larmor-radius effects. In this regime, due to the combination of group velocity slow down and the high beta enhancement, the electron absorption via electron Landau and electron magnetic pumping becomes significant enough that one can expect a strong ({approximately} 100%) single pass absorption. By controlling the wave spectrum, the prospect of some localized electron heating and current drive appears to be feasible in high beta low-aspect-ratio tokamak regimes. Inclusion of finite-Larmor-radius terms shows an accessibility limit in the high ion beta regime ({beta}{sub i} = 50% for a deuterium plasma) due to mode-conversion into an ion Bernstein-wave-like mode while no beta limit is expected for electrons. With increasing ion beta, the ion damping can increase significantly particularly near the beta limits. The presence of energetic ion component expected during intense NBI and {alpha}-heating does not appear to modify the accessibility condition nor cause excessive wave absorption.

  5. High-{beta} disruption in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Janos, A. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Three dimensional MHD simulations of high-{beta} plasmas show that toroidally localized high-n ballooning modes can be driven unstable by the local pressure steepening which arises from the evolution of low-n modes. Nonlinearly, the high-n mode becomes even more localized and produces a strong local pressure bulge which destroys the flux surfaces resulting in a thermal quench. The flux surfaces then recover temporarily but now contain large magnetic islands. This scenario is supported by experimental data.

  6. RWM Critical Rotation Frequency and Beta Dependence in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Aaron; Sabbagh, S. A.; Menard, J. E.; Battaglia, D. J.

    2005-10-01

    The resistive wall mode (RWM) can be stabilized by maintaining the plasma toroidal rotation frequency (φφ) above a critical rotation frequency (φcrit). Recent experiments on NSTX seek to determine φcrit and rotation profile effects through actively braking plasma rotation by the application of external magnetic fields. Results from these experiments indicate that maintaining φφ at the q = 2 surface above φA/4q^2 is a necessary condition for RWM stability where φA is the local Alfven frequency. This result is in agreement with a theoretical model derived from a drift-kinetic energy principle. Similarity experiments with DIII-D are being performed to examine the aspect ratio dependence of the φcrit scaling. When φφ at the q = 2 surface drops below φcrit, the growth of internal kink/ballooning modes can prevent the RWM from terminating the discharge. A small beta collapse which drops φcrit, accompanies this mode growth allowing a recovery of RWM rotational stabilization while maintaining βN> βN^no-wall.

  7. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Kesner, J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run.

  8. Beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Vaquer, Sergi; Llauradó-Serra, Mireia; Pontes, Caridad; Calvo, Gonzalo; Soy, Dolors; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    .... This article aims to describe the current clinical scenario for beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and CRRT, to highlight the sources of variability among the different...

  9. A critical role for beta-endorphin in cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deri, I; Schindler, C J; Yadid, G

    2004-03-01

    Endogenous beta-endorphin levels in the brain are elevated in response to cocaine and are downstream of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. However, beta-endorphin's direct involvement in cocaine reinforcement has not been demonstrated. In the present study, a single bilateral microinjection of anti-beta-endorphin antibodies (4 microg) to the nucleus accumbens during the maintenance phase of cocaine self-administration (1 mg/kg/infusion) significantly increased the number of active and inactive lever responses. The increase in lever responses is reminiscent of rat behavior during extinction of cocaine self-administration. Further, a cocaine dose-response demonstrates that the increased lever presses in anti-beta-endorphin antibody-injected rats was still present after substitution with a lower dose of cocaine. These findings support a critical role for beta-endorphin in the cocaine brain reward system. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  10. Beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Vaquer, Sergi; Llauradó-Serra, Mireia; Pontes, Caridad; Calvo, Gonzalo; Soy, Dolors; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the most important intervention for successful treatment of septic shock, data guiding optimization of beta-lactam prescription in critically ill patients prescribed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are still limited. Being small hydrophilic molecules, beta-lactams are likely to be cleared by CRRT to a significant extent. As a result, additional variability may be introduced to the per se variable antibiotic concentrati...

  11. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  12. Suppression of Electron Thermal Conduction in High $\\beta$ Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Roberg-Clark, G T; Reynolds, C S; Swisdak, M

    2016-01-01

    Electron heat conduction is explored with particle-in-cell simulations and analytic modeling in a high $\\beta$ system relevant to galaxy clusters. Linear wave theory reveals that whistler waves are driven unstable by electron heat flux even when the heat flux is weak. The resonant interaction of electrons with these waves plays a critical role in controlling the impact of the waves on the heat flux. In a 1D model only electrons moving opposite in direction to the heat flux resonate with the waves and electron heat flux is only modestly reduced. In a 2D system transverse whistlers also resonate with electrons propagating in the direction of the heat flux and resonant overlap leads to strong suppression of electron heat flux. The results suggest that electron heat conduction might be strongly suppressed in galaxy clusters.

  13. [Tocolysis, use of beta-sympatomimetics for threatening preterm delivery: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, P

    2001-05-01

    Use of beta-sympatomimetics for threatening preterm delivery: a critical review. Preterm birth is the principal cause of perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Over the past 40 years, numerous treatments have been tested and used to try to inhibit preterm labor. This literature review is limited to the published studies of beta-adrenergic agonists (beta-sympathomimetics). Among 36 articles that have examined the treatment of acute phase preterm labor by intravenous beta-sympathomimetic administration, 26 are clinical studies with severe biases that make them unacceptable for analysis: non-randomized clinical trials, retrospective studies or retrospective control groups, inadequate recording of pregnancy outcome, exclusion of patients after randomization, confounding factors due to the use of multiple therapeutic agents, inadequate study power.Of the 10 acceptable placebo-controlled trials, seven, including the largest (the Canadian Preterm Labor Investigators' Group, with 708 women), found that beta-sympathomimetics were not better than placebo in prolonging pregnancy or reducing neonatal morbidity. Only three studies found that they were superior to placebo. These agents cause numerous maternal side effects that may be life-threatening, because beta-adrenergic receptors are present in many organs. The cardiovascular system is the most severely affected, but side effects also concern the pancreas, kidneys, intestines, and liver. beta-Sympathomimetics cross the placenta rapidly. Fetuses probably respond in the same way their mothers do to stimulation of their beta-adrenergic receptors. Nonetheless, data from the controlled clinical trials show no difference in neonatal mortality or severe morbidity between children born to mothers treated with beta-sympathomimetics and those born to mothers in control groups. The efficacy of preventive treatment by oral or subcutaneous administration of beta-sympathomimetics has also been assessed: a meta-analysis and 2

  14. On the Demand for High-Beta Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Simutin, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have documented that pension plan sponsors often monitor a fund’s performance relative to a benchmark. We use a first-difference approach to show that in an effort to beat benchmarks, fund managers controlling large pension assets tend to increase their exposure to high-beta stocks......, while aiming to maintain tracking errors around the benchmark. The findings support theoretical conjectures that benchmarking can lead managers to tilt their portfolio toward high-beta stocks and away from low-beta stocks, which can reinforce observed pricing anomalies....

  15. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  16. Early Treatment Critical: Bexarotene Reduces Amyloid-Beta Burden In Silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Isaacson, David

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptides have long been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Bexarotene, a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating a class of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has been reported to facilitate the removal of amyloid-beta. We have developed a mathematical model to explore the efficacy of bexarotene treatment in reducing amyloid-beta load, and simulate amyloid-beta production throughout the lifespan of diseased mice. Both aspects of the model are based on and consistent with previous experimental results. Beyond what is known empirically, our model shows that low dosages of bexarotene are unable to reverse symptoms in diseased mice, but dosages at and above an age-dependent critical concentration can recover healthy brain cells. Further, early treatment was shown to have significantly improved efficacy versus treatment in older mice. Relevance with respect to bexarotene-based amyloid-beta-clearance mechanism and direct treatment for Alzheimer's disease is emphasized.

  17. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease.

  18. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  19. Continuous beta-lactam infusion in critically ill patients: the clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Dulhunty, Joel M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy over whether traditional intermittent bolus dosing or continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics is preferable in critically ill patients. No significant difference between these two dosing strategies in terms of patient outcomes has been shown yet. This is despite compelling in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data. A lack of significance in clinical outcome studies may be due to several methodological flaws potentially masking the benefits o...

  20. Beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Marta; Vaquer, Sergi; Llauradó-Serra, Mireia; Pontes, Caridad; Calvo, Gonzalo; Soy, Dolors; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2014-06-23

    Although early and appropriate antibiotic therapy remains the most important intervention for successful treatment of septic shock, data guiding optimization of beta-lactam prescription in critically ill patients prescribed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are still limited. Being small hydrophilic molecules, beta-lactams are likely to be cleared by CRRT to a significant extent. As a result, additional variability may be introduced to the per se variable antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients. This article aims to describe the current clinical scenario for beta-lactam dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and CRRT, to highlight the sources of variability among the different studies that reduce extrapolation to clinical practice, and to identify the opportunities for future research and improvement in this field. Three frequently prescribed beta-lactams (meropenem, piperacillin and ceftriaxone) were chosen for review. Our findings showed that present dosing recommendations are based on studies with drawbacks limiting their applicability in the clinical setting. In general, current antibiotic dosing regimens for CRRT follow a one-size-fits-all fashion despite emerging clinical data suggesting that drug clearance is partially dependent on CRRT modality and intensity. Moreover, some studies pool data from heterogeneous populations with CRRT that may exhibit different pharmacokinetics (for example, admission diagnoses different to septic shock, such as trauma), which also limit their extrapolation to critically ill patients with septic shock. Finally, there is still no consensus regarding the %T>MIC (percentage of dosing interval when concentration of the antibiotic is above the minimum inhibitory concentration of the pathogen) value that should be chosen as the pharmacodynamic target for antibiotic therapy in patients with septic shock and CRRT. For empirically optimized dosing, during the first day a loading dose is required

  1. Ideal MHD stability of very high beta tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.; Manickam, J.; Monticello, D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.; Strickler, D.J.; Whitson, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Glasser, A.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Sykes, A. (UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (UK)); Ramos, J.J. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Plasma Fusion Center)

    1990-12-01

    Achieving very high {beta} and high {beta}{sub p} simultaneously in tokamaks generally implies that the second stability region against ballooning modes must be accessed. We describe several approaches for doing this, which are characterized by the choice of constraints imposed on the equilibrium profiles and the cross-sectional shape of the plasma. The combination of high toroidal beta, restricting the current density to vanish at the edge of the plasma and maintaining a monotonic q profile, proves to be the most stringent. Consideration of equilibria with high {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} but low {beta} facilitates accessibility with peaked pressure profiles and high values of q{sub 0}. Allowing the pressure gradient and, hence, the current density to be finite at the plasma edge allows all surfaces to lie within the second stability regime. For free boundary plasmas with divertors, the divertor stabilized edge region remains in the first stability regime while the plasma core reaches into the second regime. Careful tailoring of the profiles must be used to traverse the unstable barrier commonly seen near the edge of these plasmas. The CAMINO code allows us to compute s-{alpha} curves for general tokamak geometry. These diagrams enable us to construct equilibria whose profiles are only constrained, at worst, to be marginally stable everywhere, but do not necessarily satisfy the constraints on the current or {beta}. There are theoretical indications that under certain conditions the external kinks possess a second region of stability at high q{sub 0} that is analogous to that of the ballooning modes. It is found that extremely accurate numerical means must be developed and applied to confidently establish the validity of these results. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. High strength beta titanium alloys: New design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okulov, I.V., E-mail: okulovilya@yandex.ru [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Wendrock, H. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Volegov, A.S. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Attar, H. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia); Kühn, U. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Skrotzki, W. [TU Dresden, Institut für Strukturphysik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, J. [IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaft, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-03-25

    A novel approach for development of high strength and ductile beta titanium alloys was proposed and successfully applied. The microstructure of the designed alloys is fully composed of a bcc β-Ti phase exhibiting dendritic morphology. The new Ti{sub 68.8}Nb{sub 13.6}Cr{sub 5.1}Co{sub 6}Al{sub 6.5} (at%) alloy (BETA{sup tough} alloy) exhibits a maximum tensile strength of 1290±50 MPa along with 21±3% of fracture strain. The specific energy absorption value upon mechanical deformation of the BETA{sup tough} alloy exceeds that of Ti-based metallic glass composites and commercial high strength Ti-based alloys. The deformation behavior of the new alloys was correlated with their microstructure by means of in-situ studies of the microstructure evolution upon tensile loading in a scanning electron microscope.

  3. Dynamic Hysteresis Probes High-{\\beta} Nanolaser Emission Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Si Hui; Amili, Abdelkrim El; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2016-01-01

    The quest for an integrated light source that promises high energy efficiency and fast modulation for high-performance photonic circuits has led to the development of room-temperature telecom-wavelength nanoscale laser with high spontaneous emission factors, \\beta. The coherence characterization of this type of lasers is inherently difficult with the conventional measurement of output light intensity versus input pump intensity due to the diminishing kink in the measurement curve. We demonstrate the transition from chaotic to coherent emission of a high-{\\beta} pulse-pump metallo-dielectric nanolaser can be determined by examining the width of a second order intensity correlation peak, which shrinks below and broadens above threshold. Photon fluctuation study, first one ever reported for this type of nanolaser, confirms the validity of this measurement technique. Additionally, we show that the width variation above threshold results from the delayed threshold phenomenon, providing the first indirect observati...

  4. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  5. Advanced operation scenarios toward high-beta, steady-state plasmas in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Si-Woo; Jeon, Y. M.; Woo, M. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, J. M.; Park, Y. S.; Kstar Team

    2016-10-01

    For the realization of the fusion reactor, solving issues for high-beta steady-state operation is one of the essential topics for the present superconducting tokamaks and in this regard, KSTAR has been focusing on maximizing performance and increasing pulse length simultaneously. Typically, study on high beta operation has been focusing on advanced scenario limited at relatively short pulse discharge and partial success has been reported previously. However, it must be stressed that it is critical to verify compatibility of the developed scenario to long-pulse operation and compared with that of the short-pulse, it is turned out stable long-pulse operation is possible only with a reduced level of beta. In this work, the results of recent approaches in long-pulse operation are presented focusing respectively on high betaN, high betap and high li scenarios. For high betaN, the achieved level is close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =1.4T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by m/n =2/1 tearing mode and is also sensitive on the internal inductance. For high betap, conditions of the maximum betap is investigated mainly by parametric scans of plasma current (Ip =0.4-0.7 MA) and also neutral beam injection power (3-5MW). The achieved betap is also close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =2.9T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by heating power and without indication of MHD activities. Finally, attempt for high li discharge will be addressed on scenario development and transient results.

  6. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in high-beta helical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulation of electromagnetic turbulence in finite-beta plasmas is important for predicting the performance of fusion reactors. Whereas in low-beta tokamaks the zonal flow shear acts to regulate ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, it has often been observed that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and, at moderate-beta, the ITG mode continue to grow without reaching a physically relevant level of saturation. The corresponding problem in helical high-beta plasmas, the identification of a saturation mechanism for microturbulence in regimes where zonal flow generation is too weak, is the subject of the present work. This problem has not been previously explored because of numerical difficulties associated with complex three-dimensional magnetic structures as well as multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The present study identifies a new saturation process of the KBM turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a high-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e. it has finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ITG modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing, rather than by the zonal flow shear. The mechanism is quantitatively evaluated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer.

  7. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  8. Critical Role of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Different Phases of Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyari, Mohammadreza; Farrokhi, Ali; Maharlooei, Mohsen Khosravi; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Significance This review highlights the critical role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1–3 within different phases of wound healing, in particular, late-stage wound healing. It is also very important to identify the TGF-β1–controlling factors involved in slowing down the healing process upon wound epithelialization. Recent Advances TGF-β1, as a growth factor, is a known proponent of dermal fibrosis. Several strategies to modulate or regulate TGF's actions have been thoroughly investigated in an effort to create successful therapies. This study reviews current discourse regarding the many roles of TGF-β1 in wound healing by modulating infiltrated immune cells and the extracellular matrix. Critical Issues It is well established that TGF-β1 functions as a wound-healing promoting factor, and thereby if in excess it may lead to overhealing outcomes, such as hypertrophic scarring and keloid. Thus, the regulation of TGF-β1 in the later stages of the healing process remains as critical issue of which to better understand. Future Directions One hypothesis is that cell communication is the key to regulate later stages of wound healing. To elucidate the role of keratinocyte/fibroblast cross talk in controlling the later stages of wound healing we need to: (1) identify those keratinocyte-released factors which would function as wound-healing stop signals, (2) evaluate the functionality of these factors in controlling the outcome of the healing process, and (3) formulate topical vehicles for these antifibrogenic factors to improve or even prevent the development of hypertrophic scarring and keloids as a result of deep trauma, burn injuries, and any type of surgical incision. PMID:24527344

  9. Electromagnetic stabilization of tokamak microturbulence in a high-$\\beta$ regime

    CERN Document Server

    Citrin, J; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Mantica, P; Told, D; Bourdelle, C; Hatch, D R; Hogeweij, G M D; Johnson, T; Pueschel, M J; Schneider, M

    2014-01-01

    The impact of electromagnetic stabilization and flow shear stabilization on ITG turbulence is investigated. Analysis of a low-$\\beta$ JET L-mode discharge illustrates the relation between ITG stabilization, and proximity to the electromagnetic instability threshold. This threshold is reduced by suprathermal pressure gradients, highlighting the effectiveness of fast ions in ITG stabilization. Extensive linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are then carried out for the high-$\\beta$ JET hybrid discharge 75225, at two separate locations at inner and outer radii. It is found that at the inner radius, nonlinear electromagnetic stabilization is dominant, and is critical for achieving simulated heat fluxes in agreement with the experiment. The enhancement of this effect by suprathermal pressure also remains significant. It is also found that flow shear stabilization is not effective at the inner radii. However, at outer radii the situation is reversed. Electromagnetic stabilization is negligible while the flow...

  10. Critical Role of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Different Phases of Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakyari, Mohammadreza; Farrokhi, Ali; Maharlooei, Mohsen Khosravi; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    This review highlights the critical role of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1-3 within different phases of wound healing, in particular, late-stage wound healing. It is also very important to identify the TGF-β1-controlling factors involved in slowing down the healing process upon wound epithelialization. TGF-β1, as a growth factor, is a known proponent of dermal fibrosis. Several strategies to modulate or regulate TGF's actions have been thoroughly investigated in an effort to create successful therapies. This study reviews current discourse regarding the many roles of TGF-β1 in wound healing by modulating infiltrated immune cells and the extracellular matrix. It is well established that TGF-β1 functions as a wound-healing promoting factor, and thereby if in excess it may lead to overhealing outcomes, such as hypertrophic scarring and keloid. Thus, the regulation of TGF-β1 in the later stages of the healing process remains as critical issue of which to better understand. One hypothesis is that cell communication is the key to regulate later stages of wound healing. To elucidate the role of keratinocyte/fibroblast cross talk in controlling the later stages of wound healing we need to: (1) identify those keratinocyte-released factors which would function as wound-healing stop signals, (2) evaluate the functionality of these factors in controlling the outcome of the healing process, and (3) formulate topical vehicles for these antifibrogenic factors to improve or even prevent the development of hypertrophic scarring and keloids as a result of deep trauma, burn injuries, and any type of surgical incision.

  11. Relationship Between Beta Cell Dysfunction and Severity of Disease Among Critically Ill Children: A STROBE-Compliant Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Lu, Xiu-Lan; Xiao, Zheng-Hui; Qiu, Jun; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2016-05-01

    Although beta cell dysfunction has been proved to predict prognosis among humans and animals, its prediction on severity of disease remains unclear among children. The present study was aimed to examine the relationship between beta cell dysfunction and severity of disease among critically ill children.This prospective study included 1146 critically ill children, who were admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Hunan Children's Hospital from November 2011 to August 2013. Information on characteristics, laboratory tests, and prognostic outcomes was collected. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β, evaluating beta cell function, was used to divide all participants into 4 groups: HOMA-β = 100% (group I, n = 339), 80% ≤ HOMA-β Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score, incidence of organ damage, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), mechanical ventilation (MV) and mortality. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of developing poor outcomes among patients in different HOMA-β groups, with group I as the reference group.Among 1146 children, incidence of HOMA-β insulin declined with the decrement of HOMA-β (P interval) for developing septic shock was 2.17 (0.59, 8.02), 2.94 (2.18, 6.46), and 2.76 (1.18, 6.46) among patients in group II, III, and IV, respectively.Beta cell dysfunction reflected the severity of disease among critically ill children. Therefore, assessment of beta cell function is critically important to reduce incidence of adverse events in PICU.

  12. Development of high $\\beta^*$-optics for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Wessels, Johannes Peter

    This thesis describes a feasibility study for a special optical configuration in Insertion Region 2 (IR2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is host of the ALICE detector. This configuration allows the study of elastic and diffractive scattering during LHC high-intensity proton operation, in parallel to the nominal physics studies in all LHC experiments at the design energy of 7 TeV per beam. Such measurements require the instal- lation of additional Roman Pot (RP) detectors in the very forward region, at longitudinal distances of 150 m to 220 m from the Interaction Point (IP). Apart from being adjusted for a specific betatron phase advance between the IP and the RP detectors, such a configuration must be optimized for the largest possible $\\beta^*$ -value, to be sensitive for the smallest possible four-momentum transfer $|t|$. A value of $\\beta^*$ = 18 m is compatible with a bunch spacing of 25 ns, considering the LHC design emittance of N = 3.75 μm rad, and a required bunch-bunch separation of $12 \\...

  13. Amyloid-beta Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probes : A Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepe, Vladimir; Moghbel, Mateen C.; Langstrom, Bengt; Zaidi, Habib; Vinters, Harry V.; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Doudet, Doris; Mishani, Eyal; Cohen, Robert M.; Hoilund-Carlsen, Poul F.; Alavi, Abass; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly rising prevalence and cost of Alzheimer's disease in recent decades has made the imaging of amyloid-beta deposits the focus of intense research. Several amyloid imaging probes with purported specificity for amyloid-beta plaques are currently at various stages of FDA approval. However, a

  14. Cluster observes formation of high-beta plasma blobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Late in a sequence of four moderate substorms on 26 July 2001, Cluster observed periods of a few minutes durations of high-beta plasma events (B<10nT, β=2-30, connected with dipolarizations of the magnetic field. Cluster was located near 02:45 MLT, at R=19RE and at about 5°N GSM. These events began late in the recovery phase of the second and about 5min before onset of the third substorm and lasted for three hours, way beyond the recovery phase of the fourth substorm. The most remarkable observation is that the onset coincided with the arrival of energetic (E~7keV O+ ions and energetic electrons obviously from the ionosphere, which tended to dominate the plasma composition throughout the remaining time. The magnetic flux and plasma transport is continuously directed equatorward and earthward, with oscillatory east-west movements superposed. Periods of the order of 5-10min and strong correlations between the magnetic elevation angle and log β (correlation coefficient 0.78 are highly reminiscent of the high-beta plasma blobs discovered with Equator-S and Geotail between 9 and 11RE in the late night/early morning sector (Haerendel et al., 1999.

    We conclude that Cluster observed the plasma blob formation in the tail plasma sheet, which seems to occur predominantly in the recovery and post-recovery phases of substorms. This is consistent with the finding of Equator-S and Geotail. The origin is a pulsed earthward plasma transport with velocity amplitudes of only several tens of km/s.

  15. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hoi, Steven C H

    2013-01-01

    Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β) atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  16. Beta atomic contacts: identifying critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Specific binding between proteins plays a crucial role in molecular functions and biological processes. Protein binding interfaces and their atomic contacts are typically defined by simple criteria, such as distance-based definitions that only use some threshold of spatial distance in previous studies. These definitions neglect the nearby atomic organization of contact atoms, and thus detect predominant contacts which are interrupted by other atoms. It is questionable whether such kinds of interrupted contacts are as important as other contacts in protein binding. To tackle this challenge, we propose a new definition called beta (β atomic contacts. Our definition, founded on the β-skeletons in computational geometry, requires that there is no other atom in the contact spheres defined by two contact atoms; this sphere is similar to the van der Waals spheres of atoms. The statistical analysis on a large dataset shows that β contacts are only a small fraction of conventional distance-based contacts. To empirically quantify the importance of β contacts, we design βACV, an SVM classifier with β contacts as input, to classify homodimers from crystal packing. We found that our βACV is able to achieve the state-of-the-art classification performance superior to SVM classifiers with distance-based contacts as input. Our βACV also outperforms several existing methods when being evaluated on several datasets in previous works. The promising empirical performance suggests that β contacts can truly identify critical specific contacts in protein binding interfaces. β contacts thus provide a new model for more precise description of atomic organization in protein quaternary structures than distance-based contacts.

  17. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  18. High temperature oxidation of beta-NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychak, J. K.; Mitchell, T. E.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation of single crystal beta-NiAl has been studied primarily using electron microscopy. Oriented metastable Al2O3 phases form during transient oxidation at 800 C. Specific orientation relationships exist on all metal orientations studied and are a result of the small mismatch along aligned close-packed directions in the cation sublattices of the metal and oxide. Transformation of the metastable Al2O3 phases at 1100 C results in an oxide morphology described as the 'lacey' structure of alpha-Al2O3 scales. This structure results from impingement of oriented patches of alpha-Al2O3 as the transformation initiates and moves radially parallel to the surface. Scale growth occurs by diffusion along high angle grain boundaries. A drastic reduction in oxidation rate accompanies the change in oxide morphology.

  19. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  20. Continuous infusion of antibiotics in the critically ill: The new holy grail for beta-lactams and vancomycin?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Herendael, Bruno; Jeurissen, Axel; Tulkens, Paul M.; Vlieghe, Erika; Verbrugghe, Walter; Jorens, Philippe G.; Ieven, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The alarming global rise of antimicrobial resistance combined with the lack of new antimicrobial agents has led to a renewed interest in optimization of our current antibiotics. Continuous infusion (CI) of time-dependent antibiotics has certain theoretical advantages toward efficacy based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles. We reviewed the available clinical studies concerning continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin in critically ill patients. We conclude that...

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta is critical for zebrafish intersegmental vessel formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M Wiens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta is a tyrosine kinase receptor known to affect vascular development. The zebrafish is an excellent model to study specific regulators of vascular development, yet the role of PDGF signaling has not been determined in early zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, vascular mural cells, in which PDGFRbeta functions cell autonomously in other systems, have not been identified in zebrafish embryos younger than 72 hours post fertilization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to investigate the role of PDGFRbeta in zebrafish vascular development, we cloned the highly conserved zebrafish homolog of PDGFRbeta. We found that pdgfrbeta is expressed in the hypochord, a developmental structure that is immediately dorsal to the dorsal aorta and potentially regulates blood vessel development in the zebrafish. Using a PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, a morpholino oligonucleotide specific to PDGFRbeta, and a dominant negative PDGFRbeta transgenic line, we found that PDGFRbeta is necessary for angiogenesis of the intersegmental vessels. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: Our data provide the first evidence that PDGFRbeta signaling is required for zebrafish angiogenesis. We propose a novel mechanism for zebrafish PDGFRbeta signaling that regulates vascular angiogenesis in the absence of mural cells.

  2. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  3. Movement-related beta oscillations show high intra-individual reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenhahn, Svenja; de Berker, Archy O; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Rossiter, Holly E; Ward, Nick S

    2017-02-15

    Oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range (15-30Hz) recorded from human sensorimotor cortex is of increasing interest as a putative biomarker of motor system function and dysfunction. Despite its increasing use in basic and clinical research, surprisingly little is known about the test-retest reliability of spectral power and peak frequency measures of beta oscillatory signals from sensorimotor cortex. Establishing that these beta measures are stable over time in healthy populations is a necessary precursor to their use in the clinic. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate intra-individual reliability of beta-band oscillations over six sessions, focusing on changes in beta activity during movement (Movement-Related Beta Desynchronization, MRBD) and after movement termination (Post-Movement Beta Rebound, PMBR). Subjects performed visually-cued unimanual wrist flexion and extension. We assessed Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and between-session correlations for spectral power and peak frequency measures of movement-related and resting beta activity. Movement-related and resting beta power from both sensorimotor cortices was highly reliable across sessions. Resting beta power yielded highest reliability (average ICC=0.903), followed by MRBD (average ICC=0.886) and PMBR (average ICC=0.663). Notably, peak frequency measures yielded lower ICC values compared to the assessment of spectral power, particularly for movement-related beta activity (ICC=0.386-0.402). Our data highlight that power measures of movement-related beta oscillations are highly reliable, while corresponding peak frequency measures show greater intra-individual variability across sessions. Importantly, our finding that beta power estimates show high intra-individual reliability over time serves to validate the notion that these measures reflect meaningful individual differences that can be utilised in basic research and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The

  4. Electromagnetic instability in high-beta plasmas with generalized distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, B.

    1974-01-01

    The electrostatic instabilities in an anisotropic plasma have been studied quite extensively, but the electromagnetic instabilities in high-beta plasmas, where they play an important role, have not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, Davidson and Wu (1970) looked into the ordinary mode electromagnetic instability which can arise in high-beta bi-Maxwellian plasmas. Here, the magnetic instability is discussed in (A, beta) space (A is the anisotropy in the temperature of the plasma species and beta is the ratio of the kinetic pressure to the magnetic pressure), which can occur in generalized non-Maxwellian plasmas with an inverted population of different species.

  5. Are new antibiotics better than beta-lactams for non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Tomás; Ortega G, Marcos; Saldías P, Fernando

    2016-08-05

    Treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults is mainly empirical. Beta-lactam antibiotics have been traditionally considered first-line therapy. New antibiotics could be more effective but the evidence is not clear until now, and its use could entail greater costs, an increase in bacterial resistance and other adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 36 randomized trials addressing this question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded new antibiotics are not better than beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia in relation to clinical failure or adverse effects.

  6. Plasma behaviour at high beta and high density in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Bower, D L [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Pellet fuelling of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) plasmas has resulted in high density and high plasma beta. The density in improved confinement discharges has been increased fourfold, and a record plasma beta (beta(tot) = 26%) for the improved confinement reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved. At higher beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed in which local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable, but experimentally, no severe effect, e. g., a disruption, is observed. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case, and there are indications of increased energy transport ( as compared with low-density improved confinement). Pellet fuelling is also compared with enhanced edge fuelling of standard confinement RFP discharges for the purpose of searching for a density limit in MST. In standard-confinement discharges, pellet fuelling peaks the density profile where edge fuelling cannot, but transport appears unchanged. For a limited range of plasma current, MST discharges with edge fuelling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fuelled improved confinement discharges.

  7. Integrated modeling of high poloidal beta scenario for a next-step reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    In order to fill the scientific and technological gaps between ITER and a nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, a next-step integrated nuclear test facility is critical. A high poloidal beta tokamak regime investigated in recent DIII-D experiments is a promising candidate for steady state operation in such a next-step device because the large bootstrap current fraction (~ 80 %) reduces the demands on the external current drive. Despite the large values of q95 ~10, the normalized fusion performance observed in the experiments meet the target for an economically attractive fusion power plant such as ARIES-ACT2. In this work, we will project the performance for a conducting and superconducting coil next-step steady state reactor using theory-based 0-D modeling and full 1.5D transport modeling. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Development and application of nonflammable, high-temperature beta fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Frederic S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber technology have contributed to the success of the U.S. space program. The inorganic fiber Beta, developed as a result of efforts begun in the early 1960's and heightened following the January 27, 1967 Apollo fire is unique among inorganic and organic fibers. It has been developed into woven, nonwoven, knitted, braided, coated and printed structures. All of these were used extensively for the Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz test project, space shuttle, Spacelab, and satellite programs. In addition to being used successfully in the space program, Beta fibers are being used commercially as firesafe fabrics in homes, hospitals, institutions, public buildings, aircraft, and public transportation, wherever total nonflammability is required. One of the most unique applications of the Beta composite structure is the roofing material for the 80,000-seat Detroit Lion's Silverdome and 5 square miles of the Jeddah International Airport in Saudi Arabia. This fiber has been successfully incorporated into 165 major public construction projects around the globe. The United States alone has used more than 12 million square yards of the material. Beta fiber has been used successfully to date and has a promising future with unlimited potential for both space and commercial application. Efforts are currently underway to improve Beta fiber to meet the requirements of extended service life for the Space Station Freedom, lunar outpost, and Mars exploration missions.

  9. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  10. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  11. Complete inhibition of the tentoxin-resistant F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli by the phytopathogenic inhibitor tentoxin after substitution of critical residues in the alpha - and beta -subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Claudia; Körtgen, Nicole; Groth, Georg

    2002-12-27

    Substitution of critical residues in the alpha- and beta-subunit can turn the typically resistant ATP synthase from the bacterium Escherichia coli into an enzyme showing high sensitivity to the phytopathogenic inhibitor tentoxin, which usually affects only certain sensitive plant species. In contrast to recent results obtained with the thermophilic F(1) (Groth, G., Hisabori, T., Lill, H., and Bald, D. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 20117-20119), substitution of a critical serine in the beta-subunit (betaSer(59)), which is supposed to provide an important intermolecular hydrogen bond in the binding site, was not sufficient on its own for conferring tentoxin sensitivity to the E. coli F(1) complex. Superimposition of the chloroplast F(1)-tentoxin inhibitor complex on a homology model of the E. coli F(1) complex provided detailed information on the critical residues in the alpha-subunit of the binding cleft and allowed us to model the binding site according to the steric requirements of the inhibitor. Substitution of the highly conserved residue alphaLeu(64) seems to be most important for allowing access of the inhibitor to the binding site. Combining this substitution with either additional replacements in the alpha-subunit (Q49A, L95A, E96Q, I273M) or the replacement of Ser(59) in the beta-subunit enhanced the sensitivity to the inhibitor and resulted in a complete inhibition of the E. coli F(1)-ATPase by the plant-specific inhibitor tentoxin.

  12. High Critical Current in Metal Organic Derived YBCO Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-31

    Contract No. FA9550-07-C-0034 “High Critical Current in Metal Organic Derived YBCO Films” Final Report Prepared for: Dr. Harold...Critical Current in Metal Organic Derived YBCO Films 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Project focused on optimization of the Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) process for deposition thick, high critical current YBCO films for use in the

  13. Rhodamine-labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropane analogues as high-affinity fluorescent probes for the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Joo Hwan; Zou, Mu-Fa; Adkins, Erika M

    2005-01-01

    Novel fluorescent ligands were synthesized to identify a high-affinity probe that would enable visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in living cells. Fluorescent tags were extended from the N- or 2-position of 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropane, using an ethylamino lin...

  14. Affective and neural reactivity to criticism in individuals high and low on perceived criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Jill M; Siegle, Greg; Gruber, Staci A

    2012-01-01

    People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC). To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy control participants (n = 33) were classified as high or low in PC based on a median split. They were then exposed to personally-relevant critical and praising comments from their mothers. Perceived Criticism levels were unrelated to depression status and to negative mood change after hearing criticism. However, compared to low PC participants, those who scored high on PC showed differential activation in a network of regions associated with emotion reactivity and regulation, including increased amygdala activity and decreased reactions in prefrontal regulatory regions when they heard criticism. This was not the case for praise. Criticism may be a risk factor for relapse because it helps to "train" pathways characteristic of depressive information processing. The Perceived Criticism measure may help identify people who are more susceptible to this vulnerability.

  15. Investigation of scaling laws by critical neutron scattering from beta-brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1969-01-01

    Using a Cu65-Zn β-brass crystal, the critical scattering of neutrons has been studied, both above and below T c. The staggered susceptibilities χ vary as C+(T/Tc-1)-γ and C-(1-T/Tc)-γ ', respectively. It is found that γ=γ' within an accuracy of 3%, in agreement with the scaling hypothesis of static...... critical phenomena; and that C+/C-=5.46±0.05, in excellent agreement with the recent parametric representation theory of Schofield and in fair agreement with the results of series expansions by Essam and Hunter. For fixed q, a flat maximum is observed in the wave-vector-dependent susceptibility χ(q, T...

  16. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-06-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  17. Loop A Is Critical for the Functional Interaction of Two Beta vulgaris PIP Aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Rosi, Pablo; Sigaut, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Pietrasanta, Lía Isabel; Amodeo, Gabriela; Alleva, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Research done in the last years strongly support the hypothesis that PIP aquaporin can form heterooligomeric assemblies, specially combining PIP2 monomers with PIP1 monomers. Nevertheless, the structural elements involved in the ruling of homo versus heterooligomeric organization are not completely elucidated. In this work we unveil some features of monomer-monomer interaction in Beta vulgaris PIP aquaporins. Our results show that while BvPIP2;2 is able to interact with BvPIP1;1, BvPIP2;1 shows no functional interaction. The lack of functional interaction between BvPIP2;1 and BvPIP1;1 was further corroborated by dose-response curves of water permeability due to aquaporin activity exposed to different acidic conditions. We also found that BvPIP2;1 is unable to translocate BvPIP1;1-ECFP from an intracellular position to the plasma membrane when co-expressed, as BvPIP2;2 does. Moreover we postulate that the first extracellular loop (loop A) of BvPIP2;1, could be relevant for the functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. Thus, we investigate BvPIP2;1 loop A at an atomic level by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) and by direct mutagenesis. We found that, within the tetramer, each loop A presents a dissimilar behavior. Besides, BvPIP2;1 loop A mutants restore functional interaction with BvPIP1;1. This work is a contribution to unravel how PIP2 and PIP1 interact to form functional heterooligomeric assemblies. We postulate that BvPIP2;1 loop A is relevant for the lack of functional interaction with BvPIP1;1 and that the monomer composition of PIP assemblies determines their functional properties. PMID:23483963

  18. Investigations on critical parameters, growth, structural and spectral studies of beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, D.; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) salt has been synthesized and the solubility of the synthesized sample in double distilled water was determined at different temperatures. Solution stability was studied by observing the metastable zone width by employing the polythermal method. Induction period values for different supersaturation ratios at room temperature were determined based on the isothermal method. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, critical free energy change, interfacial tension, and nucleation rate have been estimated for BAP salt on the basis of the classical nucleation theory. The lattice parameters of the grown BAP crystal were determined using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder XRD study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform-Raman studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the BAP crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was studied using the Kurtz-Perry powder technique. UV-visible spectral studies were carried out to understand optical transparency and the type of band gap of the grown BAP crystal.

  19. Superconducting Quadrupole Prototype for the ISR high luminosity (low beta) insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    In colliders, smaller beam cross-section means higher luminosity. Beam-size being proportional to the square-root of the "beta function" value, a small beta means small beam size, hence high luminosity. In 1973 a study was launched on low-beta insertions using superconducting quadrupole magnets, which focus beams to very small sizes at the beam crossing points . In 1976 the first prototype of a superconducting quadrupole was tested. Here we see Theodor Tortschanoff with the prototype of 1.25 m magnetic length. Manufacture of 8 quadrupoles (4 of L=1.15 m, 4 of L=0.65 m) began at Alsthom in 1978. They were installed at intersection I8 of the ISR, enhancing luminosity there by a factor 7 until final low-beta operation in December 1983. For details see "Yellow Report" CERN 76-16. See also pictures 7702307, 7702308, 7702182,7510214X,7510217X.

  20. Deuterium-tritium TFTR plasmas in the high poloidal beta regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Deuterium-tritium plasmas with enhanced energy confinement and stability have been produced in the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR. Confinement enhancement H {triple_bond} {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E ITER-89P} > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I{sub p} = 0.85 {minus} 1.46 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple_bond} 10{sup 8} < {beta}{sub t{perpendicular}} > aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} = 3 has been obtained in these plasma,s exceeding the {beta}{sub N} limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l{sub i}. Fusion power exceeding 6.7 MW with a fusion power gain Q{sub DT} = 0.22 has been produced with reduced alpha particle first orbit loss provided by the increased l{sub i}.

  1. Beta decay of medium and high spin isomers in sup 9 sup 4 Ag

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; Döring, J; Galanopoulos, S; Grawe, H; Harissopoulos, S V; Hellström, M; Janas, Z; Kirchner, R; Mazzocchi, C; Ostrowski, A N; Plettner, C; Rainovski, G; Roeckl, E; Schmidt, K

    2002-01-01

    The very neutron-deficient isotope sup 9 sup 4 Ag was produced at the GSI on-line mass separator by using the reaction sup 5 sup 8 Ni( sup 4 sup 0 Ca, p3n). The beta-decay properties of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were studied by detecting for the first time beta-delayed gamma rays and beta-gamma-gamma coincidences. Both the population of excited levels in the daughter nucleus sup 9 sup 4 Pd and the beta-decay half-life of sup 9 sup 4 Ag were investigated. The major part of the feeding was assigned to the decay of an I suppi=(7 sup +) isomer with a half-life of (0.36+-0.03) s. A weak beta-decay branch was found to populate high-spin levels in the sup 9 sup 4 Pd daughter with I>=18. It is tentatively assigned to the decay of a high-spin parent state in sup 9 sup 4 Ag with I>=17 and a half-life (0.3+-0.2) s. The measured beta-decay properties as well as the level structure of sup 9 sup 4 Ag and sup 9 sup 4 Pd are discussed in comparison with shell-model predictions.

  2. A new {beta}-diketone complex with high color purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adati, R.D. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Lima, S.A.M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Davolos, M.R. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: davolos@iq.unesp.br; Jafelicci, M. [Unesp, Sao Paulo State University, Instituto de Quimica C.P. 355, 14801-970 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-20

    In this work a new europium (III) complex with the following formula NH{sub 4}[Eu(bmdm){sub 4}] was synthesized and characterized. The bmdm (butyl methoxy-dibenzoyl-methane) is a {beta}-diketone molecule used as UV radiation absorber in sunscreen formulations. Coordination of this ligand to the Eu{sup 3+} ion was confirmed by FT-IR, while the Raman spectrum suggests the presence of NH{sub 4} {sup +} ions. The photoluminescence spectra present narrow lines arising from f-f intra-configurational transitions {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 0,1,2,3,4}, dominated by the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. In the spectrum recorded at 77 K, all transitions split into 2J + 1 lines suggesting that there is just one symmetry site around Eu{sup 3+} ion. This symmetry is not centrosymmetric. The calculated intensity parameters are {omega} {sub 2} = 30.5 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} and {omega} {sub 4} = 5.91 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} for this complex. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.67 and y = 0.32) show a dominant wavelength of 615 nm. The color gamut achieved by this complex is a 100% in the CIE color space.

  3. Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Seok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.MethodsIn this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.ResultsIn rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1 expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.ConclusionThese findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.

  4. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K.; Laurent, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  5. Highly sensitive phage-based biosensor for the detection of beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Viswaprakash; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Sista, Srinivas; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J; Simonian, Aleksandr L

    2007-04-25

    Development of real-time sensor based on the target-specific probe that make possible sensitive, rapid and selective detection and monitoring of the particular antigen molecules could be of substantial importance to the many applications. Because of its high specificity to the target molecules, excellent temperature stability, and easy production, bacterial phage might serve as a powerful biorecognition probe in biosensor applications. Here, we report extremely sensitive and specific label-free direct detection of model antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. The beta-gal specific landscape phage 1G40 has been immobilized on the gold surface of SPR SPREETA sensor chip through physical adsorption [V. Nanduri, A.M. Samoylova, V.Petrenko, V. Vodyanoy and A.L.Simonian, Comparison of optical and acoustic wave phage biosensors, 206th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Honolulu, Hawaii, October 3-8, (2004)]. Another non-specific to the beta-gal phage, a wild-type phage F8-5, was used in the reference channel. The concentration-dependent binding of beta-gal in both channels were assessed by monitoring the sensor optical response as a function of time under different experimental conditions, and the concentration of beta-gal was computed in differential mode. Concentrations of beta-gal between 10(-12) M and 10(-7) M could be readily detected, with linear part of calibration curve between 10(-9) M and 10(-6) M. When beta-gal was pre-incubated with different concentrations of free 1G40 phage prior to exposure to the biosensor, concentration-dependent inhibition was observed, indicating on biosensor high specificity toward beta-gal. Apart from a flow through mode used to deliver the samples to the surface for the SPR sensor, batch mode sensing was also employed to study the binding of beta-gal to immobilized phage on the SPR sensor surface. Experiments using a flow through mode provided more consistent results in the

  6. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  7. Treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting: is the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone broken beyond repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Welte, Tobias; Wunderink, Richard G

    2016-01-29

    Beta-lactam antibiotics form the backbone of treatment for Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. However, this beta-lactam antibiotic backbone is increasingly under pressure from emerging resistance across all geographical regions, and health-care professionals in many countries are rapidly running out of effective treatment options. Even in regions that currently have only low levels of resistance, the effects of globalization are likely to increase local pressures on the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone in the near future. Therefore, clinicians are increasingly faced with a difficult balancing act: the need to prescribe adequate and appropriate antibiotic therapy while reducing the emergence of resistance and the overuse of antibiotics. In this review, we explore the burden of Gram-negative pneumonia in the critical care setting and the pressure that antibiotic resistance places on current empiric therapy regimens (and the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone) in this patient population. New treatment approaches, such as systemic and inhaled antibiotic alternatives, are on the horizon and are likely to help tackle the rising levels of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. In the meantime, it is imperative that the beta-lactam antibiotic backbone of currently available antibiotics be supported through stringent antibiotic stewardship programs.

  8. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is a frequent problem in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This resistance is mainly due to the hyperproduction of chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase and biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate...

  9. The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    CERN Document Server

    Lorca, D; Monrabal, F

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

  10. High isoproterenol doses are required to activate beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated functions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, Michel; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galitzky, Jean; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel; Senard, Jean-Michel; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    The "in vivo" conditions for beta3-adrenoceptors (beta-AR) activation by isoproterenol were investigated in dog. Experiments were carried out in anesthetized dogs using isoproterenol as a nonselective beta-AR agonist. Intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (0.4 nmol/kg/min) induced arterial hypotension and tachycardia with a slight decrease in cutaneous blood flow. At this dose, isoproterenol increased glucose, glycerol, and nonesterified fatty acid plasma levels. The changes in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic parameters, induced by the low dose of isoproterenol, were suppressed by pretreatment with nadolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.). After nadolol administration, however, a 10-fold higher dose (4 nmol/kg/min) of isoproterenol was able to induce a decrease in arterial blood pressure with a slight tachycardia and an increase in cutaneous blood flow. This high dose of isoproterenol increased nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol plasma levels but failed to change glucose plasma levels. All these effects were abolished by a pretreatment with nadolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) plus SR59230A [a selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist; (3-(2-ethylphenoxy)-1(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-1-ylaminol-(2S)2-propanol oxalate); 1 mg/kg, i.v.]. Moreover, as observed with the high dose of isoproterenol under nadolol pretreatment, an infusion of SR58611A [a selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist; ((N2S)-7-carbethoxymethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-2-yl-(2R)-2-hydroxy-2-chlorophenyl) ethanamine hydrochloride] induces a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure associated with an increase in heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, and nonesterified fatty acid and glycerol plasma levels. These results demonstrate that the in vivo activation of beta3-adrenoceptors requires higher doses of catecholamine than those necessary for beta1- and/or beta2-adrenoceptor stimulation. These results also argue for the lack of a beta3-AR involvement in the control of heart rate and glycogenolysis in dogs.

  11. The high beta tokamak-extended pulse magnetohydrodynamic mode control research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, D A; Bialek, J; Byrne, P J; De Bono, B; Levesque, J P; Li, B Q; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Pedersen, T S; Rath, N; Shiraki, D [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The high beta tokamak-extended pulse (HBT-EP) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode control research program is studying ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, advanced digital control algorithms and the effects of plasma rotation and three-dimensional magnetic fields on MHD mode stability. A new segmented adjustable conducting wall has been installed on the HBT-EP and is made up of 20 independent, movable, wall shell segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 saddle coils, totaling 120 in-vessel modular feedback control coils. Each internal coil set has been designed with varying toroidal angular coil coverage of 5, 10 and 15{sup 0}, spanning the toroidal angle range of an ITER port plug based internal coil to test resistive wall mode (RWM) interaction and multimode MHD plasma response to such highly localized control fields. In addition, we have implemented 336 new poloidal and radial magnetic sensors to quantify the applied three-dimensional fields of our control coils along with the observed plasma response. This paper describes the design and implementation of the new control shell incorporating these control and sensor coils on the HBT-EP, and the research program plan on the upgraded HBT-EP to understand how best to optimize the use of modular feedback coils to control instability growth near the ideal wall stabilization limit, answer critical questions about the role of plasma rotation in active control of the RWM and the ferritic resistive wall mode, and to improve the performance of MHD control systems used in fusion experiments and future burning plasma systems.

  12. The DYRK1A gene, encoded in chromosome 21 Down syndrome critical region, bridges between beta-amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ryo; Kamino, Kouzin; Yamamoto, Mitsuko; Nuripa, Aidaralieva; Kida, Tomoyuki; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Ryota; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kudo, Takashi; Yamagata, Hidehisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Miki, Tetsuro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Funakoshi, Eishi; Nishitomi, Kouhei; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Kato, Akira; Hattori, Hideyuki; Uema, Takeshi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    We scanned throughout chromosome 21 to assess genetic associations with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) using 374 Japanese patients and 375 population-based controls, because trisomy 21 is known to be associated with early deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in the brain. Among 417 markers spanning 33 Mb, 22 markers showed associations with either the allele or the genotype frequency (P KCNJ6 genes. In logistic regression, the DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 1A) gene, located in the Down syndrome critical region, showed the highest significance [OR = 2.99 (95% CI: 1.72-5.19), P = 0.001], whereas the RUNX1 gene showed a high odds ratio [OR = 23.3 (95% CI: 2.76-196.5), P = 0.038]. DYRK1A mRNA level in the hippocampus was significantly elevated in patients with AD when compared with pathological controls (P < 0.01). DYRK1A mRNA level was upregulated along with an increase in the Abeta-level in the brain of transgenic mice, overproducing Abeta at 9 months of age. In neuroblastoma cells, Abeta induced an increase in the DYRK1A transcript, which also led to tau phosphorylation at Thr212 under the overexpression of tau. Therefore, the upregulation of DYRK1A transcription results from Abeta loading, further leading to tau phosphorylation. Our result indicates that DYRK1A could be a key molecule bridging between beta-amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in AD.

  13. Transport signatures of quantum critically in Cr at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Wang, J.; Rosenbaum, T. F. (X-Ray Science Division); ( PSC-USR); (Harvard Univ.); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2010-08-03

    The elemental antiferromagnet Cr at high pressure presents a new type of naked quantum critical point that is free of disorder and symmetry-breaking fields. Here we measure magnetotransport in fine detail around the critical pressure, P{sub c} {approx} 10 GPa, in a diamond anvil cell and reveal the role of quantum critical fluctuations at the phase transition. As the magnetism disappears and T {yields} 0, the magntotransport scaling converges to a non-mean-field form that illustrates the reconstruction of the magnetic Fermi surface, and is distinct from the critical scaling measured in chemically disordered Cr:V under pressure. The breakdown of itinerant antiferromagnetism only comes clearly into view in the clean limit, establishing disorder as a relevant variable at a quantum phase transition.

  14. High-resolution study of the beta decay of {sup 41}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkanen, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Dendooven, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Huhta, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lhersonneau, G. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Lipas, P.O. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Oinonen, M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Parmonen, J.-M. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Penttilae, H. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Peraejaervi, K. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Siiskonen, T. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Aeystoe, J. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-08-11

    An improved high-resolution study of the beta decay of {sup 41}Ti, produced in the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,2n) reaction at 40 MeV, has been performed at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility. The beta-delayed radiation was detected by a low-energy charged-particle detector and a large Ge detector for gamma rays. The experimental beta-decay strength and its distribution, extracted from delayed-proton data, are compared with results of shell-model calculations in the sdfp space. The lowest J{sup {pi}}=3/2{sup +}, T=3/2 state in {sup 41}Sc, the isobaric analogue state of the {sup 41}Ti ground state, is estimated to contain 10% isospin impurity. (orig.).

  15. MHD instabilities and their control in high-beta plasmas in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Yongkyoon

    2013-02-06

    We established 3 specific tasks as follows: Task 1 - Investigate the MHD activity during the current ramp-up phase with shaped plasmas; Task 2 - Develop a theoretical model that may show the hollowness dependent instability; Task 3 - Explore the beta-limiting instabilities. To address each task, FAR-TECH actively participated in the 2012 KSTAR run-campaign, which helped us make productive progress. Specifically, the shaping dependence of MHD activity during current ramp-up phase was investigated using dedicated run-time in KSTAR (October 4 and 9, 2012), which was also attempted to address the hollowness of temperature (or pressure) profiles. Also, a performance-limiting disruption, which occurred in a relatively high intermediate beta plasma (shot 7110) in KSTAR ({beta}{sub N} ~ 1.7), was studied, and the preliminary analysis shows that the disruption might not be stability-limited but likely density-limited.

  16. Proposal for the construction of a High-Beta Tokamak at LASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, P.C.T.; Freidberg, J.P.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    The large heating rate inherent to implosion heating allows the rapid generation of high-beta tokamak plasmas. A study of these plasmas in the proposed HBT machine can give information on how MHD equilibrium and stability limit ..beta.. and q. Both a wide current profile and a moderate elongation of the minor cross section should help to raise the permissible peak ..beta.. values in HBT to at least 20 percent. The longer term loss processes occurring in MHD-stable plasmas are to be investigated. The main parameters of HBT are: R = 0.30 m, minor cross section a racetrack of width and height 0.24 m and 0.48 m, B/sub phi/ = 2 T, I/sub phi/ approximately 750 kA.

  17. Near-equilibrium growth of thick, high quality beta-SiC by sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Fekade, Konjit; Spencer, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A close spaced near-equilibrium growth technique was used to produce thick, high quality epitaxial layers of beta-silicon carbide. The process utilized a sublimation method to grow morphologically smooth layers. The beta silicon carbide growth layers varied from about 200 to 750 microns in thickness. Chemical vapor deposition grown, 2-10 microns, beta silicon carbide films were used as seeds at 1860 and 1910 C growth temperatures. The respective average growth rates were 20 and 30 microns per hour. The layers are p-type with a 3.1 x 10 exp 17/cu cm carrier concentration. Electrical measurements indicate considerable improvement in the breakdown voltage of Schottky barriers on growth samples. Breakdown values ranged from 25 to 60 V. These measurements represent the highest values reported for 3C-SiC.

  18. Synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles suitable for field structuring using a {beta}-diketone surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, D.L. E-mail: dlhuber@sandia.gov; Venturini, E.L.; Martin, J.E.; Provencio, P.P.; Patel, R.J

    2004-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles using a novel surfactant, a {beta}-diketone. We have produced 6 nm iron nanoparticles with an unusually high saturation magnetization of more than 80% the value of bulk iron. Additionally, we measured a particle susceptibility of 14 (MKS units), which is far above the value possible for micron-scale spherical particles. These properties will allow for formation of composites that can be highly structured by magnetic fields.

  19. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  20. Critical role of transcription factor cyclic AMP response element modulator in beta1-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Geertje; Matus, Marek; Basu, Abhijit; Frebel, Karin; Rohsbach, Sebastian Pius; Safronenko, Andrej; Seidl, Matthias Dodo; Stümpel, Frank; Buchwalow, Igor; König, Simone; Engelhardt, Stefan; Lohse, Martin J; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Müller, Frank Ulrich

    2009-01-06

    Chronic stimulation of the beta(1)-adrenoceptor (beta(1)AR) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of heart failure; however, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The regulation by transcription factors cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cyclic AMP response element modulator (CREM) represents a fundamental mechanism of cyclic AMP-dependent gene control possibly implicated in beta(1)AR-mediated cardiac deterioration. We studied the role of CREM in beta(1)AR-mediated cardiac effects, comparing transgenic mice with heart-directed expression of beta(1)AR in the absence and presence of functional CREM. CREM inactivation protected from cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and left ventricular dysfunction in beta(1)AR-overexpressing mice. Transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed a set of predicted CREB/CREM target genes including the cardiac ryanodine receptor, tropomyosin 1alpha, and cardiac alpha-actin as altered on the mRNA or protein level along with the improved phenotype in CREM-deficient beta(1)AR-transgenic hearts. The results imply the regulation of genes by CREM as an important mechanism of beta(1)AR-induced cardiac damage in mice.

  1. Surface proteome analysis identifies platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha as a critical mediator of transforming growth factor-beta-induced collagen secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Katharina; Noskovičová, Nina; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Preissler, Gerhard; Winter, Hauke; Lindner, Michael; Hatz, Rudolf; Hauck, Stefanie M; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblasts are extracellular matrix-producing cells in the lung. Fibroblast activation by transforming growth factor-beta leads to myofibroblast-differentiation and increased extracellular matrix deposition, a hallmark of pulmonary fibrosis. While fibroblast function with respect to migration, invasion, and extracellular matrix deposition has been well-explored, little is known about the surface proteome of lung fibroblasts in general and its specific response to fibrogenic growth factors, in particular transforming growth factor-beta. We thus performed a cell-surface proteome analysis of primary human lung fibroblasts in presence/absence of transforming growth factor-beta, followed by characterization of our findings using FACS analysis, Western blot, and siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments. We identified 213 surface proteins significantly regulated by transforming growth factor-beta, platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha being one of the top down-regulated proteins. Transforming growth factor beta-induced downregulation of platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha induced upregulation of platelet derived growth factor receptor-beta expression and phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream target of platelet derived growth factor signaling. Importantly, collagen type V expression and secretion was strongly increased after forced knockdown of platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha, an effect that was potentiated by transforming growth factor-beta. We therefore show previously underappreciated cross-talk of transforming growth factor-beta and platelet derived growth factor signaling in human lung fibroblasts, resulting in increased extracellular matrix deposition in a platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha dependent manner. These findings are of particular importance for the treatment of lung fibrosis patients with high pulmonary transforming growth factor-beta activity.

  2. High critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions for quantum circuit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauch, T; Gustafsson, D; Cedergren, K; Nawaz, S; Mumtaz Virk, M; Lombardi, F [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pettersson, H; Olsson, E [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: bauch@chalmers.se

    2009-12-15

    Recent findings of macroscopic quantum properties in high critical temperature superconductor (HTS) Josephson junctions (JJs) point toward the need to revise the role of zero energy quasi-particles in this novel superconductor. We will discuss the possibility of designing superconducting artificial atoms in a transmon configuration to study the low energy excitation spectra of HTS. We have engineered high quality grain boundary JJs on low dielectric constant substrates. By fabricating submicron junctions, we extract values of capacitance and Josephson critical current densities that satisfy the main transmon design requirements. Moreover, the measured critical current noise power extrapolated at 1 Hz gives a dephasing time of 25 ns, which indicates that the observation of macroscopic quantum coherent effects in HTS JJ is a feasible task.

  3. Protein phosphatase 2A plays a critical role in interleukin-2-induced beta 2-integrin dependent homotypic adhesion in human CD4+ T cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2 mo...... no inhibitory effect on cytokine induced adhesion at concentrations which strongly inhibited phosphatase activity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that PP2A plays a critical role in IL-2-induced beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion of human T cell lines.......Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2...... modulates enzymatic activity and/or subcellular distribution of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/PP2A) in T cells, we examined the role of these phosphatases in IL-2 induced homotypic adhesion in antigen specific human CD4+ T cell lines. We show that calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of PP1 and PP2...

  4. High-dose dosimetry of beta rays using blue beryl dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do, E-mail: lsatiro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Bittencour, Jose F., E-mail: Lacifid@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    High dose radiation is widely used in industrial applications as sterilization of medical products, improvement of materials properties, color enhancement of jewelry stones, etc. The radiation dosimetry of high doses is quite important for these applications. In this work we have investigated the usage of blue beryl crystal also known as aquamarine in high dose dosimetry of beta rays. Some works have shown that silicate minerals exhibit a good Thermoluminescent response when irradiated up to 2000 kGy of gamma rays. Here, we have produced small beryl pellets of approximately 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thickness to measure high doses of beta rays produced at an electron accelerator at IPEN. Twelve beryl dosimeters were made and six of them were irradiated from 10kGy up to 100 kGy. The technique used to create a calibration curve was the thermoluminescence using the glow peak at 310°C. (author)

  5. Interpreting beta-diversity components over time to conserve metacommunities in highly dynamic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Datry, Thibault; Sabo, John L

    2017-02-11

    The concept of metacommunity (i.e., a set of local communities linked by dispersal) has gained great popularity among community ecologists. However, metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial patterns of biodiversity at the regional scale, whereas conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities and the contributions that individual (local) sites make to regional dynamics. We propose that recent advances in diversity-partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and the identification of keystone sites. We used time series of the 2 components of beta diversity (richness and replacement) and the contributions of local sites to these components to examine which sites controlled source-sink dynamics in a highly dynamic model system (an intermittent river). The relative importance of the richness and replacement components of beta diversity fluctuated over time, and sample aggregation led to underestimation of beta diversity by up to 35%. Our literature review revealed that research on intermittent rivers would benefit greatly from examination of beta-diversity components over time. Adequately appraising spatiotemporal variability in community composition and identifying sites that are pivotal for maintaining biodiversity at the landscape scale are key needs for conservation prioritization and planning. Thus, our framework may be used to guide conservation actions in highly dynamic ecosystems when time-series data describing biodiversity across sites connected by dispersal are available. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Demonstration of coherent emission from high-$\\beta$ photonic crystal nanolasers at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hostein, Richard; Gratiet, Luc Le; Talneau, Anne; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beveratos, Alexios

    2010-01-01

    We report on lasing at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelength from photonic crystal nanocavities based on InAsP/InP quantum dots. Such laser cavities with a small modal volume and high quality factor display a high spontaneous emission coupling factor beta. Lasing is confirmed by measuring the second order autocorrelation function. A smooth transition from chaotic to coherent emission is observed, and coherent emission is obtained at 8 times the threshold power.

  7. Demonstration of coherent emission from high-beta photonic crystal nanolasers at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostein, R; Braive, R; Le Gratiet, L; Talneau, A; Beaudoin, G; Robert-Philip, I; Sagnes, I; Beveratos, A

    2010-04-15

    We report on lasing at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelength from photonic crystal nanocavities based on InAsP/InP quantum dots. Such laser cavities with a small modal volume and high quality factor display a high spontaneous emission coupling factor (beta). Lasing is confirmed by measuring the second-order autocorrelation function. A smooth transition from chaotic to coherent emission is observed, and coherent emission is obtained at eight times the threshold power.

  8. Microstructures and critical currents in high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Masaki

    1998-11-01

    Microstructural defects are the primary determining factors for the values of critical-current densities in a high {Tc} superconductor after the electronic anisotropy along the a-b plane and the c-direction. A review is made to assess firstly what would be the maximum achievable critical-current density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} if nearly ideal pinning sites were introduced and secondly what types of pinning defects are currently introduced or exist in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and how effective are these in pinning vortices.

  9. Optimization of {beta}-carotene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles preparation using a high shear homogenization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael D., E-mail: triplettm@battelle.or [Battelle Memorial Institute, Health and Life Sciences Global Business (United States); Rathman, James F. [The Ohio State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Using statistical experimental design methodologies, the solid lipid nanoparticle design space was found to be more robust than previously shown in literature. Formulation and high shear homogenization process effects on solid lipid nanoparticle size distribution, stability, drug loading, and drug release have been investigated. Experimentation indicated stearic acid as the optimal lipid, sodium taurocholate as the optimal cosurfactant, an optimum lecithin to sodium taurocholate ratio of 3:1, and an inverse relationship between mixing time and speed and nanoparticle size and polydispersity. Having defined the base solid lipid nanoparticle system, {beta}-carotene was incorporated into stearic acid nanoparticles to investigate the effects of introducing a drug into the base solid lipid nanoparticle system. The presence of {beta}-carotene produced a significant effect on the optimal formulation and process conditions, but the design space was found to be robust enough to accommodate the drug. {beta}-Carotene entrapment efficiency averaged 40%. {beta}-Carotene was retained in the nanoparticles for 1 month. As demonstrated herein, solid lipid nanoparticle technology can be sufficiently robust from a design standpoint to become commercially viable.

  10. Critical Analysis on Characterization, Systemic Effect, and Therapeutic Potential of Beta-Sitosterol: A Plant-Derived Orphan Phytosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beta-sitosterol (BS is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. BS could be obtained from different plants, but the total biosynthetic pathway, as well as its exact physiological and structural function in plants, have not been fully understood. Different pharmacological effects have been studied, but most of the mechanisms of action have not been studied in detail. Clinical trials with BS have shown beneficial effects in different diseases, but long-term study results are not available. These have contributed to its current status as an “orphan phytosterol”. Therefore, extensive research regarding its effect at cellular and molecular level in humans as well as addressing the claims made by commercial manufacturers such as the cholesterol lowering ability, immunological activity etc. are highly recommended.

  11. Critical Analysis on Characterization, Systemic Effect, and Therapeutic Potential of Beta-Sitosterol: A Plant-Derived Orphan Phytosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Karim, Selim Muhammad Rezaul; Sharmin, Tasnuva; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur

    2016-11-15

    Beta-sitosterol (BS) is a phytosterol, widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and known to be involved in the stabilization of cell membranes. To compile the sources, physical and chemical properties, spectral and chromatographic analytical methods, synthesis, systemic effects, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic potentials, toxicity, drug delivery and finally, to suggest future research with BS, classical as well as on-line literature were studied. Classical literature includes classical books on ethnomedicine and phytochemistry, and the electronic search included Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and others. BS could be obtained from different plants, but the total biosynthetic pathway, as well as its exact physiological and structural function in plants, have not been fully understood. Different pharmacological effects have been studied, but most of the mechanisms of action have not been studied in detail. Clinical trials with BS have shown beneficial effects in different diseases, but long-term study results are not available. These have contributed to its current status as an "orphan phytosterol". Therefore, extensive research regarding its effect at cellular and molecular level in humans as well as addressing the claims made by commercial manufacturers such as the cholesterol lowering ability, immunological activity etc. are highly recommended.

  12. The addition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and isomaltulose to whey protein improves recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Kupchak, Brian R; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Sterczala, Adam J; DuPont, William H; Pryor, J Luke; Luk, Hiu-Ying; Maladoungdock, Jesse; McDermott, Danielle; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a combination of whey protein (WP), calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate exert additive effects on recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise. Thirteen resistance-trained men (age: 22.6 ± 3.9 years; height: 175.3 ± 12.2 cm; weight: 86.2 ± 9.8 kg) completed a double-blinded, counterbalanced, within-group study. Subjects ingested EAS Recovery Protein (RP; EAS Sports Nutrition/Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) or WP twice daily for 2 weeks prior to, during, and for 2 days following 3 consecutive days of intense resistance exercise. The workout sequence included heavy resistance exercise (day 1) and metabolic resistance exercise (days 2 and 3). The subjects performed no physical activity during day 4 (+24 hours) and day 5 (+48 hours), where recovery testing was performed. Before, during, and following the 3 workouts, treatment outcomes were evaluated using blood-based muscle damage markers and hormones, perceptual measures of muscle soreness, and countermovement jump performance. Creatine kinase was lower for the RP treatment on day 2 (RP: 166.9 ± 56.4 vs WP: 307.1 ± 125.2 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), day 4 (RP: 232.5 ± 67.4 vs WP: 432.6 ± 223.3 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05), and day 5 (RP: 176.1 ± 38.7 vs 264.5 ± 120.9 IU · L(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 was lower for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 1.2 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.6 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs WP: 1.6 ± 0.4 pg · ml(-1), p ≤ 0.05). Muscle soreness was lower for RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 2.0 ± 0.7 vs WP: 2.8 ± 1.1 cm, p ≤ 0.05). Vertical jump power was higher for the RP treatment on day 4 (RP: 5983.2 ± 624 vs WP 5303.9 ± 641.7 W, p ≤ 0.05) and day 5 (RP: 5792.5 ± 595.4 vs WP: 5200.4 ± 501 W, p ≤ 0.05). Our findings suggest that during times of intense conditioning, the recovery benefits of WP are enhanced with the addition of HMB and a slow-release carbohydrate. We

  13. Role of explosive instabilities in high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Aydemir, A Y; Lee, S G; Seol, J; Park, B H; In, Y K

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically explosive growth of a ballooning finger is demonstrated in nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic calculations of high-$\\beta$ disruptions in tokamaks. The explosive finger is formed by an ideally unstable n=1 mode, dominated by an m/n=2/1 component. The quadrupole geometry of the 2/1 perturbed pressure field provides a generic mechanism for the formation of the initial ballooning finger and its subsequent transition from exponential to explosive growth, without relying on secondary processes. The explosive ejection of the hot plasma from the core and stochastization of the magnetic field occur in Alfv\\'enic time scales, accounting for the extremely fast growth of the precursor oscillations and the rapidity of the thermal quench in some high-$\\beta$ disruptions.

  14. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract [number sign]DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  15. Carotid intima media thickness is related positively to plasma pre beta-high density lipoproteins in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lipid-poor or lipid-free high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, designated pre beta-HDL, stimulate removal of cell-derived cholesterol to the extracellular compartment, which is an initial step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Pre beta-HDL levels may be elevated in subjec

  16. Carotid intima media thickness is related positively to plasma pre beta-high density lipoproteins in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lipid-poor or lipid-free high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, designated pre beta-HDL, stimulate removal of cell-derived cholesterol to the extracellular compartment, which is an initial step in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Pre beta-HDL levels may be elevated in

  17. Pre-beta-HDL formation relates to high-normal free thyroxine in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienhoven-Wind, van Lynnda; Perton, Frank G.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Objectives: Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. Associations between variation in thyroid function and pre-beta-high density lipoproteins (pre-beta-HDL), i.e. lipid-poor or lipid free HDL particles that act as initial acceptor of

  18. Peculiarities of high-temperature. beta. -phase formation during rapid heating of titanium-molybdenum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Zhuravlev, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Oshkaderov, S.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1983-11-01

    In the framework of the diffusion mechanism of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation the model for calculating interface location determining the degree of transformation and concentration of the formed ..beta..-phase during continuous heating under different rates in titanium alloys with ..beta..-isomorphous alloying elements is suggested. On the example of Ti-10% Mo alloy the comparison of calculation and experimental results of determining parameters of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation is performed.

  19. High-statistics measurement of the {beta} -delayed {alpha} spectrum of {sup 20}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, K.L.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Riisager, K. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); Kirsebom, O.S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus (Denmark); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jokinen, A.; Saastamoinen, A.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Madurga, M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    A measurement of the {sup 20}Na {beta} -delayed alpha spectrum with a high-granularity setup has allowed the decay scheme to be revised on several points. Three new transitions of low intensity are found at low {alpha} -particle energy. An R-matrix fit of the complete spectrum gives an improved description of the decay and indicates feeding to the broad 2{sup +} {alpha} -cluster state close to 9MeV. (orig.)

  20. Approach to Achieve High Availability in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Regardless, current technology includes RFID tags for systems, and tablets can be implemented to assist in real-time updates. Current Wi-Fi technology can...APPROACH TO ACHIEVE HIGH AVAILABILITY IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE Yew Kee Hoo Senior Engineer, Defence Science and Technology Agency, Singapore B.E...Between Failure MTTF Mean Time to Repair NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command xvi O&M Operations and Maintenance RFID Radio Frequency

  1. CRITICAL ISSUES IN HIGH END COMPUTING - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corones, James [Krell Institute

    2013-09-23

    High-End computing (HEC) has been a driver for advances in science and engineering for the past four decades. Increasingly HEC has become a significant element in the national security, economic vitality, and competitiveness of the United States. Advances in HEC provide results that cut across traditional disciplinary and organizational boundaries. This program provides opportunities to share information about HEC systems and computational techniques across multiple disciplines and organizations through conferences and exhibitions of HEC advances held in Washington DC so that mission agency staff, scientists, and industry can come together with White House, Congressional and Legislative staff in an environment conducive to the sharing of technical information, accomplishments, goals, and plans. A common thread across this series of conferences is the understanding of computational science and applied mathematics techniques across a diverse set of application areas of interest to the Nation. The specific objectives of this program are: Program Objective 1. To provide opportunities to share information about advances in high-end computing systems and computational techniques between mission critical agencies, agency laboratories, academics, and industry. Program Objective 2. To gather pertinent data, address specific topics of wide interest to mission critical agencies. Program Objective 3. To promote a continuing discussion of critical issues in high-end computing. Program Objective 4.To provide a venue where a multidisciplinary scientific audience can discuss the difficulties applying computational science techniques to specific problems and can specify future research that, if successful, will eliminate these problems.

  2. Collisionless shock waves in space - A very high beta structure. [solar wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, V.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J. D.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Neugebauter, M.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements from six OGO-5 particle and field experiments are used to examine the structure of the earth's bow shock during a period of extremely high beta (the ratio of plasma thermal to magnetic energy density), as determined from simultaneous measurements of the upstream plasma on board the HEOS satellite. Even though the interplanetary field is nearly perpendicular to the shock normal, the shock is extremely turbulent. Large field increases are observed up to a factor of 20 above the upstream values. Ahead of these large enhancements, smaller magnetic effects accompanied by electrostatic noise, electron heating, and ion deflection are observed for several minutes. These observations suggest that a steady-state shock may not be able to form at very high beta. Further, they show that while the magnetic energy density may be relatively unimportant in the upstream flow, it can become very significant within the shock structure, and hence the magnetic field should not be ignored in theoretical treatments of very high beta shocks.

  3. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.

  4. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  5. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Gironi, L.; Maino, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Dafinei, I.; Orio, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Gotti, C.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Nagorny, S.; Pagnanini, L. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Nones, C. [SPP Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4.10{sup 22}, 1.3.10{sup 22} and 1.0.10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  6. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 94720, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-13

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4·10{sup 22}, 1.3·10{sup 22} and 1.0·10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  7. Bioassay for neutron-dose estimations of three patients in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura by measuring beta-ray emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Miyamoto, K; Yukawa, M; Nishimura, Y; Watanabe, Y; Kim, H S; Fuma, S; Kuroda, N; Kouno, F; Joshima, H; Hirama, T; Akashi, M

    2001-09-01

    The measurement of beta-emitters in biological samples (hair, urine and bone) from three patients in the JCO criticality accident was performed to assess the neutron dose to individuals. The result of the measurements of 32P in hair and urine collected immediately after the accident showed that sufficient 32P activities had been induced in the hair by fast neutrons and in the urine by thermal neutrons to know the severity of the exposure to the individuals and to the position. From the measurement of 32P and 45Ca in bone from various anatomical parts of two patients who died 82 and 210 days after the accident, it was suggested that the distribution of the induced beta-emitters activities could prove the position and posture of the patients at the moment of exposure.

  8. Multianvil high-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of {beta}-YbBO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, H. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Chemie

    2001-08-01

    {beta}-Ytterbium borate ({beta}-YbBO{sub 3}) was synthesized under high-pressure in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus at 2.2 GPa and 1400 C. The title-compound crystallizes in the trigonal calcite structure, space group R anti 3c. Single crystal X-ray data yielded a = 492.1(2), c = 1630.5(9) pm, wR2 = 0.0344 for 165 F{sup 2} values and 11 variable parameters. Within the trigonal planar BO{sub 3} groups the B-O distance is 137.8(4) pm. The ytterbium atoms have a slightly distorted octahedral oxygen coordination (Yb-O: 224.4(2) pm). (orig.)

  9. High-quality Critical Heat Flux in Horizontally Coiled Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    An investigation on the high-quality dryout in two electrically heated coiled tubes with horizontally helix axes is reported.The temperature profiles both along the tube and around the circumference are measured.and it is found that the temperature profiles around the circumference are not identical for the corss-sections at different parts of the coil.The “local condition hypothesis” seems applicable under present conditions,and the critical heat flux qcr decreases with increasing critical quality xcr.The CHF increases as mass velocity and ratio of tube diameter to coil diameter(d/D) increases,and it seems not to be affected hby the system pressure.The CHF is larger with coils than that with straight tubes,and the difference increases with increasing mass velocity and d/D.

  10. High critical field NbC superconductor on carbon spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kaustav; Pati, Satya Prakash; Maity, Arjun

    2016-06-01

    Niobium carbide (NbC) nanoparticles embedded on the surface of carbon spheres (CS) were synthesized at 1350 °C by the carbothermal reduction of niobium oxide precursor in flowing argon (Nbc@CS). The morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the hybrid nanocomposite were investigated by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and a superconducting quantum interference device. It was found that the NbC@CS nanocomposites exhibit type-II superconductivity with a critical temperature (Tc) of 8-12 K, typical for stoichiometric NbC. The superconducting hysteresis loop reveals several interesting traits, including strong vortex pinning, the presence of asymmetry and a high penetration field. Moreover, the sample shows much improved irreversible (Hirr), lower (Hc1) and upper (Hc2) critical fields. The coherence length (ξ), penetration depth (λ), and Ginzburg-Landau (κ) parameters for the sample were estimated to be 9.78 nm, 33 nm and 3.39, respectively.

  11. High frequency of beta-catenin heterozygous mutations in extra-abdominal fibromatosis: a potential molecular tool for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dômont, J; Salas, S; Lacroix, L; Brouste, V; Saulnier, P; Terrier, P; Ranchère, D; Neuville, A; Leroux, A; Guillou, L; Sciot, R; Collin, F; Dufresne, A; Blay, J-Y; Le Cesne, A; Coindre, J-M; Bonvalot, S; Bénard, J

    2010-03-16

    Fibromatosis comprises distinct clinical entities, including sporadic extra-abdominal fibromatosis, which have a high tendency for recurrence, even after adequate resection. There are no known molecular biomarkers of local recurrence. We searched for beta-catenin mutations in a European multicentre series of fibromatosis tumours to relate beta-catenin mutational status to disease outcome. Direct sequencing of exon 3 beta-catenin gene was performed for 155 frozen fibromatosis tissues from all topographies. Correlation of outcome with mutation rate and type was performed on the extra-abdominal fibromatosis group (101 patients). Mutations of beta-catenin were detected in 83% of all cases. Among 101 extra-abdominal fibromatosis, similar mutation rates (87%) were observed, namely T41A (39.5%), S45P (9%), S45F (36.5%), and deletion (2%). None of the clinico-pathological parameters were found to be significantly associated with beta-catenin mutational status. With a median follow-up of 62 months, 51 patients relapsed. Five-year recurrence-free survival was significantly worse in beta-catenin-mutated tumours regardless of a specific genotype, compared with wild-type tumours (49 vs 75%, respectively, P=0.02). A high frequency (87%) of beta-catenin mutation hallmarks extra-abdominal fibromatosis from a large multicentric retrospective study. Moreover, wild-type beta-catenin seems to be an interesting prognostic marker that might be useful in the therapeutic management of extra-abdominal fibromatosis.

  12. rhVEGF 165 delivered in a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold accelerates bridging of critical-sized defects in rabbit radii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei; Wang, Chunsheng; Shi, Zhibin; Huang, Xin; Dang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xudong; Lin, Shien-Fong; Wang, Kunzheng

    2010-02-01

    Segmental bone defects are a common obstacle in major orthopedic procedures, and the treatment of these defects remains a challenging clinical problem. Bone tissue engineering has been attracting much attention in recent years. We evaluated the ability of the specific combination of 3 microg rhVEGF(165) with a novel porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffold coated with fibrin sealant (FS) to facilitate bone regeneration. Unilateral 15-mm long critical-sized defects were prepared in the radial diaphysis of rabbits and treated with rhVEGF(165)/FS/scaffold or FS/scaffold. Healing of the defects was assessed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks, radiologically, histologically, and biomechanically. The results of the study demonstrated that the critical-sized defects in the midshaft of the rabbit radius, treated with rhVEGF(165) incorporated in porous beta-TCP scaffold by FS, can be completely bridged by cortical bone in 12 weeks. The bone marrow space was also reformed histologically and radiologically at 12 weeks postsurgery in the rhVEGF(165)-treated group. Furthermore, biomechanical examination demonstrated that the segmental bone defects were not only radiologically and histologically repaired but were also mechanically repaired. Interestingly, none of the defects was completely repaired at 12 weeks following treatment with FS/scaffold without rhVEGF(165). A solution-driven process is likely the predominant mechanism of accelerating biodegradation of the beta-TCP scaffold in the presence of rhVEGF(165); furthermore, cell-mediated phagocytosis also contributes to biodegradation of the biomaterials.

  13. $\\beta$- decay of $^{58}$Zn. A critical test for the charge-exchange reaction as a probe for the $\\beta$- decay strength distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS353 \\\\ \\\\ Due to its importance in fundamental physics and astrophysics, a great effort both theoretically and experimentally is devoted to study Gamow Teller (GT)-strength. The GT-strength and its distribution play a key role in late stellar evolution. During the pre-supernova core-collapse of massive stars, the electron capture and nuclear $\\beta$ -decay determine the electron-to-baryon ratio, which influences the infall dynamics and the mass of the final core. The cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction at forward angles with energies above 100~MeV is expected to be proportional to the squares of Fermi and GT matrix elements. This proportionality should provide a Q-value free method to probe the weak interaction strength and renormalization effects in nuclei. Thus charge-exchange reactions are often used to determine the experimental GT-strength. However, the connection between the GT-strength and the cross-section of the charge-exchange reaction is partially model-dependent and the question aris...

  14. TGF-beta as a therapeutic target in high grade gliomas - Promises and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Justin V.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Walenkamp, Annemiek; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine with a key role in tissue homeostasis and cancer. TGF-beta elicits both tumor suppressive and tumor promoting functions during cancer progression, in a wide range of cancers. Here, we review the tumor promoting function of TGF-beta and its pos

  15. Topologically heterogeneous beta cell adaptation in response to high-fat diet in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, J.H.; Tons, H.A.; de Graaf, N.; Loomans, C.J.; Engelse, M.A.; Vrolijk, H.; Voshol, P.J.; Rabelink, T.J.; Carlotti, F.; de Koning, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Beta cells adapt to an increased insulin demand by enhancing insulin secretion via increased beta cell function and/or increased beta cell number. While morphological and functional heterogeneity between individual islets exists, it is unknown whether regional differences in beta cell adaptati

  16. Design study of a beta=0.09 high current superconducting half wave resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Hu-Tan-Xiang; Fan, Pei-Liang; Quan, Sheng-Wen; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2016-01-01

    There's presently a growing demand for high current proton and deuteron linear accelerators based on superconducting technology to better support various fields of science. A \\b{eta}=0.09 162.5 MHz high current superconducting half wave resonator (HWR) has been designed at Peking University to accelerate 100 mA proton beam or 50 mA deuteron beam after the RFQ accelerating structure. The detailed electromagnetic design, multipacting simulation, mechanical analysis of the cavity will be given in this paper.

  17. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  18. Beta processes in a high-temperature field and nuclear multibeta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopytin, I. V., E-mail: kopytin@yandex.ru; Hussain, Imad A. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Sources of the temperature dependence of rates of nuclear beta processes in matter of massive stars are systematized. Electron and positron beta decays and electron capture (K capture and the capture of unbound electrons) fromexcited nuclear states (thermal decays) are considered along with the photobeta decays from ground and excited nuclear states. The possible quantum degeneracy of an electron gas in matter and the degree of ionization of an atomic K shell in a high-temperature field are taken into account. For a number of multidecay odd-nuclei, the temperature dependences of the ratios of the total rates of their {beta}{sup -} decays to the sum of the total rates over all of decay modes for the same nuclei are calculated in the range of nuclear temperature from 2 to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K. It is shown that the deviation of this ratio from the experimental value obtained at 'normal' temperature may be quite sizable. This circumstance should be taken into account in models that consider the problem of synthesis of nuclei in matter of massive stars.

  19. High plasma concentration of beta-D-glucan after administration of sizofiran for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tokuyasu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirokazu Tokuyasu1, Kenichi Takeda1, Yuji Kawasaki1, Yasuto Sakaguchi2, Noritaka Isowa2, Eiji Shimizu3, Yasuto Ueda31Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, 2Thoracic Surgery, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, 200 Horomachi, Matsue, Shimane; 3Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, JapanAbstract: A 69-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was admitted to our hospital for further investigation of abnormal shadows on her chest roentgenogram. Histologic examination of transbronchial lung biopsy specimens revealed epithelioid cell granuloma, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the bronchial lavage fluid. The plasma level of (1→3-beta-D-glucan was very high, and this elevated level was attributed to administration of sizofiran for treatment of cervical cancer 18 years previously. Therefore, in patients with cervical cancer, it is important to confirm whether or not sizofiran has been administered before measuring (1→3-beta-D-glucan levels.Keywords: (1→3-beta-D-glucan, cervical cancer, Mycobacterium intracellulare, sizofiran

  20. Suppression of diamagnetism by neutrals pressure in partially ionized, high-beta plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Yano, Kazuki; Fruchtman, Amnon

    2016-12-01

    Suppression of diamagnetism in a partially ionized plasma with high beta was experimentally investigated by the use of Langmuir and Hall sensor probes, focusing on a neutrals pressure effect. The plasma beta, which is the ratio of plasma to vacuum magnetic pressures, varied from ˜1% to >100% while the magnetic field varied from ˜120 G to ˜1 G. Here, a uniform magnetized argon plasma was operated mostly in an inductive mode, using a helicon plasma source of the Large Helicon Plasma Device [S. Shinohara et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 057104 (2009)] with a diameter of 738 mm and an axial length of 4860 mm. Electron density varied from 5 × 1015 m-3 to power of 7 MHz and ˜3.5 kW, respectively. The observed magnetic field reduction rate, a decrease of the magnetic field divided by the vacuum one, was up to 18%. However, in a certain parameter regime, where the product of ion and electron Hall terms is a key parameter, the measured diamagnetic effect was smaller than that expected by the plasma beta. This suppressed diamagnetism is explained by the neutrals pressure replacing magnetic pressure in balancing plasma pressure. Diamagnetism is weakened if neutrals pressure is comparable to the plasma pressure and if the coupling of plasma and neutrals pressures by ion-neutral collisions is strong enough.

  1. William Morris and the critical utopia of high fantasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Večko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The novels The Wood Beyond the World (1894 and The Weil at the World's End (1896 by William Morris are considered the formative works of the type of literature which has been labelled high fantasy. The latter is one of the commercially most successful genres of fantasy literature. The two novels are analysed from the perspective of critical utopianism as articulated through a distinc­tive type of aesthetic structure which was established in these works and has become characteristic of the high fantasy literature. The author of the article suggests that it is this complex of aesthetic structiire-aiid ifs iiiherent iitopian lmpulse which may be one of the important faciors-in the perennia popularity of high fantasy.

  2. Investigation of instabilities and rotation alteration in high beta KSTAR plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Ko, W. H.; Bak, J. G.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Choi, M. J.; Hahn, S. H.; In, Y. K.; Jardin, S. C.; Jeon, Y. M.; Kim, J.; Kwak, J. G.; Lee, S. G.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, H. K.; Yoon, S. W.; Yun, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    H-mode plasma operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device has been expanded to significantly surpass the ideal MHD no-wall beta limit. Plasmas with high normalized beta, βN, up to 4.3 have been achieved with reduced plasma internal inductance, li, to near 0.7, exceeding the computed n = 1 ideal no-wall limit by a factor of 1.6. Pulse lengths at maximum βN were extended to longer pulses by new, more rapid control. The stability of the observed m/n = 2/1 tearing mode that limited the achieved high βN is computed by the M3D-C1 code, and the effect of sheared toroidal rotation to tearing stability is examined. As a method to affect the mode stability in high βN plasmas, the non-resonant alteration of the rotation profile by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields has been used, enabling a study of the underlying neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) physics and stability dependence on rotation. Non-axisymmetric field spectra were applied using in-vessel control coils (IVCCs) with varied n = 2 field configurations to alter the plasma toroidal rotation profile in high beta H-mode plasmas and to analyze their effects on the rotation. The rotation profile was significantly altered with rotation reduced by more than 60% without tearing activity or mode locking. To investigate the physical characteristics and scaling of the measured rotation braking by NTV, changes in the rotation profile are analytically examined in steady state. The expected NTV scaling with the square of the normalized applied field perturbation agrees with the measured profile change δB2.1-2.3. The NTV is also found to scale as Ti2.1-2.4, in general agreement with the low collisionality "1/ν" regime scaling of the NTV theory (TNTV-(1/ν) ∝ Ti2.5).

  3. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  4. Demystifying the Text: Literary Criticism in the High School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Shows how one teacher answered student questions about how a particular piece of literature came to be regarded as worthy of in-depth examination. Proposes that students be taught about various critical approaches, including Jungian/archetypal criticism, formalism, reader-response criticism, socio-historical and biographical criticism, and…

  5. Demystifying the Text: Literary Criticism in the High School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Shows how one teacher answered student questions about how a particular piece of literature came to be regarded as worthy of in-depth examination. Proposes that students be taught about various critical approaches, including Jungian/archetypal criticism, formalism, reader-response criticism, socio-historical and biographical criticism, and…

  6. Teaching Critical Thinking through Art History in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoian, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    Explains how the study of art history encourages the development of critical thinking in adolescents by comparing Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives with Feldman's stages of art criticism. Offers curriculum-based recommendations for using art history and criticism to encourage critical thinking. (LS)

  7. A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Elisabetta; Servant, Nicolas; Zollinger, Raphaël; Bogiatzi, Sofia I; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Soumelis, Vassili

    2008-06-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been described as a T helper cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)2 cells, with specific functions in antimicrobial defense and autoimmunity. The factors driving human T(H)-17 differentiation remain controversial. Using a systematic approach combining experimental and computational methods, we show here that transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 (IL-23) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) were all essential for human T(H)-17 differentiation. However, individual T(H)-17 cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-17, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6, as well as the global T(H)-17 cytokine profile, were differentially modulated by T(H)-17-promoting cytokines. Transforming growth factor-beta was critical, and its absence induced a shift from a T(H)-17 profile to a T(H)1-like profile. Our results shed new light on the regulation of human T(H)-17 differentiation and provide a framework for the global analysis of T helper responses.

  8. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies on {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Nandini; Karmakar, S.; Sharma, S.M.Surinder M.; Busseto, E.; Sikka, S.K

    2004-06-15

    Using in situ X-ray diffraction, we have investigated the high-pressure behavior of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} upto 10 GPa. No phase transformation was observed in this pressure range. Our studies show that the diffraction peaks show inherent broadening on increase of pressure. This suggests that H-lattice may be already disordered at ambient conditions and further increase in pressure may increase the lattice disorder as observed in Co(OH){sub 2} (Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 134301)

  10. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed by a......-lactamases with up to 76% aa identity to KPC from distinct Chromobacterium species is highly indicative of the role played by this genus in the evolution of KPC....

  11. Extension to order $\\beta^{23}$ of the high-temperature expansions for the spin-1/2 Ising model on the simple-cubic and the body-centered-cubic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2000-01-01

    Using a renormalized linked-cluster-expansion method, we extend to order $\\beta^{23}$ the high-temperature series for the susceptibility $\\chi$ and the second-moment correlation length $\\xi$ of the spin-1/2 Ising models on the sc and the bcc lattices. A study of these expansions yields updated direct estimates of universal parameters, such as exponents and amplitude ratios, which characterize the critical behavior of $\\chi$ and $\\xi$. Our best estimates for the inverse critical temperatures are $\\beta^{sc}_c=0.221654(1)$ and $\\beta^{bcc}_c=0.1573725(6)$. For the susceptibility exponent we get $\\gamma=1.2375(6)$ and for the correlation length exponent $\

  12. Beta-thalassemia mutations in Rome. A high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele in subjects of latium origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, A; Cianciulli, P; Cianetti, L; Iazzone, R; Cenci, A; Sorrentino, F; Franco, G; Pecci, G; Papa, G; Peschle, C

    1994-01-01

    We studied the molecular bases of beta-thalassemia in Rome, a city centrally located in Latium, which is a region with a low incidence of beta-carriers. People also come to Rome from other regions for specific or prenatal diagnostic assessment. Only 11 patients (20%) out of 62 characterized beta-thalassemia subjects were of Latium family origin. They presented five mutations with an uncommonly high frequency of the IVSII-745 allele, that was found in homozygosis in 4 unrelated patients from a southeastern area in the province of Frosinone. These data may indicate a founder effect.

  13. High-dose insulin therapy in beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristin M; Kaczmarek, Kathleen M; Morgan, Jenifer; Holger, Joel S

    2011-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. High-dose insulin therapy, along with glucose supplementation, has emerged as an effective treatment for severe beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning. We review the experimental data and clinical experience that suggests high-dose insulin is superior to conventional therapies for these poisonings. PRESENTATION AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT. Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and cardiogenic shock are characteristic features of beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker poisoning. Initial treatment is primarily supportive and includes saline fluid resuscitation which is essential to correct vasodilation and low cardiac filling pressures. Conventional therapies such as atropine, glucagon and calcium often fail to improve hemodynamic status in severely poisoned patients. Catecholamines can increase blood pressure and heart rate, but they also increase SVR which may result in decreases in cardiac output and perfusion of vascular beds. The increased myocardial oxygen demand that results from catecholamines and vasopressors may be deleterious in the setting of hypotension and decreased coronary perfusion. METHODS. The Medline, Embase, Toxnet, and Google Scholar databases were searched for the years 1975-2010 using the terms: high-dose insulin, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia, beta-blocker, calcium-channel blocker, toxicology, poisoning, antidote, toxin-induced cardiovascular shock, and overdose. In addition, a manual search of the Abstracts of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology and the Congress of the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists published in Clinical Toxicology for the years 1996-2010 was undertaken. These searches identified 485 articles of which 72 were considered relevant. MECHANISMS OF HIGH-DOSE INSULIN BENEFIT. There are three main mechanisms of benefit: increased inotropy, increased intracellular glucose transport, and vascular dilatation. EFFICACY OF HIGH

  14. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structures of beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I)

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X; Yamanaka, S

    2002-01-01

    The single crystals of six kinds of metal nitride halide, beta- M NX (M = Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I), were grown in sealed Au (or Pt) tubes by the reaction of M N or M NX powders with NH sub 4 X as fluxes under high-temperature and high-pressure conditions such as 3-5 GPa at 900-1200 sup o C. The x-ray structure analysis revealed that all six kinds of compound crystallize in a rhombohedral space group R3-bar m, Z = 6. beta-ZrNCl, beta-ZrNBr, and beta-HfNCl are isotypic with SmSI, and the others isostructural with YOF.

  15. SLC30A3 responds to glucose- and zinc variations in beta-cells and is critical for insulin production and in vivo glucose-metabolism during beta-cell stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamille Smidt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ion transporters of the Slc30A- (ZnT- family regulate zinc fluxes into sub-cellular compartments. beta-cells depend on zinc for both insulin crystallization and regulation of cell mass. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study examined: the effect of glucose and zinc chelation on ZnT gene and protein levels and apoptosis in beta-cells and pancreatic islets, the effects of ZnT-3 knock-down on insulin secretion in a beta-cell line and ZnT-3 knock-out on glucose metabolism in mice during streptozotocin-induced beta-cell stress. In INS-1E cells 2 mM glucose down-regulated ZnT-3 and up-regulated ZnT-5 expression relative to 5 mM. 16 mM glucose increased ZnT-3 and decreased ZnT-8 expression. Zinc chelation by DEDTC lowered INS-1E insulin content and insulin expression. Furthermore, zinc depletion increased ZnT-3- and decreased ZnT-8 gene expression whereas the amount of ZnT-3 protein in the cells was decreased. Zinc depletion and high glucose induced apoptosis and necrosis in INS-1E cells. The most responsive zinc transporter, ZnT-3, was investigated further; by immunohistochemistry and western blotting ZnT-3 was demonstrated in INS-1E cells. 44% knock-down of ZnT-3 by siRNA transfection in INS-1E cells decreased insulin expression and secretion. Streptozotocin-treated mice had higher glucose levels after ZnT-3 knock-out, particularly in overt diabetic animals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Zinc transporting proteins in beta-cells respond to variations in glucose and zinc levels. ZnT-3, which is pivotal in the development of cellular changes as also seen in type 2 diabetes (e.g. amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease but not previously described in beta-cells, is present in this cell type, up-regulated by glucose in a concentration dependent manner and up-regulated by zinc depletion which by contrast decreased ZnT-3 protein levels. Knock-down of the ZnT-3 gene lowers insulin secretion in vitro and affects in vivo glucose metabolism after

  16. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  17. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic force and cycling performance in highly trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Samuel T; Bellinger, Phillip M; Driller, Matthew W; Shing, Cecilia M; Fell, James W

    2013-12-01

    Beta-alanine may benefit short-duration, high-intensity exercise performance. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aspects of muscular performance in highly trained cyclists. Sixteen highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 7 yr; mass = 70 ± 7 kg; VO2max = 67 ± 4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) supplemented with either beta-alanine (n = 8, 65 mg · kg - 1BM) or a placebo (n = 8; dextrose monohydrate) over 4 weeks. Pre- and postsupplementation cyclists performed a 4-minute maximal cycling test to measure average power and 30 reciprocal maximal isokinetic knee contractions at a fixed angular velocity of 180° · sec(-1) to measure average power/repetition, total work done (TWD), and fatigue index (%). Blood pH, lactate (La-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were measured pre- and postisokinetic testing at baseline and following the supplementation period. Beta-alanine supplementation was 44% likely to increase average power output during the 4-minute cycling time trial when compared with the placebo, although this was not statistically significant (p = .25). Isokinetic average power/repetition was significantly increased post beta-alanine supplementation compared with placebo (beta-alanine: 6.8 ± 9.9 W, placebo: -4.3 ± 9.5 W, p = .04, 85% likely benefit), while fatigue index was significantly reduced (p = .03, 95% likely benefit). TWD was 89% likely to be improved following beta-alanine supplementation; however, this was not statistically significant (p = .09). There were no significant differences in blood pH, lactate, and HCO3- between groups (p > .05). Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation resulted in worthwhile changes in time-trial performance and short-duration muscular force production in highly trained cyclists.

  18. Experimental consequences of quantum critical points at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Núñez, M.; Garbarino, G.; Sulpice, A.; Marcus, J.; Gay, F.; Continentino, M. A.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the C r1 -xR ex phase diagram finding that its phase transition temperature towards an antiferromagnetic order TN follows a quantum [(xc-x ) /xc ] ψ law, with ψ =1 /2 , from the quantum critical point (QCP) at xc=0.25 up to TN≈600 K . We compare this system to others in order to understand why this elemental material is affected by the QCP up to such unusually high temperatures. We determine a general criterion for the crossover, as a function of an external parameter such as concentration, from the region controlled solely by thermal fluctuations to that where quantum effects become observable. The properties of materials with low coherence lengths will thus be altered far away from the QCP.

  19. Improved-confinement plasmas at high temperature and high beta in the MST RFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Kaufman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2009-01-01

    We have increased substantially the electron and ion temperatures, the electron density, and the total beta in plasmas with improved energy confinement in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). The improved confinement is achieved with a well-established current profile control technique for reduction of magnetic tearing and reconnection. A sustained ion temperature > 1 keV is achieved with intensified reconnection-based ion heating followed immediately by current profile control. In the same plasmas, the electron temperature reaches 2 keV, and the electron thermal diffusivity drops to about 2 m(2) s(-1). The global energy confinement time is 12 ms. This and the reported temperatures are the largest values yet achieved in the reversed-field pinch (RFP). These results were attained at a density similar to 10(19) m(-3). By combining pellet injection with current profile control, the density has been quadrupled, and total beta has nearly doubled to a record value of about 26%. The Mercier criterion is exceeded in the plasma core, and both pressure-driven interchange and pressure-driven tearing modes are calculated to be linearly unstable, yet energy confinement is still improved. Transient momentum injection with biased probes reveals that global momentum transport is reduced with current profile control. Magnetic reconnection events drive rapid momentum transport related to large Maxwell and Reynolds stresses. Ion heating during reconnection events occurs globally, locally, or not at all, depending on which tearing modes are involved in the reconnection. To potentially augment inductive current profile control, we are conducting initial tests of current drive with lower-hybrid and electron-Bernstein waves.

  20. AXEL-a high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiseki; Ichikawa, Atsuko K.; Nakaya, Tsuyoshi; Minamino, Akihiro; Ban, Sei; Yanagita, Saori; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirose, Masanori; Sekiya, Hiroyuki; Ueshima, Kota; Miuchi, Kentaro

    2017-02-01

    To search for neutrinoless double beta decay, we have started developing a high pressure xenon gas time projection chamber as the AXEL (A Xenon ElectroLuminescence detector) project since 2014. We proposed a new scheme to measure energy deposit using electroluminescence lights to achieve high energy resolution, large mass and strong background rejection power. Important performances of compositions of our new readout scheme are shown: electric field simulation, VUV sensitivity of MPPC in high pressure gaseous xenon, response of MPPC for large amount of photons. To demonstrate as a whole system, we constructed a small prototype detector using 64 MPPCs filled with 4 bar xenon gas. Result of measurement with a 57Co gamma-ray source are shown.

  1. Prophylactic beta-blockade to prevent myocardial infarction perioperatively in high-risk patients who undergo general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca C; Pagliarello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    The benefit of administering beta-adrenergic blocking agents perioperatively to surgical patients at high risk for myocardial ischemia has been demonstrated in several well-designed randomized controlled trials. These benefits have included a reduction in the incidence of myocardial complications and an improvement in overall survival for patients with evidence of or at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed a retrospective study at the Ottawa Civic Hospital to investigate the use of beta-blockers in the perioperative period for high-risk general surgery patients who underwent laparotomy and to explore the reasons for failure to prescribe or administer beta-blockers when indicated. All 236 general surgery patients over the age of 50 years who underwent laparotomy for major gastrointestinal surgery between Jan. 1, 2001, and Dec. 31, 2001, were assigned a cardiac risk classification using the risk stratification described by Mangano and colleagues. The perioperative prescription and administration of beta-blockers were noted as were the patient's heart rate and blood pressure parameters for the first postoperative week, in-hospital adverse cardiac events and death. Of the 143 patients classified as being at risk for CAD or having definite evidence of CAD, 87 (60.8%) did not receive beta-blockers perioperatively. Of those who did, 43 were previously on beta-blockers and 13 had them ordered preoperatively. Patients with definite CAD were significantly more likely than others to receive beta-blockers perioperatively (p nurses irrespective of nil par os status. The mean heart rate and blood pressure parameters for patients receiving beta-blockers postoperatively was 82 beats/min and 110 mm Hg, respectively, and these values were not significantly different from the mean heart rate of patients not receiving beta-blockers. The number of postoperative cardiac events was significantly higher in patients with definite evidence of CAD, and among this group, the

  2. Encapsulation of Prodan in beta-cyclodextrin environments: A critical study via electronic spectroscopy and molecular mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anwesha; Sengupta, Bidisa; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Basu, Kaushik; Sengupta, Pradeep K.

    2006-08-01

    We present a detailed study on the binding of the naphthalene based fluorescence probe Prodan with two cyclic oligosachharides namely, natural beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and its synthetic derivative, succinyl-2-hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (SHPβ-CD) using electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy along with theoretical techniques. The encapsulation of Prodan inside the β-CD cavities leads to pronounced changes in its emission characteristics, including dramatic blue shifts (27 nm in 10 mM SHPβ-CD and 19 nm in 10 mM β-CD) in the emission maximum accompanied by increase in the emission yield, fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime values. Detailed analyses of the fluorescence along with relevant absorption spectroscopic data indicate that Prodan readily enters the doughnut-shaped hydrophobic cavities of the β-CDs and forms 1:1 inclusion complexes, the binding affinity being significantly higher in case of SHPβ-CD. Furthermore, docking studies performed via molecular mechanics methods (MM+) indicate that the dimethylamino group of Prodan is most likely to be oriented towards the wider rim of the cyclodextrin cavity. Quantum mechanical calculations reveal that incorporation of Prodan into the β-CD cavities, results in the formation of a N-TICT (dimethylamino twisted intramolecular charge transfer) state.

  3. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    beta -Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase...... no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl- beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta -alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial...... N- carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta -alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta...

  4. A Study of Optimization of Alpha-Beta-Gamma-Eta Filter for Tracking a High Dynamic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Gweon Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking filter plays a key role in accurate estimation and prediction of maneuvering vessel’s position and velocity. Different methods are used for tracking. However, the most commonly used method is the Kalman filter and its modifications. The Alpha-Beta-Gamma filter is one of the special cases of the general solution pro-vided by the Kalman filter. It is a third order filter that computes the smoothed estimates of position, velocity and acceleration for the nth observation, and also predicts the next position and velocity. Although found to track a maneuvering target with a good accuracy than the constant velocity, Alpha-Beta filter, the Alpha-Beta-Gamma filter does not perform impressively under high maneuvers such as when the target is undergoing changing accelerations. This study, therefore, aims to track a highly maneuvering target experiencing jerky motions due to changing accelerations. The Alpha-Beta-Gamma filter is extended to include the fourth state that is, constant jerk to correct the sudden change of acceleration in order to improve the filter’s performance. Results obtained from simulations of the input model of the target dynamics under consideration indicate an improvement in performance of the jerky model, Alpha-Beta-Gamma-Eta, algorithm as compared to the constant acceleration model, Alpha-Beta-Gamma in terms of error reduction and stability of the filter during target maneuver.

  5. Critical universality and hyperscaling revisited for Ising models of general spin using extended high-temperature series

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2002-01-01

    We have extended through beta^{23} the high-temperature expansion of the second field derivative of the susceptibility for Ising models of general spin, with nearest-neighbor interactions, on the simple cubic and the body-centered cubic lattices. Moreover the expansions for the nearest-neighbor correlation function, the susceptibility and the second correlation moment have been extended up to beta^{25}. Taking advantage of these new data, we can improve the accuracy of direct estimates of critical exponents and of hyper-universal combinations of critical amplitudes such as the renormalized four-point coupling g_r or the quantity usually denoted by R^{+}_{xi}. We have used a variety of series extrapolation procedures and, in some of the analyses, we have assumed that the leading correction-to-scaling exponent theta is universal and roughly known. We have also verified, to high precision, the validity of the hyperscaling relation and of the universality property both with regard to the lattice structure and to ...

  6. Biolistic transformation of highly regenerative sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic-Haymes, Snezana D; Smigocki, Ann C

    2005-03-01

    Leaves of greenhouse-grown sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants that were first screened for high regeneration potential were transformed via particle bombardment with the uidA gene fused to the osmotin or proteinase inhibitor II gene promoter. Stably transformed calli were recovered as early as 7 weeks after bombardment and GUS-positive shoots regenerated 3 months after bombardment. The efficiency of transformation ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%, and stable integration of the uidA gene into the genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The main advantages of direct bombardment of leaves to regenerate transformed sugar beet include (1) a readily available source of highly regenerative target tissue, (2) minimal tissue culture manipulation before and after bombardment, and (3) the overall rapid regeneration of transgenic shoots.

  7. On the alpha --> beta transition of carbon-coated highly oriented PVDF ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jijun; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jichun; Duan, Yongxin; Jiang, Shidong; Yan, Shouke

    2003-02-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the polymers which exhibit pronounced polymorphic crystalline forms, depending on crystallization conditions. Four different crystalline modifications, i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, have been reported so far. Among them, even though the alpha-form is the most common one, the beta-phase is the one that has attracted the widest interest due to its extensive piezo- and pyroelectric applications. During the past few decades, a substantial amount of work has been done in attempts to characterize these crystal modifications and transformations among them. It was well documented that the alpha-form PVDF can be easily obtained through melt crystallization of the PVDF at atmospheric pressure. Its beta-counterpart can, however, only be directly obtained by growth from solution, molecular epitaxy on the surface of potassium bromide, melt crystallization at high pressures, or by applying with a strong electric field. Transformation from its alpha-phase to beta-phase has been achieved by mechanical deformation, while the retransformation could be conducted through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the recrystallization behavior of carbon-coated melt-drawn oriented PVDF ultrathin films at atmospheric pressure was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The results indicate that through vacuum evaporating a thin carbon layer on the surface of highly oriented alpha-PVDF ultrathin film, not only has its high orientation been preserved after a complete melting and recrystallization process, but an alpha --> beta transition of PVDF has also been achieved through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. This technique can be successfully used for preparing highly oriented beta-PVDF ultrathin films, especially patterned microstructures of PVDF with its highly oriented polar beta-phase and nonoriented nonpolar alpha-phase.

  8. Criticality issues with highly enriched fuels in a repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, L.C.; Rath, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary analysis of a volcanic tuff repository containing a combination of low enrichment commercial spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and DOE-owned SNF packages. These SNFs were analyzed with respect to their criticality risks. Disposal of SNF packages containing significant fissile mass within a geologic repository must comply with current regulations relative to criticality safety during transportation and handling within operational facilities. However, once the repository is closed, the double contingency credits for criticality safety are subject to unremediable degradation, (e.g., water intrusion, continued presence of neutron absorbers in proximity to fissile material, and fissile material reconfiguration). The work presented in this paper focused on two attributes of criticality in a volcanic tuff repository for near-field and far-field scenarios: (1) scenario conditions necessary to have a criticality, and (2) consequences of a nuclear excursion that are components of risk. All criticality consequences are dependent upon eventual water intrusion into the repository and subsequent breach of the disposal package. Key criticality parameters necessary for a critical assembly are: (1) adequate thermal fissile mass, (2) adequate concentration of fissile material, (3) separation of neutron poison from fissile materials, and (4) sufficient neutron moderation (expressed in units of moderator to fissile atom ratios). Key results from this study indicated that the total energies released during a single excursion are minimal (comparable to those released in previous solution accidents), and the maximum frequency of occurrence is bounded by the saturation and temperature recycle times, thus resulting in small criticality risks.

  9. Scaling of the Critical Beta for Onset of the m/n=2/1 Neoclassical Tearing Mode in Conventional H-Mode Discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Haye, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Strait, E. J.

    2000-10-01

    While m/n=3/2 NTMs have been observed and studied in detail,(R.J. La Haye et al.), to be in the August 2000 Phys. Plasmas. their consequences are small compared to the m/n=2/1 mode which tends to lock, destroy the H-Mode and cause disruption. The 2/1 modes in DIII-D H-Mode discharges appear to be NTMs in that they are excited as beta is rising, are triggered by a sawtooth crash, ELM or both and have a nearly linear critical beta with rhoistar (the ion gyroradius normalized to the plasma minor radius). Analysis of a 2/1 database in DIII-D will be presented. Preliminary comparison to the polarization/ inertial theory,(H.R. Wilson et al.), Phys. Plasmas 3, 248 (1996). particularly of the key issue of island propagation in the local (q=2) E_r=0 quasi-neutrality frame, shows consistency with a stabilizing effect, i.e., a threshold.

  10. Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, Alfred Chapman

    2005-05-01

    The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.

  11. The "edge effect" after implantation of beta-emitting (55Co) stents with high initial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervinka, Pavel; St'ásek, Josef; Costa, Marco Aurelio; Stursa, Jan; Fiser, Miloslav; Vodnanský, Petr; Kocisová, Michaela; Veselka, Josef; Pleskot, Miloslav; Malý, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the cause of "edge restenosis" after implantation of high activity 41.1 microCi +/- 1.2 microCi = 1520 kBq +/- 44 kBq, beta-emitting (55Co) stents. Proton bombarding in cyclotron has brought the radioactivity. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) investigation has been completed in 10 patients. The angiographies performed at 6 month revealed restenosis >50% in 5 cases (50%). The analysis of edges (5 mm distally and proximally to the last stent struts) showed no significant changes in TVV (187.3 +/- 62.60 mm3 and 176.9 +/- 53.5 mm3) but PMV increase significantly (i.e. neointimal proliferation) from 61.9 +/- 31.2 mm3 to 82.2 +/- 43.4 mm3 (pedge effect"/neointimal hyperplasia was in this trial sharp fall-off in radiation at the edges of the stents.

  12. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  13. Common haplotype dependency of high G gamma-globin gene expression and high Hb F levels in beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Labie, D; Pagnier, J.; Lapoumeroulie, C; Rouabhi, F; Dunda-Belkhodja, O; Chardin, P; Beldjord, C; Wajcman, H; Fabry, M E; Nagel, R L

    1985-01-01

    We have studied 42 homozygous beta-thalassemia patients from Algeria and 34 sickle cell anemia patients from Senegal and Benin, determining the relationship between haplotypes, Hb F, and G gamma-globin/A gamma-globin ratios. Populations selected have a high frequency of haplotype homozygotes because of consanguinity (Algeria) and geographic homogeneity (West Africa). We find in beta-thalassemia patients, that haplotype IX in haplotypic homozygotes and heterozygotes, haplotype III in heterozyg...

  14. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable......Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor...... Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding...

  15. Bad Beta, Good Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Vuolteenaho, Tuomo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the size and value "anomalies" in stock returns using an economically motivated two-beta model. We break the beta of a stock with the market portfolio into two components, one reflecting news about the market's future cash flows and one reflecting news about the market's discount rates. Intertemporal asset pricing theory suggests that the former should have a higher price of risk; thus beta, like cholesterol, comes in "had" and "good" varieties. Empirically, we find that v...

  16. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Fructooligosaccharides synthesis by highly stable immobilized beta-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soibelmann Glock Lorenzoni, André; Aydos, Luiza F.; Klein, Manuela P.; Rodrigues, Rafael C.; Hertz, Plinho F.

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was carried out using a partially purified beta-fructofuranosidase from the commercial enzyme preparation Viscozyme L. Partial purification of beta-fructofuranosidase from Viscozyme L was done by batch adsorption using ion-exchange resin DEAE-S

  18. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context...

  19. High-resolution studies of beta-delayed proton emitters at IGISOL facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, A; Aysto, J; Dendooven, P; Hankonen, S; Honkanen, A; Huikari, J; Lhersonneau, G; Lipas, PO; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Oinonen, M; Nieminen, A; Siiskonen, T; Wang, JC

    1998-01-01

    Beta-decays of Al-23 and Ti-41 have been studied by applying ion guide techniques, gamma detection and a gas-Si telescope for charged-particle detection. The experimental beta-decay strength of Ti-41 was found to be quenched by a factor of q(2) = 0.64 compared to our shell model calculations below 8

  20. A new highly efficient beta-glucosidase from the novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette

    , combined with Celluclast 1.5L, substitute the use of Novozym 188 in hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. In the wake of this, focus was placed on beta-glucosidases. A screening for beta-glucosidase activity was conducted, using wheat bran as substrate in simple submerged fermentation, testing selected strains...... mainly opens up the cell wall structure and partly hydrolyzes hemicellulose, so that cellulose is the main target for enzyme hydrolysis. Beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) play an essential role in efficient hydrolysis of cellulose. By hydrolysis of cellobiose, beta-glucosidases relieve inhibiting...... preparations Novozym 188 (mainly beta-glucosidase activity) and Celluclast 1.5L (mainly cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase activity) (Novozymes A/S) have been used in combination for hydrolysis of pretreated biomass, and recently complete enzyme cocktails have been launched, Cellic CTec (Novozymes A...

  1. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.

  2. Critical Trajectories for the Human Settlement of the High Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lee S.

    2007-02-01

    If preservation and prosperity of humanity on the Earth and human settlement of space are our goals, we should concentrate on a commercial path to get there. Commercial enterprise has a long history of fortuitously aiding scientific progress. We expect radical changes in the cost of earth to orbit transportation, and in the methods and efficacy of deep space transportation, within the next two decades. A successful space tourism industry, beginning with suborbital tourism, will greatly drive down the cost of access to orbit over the next 15 years. Inexpensive transportation to low Earth orbit is the first requirement for a great future on the High Frontier. Inexpensive means the cost associated with a mature transportation system. A mature system has a cost of three to five times the cost of the propellant. The first cheap, reliable and highly reusable rocket engines are just now appearing in vehicles. With an assured market and high flight rate, the heretofore glacial progress in reducing the cost of space transportation is likely to become rapid. This is the first critical enabling example of synergy between free market economics and scientific and technical progress in space. It will not be the last. New high power switches and ultracapacitors developed for the automotive market make possible cheap, robust and reliable mass driver engines. In space construction, using masses of nonterrestrial materials make the gravity tractor technique much more capable than previous schemes to maneuver asteroids. Ion propulsion will continue to improve and the first solar sails will be flown. Advanced robotics will allow remarkable improvements in productivity. The computing power available to robots began to follow the exponential Moore's law less than decade ago. The first commercial autonomous mobile robots appeared in late summer 2006. Humans, however, will be required for the foreseeable future in repair and supervisory roles, particularly in unstructured settings such as

  3. Fatigue crack growth behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huan; ZHAO Yongqing; ZENG Weidong; QIAN Li

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviors of a new burn-resistant highly-stabilized beta Ti40 alloy. The FCG rotes were analyzed. The fracture surfaces and the side surfaces of the test samples were explored. The results show that frequency affects the cracking behaviors of Ti40 alloy. Temperature also plays an important role in Ti40 alloy cracking. At room temperature (25℃), when the frequency increases, the cracking rate changes a little in the range of low stress intensity factor (ΔK), while it changes significantly when ΔK is high. At 500℃, the cracking rate of Ti40 alloy changes significantly during all the course of clacking. The frequency also affects the microstructure patterns of Ti40 alloy. A number of secondary cracks appear in the area more than 200 μm from the main crack at a high ΔK when the fre-quency is 1 Hz, but only a few secondary cracks exist when the frequency is 10 Hz. Facet image is the main image of the fracture surfaces when the frequency is 1 Hz. While, ductile striation occupies most of the area of fracture surfaces when the frequency is 10 Hz.

  4. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-10-01

    Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation.

  5. The TF1-ATPase and ATPase activities of assembled alpha 3 beta 3 gamma, alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta, and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma epsilon complexes are stimulated by low and inhibited by high concentrations of rhodamine 6G whereas the dye only inhibits the alpha 3 beta 3, and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, S R; Yokoyama, K; Yoshida, M; Ohta, T; Kagawa, Y; Allison, W S

    1993-12-01

    The ATPase activity of the F1-ATPase from the thermophilic bacterium PS3 is stimulated at concentrations of rhodamine 6G up to about 10 microM where 70% stimulation is observed at 36 degrees C. Half maximal stimulation is observed at about 3 microM dye. At rhodamine 6G concentrations greater than 10 microM, ATPase activity declines with 50% inhibition observed at about 75 microM dye. The ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 gamma and alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta complexes assembled from isolated subunits of TF1 expressed in E. coli deleted of the unc operon respond to increasing concentrations of rhodamine 6G nearly identically to the response of TF1. In contrast, the ATPase activities of the alpha 3 beta 3 and alpha 3 beta 3 delta complexes are only inhibited by rhodamine 6G with 50% inhibition observed, respectively, at 35 and 75 microM dye at 36 degrees C. The ATPase activity of TF1 is stimulated up to 4-fold by the neutral detergent, LDAO. In the presence of stimulating concentrations of LDAO, the ATPase activity of TF1 is no longer stimulated by rhodamine 6G, but rather, it is inhibited with 50% inhibition observed at about 30 microM dye at 30 degrees C. One interpretation of these results is that binding of rhodamine 6G to a high-affinity site on TF1 stimulates ATPase activity and unmasks a low-affinity, inhibitory site for the dye which is also exposed by LDAO.

  6. Ba-ion extraction from a high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with EXO

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, T; Sabourov, A; Varentsov, V L; Gratta, G; Sinclair, D

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is being developed to extract Ba ions from a high-pressure Xe gas environment. It aims to transport Ba ions from 10 bar Xe to vacuum conditions. The setup utilizes a converging-diverging nozzle in combination with a radio-frequency (RF) funnel to move Ba ions into vacuum through the pressure drop of several orders of magnitude. This technique is intended to be used in a future multi-ton detector investigating double-beta decay in $^{136}$Xe. Efficient extraction and detection of Ba ions, the decay product of Xe, would allow for a background-free measurement of the $^{136}$Xe double-beta decay.

  7. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at...... (HR, 2.67 [95% CI, 1.04-6.82] p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In healthy students, use of beta-blockers during the exam period was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric outcomes and might identify psychologically vulnerable students who need special attention.......OBJECTIVES: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...

  8. Highly efficient coupling of beta-substituted aminoethane sulfonyl azides with thio acids, toward a new chemical ligation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Remco; Brouwer, Arwin J; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2005-03-17

    [reaction: see text] A highly efficient coupling of protected beta-substituted aminoethane sulfonyl azides with thio acids is reported. In the case of peptide thio acids, this method encompasses a new chemoselective ligation method. Furthermore, the resulting alpha-amino acyl sulfonamides can be alkylated with suitable electrophiles to obtain densely functionalized sulfonamide scaffolds.

  9. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  10. Critical Language Pedagogy in an Urban High School English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda J.; Minnici, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how classroom conversations about diverse dialects of English can provide a useful foundation for critical language and literacy instruction for students who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and other stigmatized dialects. This article describes a weeklong unit on language variety that…

  11. Corticospinal beta-range coherence is highly dependent on the pre-stationary motor state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Wolfgang; Patino, Luis; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2011-06-01

    During steady muscle contractions, the human sensorimotor cortex generates oscillations in the beta-frequency range (15-30 Hz) that are coherent with the activity of contralateral spinal motoneurons. This corticospinal coherence is thought to favor stationary motor states, but its mode of operation remains elusive. We hypothesized that corticospinal beta-range coherence depends on the sensorimotor processing state before a steady force task and may thus increase after sensorimotor tuning to dynamic force generation. To test this hypothesis we instructed 16 human subjects to compensate static force after rest as well as after compensating predictable or unpredictable dynamic force with their right index finger. We calculated EEG-EMG coherence, cortical motor spectral power, and the motor performance during the force conditions. Corticospinal beta-coherence during stationary force was excessively elevated if the steady-state contraction was preceded by predictable dynamic force instead of rest, and was highest after unpredictable dynamic force. The beta-power decreased from rest to predictable dynamic force, and was lowest during unpredictable dynamic force. The increase in corticospinal beta-coherence showed a significant negative correlation with the preceding change in beta-power. The tuning to dynamic force did not entail an inferior motor performance during static force. The results imply a correlation between corticospinal beta-range coherence and the computational load of the preceding isometric motor engagement. We suggest beta-range coherence provides a functional corticospinal gateway for steady force-related processing that can override cortical states tuned to dynamic force. The modulation of corticospinal beta-range coherence might thus ensure comparable precision of static force in various motor contexts.

  12. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L, constant high glucose (CHG (25 mmol/L, and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, xanthine oxidase (XOD level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG.

  13. Modelling of Sigma Scorpii, a high-mass binary with a Beta Cep variable primary component

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, A; Pavlovski, K; Degroote, P; Papics, P I; Moravveji, E; Lehmann, H; Kolbas, V; Clemer, K

    2014-01-01

    High-mass binary stars are known to show an unexplained discrepancy between the dynamical masses of the individual components and those predicted by models. In this work, we study Sigma Scorpii, a double-lined spectroscopic binary system consisting of two B-type stars residing in an eccentric orbit. The more massive primary component is a Beta Cep-type pulsating variable star. Our analysis is based on a time-series of some 1000 high-resolution spectra collected with the CORALIE spectrograph in 2006, 2007, and 2008. We use two different approaches to determine the orbital parameters of the star; the spectral disentangling technique is used to separate the spectral contributions of the individual components in the composite spectra. The non-LTE based spectrum analysis of the disentangled spectra reveals two stars of similar spectral type and atmospheric chemical composition. Combined with the orbital inclination angle estimate found in the literature, our orbital elements allow a mass estimate of 14.7 +/- 4.5 a...

  14. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges.

  15. Two cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients treated with high doses of inhaled beta-2-agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Camilla Fjord; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Stride, Nis Ottesen

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is characterised by reversible left ventricular dysfunction in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). TCM is considered multifactorial, and the repetitive exposure to inhaled beta-2-agonists has been suspected to induce TCM in predisposed individuals...

  16. CERN-INO magical Beta-beam experiment: A high precision probe for neutrino parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, A

    2008-01-01

    This talk is an attempt to underscore in detail the physics reach of an experimental set-up where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN would be observed in the proposed large magnetized iron calorimeter detector (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The "magical" CERN-INO beta-beam set-up offers an excellent avenue to use the "Golden" channel ($\

  17. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  18. High-pressure behavior of beta-Ga2O3 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; He, Y.; Chen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Freestanding nanocrystalline beta-Ga2O3 particles with an average grain size of 14 nm prepared by chemical method was investigated by angle-dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond-anvil cell up to 64.9 GPa at ambient temperature. The evolution of x-ray diffraction patterns indicated...... that nanocrystalline monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 underwent a phase transition to rhombohedral alpha-Ga2O3. It was found that beta- to alpha-Ga2O3 transition began at about 13.6-16.4 GPa, and extended up to 39.2 GPa. At the highest pressure used, only alpha-Ga2O3 was present, which remained after pressure release. A Birch......-Murnaghan fit to the P-V data yielded a zero-pressure bulk modulus at fixed B-0(')=4: B-0=228(9) GPa and B-0=333(19) GPa for beta-Ga2O3 and alpha-Ga2O3 phases, respectively. We compared our results with bulk beta-Ga2O3, and concluded that the phase-transition pressure and bulk modulus of nanocrystalline beta...

  19. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  20. Hemoglobin Wood beta97(FG4) His replaced by Leu. A new high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin associated with familial erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, F; Huang, Y P; Libnoch, J A; Dessel, B H

    1975-08-19

    The characterization of hemoglobin Wood (beta97(FG4) His replaced by Leu), a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin with reduced Hill constant is described. The amino acid substitution occurs at the alpha1beta2 interface, in the same position as in hemoglobin Malmö (beta97(FG4) His replaced by Gln) and in an homologous position when compared with hemoglobins Chesapeake (alpha92(FG4) Arg replaced by Leu) and J. Capetown (alpha92(fg4) arg replaced by Gln).

  1. Gyrokinetic studies of the effect of beta on drift-wave stability in NCSX

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgaertel, J A; Mikkelsen, D R; Nunami, M; Xanthopoulos, P

    2012-01-01

    The gyrokinetic turbulence code GS2 was used to investigate the effects of plasma beta on linear, collisionless ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM) in National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) geometry. Plasma beta affects stability in two ways: through the equilibrium and through magnetic fluctuations. The first was studied here by comparing ITG and TEM stability in two NCSX equilibria of differing beta values, revealing that the high beta equilibrium was marginally more stable than the low beta equilibrium in the adiabatic-electron ITG mode case. However, the high beta case had a lower kinetic-electron ITG mode critical gradient. Electrostatic and electromagnetic ITG and TEM mode growth rate dependencies on temperature gradient and density gradient were qualitatively similar. The second beta effect is demonstrated via electromagnetic ITG growth rates' dependency on GS2's beta input parameter. A linear benchmark with gyrokinetic codes GENE and GKV-X is also presented.

  2. Methionine residue 35 is critical for the oxidative stress and neurotoxic properties of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide 1-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D Allan; Kanski, Jaroslaw

    2002-07-01

    Amyloid beta-peptide 1-42 [Abeta(1-42)] is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the AD brain is under intense oxidative stress. Our laboratory combined these two aspects of AD into the Abeta-associated free radical oxidative stress model for neurodegeneration in AD brain. Abeta(1-42) caused protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell death in neuronal and synaptosomal systems, all of which could be inhibited by free radical antioxidants. Recent studies have been directed at discerning molecular mechanisms by which Abeta(1-42)-associated free radical oxidative stress and neurotoxicity arise. The single methionine located in residue 35 of Abeta(1-42) is critical for these properties. This review presents the evidence supporting the role of methionine in Abeta(1-42)-associated free radical oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. This work is of obvious relevance to AD and provides a coupling between the centrality of Abeta(1-42) in the pathogenesis of AD and the oxidative stress under which the AD brain exists.

  3. A stable route to high-{beta}{sub p} plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeldner, F.X.; Baranov, Y.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Bickley, A.J.; Challis, C.D.; Fischer, B.; Gormezano, C.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Rimini, F.; Sips, A.C.C.; Springmann, R.; Taroni, A. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Goedbloed, J.P.; Holties, H.A. [Institute for Plasmas Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Parail, V.V.; Pereverzev, G.V. [Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Steady-state operation of tokamak reactors seems feasible in so-called Advanced Scenarios with high bootstrap current in high-beta{sub p} operation. The stabilization of such discharges with noninductive profile control will be attempted on JET in pursuit of previous high bootstrap current studies. Results of modelling studies of full noninductive current drive scenarios in JET and ITER are presented. Fast Waves (FW), Lower Hybrid (LH) Waves and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) are used for heating and current drive, alternatively or in combination. A stable route to nonmonotonic q-profiles has been found with a specific ramp-up scenario which combines LH-current drive (LHCD) and a fast Ohmic ramp-up. A hollow current profile with deep shear reversal over the whole central region is thereby formed in an early low-beta phase and frozen in by additional heating. (authors). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K;

    2008-01-01

    . METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta......A-positive 65 vs 39% in IA2betaA-negative, p=0.0002). The effect was most marked in 4Ab-positive relatives (72% vs 52%, p=0.003). Metabolic testing further refined risk assessment. Among 101 4Ab-positive relatives with IA2betaA, the 5 year risk was 94% in those with a low FPIR (vs 50% in those with a normal...

  5. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, Na

  6. Down-regulation of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase V is a critical part of etoposide-induced apoptotic process and could be mediated by decreasing Sp1 levels in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianhai; Shen, Jialin; Wu, Tao; Wei, Yuanyan; Chen, Xiaoning; Zong, Hongliang; Zhang, Si; Sun, Maoyun; Xie, Jianhui; Kong, Xiangfei; Yang, Yanzhong; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Hanzhou; Gu, Jianxin

    2006-11-01

    beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase V (beta1,4GalT V; EC 2.4.1.38) is considered to be very important in glioma for expressing transformation-related highly branched N-glycans. Recently, we have characterized beta1,4GalT V as a positive growth regulator in several glioma cell lines. However, the role of beta1,4GalT V in glioma therapy has not been clearly reported. In this study, interfering with the expression of beta1,4GalT V by its antisense cDNA in SHG44 human glioma cells markedly promoted apoptosis induced by etoposide and the activation of caspases as well as processing of Bid and expression of Bax and Bak. Conversely, the ectopic expression of beta1,4GalT V attenuated the apoptotic effect of etoposide on SHG44 cells. In addition, both the beta1,4GalT V transcription and the binding of total or membrane glycoprotein with Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) were partially reduced in etoposide-treated SHG44 cells, correlated well with a decreased level of Sp1 that has been identified as an activator of beta1,4GalT V transcription. Collectively, our results suggest that the down-regulation of beta1,4GalT V expression plays an important role in etoposide-induced apoptosis and could be mediated by a decreasing level of Sp1 in SHG44 cells, indicating that inhibitors of beta1,4GalT V may enhance the therapeutic efficiency of etoposide for malignant glioma.

  7. [Determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Meilan; Zhu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of two optical isomers of arbutin (alpha-arbutin and beta-arbutin) and niacinamide in cosmetics was developed. The samples were extracted by the mixture of salt water and chloroform (2:1, v/v). The separation was performed on an ODS-BP column (200 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm, Elite) with methanol-water (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the sample injection volume was 20 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentration and the peak areas of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in the ranges of 0.07-50, 0.06-50 and 0.05-50 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide were 1.65%, 1.73% and 1.33%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics with recoveries of 91.7%-109.6%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the detection of whitening ingredients in cosmetic.

  8. High-affinity binding of fungal beta-glucan fragments to soybean (Glycine max L.) microsomal fractions and protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, E G; Pöpperl, H; Schmidt, W E; Ebel, J

    1988-08-01

    We have recently reported the existence of binding sites in soybean membranes for a beta-glucan fraction derived from the fungal pathogen Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, which may play a role in the elicitor-mediated phytoalexin response of this plant [Schmidt, W. E. & Ebel, J. (1987) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4117-4121]. The specificity of beta-glucan binding to soybean membranes has now been investigated using a variety of competing polyglucans and oligoglucans of fungal origin. P. megasperma beta-glucan binding showed high apparent affinity for branched glucans with degrees of polymerization greater than 12. Binding affinity showed good correlation with elicitor activity as measured in a soybean cotyledon bioassay. Modification of the glucans at the reducing end with phenylalkylamine reagents had no effect on binding affinity. This characteristic was used to synthesize an oligoglucosyl tyramine derivative suitable for radioiodination. The 125I-glucan (15-30 Ci/mmol) provided higher sensitivity and lower detection limits for the binding assays while behaving in a manner identical to the [3H]glucan used previously. More accurate determinations of the Kd value for glucan binding indicated a higher affinity than previously shown (37 nM versus 200 nM). The 125I-glucan was used to provide the first reported evidence of specific binding of a fungal beta-glucan fraction in vivo to soybean protoplasts. The binding affinity to protoplasts proved identical to that found in microsomal fractions.

  9. Histone hyperacetylation within the beta-globin locus is context-dependent and precedes high-level gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, George; de Vries, Christina; Byron, Rachel; Fields, Jennifer; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Bender, M A; Palis, James; Bulger, Michael

    2009-10-15

    Active gene promoters are associated with covalent histone modifications, such as hyperacetylation, which can modulate chromatin structure and stabilize binding of transcription factors that recognize these modifications. At the beta-globin locus and several other loci, however, histone hyperacetylation extends beyond the promoter, over tens of kilobases; we term such patterns of histone modifications "hyperacetylated domains." Little is known of either the mechanism by which these domains form or their function. Here, we show that domain formation within the murine beta-globin locus occurs before either high-level gene expression or erythroid commitment. Analysis of beta-globin alleles harboring deletions of promoters or the locus control region demonstrates that these sequences are not required for domain formation, suggesting the existence of additional regulatory sequences within the locus. Deletion of embryonic globin gene promoters, however, resulted in the formation of a hyperacetylated domain over these genes in definitive erythroid cells, where they are otherwise inactive. Finally, sequences within beta-globin domains exhibit hyperacetylation in a context-dependent manner, and domains are maintained when transcriptional elongation is inhibited. These data narrow the range of possible mechanisms by which hyperacetylated domains form.

  10. A method for critical software event execution reliability in high assurance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, M.E.C.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a method for Critical Software Event Execution Reliability (Critical SEER). The Critical SEER method is intended for high assurance software that operates in an environment where transient upsets could occur, causing a disturbance of the critical software event execution order, which could cause safety or security hazards. The method has a finite automata based module that watches (hence SEER) and tracks the critical events and ensures they occur in the proper order or else a fail safe state is forced. This method is applied during the analysis, design and implementation phases of software engineering.

  11. Beta Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  12. Co-existence of Whistler Waves with Kinetic Alfven Wave Turbulence for the High-beta Solar Wind Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore in the high-beta solar wind plasma whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only ~10^-3 that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.

  13. Pattern recognition of $^{136}$Xe double beta decay events and background discrimination in a high pressure Xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Cebrian, S; Gomez, H; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Segui, L; Tomas, A

    2013-01-01

    High pressure gas detectors offer advantages for the detection of rare events, where background reduction is crucial. For the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe a high pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) combines a good energy resolution and a detailed topological information of each event. The ionization topology of the double beta decay event of 136Xe in gaseous xenon has a characteristic shape defined by the two straggling electron tracks ending up in two higher ionization charge density blobs. With a properly pixelized readout, this topological information is invaluable to perform powerful background discrimination. In this study we carry out detailed simulations of the signal topology, as well as the competing topologies from gamma events that typically compose the background at these energies. We define observables based on graph theory concepts and develop automated discrimination algorithms which reduce the background level in around three orders of magnitude while keeping signal eff...

  14. High beta and second region stability analysis and ICRF edge modeling. Progress report, March 15, 1988--May 14, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This report describes the tasks accomplished under Department of Energy contract {number_sign}DE-FG02-86ER53236 in modeling the edge plasma-antenna interaction that occurs during Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating. This work has resulted in the development of several codes which determine kinetic and fluid modifications to the edge plasma. When used in combination, these code predict the level of impurity generation observed in experiments on the experiments on the Princeton Large Torus. In addition, these models suggest improvements to the design of ICRF antennas. Also described is progress made on high beta and second region analysis. Code development for a comprehensive infernal mode analysis code is nearing completion. A method has been developed for parameterizing the second region of stability and is applied to circular cross section tokamas. Various studies for high beta experimental devices such as PBX-M and DIII-D have been carried out and are reported on.

  15. Oscillations of a highly discrete breather with a critical regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet; Remoissenet; Dinda

    2000-10-01

    We analyze carefully the essential features of the dynamics of a stationary discrete breather in the ultimate degree of energy localization in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice with an on-site double-well potential. We demonstrate the existence of three different regimes of oscillatory motion in the breather dynamics, which are closely related to the motion of the central particle in an effective potential having two nondegenerate wells. In given parameter regions, we observe an untrapped regime, in which the central particle executes large-amplitude oscillations from one to the other side of the potential barrier. In other parameter regions, we find the trapped regime, in which the central particle oscillates in one of the two wells of the effective potential. Between these two regimes we find a critical regime in which the central particle undergoes several temporary trappings within an untrapped regime. Importantly, our study reveals that in the presence of purely anharmonic coupling forces, the breather compactifies, i.e., the energy becomes abruptly localized within the breather.

  16. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  17. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  18. The Effect of Plasma Beta on High-n Ballooning Stability at Low Magnetic Shear

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Hastie, R J

    2016-01-01

    An explanation of the observed improvement in H-mode pedestal characteristics with increasing core plasma pressure or poloidal beta, as observed in MAST and JET, is sought in terms of the impact of the Shafranov shift, d', on ideal ballooning MHD stability.

  19. Inclusive STEM High School Design: 10 Critical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.; Lynch, Sharon J.; Behrend, Tara S.; Means, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the mission of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools emphasized providing gifted and talented students with advanced STEM coursework. However, a newer type of STEM school is emerging in the United States: inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs). ISHSs have open enrollment and are focused on preparing…

  20. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaal, René; Wang, Jing; Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Visser, Hans; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

    2007-07-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially beta-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these genes from an episomal expression vector resulted in unstable strains, the genes were integrated into genomic DNA to yield stable, carotenoid-producing S. cerevisiae cells. Furthermore, carotenoid production levels were higher in strains containing integrated carotenogenic genes. Overexpression of crtYB (which encodes a bifunctional phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase) and crtI (phytoene desaturase) from X. dendrorhous was sufficient to enable carotenoid production. Carotenoid production levels were increased by additional overexpression of a homologous geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae that is encoded by BTS1. Combined overexpression of crtE (heterologous GGPP synthase) from X. dendrorhous with crtYB and crtI and introduction of an additional copy of a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase gene (tHMG1) into carotenoid-producing cells resulted in a successive increase in carotenoid production levels. The strains mentioned produced high levels of intermediates of the carotenogenic pathway and comparable low levels of the preferred end product beta-carotene, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We finally succeeded in constructing an S. cerevisiae strain capable of producing high levels of beta-carotene, up to 5.9 mg/g (dry weight), which was accomplished by the introduction of an additional copy of crtI and tHMG1 into carotenoid-producing yeast cells. This transformant is promising for further development toward the biotechnological production of beta-carotene by S. cerevisiae.

  1. High Upper Critical Field and Irreversibility Field in MgB2 Coated-Conductor Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    High upper critical field and irreversibility field in MgB2 coated-conductor fibers V. Ferrando,a P. Orgiani,b A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. Chen, Qi Li...show a high upper critical field of 55 T at 1.5 K and a high irreversibility field of 40 T at 1.5 K. The result demonstrates great potential of MgB2...using cryocoolers. Unlike high temperature superconductors where critical current den- sity Jc drops sharply across the grain boundary when the grains

  2. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, I

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Ba...

  3. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Spark Gap Switch Assembly ........ .225 vii List of Figures (cont.) FIGURE PAGE IV-10. Turbulent Flow Switch .... ............ . 227 IV-II. Spark Gap...provide such a low inductance that the current risetime is limited by the load rather than the switch itself. Many spark gaps with liquid or solid...Sympoisum, June, 1978. [4] M. A. Lutz and G. A. Hofmann, "The Gamitron - A High Power Crossed-Field Switch Tube for HVDC Interruption," IEEE Trans. on Plasma

  4. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  5. High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L M; Brown, J W; Perez-Stable, C; Fishman, L M

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that high dose 17beta-estradiol (10 (-5) M) has a G2/M blocking effect in SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cultures and strongly enhances apoptosis. To examine the differential effects of estrogen alpha and beta-receptors in this system, we incubated SW-13 cells with specific alpha- and beta-estrogen receptor agonists, PPT [4,4',4''-(propyl-[ (1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol] and DPN [2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propionitrile], respectively (each at 10 (-5) M). Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentages of cells in various phases of the cell cycle [sub-G1 (apoptosis), G1, S, and G2/M] in each experimental condition. Exposure to 17 beta-estradiol for 48 hours increased apoptosis more than 5-fold (from 3.6+/-0.5 to 20+/-2.2% of cells; pPPT had a similar effect, increasing apoptosis to 22+/-1.7% (pPPT; p<0.01 for both agents relative to control); the beta-agonist again had no effect. Estrogen was also found to block the cell cycle in G2/M, increasing it from 15+/-0.4 to 21+/-1.0% of cells (p<0.01), but neither the alpha- nor beta-estrogen agonists had any effect at this point in the cell cycle, indicating that the influence of estrogen was not likely to be either alpha- or beta-receptor mediated. There was no apparent effect of any of these agents on DNA synthesis, as indicated by unchanged percentages of cells in S phase. These studies suggest that induction of apoptosis by estrogen in SW-13 human adrenal cortical carcinoma cultures is mediated by the alpha-receptor, but the G2/M blocking effect of estrogen is not likely to be related to either alpha or beta mechanisms.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  7. Linear processes in high dimensions: Phase space and critical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Bacry, Emmanuel; Muzy, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    In this work we investigate the generic properties of a stochastic linear model in the regime of high dimensionality. We consider in particular the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and the multivariate Hawkes process. We analyze both deterministic and random versions of these models, showing the existence of a stable phase and an unstable phase. We find that along the transition region separating the two regimes the correlations of the process decay slowly, and we characterize the conditions under which these slow correlations are expected to become power laws. We check our findings with numerical simulations showing remarkable agreement with our predictions. We finally argue that real systems with a strong degree of self-interaction are naturally characterized by this type of slow relaxation of the correlations.

  8. Critical Assessment 14: High Entropy Alloys and Their Development as Structural Materials (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0219 CRITICAL ASSESSMENT 14: HIGH ENTROPY ALLOYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS (POSTPRINT) Daniel...December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRITICAL ASSESSMENT 14: HIGH ENTROPY ALLOYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS (POSTPRINT) 5a...available at DOI 10.1179/1743284714Y.1142 0000000749. 14. ABSTRACT The field of high entropy alloys has exploded in its first 10 years. Vast

  9. High critical current densities in industrial scale composites made from high homogeneity NB 46. 5 TI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbalestier, D.C.; Hemachalam, K.; Lee, P.; McDonald, W.K.; O' Larey, P.; Scanlan, R.; Starch, W.; Taylor, C.; Warnes, W.; West, A.W.; Zeitlin, B.

    1985-03-01

    Recent work in our group on the fabricationmicrostructure-superconducting properties of composites of Nb-Ti has produced much new information about the precipitate morphology and origins of high critical current density (J /SUB c/ ) in these materials./sup 1 -4/ Precipitation of Ti-rich phase is seen to commence as a grain boundary film 2 - 4 nm thick, the film then developing into approximately equiaxed particles of ..cap alpha..-Ti at the boundary triple points. The typical size of such precipitates is 50 - 100 nm. Controlled drawing of such a structure produces an array of locally ordered ribbon precipitates. These precipitates are typically 3 - 5 nm thick by 100 - 300 nm long (when observed in transverse section). Their length in longitudinal section appears to be several hundred nm, indicating great ductility in these small ..cap alpha..-Ti precipitates. The typical separation of the precipitates is 20 - 30 nm. Thus the dimensions of the precipitate array are quite comparable to that of the flux lattice since the fluxoid separation is 22 nm at 5 T and the fluxoid diameter of Nb 46.5 wt% Ti is approximately 10 nm. The flux pinning behavior of these precipitate structures is expected to be complex: /SUP 2.4/ the defect density is very high, the precipitate morphology has a very high aspect ratio and the extreme thinness of the precipitates must permit some superconductivity to be induced in them by the proximity effect./sup 5/

  10. Simultaneous high-P, high-T X ray diffraction study of beta-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4 to 26 GPa and 900 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Shu, Jinfu; Parthasarathy, G.; Bassett, W. A.; Ko, Jaidong

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the lattice parameters of beta phase (Mg(0.84)Fe(0.16))2SiO4 determined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation under simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The experiments were conducted up to a pressure of 26 GPa and a temperature of 900 K. High pressures were generated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using neon gas as a pressure medium. The sample was heated with an external Ni80Cr20 wire heater. Gold was used as an internal high-pressure calibrant at high temperature. The experimental data indicated the anisotropic behavior of the beta phase at high pressure and temperature, i.e., the c axis is about 35-percent more expansible and about 25-percent more compressible than the a and b axes. A value of 5.1 +/-0.8 was found for the Anderson-Grueneisen parameter. The derived thermodynamic parameters for the beta phase are summarized.

  11. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  12. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  13. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  14. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  15. 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) Digital Coincidence System Based on Synchronous High-Speed Multichannel Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jifeng; Liang, Juncheng; Liu, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    A dedicated 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe)digital coincidence system has been developed in this work, which includes five acquisition channels. Three analog-to-digital converter (ADC) acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 8 bits and acquisition rate of 1GSPS (sample per second) are utilized to collect the signals from three Photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) which are adopted to detect {\\beta} decay, and two acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 16 bits and acquisition rate of 50MSPS are utilized to collect the signals from high-purity germanium (HPGe) which are adopted to detect {\\gamma} decay. In order to increase the accuracy of the coincidence system, all the five acquisition channels are synchronous within 500ps. The data collected by the five acquisition channels will be transmitted to the host PC through PCI bus and saved as a file. Off-line software is applied for the 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) coincidence and data analysis as needed in practical application. W...

  16. Vortex-lattice pinning and critical current density in anisotropic high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxu; Li, Xiangyu; Kang, Guozheng; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropy of critical current density is an impressive manifestation in the physics of high-temperature superconductors. We develop an analytical characterization of anisotropic flux-lattice pinning and critical current density in a system of random point defects. The effect of superconducting anisotropy on the pinning force and critical current density is formulated. The in-plane/out-of-plane anisotropy and microscopic characteristic lengths are incorporated in the field and angular dependence of the critical current density. This is helpful in understanding the physical essence of the scaling behavior in the experiments for critical current anisotropy. We discuss the role of strong and weak point defects in the anisotropic flux-lattice pinning. Relevance of the theory to the critical-state model is dictated as well.

  17. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  18. Method for critical software event execution reliability in high integrity software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on a method called SEER, which provides a high level of confidence that critical software driven event execution sequences faithfully exceute in the face of transient computer architecture failures in both normal and abnormal operating environments.

  19. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  20. Cytochromes P460 and c'-beta; a new family of high-spin cytochromes c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Bradley O; Bergmann, David J; Klotz, Martin G; Hooper, Alan B

    2007-03-01

    Cytochromes-P460 of Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the cytochrome c' of M. capsulatus, believed to be involved in binding or transformation of N-oxides, are shown to represent an evolutionarily related new family of monoheme, approximately 17kDa, cytochromes c found in the genomes of diverse Proteobacteria. All members of this family have a predicted secondary structure predominantly of beta-sheets in contrast to the predominantly alpha-helical cytochromes c' found in photoheterotrophic and denitrifying Proteobacteria.

  1. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  2. Thermoluminescence dosimetric properties of a new thin beta detector (LiF:Mg, Cu, P; GR-200F) in comparison with highly sensitive Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C beta dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Faramawy, N A [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Goeksu, H Y [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany); Panzer, W [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute for Radiation Protection, D-85758 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    There is an increasing need for efficient beta detectors to fulfil ICRU recommendations for new quantities especially in the field of medical physics and retrospective dosimetry. The thermoluminescence properties of thin LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR-200F) tapes produced in 1998 by Sange Company, People's Republic of China, are investigated and compared with those of highly sensitive thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C beta detectors as regards their applicability in the detection of low energy photons and beta particles. The radiation dose response, minimum detectable dose, reproducibility of measurements and effect of residual signal at low dose are assessed for the possible low level beta dosimetry use. The radiation dose response and photon and beta detection efficiencies are tested under practical laboratory conditions. The effects of indoor fluorescent light and residual signal after the first read-out are investigated with a view to optimising handling conditions such as post-irradiation and pre-heating treatments for routine dosimetry. The photon energy responses of the detectors are investigated using 150 keV filtered x-rays and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  3. Dealing Collectively with Critical Incident Stress Reactions in High Risk Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Leonhardt, Alice; Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Vogt, joachim

    2015-01-01

    aim of this paper is to shift the representation of coping patterns within high risk occupations to an existential part of cultural pattern and social structure, which characterises high reliability organisations. Drawing upon the specific peer model of critical incident stress management (CISM......), in which qualified operational peers support colleagues who experienced critical incident stress, the paper discusses critical incident stress management in air traffic control. Our study revealed coping patterns that co-vary with the culture that the CISM programme fostered within this specific high...... organisations. Indeed, we found that the CISM programme once integrated within the socio-cultural patterns of this specific working environment enhanced not only individual feelings of being supported but also organisational safety culture. Keywords: coping; safety culture; critical incident stress management...

  4. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherezov, Vadim; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Hanson, Michael A;

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound...... to the partial inverse agonist carazolol at 2.4 angstrom resolution. The structure provides a high-resolution view of a human G protein-coupled receptor bound to a diffusible ligand. Ligand-binding site accessibility is enabled by the second extracellular loop, which is held out of the binding cavity by a pair...

  5. The national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) research programme and progress towards high beta, long pulse operating scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synakowski, E. J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Darrow, D. S.; Efthimion, P. C.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gilmore, M.; Grisham, L. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Taylor, G.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Budny, R.; Carter, M. D.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Doyle, E. J.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Houlberg, W.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lawrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Majeski, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Mau, T. K.; McCormack, B.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Nishino, N.; Okabayashi, M.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Pinsker, R.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Schaffer, M.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Yang, J. G.; Zeng, L.; Zhu, W.

    2003-12-01

    A major research goal of the national spherical torus experiment is establishing long-pulse, high beta, high confinement operation and its physics basis. This research has been enabled by facility capabilities developed during 2001 and 2002, including neutral beam (up to 7 MW) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating (up to 6 MW), toroidal fields up to 6 kG, plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, flexible shape control, and wall preparation techniques. These capabilities have enabled the generation of plasmas with \\beta _T \\equiv \\langle p \\rangle /(B_{T0}^{2}/2\\mu_{0}) of up to 35%. Normalized beta values often exceed the no-wall limit, and studies suggest that passive wall mode stabilization enables this for H mode plasmas with broad pressure profiles. The viability of long, high bootstrap current fraction operations has been established for ELMing H mode plasmas with toroidal beta values in excess of 15% and sustained for several current relaxation times. Improvements in wall conditioning and fuelling are likely contributing to a reduction in H mode power thresholds. Electron thermal conduction is the dominant thermal loss channel in auxiliary heated plasmas examined thus far. HHFW effectively heats electrons, and its acceleration of fast beam ions has been observed. Evidence for HHFW current drive is obtained by comparision of the loop voltage evolution in plasmas with matched density and temperature profiles but varying phases of launched HHFW waves. Studies of emissions from electron Bernstein waves indicate a density scale length dependence of their transmission across the upper hybrid resonance near the plasma edge that is consistent with theoretical predictions. A peak heat flux to the divertor targets of 10 MW m-2 has been measured in the H mode, with large asymmetries being observed in the power deposition between the inner and outer strike points. Non-inductive plasma startup studies have focused on coaxial helicity injection. With this technique

  6. High critical current of Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires for AC and weight-critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandrini, M; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Putman, P; Zhou, Y X; Salama, K [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4006 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The peculiar features of magnesium diboride make it suitable for many potential applications. In the last four years of investigation of MgB{sub 2}, the scientific community's research was mainly motivated by features such as low cost, compatibility with straightforward processing methods, relatively high critical temperature, and absence of weak links between grains. Other applications suggest the accentuation of other MgB{sub 2} properties. In particular its very low mass density makes it attractive for space activities, where the cost per kilogram for orbiting is still a huge obstacle, e.g. the cost of transport to low Earth orbit can reach 15 k$ kg{sup -1}. In order to promote the use of this compound for space activities, we tested titanium as a sheath material. Titanium is non-magnetic and its alloys are almost half the weight of steel but with yield stresses up to three times higher. We fabricated Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} through the powder-in-tube process. These wires show similar results to those sheathed with Fe. At 4 K the critical current density J{sub c} is well above 7 x 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2}. The interface between the superconducting intermetallic compound and the lightweight sheath does not show any evidence of reaction and diffusion up to 900 deg. C. An analysis was carried out using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer, and electron microprobe analysis.

  7. Finite beta effects on low- and high-frequency magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Mieko; Aota, Yukio [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    A magnetosonic wave propagating perpendicular to a magnetic field in a two-ion-species plasma has two branches, high-frequency and low-frequency modes. The finite beta effects on these modes are analyzed theoretically on the basis of the three-fluid model with finite ion and electron pressures. First, it is shown that the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the low-frequency mode is valid for amplitudes ε<ε{sub max}, where the upper limit of the amplitude ε{sub max} is given as a function of β (β is the ratio of the kinetic and magnetic energy densities), the density ratio, and the cyclotron frequency ratio of two ion species. Next, the linear dispersion relation and KdV equation for the high-frequency mode are derived, including β as a factor. In addition, the theory for heavy ion acceleration by the high-frequency mode pulse and the pulse damping due to this energy transfer in a finite beta plasma are presented.

  8. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  9. Experimental determination of the critical welding speed in high speed MAG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhikun; Wu Chuansong

    2008-01-01

    In high speed MAG welding process, some weld formation defects may be encountered. To get good weld quality, the critical welding speed beyond which humping or undercutting weld bead can occur must be known for different conditions. In this research, high speed MAG welding tests were carried out to check out the effects of different factors on the critical welding speed. Through observing the weld bead profiles and the macrographs of the transverse sections of MAG welds, the occurrence tendency of humping weld was analyzed, and the values of critical welding speed were determined under different levels of welding current or voltage, and the effect of shielding gas compositions on the critical welding speed was also investigated.

  10. Towards a Radio-guided Surgery with $\\beta^{-}$ Decays: Uptake of a somatostatin analogue (DOTATOC) in Meningioma and High Grade Glioma

    CERN Document Server

    Collamati, Francesco; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Cremonesi, Marta; De Lucia, Erika; Ferrari, Mahila; Frallicciardi, Paola M; Grana, Chiara M; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Patera, Vincenzo; Piersanti, Luca; Recchia, Luigi; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Faccini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    A novel radio guided surgery (RGS) technique for cerebral tumors using $\\beta^{-}$ radiation is being developed. Checking the availability of a radio-tracer that can deliver a $\\beta^{-}$ emitter to the tumor is a fundamental step in the deployment of such technique. This paper reports a study of the uptake of 90Y labeled (DOTATOC) in the meningioma and the high grade glioma (HGG) and a feasibility study of the RGS technique in these cases.

  11. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  12. Critical Temperature Characteristics of Layered High-Temperature Superconductor Under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Fang-Ying

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Ginzburg-Landau modified model of layered high-temperature superconductor under pres-sure. We have theoretically studied the relation between the pressure and the temperature of layered high-temperature superconductor. If the pressure is not a constant, we have a relation of quadratic equation between the pressure and the temperature of layered high-temperature superconductor. In a special case, we find the critical temperature decreases with further increasing pressure. In another special case, the critical temperature increases with further increasing pressure.

  13. Insertional activation of cepA leads to high-level beta-lactamase expression in Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M. B.; Bennett, T. K.; Payne, C. M.; Smith, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an important opportunistic pathogen of humans and is resistant to many drugs commonly used to treat anaerobic infections, including beta-lactams. A strain set comprised of B. fragilis isolates producing either low or high levels of the endogenous cephalosporinase activity, CepA, has been described previously (M. B. Rogers, A. C. Parker, and C. J. Smith, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:2391-2400, 1993). Clones containing cepA genes from each of seven representative strains were isolated, and the DNA sequences were determined. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that there were few differences between the cepA coding sequences of the low- and high-activity strains. The cepA coding sequences were cloned into an expression vector, pFD340, and analyzed in a B. fragilis 638 cepA mutant. The results of beta-lactamase assays and ampicillin MICs showed that there was no significant difference in the enzymatic activity of structural genes from the high- or low-activity strains. Comparison of sequences upstream of the cepA coding region revealed that 50 bp prior to the translation start codon, the sequence for high-activity strains change dramatically. This region of the high-activity strains shared extensive homology with IS21, suggesting that an insertion was responsible for the increased expression of cepA in these isolates. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of total RNA by using cepA-specific DNA probes supported the idea that differential cepA expression in low- and high-activity strains was controlled at the level of transcription. However, the insertion did not alter the cepA transcription start site, which occurred 27 bp upstream of the ATG translation start codon in both expression classes. Possible mechanisms of cepA activation are discussed. Images PMID:7517394

  14. Development of Assessment Instrument of Critical Thinking in Physics at Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, T.; Kaniawati, I.; Aviyanti, L.

    2017-02-01

    The result of preliminary study shows that the assessment of physics in school did not train students’ critical thinking skill. The assessment instrument just measured low cognitive aspects. Supposedly, critical thinking skill is trained in the assessment activity. The study aims to determine the characteristics and the quality of critical thinking skill instrument. It employs descriptive-qualitative method with research and development as the research design. The research participants are 35 students involved in the limited trial and 188 students in the wider trial from three public senior high school in Ciamis which in high level school. The data was collected through expert validation, tests and interviews. The results indicate that the characteristics of the assessment instrument of critical thinking skill is open-ended. The instrument fulfills some indicators namely analyzing argument, deduction, induction, and display information in the form of scenario, text, graphic and table. In addition, the data processing through V4 Anates program shows that the instrument reliability achieves 0.67 with high interpretation of 0.67 and the validity is 0.47 with enough interpretation. Thus, the assessment instrument of critical thinking skill in the form of open-ended essay meets the criteria of quality test, so it can use as instrument of assessment critical thinking skill.

  15. Reduced CGP12177 binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in hyperglycemic high-fat-diet-fed, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, James T.; Parsa-Nezhad, Maryam; Kenk, Miran; Thorn, Stephanie L. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); Kolajova, Maria [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada); DaSilva, Jean N., E-mail: jdasilva@ottawaheart.ca [Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y4W7 (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Roger Guindon Hall, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8M5 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Introduction: Abnormal sympathetic nervous system and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) signaling is associated with diabetes. [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 is a nonselective {beta}-AR antagonist that can be labeled with carbon-11 for positron emission tomography. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of this tracer for evaluation of altered {beta}-AR expression in diabetic rat hearts. Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution with [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 was carried out in normal Sprague-Dawley rats for evaluation of specific binding and response to continuous {beta}-AR stimulation by isoproterenol. In a separate group, high-fat-diet feeding imparted insulin resistance and a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle evoked hyperglycemia (blood glucose >11 mM). [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 biodistribution was assessed at 2 and 8 weeks post-STZ to measure {beta}-AR binding in heart, 30 min following tracer injection. Western blotting of {beta}-AR subtypes was completed in parallel. Results: Infusion of isoproterenol over 14 days did not affect cardiac binding of [{sup 3}H]CGP12177. Approximately half of rats treated with STZ exhibited sustained hyperglycemia and progressive hypoinsulinemia. Myocardial [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding was unchanged at 2 weeks post-STZ but significantly reduced by 30%-40% at 8 weeks in hyperglycemic but not euglycemic STZ-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls. Western blots supported a significant decrease in {beta}{sub 1}-AR in hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Reduced cardiac [{sup 3}H]CGP12177 specific binding in the presence of sustained hyperglycemia corresponds to a decrease in relative {beta}{sub 1}-AR expression. These data indirectly support the use of [{sup 11}C]CGP12177 for assessment of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes.

  16. Investigation of the Critical Current Density of YBaCuO high-temperature Superconductor Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    METSKHVARISHVILI, I. R.; KEKELIDZE, N. P.; METSKHVARISHVILI, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The method of high harmonics is used to investigate penetration of low magnetic fields within the Y1Ba2Cu3O7 high-temperature superconductor ceramic. Given experimental results are explained by the modal dependencies between the value of critical current density and the magnetic induction B: jc(B) = jc(0){\\frac{{B02}} {{B02 + B2}}}.

  17. Optimization of a high-throughput whole blood expression profiling methodology and its application to assess the pharmacodynamics of interferon (IFN beta-1a or polyethylene glycol-conjugated IFN beta-1a in healthy clinical trial subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaire Normand E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials offer a unique opportunity to study human disease and response to therapy in a highly controlled setting. The application of high-throughput expression profiling to peripheral blood from clinical trial subjects could facilitate the identification of transcripts that function as prognostic or diagnostic markers of disease or treatment. The paramount issue for these methods is the ability to produce robust, reproducible, and timely mRNA expression profiles from peripheral blood. Single-stranded complementary DNA (sscDNA targets derived from whole blood exhibit improved detection of transcripts and reduced variance as compared to their complementary RNA counterparts and therefore provide a better option for interrogation of peripheral blood on oligonucleotide arrays. High-throughput microarray technologies such as the high-throughput plate array platform offer several advantages compared with slide- or cartridge-based arrays; however, manufacturer’s protocols do not support the use of sscDNA targets. Results We have developed a highly reproducible, high-through put, whole blood expression profiling methodology based on sscDNA and used it to analyze human brain reference RNA and universal human reference RNA samples to identify experimental conditions that most highly correlated with a gold standard quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference dataset. We then utilized the optimized method to analyze whole blood samples from healthy clinical trial subjects treated with different versions of interferon (IFN beta-1a. Analysis of whole blood samples before and after treatment with intramuscular [IM] IFN beta-1a or polyethylene glycol-conjugated IFN (PEG-IFN beta-1a under optimized experimental conditions demonstrated that PEG-IFN beta-1a induced a more sustained and prolonged pharmacodynamic response than unmodified IM IFN beta-1a. These results provide validation of the utility of this new methodology and

  18. High efficiency microfluidic beta detector for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convert, Laurence, E-mail: Laurence.Convert@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Girard-Baril, Frederique, E-mail: Frederique.Girard.Baril@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Renaudin, Alan, E-mail: Alan.Renaudin@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Grondin, Etienne, E-mail: E.Grondin@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Jaouad, Abdelatif, E-mail: Abdelatif.Jaouad@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Aimez, Vincent, E-mail: Vincent.Aimez@USherbrooke.ca [Nanofabrication and Nanocharacterization Research Center (CRN2), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Blvd Universite, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); and others

    2011-10-01

    New radiotracers are continuously being developed to improve diagnostic efficiency using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The characterization of their pharmacokinetics requires blood radioactivity monitoring over time during the scan and is very challenging in small animals because of the low volume of blood available. In this work, a prototype microfluidic blood counter made of a microchannel atop a silicon substrate containing PIN photodiodes is proposed to improve beta detection efficiency in a small volume by eliminating unnecessary interfaces between fluid and detector. A flat rectangular-shaped epoxy channel, 36 {mu}mx1.26 mm cross section and 31.5 mm in length, was microfabricated over a die containing an array of 2x2 mm{sup 2} PIN photodiodes, leaving only a few micrometers of epoxy floor layer between the fluid and the photodiode sensitive surface. This geometry leads to a quasi 2D source, optimizing geometrical detection efficiency that was estimated at 41% using solid angle calculation. CV-IV measurements were made at each fabrication step to confirm that the microchannel components had no significant effects on the diodes' electrical characteristics. The chip was wire-bonded to a PCB and connected to charge sensitive preamplifier and amplifier modules for pulse shaping. Energy spectra recorded for different isotopes showed continuous beta distribution for PET isotopes and monoenergetic conversion electron peaks for {sup 99m}Tc. Absolute sensitivity was determined for the most popular PET and SPECT radioisotopes and ranged from 26% to 33% for PET tracers ({sup 18}F, {sup 13}N, {sup 11}C, {sup 68}Ga) and more than 2% for {sup 99m}Tc. Input functions were successfully simulated with {sup 18}F, confirming the setup's suitability for pharmacokinetic modeling of PET and SPECT radiotracers in animal experiments. By using standard materials and procedures, the fabrication process is well suited

  19. High magnetic-field scales and critical currents in SmFeAs(O, F) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Philip J. W.; Puzniak, Roman; Balakirev, Fedor; Rogacki, Krzysztof; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Batlogg, Bertram

    2010-08-01

    With the discovery of new superconducting materials, such as the iron pnictides, exploring their potential for applications is one of the foremost tasks. Even if the critical temperature Tc is high, intrinsic electronic properties might render applications difficult, particularly if extreme electronic anisotropy prevents effective pinning of vortices and thus severely limits the critical current density, a problem well known for cuprates. Although many questions concerning microscopic electronic properties of the iron pnictides have been successfully addressed and estimates point to a very high upper critical field, their application potential is less clear. Thus, we focus here on the critical currents, their anisotropy and the onset of electrical dissipation in high magnetic fields up to 65T. Our detailed study of the transport properties of SmFeAsO0.7F0.25 single crystals reveals a promising combination of high (>2×106Acm-2) and nearly isotropic critical current densities along all crystal directions. This favourable intragrain current transport in SmFeAs(O, F), which shows the highest Tc of 54K at ambient pressure, is a crucial requirement for possible applications. Essential in these experiments are four-probe measurements on focused-ion-beam-cut single crystals with a sub-square-micrometre cross-section, with current along and perpendicular to the crystallographic c axis.

  20. Pile-up corrections for high-precision superallowed {beta} decay half-life measurements via {gamma}-ray photopeak counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyer, G.F. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: ggrinyer@physics.uoguelph.ca; Svensson, C.E.; Andreoiu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Andreyev, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, St. Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bandyopadhyay, D. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chakrawarthy, R.S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Finlay, P. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hyland, B. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0430 (United States); Leach, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leslie, J.R. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morton, A.C.; Pearson, C.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sarazin, F. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Schumaker, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)] (and others)

    2007-09-11

    A general technique that corrects {gamma}-ray gated {beta} decay-curve data for detector pulse pile-up is presented. The method includes corrections for non-zero time-resolution and energy-threshold effects in addition to a special treatment of saturating events due to cosmic rays. This technique is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data using radioactive beams of {sup 26}Na implanted at the center of the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Na obtained from counting 1809-keV {gamma}-ray photopeaks emitted by the daughter {sup 26}Mg was determined to be T{sub 1/2}=1.07167{+-}0.00055s following a 27{sigma} correction for detector pulse pile-up. This result is in excellent agreement with the result of a previous measurement that employed direct {beta} counting and demonstrates the feasibility of high-precision {beta}-decay half-life measurements through the use of high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detectors. The technique presented here, while motivated by superallowed-Fermi {beta} decay studies, is general and can be used for all half-life determinations (e.g. {alpha}-, {beta}-, X-ray, fission) in which a {gamma}-ray photopeak is used to select the decays of a particular isotope.

  1. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans; Klöckenberger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR imaging (MRI) was used as a noninvasive technique to study water distribution and mobility in hydrated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds of accessions with varying content of beta glucan (BG), a highly hygroscopic cell wall component. High contents of BG in barley are unfavorable in malting...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...... desiccation. The embryo retained water even after 36 h of drying, whereas the endosperm showed low and heterogeneous mobility of the water after drying. The relaxation time constants indicated that the BG mutants had regions of much higher water mobility around the ventral crease compared to the control...

  2. High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Isolates from Pediatric Patients with Diarrhea in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangyou; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Xiaojun; Li, Qiaoqiao; Ding, Baixing; Yang, Lehe; Chen, Cong; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Jinwei; Luo, Yun; Wang, Liangxing; Pan, Jingye

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for blaTEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for blaCTX-M-1-group and blaCTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring blaCTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of blaCTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates. PMID:21390297

  3. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations.

  4. High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from pediatric patients with diarrhea in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyou Yu

    Full Text Available We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%, tetracycline (80.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%, chloramphenicol (66.1%, cefotaxime (27.4%. Forty-nine (79.0% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0% were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group and bla(CTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.

  5. Perceived Criticism in the Treatment of a High-Risk Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Jill M; Miklowitz, David J

    2017-01-23

    Perceived criticism (PC) is a construct that plays a key role in family relationships of persons with psychiatric disorders. It can be assessed in a brief and simple way using the Perceived Criticism Measure. PC ratings made by patients about their caregivers predict adverse clinical outcomes including increases in symptoms and relapse across a broad range of psychiatric diagnoses. Although research supports the concurrent and predictive validity of PC, the measure is not widely used in clinical practice. Here, we describe the construct of PC and review evidence supporting its clinical utility. We then illustrate how criticism and perceptions of criticism can be addressed in a clinical context, describing a family focused treatment approach used with a depressed adolescent at high risk for bipolar disorder.

  6. Ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence at high and low beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C H K; Leung, L; Boldyrev, S; Maruca, B A; Bale, S D

    2014-11-28

    The power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind at 1 AU displays a break between two power laws in the range of spacecraft-frame frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz. These frequencies correspond to spatial scales in the plasma frame near the proton gyroradius ρi and proton inertial length di. At 1 AU it is difficult to determine which of these is associated with the break, since [Formula: see text] and the perpendicular ion plasma beta is typically β⊥i∼1. To address this, several exceptional intervals with β⊥i≪1 and β⊥i≫1 were investigated, during which these scales were well separated. It was found that for β⊥i≪1 the break occurs at di and for β⊥i≫1 at ρi, i.e., the larger of the two scales. Possible explanations for these results are discussed, including Alfvén wave dispersion, damping, and current sheets.

  7. High latitude gas in the Beta Pictoris system. A possible origin related to Falling Evaporating Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Beust, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The presence of off-plane Ca II ions in the Beta Pictoris disk, and the non-detection of off-plane Na I atoms, can be explained as a consequence of the evaporation process of Falling Evaporating Bodies (FEBs). In the star-grazing regime, the FEBs are subject to inclination oscillations up to 30 - 40 degrees that causes most metallic species released by sublimation to move off plane The ions are be stopped at about 100 AU from the star. We show that collisions with a neutral medium can stop the ions. The required H I column density is reduced to 10^17 cm^-2, one order of magnitude below present detection limits. We also investigate the possibility that the ions are slowed down magnetically. While the sole action of a magnetic field of the order of 1 microGauss is not effective, the combined effect of magnetic and collisional deceleration processes lead to an additional lowering of the required H I column density.

  8. Effects of beta-glucans ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on metabolism of rats receiving high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, T V; Andrade, E F; Lobato, R V; Orlando, D R; Gomes, N F; de Sousa, R V; Zangeronimo, M G; Pereira, L J

    2016-03-14

    We investigated the effects of beta-glucans (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ingestion on metabolic parameters of Wistar rats receiving high-fat diet. The experimental period was divided into two stages: in the first one, the animals were divided into two groups containing 12 animals each. The first group received commercial feed and the second received high-fat diet containing 20% of pork fat during 60 days. At the end of this period, body weight, blood glucose and Lee index were assessed. In the second stage, those 24 animals were redivided into four groups: (C) - control diet; (CB) - control diet and treated with Beta-glucan (BG); (O) - obese animals and (OB) - obese animals treated with BG. Animals from groups CB and OB received 30 mg/kg of BG dissolved in saline solution by gavage. Animals from groups C and O received only saline solution for 28 days. The design used was totally randomized in 2 × 2 factorial scheme. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (anova). Animals from OB group showed inferior levels (p < 0.05) of total cholesterol (13.33%), triacylglycerols (16.77%) and blood glucose (23.97%) when compared to the animals from group O. The use of BG has provided smaller increase in Lee index (p < 0.05), without promoting alteration in feed and water consumption, organs weight, HDL-C, LDL+VLDL-C, carcass composition, villus/crypt ratio, and pancreas, kidney and stomach histology. BG from S. cerevisiae promoted beneficial metabolic effects in rats receiving high-fat diet.

  9. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Jacob M; Fitschen, Peter J; Campbell, Bill; Wilson, Gabriel J; Zanchi, Nelo; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Kreider, Richard B; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB...

  10. Beta Diversity in a Highly Heterogeneous Area: Disentangling Species and Taxonomic Dissimilarity for Terrestrial Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Patrón, Jaime M; Goyenechea, Irene; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl; Castillo-Cerón, Jesús; Manriquez, Norma; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Zuria, Iriana; Moreno, Claudia E

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying differences in species composition among communities provides important information related to the distribution, conservation and management of biodiversity, especially when two components are recognized: dissimilarity due to turnover, and dissimilarity due to richness differences. The ecoregions in central Mexico, within the Mexican Transition Zone, have outstanding environmental heterogeneity and harbor huge biological richness, besides differences in the origin of the biota. Therefore, biodiversity studies in this area require the use of complementary measures to achieve appropriate information that may help in the design of conservation strategies. In this work we analyze the dissimilarity of terrestrial vertebrates, and the components of turnover and richness differences, among six ecoregions in the state of Hidalgo, central Mexico. We follow two approaches: one based on species level dissimilarity, and the second on taxonomic dissimilarity. We used databases from the project "Biodiversity in the state of Hidalgo". Our results indicate that species dissimilarity is higher than taxonomic dissimilarity, and that turnover contributes more than richness differences, both for species and taxonomic total dissimilarity. Moreover, total dissimilarity, turnover dissimilarity and the dissimilarity due to richness differences were positively related in the four vertebrate groups. Reptiles had the highest values of dissimilarity, followed by mammals, amphibians and birds. For reptiles, birds, and mammals, species turnover was the most important component, while richness differences had a higher contribution for amphibians. The highest values of dissimilarity occurred between environmentally contrasting ecoregions (i.e., tropical and temperate forests), which suggests that environmental heterogeneity and differences in the origin of biotas are key factors driving beta diversity of terrestrial vertebrates among ecoregions in this complex area.

  11. Critical currents and superconductivity ferromagnetism coexistence in high-Tc oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Khene, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The book comprises six chapters which deal with the critical currents and the ferromagnetism-superconductivity coexistence in high-Tc oxides. It begins by gathering key data for superconducting state and the fundamental properties of the conventional superconductors, followed by a recap of the basic theories of superconductivity. It then discusses the differences introduced by the structural anisotropy on the Ginzburg-Landau approach and the Lawrence-Doniach model before addressing the dynamics of vortices and the ferromagnetism-superconductivity coexistence in high-Tc oxides, and provides an outline of the pinning phenomena of vortices in these materials, in particular the pinning of vortices by the spins. It elucidates the methods to improve the properties of superconducting materials for industrial applications. This optimization aims at obtaining critical temperatures and densities of critical currents at the maximum level possible. Whereas the primary objective is the basic mechanisms pushing the superco...

  12. Stability of high-dose insulin in normal saline bags for treatment of calcium channel blocker and beta blocker overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Dayne; Vadlapatla, Rajesh; Hart, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    High-dose insulin has become a first-line therapy for treating severe calcium channel blocker and beta blocker toxicity. Insulin infusions used to treat other conditions (e.g., diabetic ketoacidosis) may be used, but this may lead to pulmonary compromise due to fluid volume overload. An obvious solution would be to use a more concentrated insulin infusion; however, data describing the stability of insulin in polyvinyl chloride bags at concentrations >1 unit/mL are not readily available. To determine the stability of insulin at 16 units/mL in 0.9% saline solution. Eight-hundred units of regular insulin (8 mL from a stock vial containing 100 units/mL) were added to 42 mL of 0.9% saline solution in a polyvinyl chloride bag to make a final concentration of 16 units/mL. Two bags were stored at 4 °C (refrigerated) and two at 25 °C (room temperature). Samples were withdrawn and tested for insulin concentration periodically over 14 days. Concentrated regular insulin in a polyvinyl chloride bag remained within 90% of equilibrium concentration at all time points, indicating the 16 units/mL concentration was sufficiently stable both refrigerated and at room temperature for 14 days. Administration of high-dose insulin can cause fluid volume overload when using traditional insulin formulations. The 16 units/mL concentration allows for the treatment of a patient with severe calcium channel blocker or beta blocker toxicity for a reasonable period of time without administering excessive fluid. Insulin at a concentration of 16 units/mL is stable for 14 days, the maximum timeframe currently allowed under US Pharmacopeia rules for compounding of sterile preparations. This stability data will allow institutions to issue beyond-use dating for intravenous fluids containing concentrated insulin and used for treating beta blocker and calcium channel blocker toxicity.

  13. High Brønsted beta nuc values in SNAr displacement. An indicator of the SET pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, François; Mokhtari, Malika; Goumont, Régis; Hallé, Jean-Claude; Buncel, Erwin

    2003-05-21

    Nucleophilic substitutions of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) and 3-methyl-1-(4-nitrobenzofurazanyl)-imidazolium ions (NBD-Im+) with a series of 4-X-substituted anilines have been kinetically investigated in 70-30 (v/v) and 20-80 (v/v) H2O-Me2SO mixtures. The rate-limiting step in these reactions is nucleophilic addition with formation of Meisenheimer-type sigma-adducts followed by fast expulsion of the leaving group (Cl- or Im). The reactions are characterized by a notable sensitivity to basicity of the aniline nucleophiles, with Hammett rho values of -2.68 and -3.82 in 30% and 80% Me2SO, respectively, for NBD-Cl and even more negative values, -3.43 and -5.27, respectively, for NBD-Im+. This is consistent with significant development of positive charge at the nitrogen atom of the zwitterionic sigma-adduct. Unexpectedly, the Brønsted-type plots reveal abnormally high beta nuc values, ca. 1.0 and 1.3-1.4, respectively. Satisfactory correlations between the rates of the reactions and the oxidation potentials of the respective anilines support a SET mechanism for this process, i.e. initial (fast) electron-transfer from the aniline donor to the nitrobenzofurazan acceptor moiety and subsequent (slow) coupling of the resulting cation and anion radicals within the solvent cage with formation of the sigma-adduct. An alternative possible explanation of the high beta nuc values being related to the strong--I effect exerted by the negatively charged 4-nitrobenzofurazanyl structure, which would induce a greater positive charge at the developing anilinium nitrogen atom in the sigma-adduct-like transition state as compared with the situation in the reference protonation equilibria of anilines, is considered less probable. It is thus proposed that obtention of abnormal beta nuc values may be an indicator of electron-transfer in nucleophilic aromatic substitution and highlights the transition from the polar (SNAr) to the single electron-transfer (SET) mechanism.

  14. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  15. High-pressure syntheses, crystal structures, and thermal behaviour of {beta}-RE(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (RE = Nd, Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emme, H.; Heymann, G.; Haberer, A.; Huppertz, H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. Chemie und Biochemie

    2007-06-15

    The compounds {beta}-RE(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} [RE = Nd (neodymium meta-borate), Sm (samarium meta-borate) and Gd (gadolinium meta-borate)] were synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus at 3.5 GPa (Nd), 7.5 GPa (Sm, Gd) and 1050 C. The crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at r. t. (Sm, Gd) and at -73 C (Nd), respectively. The structures are isotypic with the already known ambient-pressure phases {beta}-RE(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (RE = (Tb, Dy)) and the high-pressure phases {beta}-RE(BO{sub 2}){sub 3} (RE = Ho.Lu). (orig.)

  16. The importance of a critical protonation state and the fate of the catalytic steps in class A beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila; Meroueh, Samy O; Kim, Choonkeun; Vakulenko, Sergei B; Bulychev, Alexey; Stemmler, Ann J; Stemmler, Timothy L; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2004-08-13

    Beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins are bacterial enzymes involved in antibiotic resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and biosynthetic assembly of cell wall, respectively. Members of these large families of enzymes all experience acylation by their respective substrates at an active site serine as the first step in their catalytic activities. A Ser-X-X-Lys sequence motif is seen in all these proteins, and crystal structures demonstrate that the side-chain functions of the serine and lysine are in contact with one another. Three independent methods were used in this report to address the question of the protonation state of this important lysine (Lys-73) in the TEM-1 beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli. These techniques included perturbation of the pK(a) of Lys-73 by the study of the gamma-thialysine-73 variant and the attendant kinetic analyses, investigation of the protonation state by titration of specifically labeled proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance, and by computational treatment using the thermodynamic integration method. All three methods indicated that the pK(a) of Lys-73 of this enzyme is attenuated to 8.0-8.5. It is argued herein that the unique ground-state ion pair of Glu-166 and Lys-73 of class A beta-lactamases has actually raised the pK(a) of the active site lysine to 8.0-8.5 from that of the parental penicillin-binding protein. Whereas we cannot rule out that Glu-166 might activate the active site water, which in turn promotes Ser-70 for the acylation event, such as proposed earlier, we would like to propose as a plausible alternative for the acylation step the possibility that the ion pair would reconfigure to the protonated Glu-166 and unprotonated Lys-73. As such, unprotonated Lys-73 could promote serine for acylation, a process that should be shared among all active-site serine beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins.

  17. Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…

  18. An Examination of Critical Thinking Skills in High School Choral Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time spent in nonperformance and critical thinking activities in high school choral rehearsals. Eighteen rehearsal observations were collected from public school music programs. Observed rehearsal behaviors were coded into three categories of nonperformance activity: lower-order…

  19. Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in acetic acid solution at high cobalt(II) concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrichkov, AA; Zakharov, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in an acetic acid solution at high cobalt(ill) concentrations (from 0.01 to 0.2 mol L-1) were studied at 60-90 degrees C by the gasometric (O-2 absorption), spectrophotometric (Co-III accumulation), and chemiluminescence (relative concentration of radical

  20. The Development and Validation of a Mechanical Critical Thinking Scale for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Chang, Shu-Fen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanical critical thinking scale for high school students. A stratified random sampling method was used to establish the norms. After pre-tests and item analysis, the scale was determined to have five subtest sections (i.e., recognition of assumptions, induction, deduction, interpretation, and…

  1. Picturing Obama: Race, High School Students and a Critical Methodology of the Visual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.

    2017-01-01

    I draw on methodological findings from a case study on how high school students of color make sense of dominant narratives of race and politics in the Obama American Era. Incorporating literature from critical race theory, visual research methods, and the writings of cultural scholar Stuart Hall, I draw conclusions from this inquiry project as a…

  2. The Development and Validation of a Mechanical Critical Thinking Scale for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Chang, Shu-Fen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanical critical thinking scale for high school students. A stratified random sampling method was used to establish the norms. After pre-tests and item analysis, the scale was determined to have five subtest sections (i.e., recognition of assumptions, induction, deduction, interpretation, and…

  3. Assessing Critical Thinking in Middle and High Schools: Meeting the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobaugh, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This practical, very effective resource helps middle and high school teachers and curriculum leaders develop the skills to design instructional tasks and assessments that engage students in higher-level critical thinking, as recommended by the Common Core State Standards. Real examples of formative and summative assessments from a variety of…

  4. AC losses in sintered high-temperature superconductors. Dependence on frequency and intergranular lower critical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofland, S.; Huang, M.X.; Bhagat, S.M. (Dept. of Physics and Center for Superconductivity Research, Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1992-12-10

    The intergranular AC susceptibility loss peak in high-Tc superconductors is measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude. The variation of peak temperature with frequency is strongly influenced by the grain size. For large grains, the maximum loss increases with field amplitude. This is ascribed to a non-zero intergranular lower critical field H[sub cl]. (orig.).

  5. An Examination of Critical Thinking Skills in High School Choral Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time spent in nonperformance and critical thinking activities in high school choral rehearsals. Eighteen rehearsal observations were collected from public school music programs. Observed rehearsal behaviors were coded into three categories of nonperformance activity: lower-order…

  6. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  7. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish...... power system in 2020. This paper analyses and compares the performance of the future Danish power system during extreme wind speeds, where wind power plants are either controlled through a traditional High Wind Shut Down storm controller or a new High Wind Extended Production storm controller...

  8. Diffraction line-shapes, Fermi surface nesting, and quantum criticality in antiferromagnetic chromium at high pressure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, R.; Feng, Y.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Harvard Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-05-01

    We explore the behavior of the nested bandstructure of chromium as a function of temperature and pressure to the point where magnetism disappears. X-ray diffraction measurements of the charge order parameter suggest that the nesting condition is maintained at high pressure, where the spin density wave ground state is destabilized by a continuous quantum phase transition. By comparing diffraction line-shapes measured throughout the temperature-pressure phase diagram we are able to identify and describe three regimes: thermal near-critical, weak coupling ground state, and quantum critical.

  9. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Tamás, Gertrúd; Hellriegel, Helge; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS) and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and spinal systems.

  10. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Muthuraman

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and

  11. Field-induced quantum critical route to a Fermi liquid in high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibauchi, Takasada; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kasahara, Yuichi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Matsuda, Yuji

    2008-05-20

    In high-transition-temperature (T(c)) superconductivity, charge doping is a natural tuning parameter that takes copper oxides from the antiferromagnet to the superconducting region. In the metallic state above T(c), the standard Landau's Fermi-liquid theory of metals as typified by the temperature squared (T(2)) dependence of resistivity appears to break down. Whether the origin of the non-Fermi-liquid behavior is related to physics specific to the cuprates is a fundamental question still under debate. We uncover a transformation from the non-Fermi-liquid state to a standard Fermi-liquid state driven not by doping but by magnetic field in the overdoped high-T(c) superconductor Tl(2)Ba(2)CuO(6+x). From the c-axis resistivity measured up to 45 T, we show that the Fermi-liquid features appear above a sufficiently high field that decreases linearly with temperature and lands at a quantum critical point near the superconductivity's upper critical field-with the Fermi-liquid coefficient of the T(2) dependence showing a power-law diverging behavior on the approach to the critical point. This field-induced quantum criticality bears a striking resemblance to that in quasi-two-dimensional heavy-Fermion superconductors, suggesting a common underlying spin-related physics in these superconductors with strong electron correlations.

  12. [Ethanol elimination rate (beta60, beta-slope) in different age groups after intake of a moderate or high dose of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinskaia, T O; Smirnov, A V; Salomatin, E M; Shaev, A I

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol elimination rate (beta60) was measured in different age groups of men and women following its single intake at a dose of 0.8 g/kg body weight (experiment 1) and 2 g/kg (experiment 2). Samples of capillary blood were collected 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 300 min (experiment 1) or 360 min after the termination of the intake (experiment 2). The phase of alcohol elimination was deduced from the kinetic curve. Each alcohol dose was consumed during 1-2 minutes or 1-1.5 hours (experiments 1 and 2 respectively). The value of (beta60) in experiment 1 was estimated at 0.17 +/- 0.04 per thousand/hour in young men aged between 18-26 years, 0.22 per thousand/hour in adult men of 32-48 years, and 0.21 per thousand/hour in women aged between 19-41 years. The difference between alcohol elimination rates in young and adult men on the one hand and between young men and women on the other hand was statistically significant (p alcohol excretion rate overestimated by 8 +/- 5% and 31 +/- 6% respectively compared with 10 +/- 7% in women. It is suggested that a single intake of alcohol may lead to an instantaneous rise in the hepatic concentration of ethanol unrelated to the consumed amount that however affects its metabolic rate. It is concluded that the duration of ethanol intake has greater effect on the rate of its elimination from the body than the amount of consumed alcohol, especially in alcohol-tolerant subjects.

  13. Beta-adrenergic receptors are critical for weight loss but not for other metabolic adaptations to the consumption of a ketogenic diet in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Douris

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The response of β-less mice distinguishes at least two distinct categories of physiologic effects in mice consuming KD. In the liver, KD regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα-dependent pathways through an action of FGF21 independent of the SNS and beta-adrenergic receptors. In sharp contrast, induction of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and increased energy expenditure absolutely require SNS signals involving action on one or more β-adrenergic receptors. In this way, the key metabolic actions of FGF21 in response to KD have diverse effector mechanisms.

  14. Reductions in laminin beta2 mRNA translation are responsible for impaired IGFBP-5-mediated mesangial cell migration in the presence of high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Valerie; Hansen, Kim M; Morris, David R; Abrass, Christine K

    2010-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) mediates mesangial cell migration through activation of cdc42, and laminin421 binding to alpha(6)beta(1)-integrin (Berfield AK, Hansen KM, Abrass CK. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 291: C589-C599, 2006). Because glomerular expression of laminin beta(2) is reduced in diabetic rats (Abrass CK, Spicer D, Berfield AK, St. John PL, Abrahamson DR. Am J Pathol 151: 1131-1140, 1997), we directly examined the effect of hyperglycemia on mesangial cell migration and laminin beta2 expression. Migration mediated by IGFBP-5 is impaired in the presence of 25 mM glucose. This reduction in migration was found to result from a loss in mesangial cell synthesis of laminin421, and IGFBP-5-induced migration could be restored by replacing laminin421. Additional studies showed that there was selective reduction in mRNA translation of laminin beta2 in the presence of high glucose. Preserved synthesis of laminin beta1 indicates that not all proteins are reduced by high glucose and confirms prior data showing that laminin411 cannot substitute for laminin421 in IGFBP-5-mediated migration. Given the importance of mesangial migration in the reparative response to diabetes-associated mesangiolysis, these findings provide new insights into abnormalities associated with diabetic nephropathy and the potential importance of differential control of protein translation in determination of alterations of protein expression.

  15. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  16. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  17. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. A FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT MODEL OF CRITICAL THINKING IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosnawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a valid and reliable formative evaluation model of critical thinking. The method used in this research was the research and development by integrating Borg & Gall's model and  Plomp's development model. The ten steps Borg & Gall’s model were modified into five stages as the stages in the Plomp's model. The subjects in this study were 1,446 students of junior high schools in DIY, 14 mathematics teacher, and six experts. The content validity employed was expert judgment, the empirical validity and reliability used were loading factor, item analysis used PCM 1PL, and the relationship between disposition and critical thinking skill used was structural equation modeling (SEM. The developed formative evaluation model is the procedural model. There are five aspects of critical thinking skill: mathematic reasoning, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, which entirely composed of 42 items. The validity of the critical thinking skill instruments achieves a significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the highest loading factors of 0.38 and 0.74 subsequently, the reliability of every aspect in a good category. The average level of difficulty is 0.00 with the standard deviation of 0.45 which is in a good category. The peer assessment questionnaire of critical thinking disposition consists of seven aspects: truth-seeking, open-minded, analysis, systematic, self-confidence, inquisitiveness, and maturity with 23 items. The critical thinking disposition validity achieves the significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the high factor loading of 0.66 and 0.76 subsequently, and the reliability of every aspect in a good category. Based on the analysis of the structural equation model, the model fits the data.

  19. Double Beta Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    At least one neutrino has a mass of about 50 meV or larger. However, the absolute mass scale for the neutrino remains unknown. Furthermore, the critical question: Is the neutrino its own antiparticle? is unanswered. Studies of double beta decay offer hope for determining the absolute mass scale. In particular, zero-neutrino double beta decay (\\BBz) can address the issues of lepton number conservation, the particle-antiparticle nature of the neutrino, and its mass. A summary of the recent results in \\BBz, and the related technologies will be discussed in the context of the future \\BBz\\ program.

  20. High-pressure hetero-Diels-Alder route to (+/-)-6,6,6-trifluoro-beta-C-naphthyl glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingot, Lucie; Leconte, Stéphane; Chataigner, Isabelle; Martel, Arnaud; Dujardin, Gilles

    2009-04-02

    The first de novo synthesis of a beta-C-naphthyl glycoside displaying a convenient functionality for subsequent transformations into complex C-aryl glycosides is reported. The synthesis of this (+/-)-beta-C-1,5-dibenzyloxynaphthyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-amino glycoside relies on a hyperbaric HDA reaction involving a new 2-vinylnaphthalenic dienophile.

  1. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  2. High Resolution Crystal Structure of Human [beta]-Glucuronidase Reveals Structural Basis of Lysosome Targeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassan, Md; Waheed, Abdul; Grubb, Jeffery; Klei, Herbert; Korolev, Sergey; Sly, William

    2013-01-01

    ...). Here we report a high resolution crystal structure of human GUS at 1.7 Å resolution and present an extensive analysis of the structural features, unifying recent findings in the field of lysosome targeting and glycosyl hydrolases...

  3. Improving the critical speeds of high-speed trains using magnetorheological technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuaishuai; Deng, Huaxia; Li, Weihua; Du, Haiping; Qing Ni, Yi; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Jian

    2013-11-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railways, vibration control for maintaining stability, passenger comfort, and safety has become an important area of research. In order to investigate the mechanism of train vibration, the critical speeds of various DOFs with respect to suspension stiffness and damping are first calculated and analyzed based on its dynamic equations. Then, the sensitivity of the critical speed is studied by analyzing the influence of different suspension parameters. On the basis of these analyses, a conclusion is drawn that secondary lateral damping is the most sensitive suspension damper. Subsequently, the secondary lateral dampers are replaced with magnetorheological fluid (MRF) dampers. Finally, a high-speed train model with MRF dampers is simulated by a combined ADAMS and MATLAB simulation and tested in a roller rig test platform to investigate the mechanism of how the MRF damper affects the train’s stability and critical speed. The results show that the semi-active suspension installed with MRF dampers substantially improves the stability and critical speed of the train.

  4. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    OpenAIRE

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti–1Al–8V–5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical na...

  5. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti–1Al–8V–5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications. PMID:27034109

  6. Highly potent and specific GSK-3beta inhibitors that block tau phosphorylation and decrease alpha-synuclein protein expression in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Gaisina, Irina N; Petukhov, Pavel A; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; King, LaShaunda T; Blond, Sylvie Y; Duka, Tetyana; Rusnak, Milan; Sidhu, Anita

    2006-02-01

    Research by Klein and co-workers suggests that the inhibition of GSK-3beta by small molecules may offer an important strategy in the treatment of a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorders. Based on results from kinase-screening assays that identified a staurosporine analogue as a modest inhibitor of GSK-3beta, a series of 3-indolyl-4-indazolylmaleimides was prepared for study in both enzymatic and cell-based assays. Most strikingly, whereas we identified ligands having poor to high potency for GSK-3beta inhibition, only ligands with a Ki value of less than 8 nM, namely maleimides 18 and 22, were found to inhibit Tau phosphorylation at a GSK-3beta-specific site (Ser 396/404). Accordingly, maleimides 18 and 22 may protect neuronal cells against cell death by decreasing the level of alpha-Syn protein expression. We conclude that the GSK-3beta inhibitors described herein offer promise in defending cells against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity and that such compounds will be valuable to explore in animal models of Parkinson's disease as well as in other Tau-related neurodegenerative disease states.

  7. Definition of the minimal requirements within the human beta-globin gene and the dominant control region for high level expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, P; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin dominant control region (DCR) was previously identified as a region from the 5' end of the human beta-globin locus which directs high level, site of integration-independent, copy number-dependent expression on a linked human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice and stably transfected mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. We have now analysed the elements comprising the DCR by systematic deletion mutagenesis in stable MEL transfectants. We have identified two independent elements within the DNase I hypersensitive sites 2 and 3, containing fragments which direct strong transcriptional inducibility of a beta-globin gene. Whilst the remaining two hypersensitive sites do not direct significant transcriptional induction, our data suggest that all four sites may be necessary for the fully regulated expression conferred by the DCR. We have also tested a number of beta-globin minigene constructs under the control of the DCR to assess if any of the local sequences from the gene may be removed without loss of expression. We find that the 3' enhancer may be removed without affecting expression, but there is an absolute requirement for the presence of the second intron, not related to the enhancer present in that intron. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2295312

  8. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Y; Matis, H S; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C; Renner, J

    2015-01-01

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtu...

  9. Free-boundary high-beta tokamaks. II. Mathematical intermezzo: Hilbert transforms and conformal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    1982-11-01

    Mathematical techniques are described that facilitate the reduction of the stability problem of a toroidal free-boundary high-β tokamak equilibrium with skin currents to one that is basically one-dimensional. This includes the conformal mapping of the simply connected plasma region onto a circular disk and the conformal mapping of the doubly connected vacuum region onto an annulus by means of the Theodorsen and Garrick nonlinear integral equations. Henrici's method of constructing the discretized Hilbert transforms for periodic functions on the boundaries of these domains provides both the basis for constructing the mappings and the tool for the study of the perturbations. The methods are applied to problems of two-dimensional potential flow with a discontinuity of which the stability of sharp-boundary high-β tokamaks is just a special case.

  10. Phenol-containing macrocyclic diamides as new catalysts in the highly regioselective conversion of epoxides to beta-hydroxy thiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi, H; Nasseri, M A; Niknam, K

    2001-11-02

    The regioselective ring-opening reactions of some epoxides with ammonium thiocyanate in the presence of a series of new phenol-containing macrocyclic diamides and also dibenzo-18-crown-6-, 18-crown-6-, benzo-15-crown-5-, and pyridine-containing macrocyclic diamide have been studied. The epoxides were subject to cleavage by NH(4)SCN in the presence of these catalysts under mild reaction conditions in various aprotic solvents. In this study, reagents and conditions have been discovered with which the individual beta-hydroxy thiocyanates can be synthesized in high yield and with more than 90% regioselectivity. The results can be discussed in terms of a four-step mechanism: (1) formation of complex between catalyst and NH(4)SCN, (2) release of SCN(-) nucleophile from the complex, (3) reaction of the active nucleophile at the less sterically hindered site in the epoxide, and (4) regeneration of catalyst. The major advantages of this method are as follows: (1) high regioselectivity, (2) simple regeneration of catalyst, (3) its reuse through several cycles without a decrease in activity, and (4) ease of workup of the reaction.

  11. Properties of the open cluster Tombaugh 1 from high resolution spectroscopy and uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, João V Sales; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J; Bidin, Christian Moni; Costa, Edgardo; Twarog, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters can be the key to deepen our knowledge on various issues involving the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk and details of stellar evolution because a cluster's properties are applicable to all its members. However the number of open clusters with detailed analysis from high resolution spectroscopy and/or precision photometry imposes severe limitation on studies of these objects. To expand the number of open clusters with well-defined chemical abundances and fundamental parameters, we investigate the poorly studied, anticenter open cluster Tombaugh 1. Using precision uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry and high resolution spectroscopy, we derive the cluster's properties and, for the first time, present detailed abundance analysis of 10 potential cluster stars. Using radial position from the cluster center and multiple color indices, we have isolated a sample of unevolved probable, single-star members of Tombaugh 1. The weighted photometric metallicity from $m_1$ and $hk$ is [Fe/H] = -0.10 $\\pm$ 0....

  12. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Renner, J; Hernando, J A; Imzaylov, A; Monrabal, F; Muñoz, J; Nygren, D; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (s...

  13. Development of high poloidal beta, steady-state scenario with ITER-like W divertor on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Lanctot, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Ding, S.; Li, G.; Liu, H.; Lyu, B.; Qian, J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Holcomb, C.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on EAST have started to adapt the fully-noninductive high poloidal beta scenario developed on DIII-D, in order to demonstrate steady state tokamak operation at high performance on metal walls. Unlike on DIII-D, where the creation of a broad current profile requires early heating at low density, on EAST a broad current profile can be obtained simply by increasing the electron density, when most of the current drive is provided by lower hybrid wave. Systematic scans yield lower internal inductance with higher density. The hypothesis is that the LHCD profile becomes more off-axis with higher density. With the newly commissioned POINT (polarimeter-interferometer) diagnostic for q-profile measurements, these experiments enable strict tests of LHCD deposition models. Supported by US DOE under DE-SC0010685, DE-SC0010492 DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09-CH11466, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2015GB110001 and 2015GB102000).

  14. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in mic...... root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's "hidden biodiversity"....

  15. A Study of the Critical Nozzle for Flow Rate Measurement of High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.D.Kim; J.H.Lee; K.A.Park; T.Setoguchi; S.Matsuo

    2007-01-01

    The mass flow rate measurement using a critical nozzle shows the validity of the inviscid theory, indicating that the discharge coefficient increases and approaches unity as the Reynolds number increases under the ideal gas law.However, when the critical nozzle measures the mass flow rate of a real gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of hundreds bar, the discharge coefficient exceeds unity, and the real gas effects should be taken into account. The present study aims at investigating the flow features of the critical nozzle using high-pressured hydrogen gas. The axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes computation is employed to simulate the critical nozzle flow, and a fully implicit finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equation system. The real gas effects are simulated to consider the intermolecular forces, which account for the possibility of liquefying hydrogen gas. The computational results are compared with past experimental data. It has been found that the coefficient of discharge for real gas can be corrected properly below unity adopting the real gas assumption.

  16. The use of Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA) autograft harvest in the treatment of critical-sized iliac wing defects in sheep: investigation of dexamethasone and beta-tricalcium phosphate augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Aswin; Nehrbass, Dirk; Stoddart, Martin J; Schiuma, Damiano; Green, Jim; Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Richards, R Geoff; Bouré, Ludovic P

    2013-04-01

    Bone grafts are commonly used for the treatment of segmental bone defects and fracture non-unions. Recently, osseous particles obtained during intermedullary canal reaming (using a Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) device) have been evaluated as graft material during in vitro and clinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify new bone formation after implantation of bone graft material obtained after reaming of the tibia in a bilateral critical-sized iliac wing defect in sheep and to investigate the effect of the augmentation of this graft. A reamer bone graft alone, or after short term incubation in a dexamethasone enriched solution, and a reamer graft collected using beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules in the filter of the RIA collection device were compared to autologous iliac wing graft. In addition, reamer graft was combined with the cellular fraction collected from the irrigation fluid with and without short-term incubation in a dexamethasone enriched solution. It was hypothesized that the amount of physical bone in the reamer bone graft groups would be higher than the amount in the autologous iliac wing graft group and that augmentation of a reamer bone graft would increase bone formation. Three months after implantation, the amount of new bone formation (as percentage of the total defect volume) in the defects was evaluated ex-vivo by means of micro-CT and histomorphometry. The mean amount of bone in the autologous iliac wing graft group was 17.7% and 16.8% for micro-CT and histomorphometry, respectively. The mean amount of bone in all reamer graft groups ranged between 20.4-29.2% (micro-CT) and 17.0-25.4% (histomorphometry). Reamer graft collected using β-TCP granules (29.2±1.7%) in the filter produced a significantly higher amount of bone in comparison to an autologous iliac wing graft evaluated by micro-CT. RIA bone grafts added a small increase in bone volume to the 3month graft volume in this preclinical sheep model. The

  17. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Gumerov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We expressed a putative β-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP substrates followed the order pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside (328 U mg−1, pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside (246 U mg−1, pNP-β-D-xylopyranoside (72 U mg−1, and pNP-β-D-mannopyranoside (28 U mg−1. Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional β-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes.

  18. Analysis of the Repertoire Features of TCR Beta Chain CDR3 in Human by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianliang Hou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To ward off a wide variety of pathogens, the human adaptive immune system harbors a vast array of T-cell receptors, collectively referred to as the TCR repertoire. Assessment of the repertoire features of TCR is vital for us to deeper understand of immune behaviour and immune response. Methods: In this study, we used a combination of multiplex-PCR, Illumina sequencing and IMGT (ImMunoGeneTics/HighV-QUEST for a standardized analysis of the repertoire features of TCR beta chain in the blood of healthy individuals, including the repertoire features of public TCR complementarity-determining regions (CDR3 sequences, highly expanded clones, long TCR CDR3 sequences. Results: We found that public CDR3 sequences and high-frequency sequences had the same characteristics, both of them had fewer nucleotide additions and shorter CDR3 length, which were closer to the germline sequence. Moreover, our studies provided evidence that public amino acid sequences are produced by multiple nucleotide sequences. Notably, there was skewed VDJ segment usage in long CDR3 sequences, the expression levels of 10 TRβV segments, 7 TRβJ segments and 2 TRβD segments were significantly different in the long CDR3 sequences compared to the short CDR3 sequences. Moreover, we identified that extensive N additions and increase of D gene usage contributing to TCR CDR3 length, and observed there was distinct usage frequency of amino acids in long CDR3 sequences compared to the short CDR3 sequences. Conclusions: Some repertoire features could be observed in the public sequences, highly abundance clones, and long TCR CDR3 sequences, which might be helpful for further study of immune behavior and immune response.

  19. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2016-01-01

    variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full......Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected...... in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...

  20. Steady-state thermal studies on the HIE-ISOLDE high-$\\beta$ superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Alberty, L

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project aims to construct a superconducting linac based on 101.28 MHz niobium sputtered Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs). For this, several prototypes of superconducting cavities are currently being developed at CERN using OFE copper as substrate material for Niobium film coating. Two main concepts are currently under development: one consists of rolled, machined, deepdrawed and welded parts; the other is based on machined parts which are put together using electron beam welding. This study presents the results of simulations carried out in order to assess the thermal performance of different designs. The interest for such analysis was raised up before launching the manufacture of the first industrial series, since both rolled and bulk approaches seemed possible.

  1. Unexpectedly high beta-diversity of root-associated fungal communities in the Bolivian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Christopher James; Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg

    2016-01-01

    in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography...... in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß......-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of -0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 % and 7.2 % of community...

  2. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  3. Unexpectedly High Beta-Diversity of Root-Associated Fungal Communities in the Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher J.; Maldonado, Carla; Frøslev, Tobias G.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most biologically diverse countries on the planet. Between the Andes and the Amazon drainage basin spans the Yungas, a vast forested region shown to be extremely species rich in macro-organisms. However, it remains unclear whether this high diversity is also reflected in microbial diversity. Here we assess the genetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of root-associated fungi surrounding Cinchona calisaya trees, a typical element of the intermediate altitudes of the Bolivian Yungas. We determine the relative effects of edaphic properties, climate, and geography in regulating fungal community assembly. We show that α-diversity for these fungal communities was similar to temperate and arid ecosystems, averaging 90.1 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample, with reads predominantly assigned to the Ascomycota phylum and with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ß-diversity was calculated as the distance-decay rate, and in contrast to α-diversity, was exceptionally high with a rate of −0.407. Soil properties (pH and P) principally regulated fungal community assembly in an analogous manner to temperate environments, with pH and phosphorus explaining 7.8 and 7.2% of community variation respectively. Surprisingly, altitude does not influence community formation, and there is limited evidence that climate (precipitation and temperature) play a role. Our results suggest that sampling should be performed over a wide geographical and environmental range in order to capture the full root-associated fungal diversity in subtropical regions. This study sheds further light on the diversity and distribution of the world's “hidden biodiversity.” PMID:27630629

  4. High-confidence software for safety-critical process-control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastani, F.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Software for safety-critical systems, such as nuclear power plant control systems; avionic systems; and medical, defense, and manufacturing systems, must be highly reliable because failures can have catastrophic consequences. While existing methods, such as formal techniques, testing, and fault-tolerant software, can significantly enhance software reliability, they have some limitations in achieving ultrahigh reliability requirements. Formal methods are not able to cope with specification faults, testing is not cost-effective for high-assurance systems, and fault-tolerant software based on diverse designs is susceptible to common-mode failures.

  5. Role of quenching on alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation counting for several high capacity cocktails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, L.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias

    1997-04-01

    The optimization of alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation using pulse shape analysis is convenient for the simultaneous determination of alpha and beta emitters in natural water and other samples. In this work, alpha/beta separation was studied for different scintillant/vial combinations and it was observed that both the optimum pulse shape discrimination level and the total interference value (that is, the summed relative interference between alpha and beta spectra) were dependent on the sample quenching and independent of the scintillant/vial combination. These results provide a simple method for modifying the counting configuration, such as a change in the cocktail, vial or sample characteristics, without the need to perform exhaustive parameter optimizations. Also, it was observed that, for our counting conditions, the combination of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail with Zinsser low diffusion vials presented the lowest total interference, namely 0.94 {+-} 0.28%, which is insignificant for the counting of environmental samples. (Author).

  6. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  7. Impact of ideal MHD stability limits on high-beta hybrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, P.; Igochine, V.; Turco, F.; Ryan, D. A.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Marrelli, L.; Terranova, D.; Wilcox, R. S.; Wingen, A.; Angioni, C.; Bock, A.; Chrystal, C.; Classen, I.; Dunne, M.; Ferraro, N. M.; Fischer, R.; Gude, A.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lebschy, A.; Luce, T. C.; Maraschek, M.; McDermott, R.; Odstrčil, T.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reich, M.; Sertoli, M.; Suttrop, W.; Taylor, N. Z.; Weiland, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The DIII-D Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid scenario is a candidate for stationary high-fusion gain tokamak operation in ITER and DEMO. To obtain such performance, the energy confinement and the normalized pressure {βN} must be maximized, which requires operating near or above ideal MHD no-wall limits. New experimental findings show how these limits can affect hybrid operation. Even if hybrids are mainly limited by tearing modes, proximity to the no-wall limit leads to 3D field amplification that affects plasma profiles, e.g. rotation braking is observed in ASDEX Upgrade throughout the plasma and peaks in the core. As a result, even the small ASDEX Upgrade error fields are amplified and their effects become visible. To quantify such effects, ASDEX Upgrade measured the response to 3D fields applied by 8× 2 non-axisymmetric coils as {βN} approaches the no-wall limit. The full n  =  1 response profile and poloidal structure were measured by a suite of diagnostics and compared with linear MHD simulations, revealing a characteristic feature of hybrids: the n  =  1 response is due to a global, marginally-stable n  =  1 kink characterized by a large m  =  1, n  =  1 core harmonic due to q min being just above 1. A helical core distortion of a few cm forms and affects various core quantities, including plasma rotation, electron and ion temperature, and intrinsic W density. In similar experiments, DIII-D also measured the effect of this helical core on the internal current profile, providing information useful to understanding of the physics of magnetic flux pumping, i.e. anomalous current redistribution by MHD modes that keeps {{q}\\text{min}}>1 . Thanks to flux pumping, a broad current profile is maintained in DIII-D even with large on-axis current drive, enabling fully non-inductive operation at high {βN} up to 3.5-4.

  8. The Study of Media Beta Elliptical Cavities for CIADS

    CERN Document Server

    Liangjian, Wen; Yongming, Li; Ruoxu, Wang; Hao, Guo; Cong, Zhang; Huan, Jia; Tiancai, Jiang; Chunlong, Li; Yuan, He

    2015-01-01

    The China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) is a high intensity proton facility to dispose of nuclear waste and generate electric power. CADS is based on 1.5GeV, 10mA CW superconducting (SC) linac as a driver. The high-energy section of the linac is compose of two families of SC elliptical cavities which are designed for the geometrical beta 0.63 and 0.82. In this paper, the 650 MHz \\b{eta}=0.63 SC elliptical cavity was studied including cavity optimization, multipacting, high order modes (HOMs) and generator RF power calculation. Keywords: high current, medium beta, ADS, superconducting cavity, HOMs

  9. High critical currents in iron-clad superconducting MgB2 wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S; Mavoori, H; Bower, C; van Dover, R B

    2001-05-31

    Technically useful bulk superconductors must have high transport critical current densities, Jc, at operating temperatures. They also require a normal metal cladding to provide parallel electrical conduction, thermal stabilization, and mechanical protection of the generally brittle superconductor cores. The recent discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride (MgB2) presents a new possibility for significant bulk applications, but many critical issues relevant for practical wires remain unresolved. In particular, MgB2 is mechanically hard and brittle and therefore not amenable to drawing into the desired fine-wire geometry. Even the synthesis of moderately dense, bulk MgB2 attaining 39 K superconductivity is a challenge because of the volatility and reactivity of magnesium. Here we report the successful fabrication of dense, metal-clad superconducting MgB2 wires, and demonstrate a transport Jc in excess of 85,000 A cm-2 at 4.2 K. Our iron-clad fabrication technique takes place at ambient pressure, yet produces dense MgB2 with little loss of stoichiometry. While searching for a suitable cladding material, we found that other materials dramatically reduced the critical current, showing that although MgB2 itself does not show the 'weak-link' effect characteristic of the high-Tc superconductors, contamination does result in weak-link-like behaviour.

  10. High critical currents in iron-clad superconducting MgB2 wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Mavoori, H.; Bower, C.; van Dover, R. B.

    2001-05-01

    Technically useful bulk superconductors must have high transport critical current densities, Jc, at operating temperatures. They also require a normal metal cladding to provide parallel electrical conduction, thermal stabilization, and mechanical protection of the generally brittle superconductor cores. The recent discovery of superconductivity at 39K in magnesium diboride (MgB2) presents a new possibility for significant bulk applications, but many critical issues relevant for practical wires remain unresolved. In particular, MgB2 is mechanically hard and brittle and therefore not amenable to drawing into the desired fine-wire geometry. Even the synthesis of moderately dense, bulk MgB2 attaining 39K superconductivity is a challenge because of the volatility and reactivity of magnesium. Here we report the successful fabrication of dense, metal-clad superconducting MgB2 wires, and demonstrate a transport Jc in excess of 85,000Acm-2 at 4.2K. Our iron-clad fabrication technique takes place at ambient pressure, yet produces dense MgB2 with little loss of stoichiometry. While searching for a suitable cladding material, we found that other materials dramatically reduced the critical current, showing that although MgB2 itself does not show the `weak-link' effect characteristic of the high-Tc superconductors, contamination does result in weak-link-like behaviour.

  11. The Copper Substrate Developments for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Alberty, L; Aviles, I; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Foffano, G; Kadi, Y; Moyret, P; Schirm, K-M; Tardy, T; Venturini Delsolaro, W; D'Elia, A

    2013-01-01

    A new Linac using superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators (QWRs) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made by niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W. The properties of the cavity substrate have a direct impact on the final cavity performance. The copper substrate has to ensure an optimum surface for the niobium sputtered layer. It has also to fulfil the required geometrical tolerances, the mechanical stability during operation and the thermal performance to optimally extract the RF dissipated power on cavity walls. The paper presents the mechanical design of the high β cavities. The procurement process of the copper raw material is detailed, including specifications and tests. The manufacturing sequence of the complete cavity is then explained and the structural and thermo-mechanical behaviour...

  12. Cathepsin inhibition-induced lysosomal dysfunction enhances pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minjeong; Lee, Jaemeun; Seo, Hye-Young; Lim, Ji Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. We previously showed that the inhibition of autophagy causes pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a protective mechanism for the survival of pancreatic β-cells. The current study demonstrates that treatment with inhibitors and knockdown of the lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins B and L impair autophagy, enhancing the caspase-dependent apoptosis of INS-1 cells and islets upon exposure to high concentration of glucose. Interestingly, treatment with cathepsin B and L inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of cathepsins B, D and L, as evidenced by gradual accumulation of the respective pro-forms. Of note, inhibition of aspartic cathepsins had no effect on autophagy and cell viability, suggesting the selective role of cathepsins B and L in the regulation of β-cell autophagy and apoptosis. Lysosomal localization of accumulated pro-cathepsins in the presence of cathepsin B and L inhibitors was verified via immunocytochemistry and lysosomal fractionation. Lysotracker staining indicated that cathepsin B and L inhibitors led to the formation of severely enlarged lysosomes in a time-dependent manner. The abnormal accumulation of pro-cathepsins following treatment with inhibitors of cathepsins B and L suppressed normal lysosomal degradation and the processing of lysosomal enzymes, leading to lysosomal dysfunction. Collectively, our findings suggest that cathepsin defects following the inhibition of cathepsin B and L result in lysosomal dysfunction and consequent cell death in pancreatic β-cells.

  13. Production of high-beta magnetised plasmas by colliding supersonic flows from inverse wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jack; Suttle, Lee; Lebedev, Sergey; Bennett, Matthew; Burdiak, Guy; Clayson, Thomas; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Swadling, George; Patankar, Siddharth; Robinson, Timothy; Stuart, Nicholas; Smith, Roland; Yang, Qingguo; Wu, Jian; Rozmus, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    HEDP often exhibit a high plasma β and an electron Hall parameter greater than one. This results in a complex interplay between the transport of heat and magnetic fields, relevant to the Magnetised Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. We can produce such plasmas by colliding two supersonic quasi-planar flows from two adjacent inverse wire arrays made from carbon. The standing shock formed by the collision heats and compresses the plasma. The plasma flows advect magnetic fields which are perpendicular to the flow direction. Depending on the experimental set up, this can result in either flux compression or reconnection in the interaction region. The experiments are conducted on MAGPIE (1.4 MA, 250 ns current pulse). The formed shock is stable over long timescales (~100 ns), and the electron temperature (100 eV) is close to the ion temperature (500 eV), measured by spatially resolved Thomson scattering. Magnetic fields above 5 T is observed using a Faraday rotation diagnostic, and an electron density of around 5x1017 cm-3 is measured by interferometry.

  14. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna

    2007-01-25

    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research.

  15. Highly effective recognition of carbohydrates by phenanthroline-based receptors: alpha- versus beta-anomer binding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Monika; Hartmann, Andrè; Jones, Peter G

    2009-09-14

    (1)H NMR spectroscopic titrations in competitive and non-competitive media, as well as binding studies in two-phase systems, such as phase transfer of sugars from aqueous into organic solvents and dissolution of solid carbohydrates in apolar media revealed both highly effective recognition of neutral carbohydrates and interesting binding preferences of an acyclic phenanthroline-based receptor 1. Compared to the previously described acyclic receptors, compound 1 displays significantly higher binding affinities, the rare capability to extract sugars from water into non-polar organic solutions and alpha- versus beta-anomer binding preference in the recognition of glycosides, which differs from those observed for other receptor systems. X-ray crystallographic investigations revealed the presence of water molecules in the binding pocket of 1 that are engaged in the formation of hydrogen-bonding motifs similar to those suggested by molecular modelling for the sugar OH groups in the receptor-sugar complexes. The molecular modelling calculations, synthesis, crystal structure and binding properties of 1 are described and compared with those of the previously described receptors.

  16. PandaX-III: Searching for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with High Pressure $^{136}$Xe Gas Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xun; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, Linghui; Han, Ke; Ji, Xiangdong; Lin, Heng; Liu, Jianglai; Ni, Kaixiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, Xiangxiang; Wang, Shaobo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Xiangming; Hu, Shouyang; Jian, Siyu; Li, Xinglong; Li, Xiaomei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhao, Mingrui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, Yajun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, Siguang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, Jianing; Feng, Changqing; Li, Chen; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Xiaolian; Zhu, Danyang; Castel, Juan F; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G; Irastorza, Igor G; Iguaz, Francisco J; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, Andi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Searching for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (Particle And Astrophysical Xenon Experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of \\xeots at the China Jin Ping underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90\\% \\xeots enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct tracks of NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure $\\sim$5~m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better c...

  17. Stellar modelling of Spica, a high-mass spectroscopic binary with a beta Cep variable primary component

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, A; Aerts, C; Pavlovski, K; Papics, P I; Zwintz, K; Cameron, C; Walker, G A H; Kuschnig, R; Degroote, P; Debosscher, J; Moravveji, E; Kolbas, V; Guenther, D B; Moffat, A F J; Rowe, J F; Rucinski, S M; Sasselov, D; Weiss, W W

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars provide a valuable test of stellar structure and evolution, because the masses of the individual stellar components can be derived with high accuracy and in a model-independent way. In this work, we study Spica, an eccentric double-lined spectroscopic binary system with a beta Cep type variable primary component. We use state-of-the-art modelling tools to determine accurate orbital elements of the binary system and atmospheric parameters of both stellar components. We interpret the short-period variability intrinsic to the primary component, detected on top of the orbital motion both in the photometric and spectroscopic data. The non-LTE based spectrum analysis reveals two stars of similar atmospheric chemical composition consistent with the present day cosmic abundance standard defined by Nieva&Przybilla (2012). The masses and radii of the stars are found to be 11.43+/-1.15 M_sun and 7.21+/-0.75 M_sun, and 7.47+/-0.54 R_sun and 3.74+/-0.53 R_sun for the primary and secondary, respectively. W...

  18. EPOCH code simulation of a non-thermal distribution driven by neutral beam injection in a high-beta plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necas, A.; Tajima, T.; Nicks, S.; Magee, R.; Clary, R.; Roche, T.; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2016-10-01

    In Tri Alpha Energy's C-2U experiment, advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas were sustained via tangential neutral beam injection. The dominant fast ion population made a dramatic impact on the overall plasma performance. To explain an experimentally observed anomalous neutron signal (100x thermonuclear), we use EPOCH PIC code to simulate possible beam driven non-destructive instabilities that transfer energy from fast ions to the plasma, causing phase space bunching. We propose that the hydrogen beam ion population drives collective modes in the deuterium target plasma, giving rise to the instability and increased fusion rate. The instability changes character from electrostatic in the low beta edge to fully electromagnetic in the core, with an associated reduction in growth rates. The DD reactivity enhancement is calculated using a two-body correlation function and compared to the experimentally observed neutron yield. The high-energy tails in the distributions of the plasma deuterons and beam protons are observed via a mass-resolving Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic. This observation is qualitatively consistent with EPOCH simulation of the beam-plasma instability.

  19. Orbital parameters, masses and distance to Beta Centauri determined with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer and high resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, J; Seneta, E B; Tango, W J; Booth, A J; O'Byrne, J W; Thorvaldson, E D; Ausseloos, M; Aerts, C; Uytterhoeven, K

    2004-01-01

    The bright southern binary star beta Centauri (HR 5267) has been observed with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) and spectroscopically with the ESO CAT and Swiss Euler telescopes at La Silla. The interferometric observations have confirmed the binary nature of the primary component and have enabled the determination of the orbital parameters of the system. At the observing wavelength of 442 nm the two components of the binary system have a magnitude difference of 0.15. The combination of interferometric and spectroscopic data gives the following results: orbital period 357 days, semi-major axis 25.30 mas, inclination 67.4 degrees, eccentricity 0.821, distance 102.3 pc, primary and secondary masses M1 = M2 = 9.1 solar masses and absolute visual magnitudes of the primary and secondary M1V = -3.85 and M2V = -3.70. The high accuracy of the results offers a fruitful starting point for future asteroseismic modelling of the pulsating binary components.

  20. Critical buckling strain in high strength steel pipes using isotropic kinematic hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, A.; Roger Cheng, J. J.; Adeeb, Samer [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Zhou, Joe [TransCanada Pipelines Ltd. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the natural gas sector, the use of high strength steel pipelines (HSSP) to transport huge volumes over long distances is increasing as it yields important savings in both capital and operational expenditures. In order to design HSSP, the critical buckling strain as to be taken into consideration but the models so far developed have been for isotropic materials while important material anisotropy is observed on HSSP due to their manufacturing process. The paper presents a model to assess the critical buckling strain of HSSP. An isotropic-kinematic hardening material model was developed and isotropic and anisotropic models were used to simulate pressurized and non-pressurized HSSP and were compared to test results. Results showed that the isotropic model is not suitable for predicting the buckling strain of HSSP but that the isotropic-kinematic hardening material model is. A model to better predict the buckling strain of HSSP was developed and successfully tested herein.

  1. Avoided criticality in near-optimally doped high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2007-09-01

    We study the crossover from the underdoped to the overdoped regime of the t-J model within a plaquette dynamical mean field approach. We find that the shortest electron lifetime occurs near optimal doping where the superconducting critical temperature is maximal. The mean field theory provides a simple physical picture of this effect. In the underdoped regime, the charge carriers propagate coherently among spin singlets, formed by the superexchange interaction. In the overdoped, large carrier concentration regime, the Kondo effect dominates resulting in spin-charge composite quasiparticles which are also coherent. Separating these two Fermi liquid regimes, there is a critical doping where the superexchange and the Kondo interaction balance each other. At this point, the normal phase is highly incoherent and the optical conductivity exhibits power law behavior at intermediate frequencies. The onset of superconductivity restores coherence, causing the appearance of a resonance in the spin channel.

  2. Anisotropy of the critical current in MgB2 tapes made of high energy milled precursor powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hässler, W.; Kovac, P.; Eisterer, M.;

    2010-01-01

    For applications of MgB2 wires or tapes, high critical currents in high magnetic fields are essential. By using tapes in superconducting coils the anisotropic behaviour of the critical current, i.e. the dependence on the direction of the external field in relation to the tape surface, has...

  3. Constitutive high expression of chromosomal beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused by a new insertion sequence (IS1669) located in ampD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Hentzer, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The expression of chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is negatively regulated by the activity of an amidase, AmpD. In the present study we examined resistant clinical P. aeruginosa strains and several resistant variants isolated from in vivo and in vitro biofilms for mutations...... in the expression of high levels of AmpC beta-lactamase. Complementation of these isolates with ampD from the reference P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 caused a dramatic decrease in the expression of AmpC beta-lactamase and a parallel decrease of the MIC of ceftazidime to a level comparable to that of PAO1. One highly...... resistant, constitutive beta-lactamase-producing variant contained no mutations in ampD, but a point mutation was observed in ampR, resulting in an Asp-135-->Asn change. An identical mutation of AmpR in Enterobacter cloacae has been reported to cause a 450-fold higher AmpC expression. However, in many...

  4. Is Pulse Oximetry Useful for Screening Neonates for Critical Congenital Heart Disease at High Altitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2016-06-01

    Now that pulse oximetry is used widely to screen for critical congenital heart disease, it is time to consider whether this screening method is applicable to those who live at high altitudes. Consideration of basic physical principles and reports from the literature indicate that not only is the 95 % cutoff point for arterial oxygen saturation incorrect at high altitudes, but the lower saturations are accompanied by greater variability and therefore there is the possibility of a greater percentage of false-positive screening tests at high altitudes. Because of ethnic differences in response to high altitudes, normative data will have to be collected separately in different countries and perhaps for different ethnic groups.

  5. A critical comparison of two high-throughput ascorbate analyses methods for plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiaki; Wu, Linbo; Frei, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is an important metabolite involved in stress response and development of plants. Therefore it is necessary to quantify the AsA content in many fields of plant science, including high throughput and critical applications. In this study we compared two different microplate-based AsA assays, which are suitable for high throughput applications: an ascorbate oxidase (AO)-based assay and a dipyridyl (DPD)-based assay. These methods were compared in critical applications, i.e. (i) when AsA concentrations were very low such as in apoplastic extracts, (ii) when plants contained pigments interfering with the spectrometric measurements, and (iii) when plants contained high iron concentration interfering with the color reactions. The precision of measurements was higher with the DPD method, as illustrated by higher recovery rates of internal AsA standards. On the other hand, the AO method was more sensitive to low levels of AsA. This was an advantage in determining apoplastic AsA concentration in rice, which was substantially lower than that of whole tissues. The AO method also had the advantage that plant pigments and high iron concentrations in plants tissues did not interfere with the analysis, as opposed to the DPD assay. In conclusion, both assays had advantages and the choice of a suitable method depends on the specific application.

  6. Novel template-casting technique for fabricating beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds with high interconnectivity and mechanical strength and in vitro cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxing; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Young, Daniel; Kim, Sungwoo; Nishimoto, Satoru K; Yang, Yunzhi

    2010-03-01

    A novel template-casting method was developed to produce completely interconnected, macroporous biodegradable beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) scaffolds, whose architecture and chemistry can be fully manipulated by varying the templates and casting materials. The processing route includes preparation of beta-TCP slurry; casting and shaping into preformed templates comprised of paraffin beads; solidifying, drying; and sintering. Structural, chemical, and mechanical properties of the prepared macroporous scaffolds were characterized using micro computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical testing. Human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells were used to evaluate cell proliferation within the scaffolds in vitro. The scaffolds consisted of interconnected macropores and solid struts, leading to a reticular network. Two groups of scaffolds with larger pores, approximately 600-800 microm and smaller pores approximately 350-500 microm, were demonstrated. The interconnected windows between neighboring macropores were 440 +/- 57 microm in diameter for the larger-pored scaffolds, and 330 +/- 50 microm for the smaller-pored scaffolds. The scaffolds were highly crystallized and composed dominantly of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) accompanied by minor phase of hydroxyapatite (HA). The hydroxyl group was clearly detected by FTIR on the scaffolds. High mechanical strength (9.3 MPa) was demonstrated by the completely interconnected scaffolds with approximately 79% porosity. The human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cells proliferated well on the smaller-pored and larger-pored scaffolds, exhibiting a significantly higher level of proliferation in the first 11 days of culture on the smaller pored scaffolds. High levels of differentiation were also evidenced in both pore sizes of scaffolds.

  7. Effects of sertraline on brain current source of the high beta frequency band: analysis of electroencephalography during audiovisual erotic stimulation in males with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O Y; Kam, S C; Choi, J H; Do, J M; Hyun, J S

    2011-01-01

    To identify the effects of sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), changes in brain current-source density (CSD) of the high beta frequency band (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline administration were investigated during audiovisual erotic stimulation. Eleven patients with PE (36.9±7.8 yrs) and 11 male volunteers (24.2±1.9 years) were enrolled. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was conducted twice: once before sertraline administration and then again 4 h after the administration of 50 mg sertraline. Statistical non-parametric maps were obtained using the EEG segments to detect the current-density differences in the high beta frequency bands (beta-3, 22-30 Hz) between the EEGs before and after sertraline administration in the patient group and between the patient group and controls after the administration of sertraline during the erotic video sessions. Comparing between before and after sertraline administration in the patients with PE, the CSD of the high beta frequency band at 4 h after sertraline administration increased significantly in both superior frontal gyri and the right medial frontal gyrus (P<0.01). The CSD of the beta-3 band of the patients with PE were less activated significantly in the middle and superior temporal gyrus, lingual and fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and cuneus of the right cerebral hemisphere compared with the normal volunteers 4 h after sertraline administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, sertraline administration increased the CSD in both the superior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus in patients with PE. The results suggest that the increased neural activity in these particular cerebral regions after sertraline administration may be associated with inhibitory effects on ejaculation in patients with PE.

  8. High-precision percolation thresholds and Potts-model critical manifolds from graph polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Jesper Lykke Jacobsen,

    2014-04-01

    The critical curves of the q-state Potts model can be determined exactly for regular two-dimensional lattices G that are of the three-terminal type. This comprises the square, triangular, hexagonal and bow-tie lattices. Jacobsen and Scullard have defined a graph polynomial PB(q, v) that gives access to the critical manifold for general lattices. It depends on a finite repeating part of the lattice, called the basis B, and its real roots in the temperature variable v = eK - 1 provide increasingly accurate approximations to the critical manifolds upon increasing the size of B. Using transfer matrix techniques, these authors computed PB(q, v) for large bases (up to 243 edges), obtaining determinations of the ferromagnetic critical point vc > 0 for the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices to a precision (of the order 10-8) slightly superior to that of the best available Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we describe a more efficient transfer matrix approach to the computation of PB(q, v) that relies on a formulation within the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra. This makes possible computations for substantially larger bases (up to 882 edges), and the precision on vc is hence taken to the range 10-13. We further show that a large variety of regular lattices can be cast in a form suitable for this approach. This includes all Archimedean lattices, their duals and their medials. For all these lattices we tabulate high-precision estimates of the bond percolation thresholds pc and Potts critical points vc. We also trace and discuss the full Potts critical manifold in the (q, v) plane, paying special attention to the antiferromagnetic region v < 0. Finally, we adapt the technique to site percolation as well, and compute the polynomials PB(p) for certain Archimedean and dual lattices (those having only cubic and quartic vertices), using very large bases (up to 243 vertices). This produces the site percolation thresholds pc to a precision of the order of 10-9.

  9. Magnetocaloric properties and critical behavior of high relative cooling power FeNiB nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, V. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ramanujan, R. V., E-mail: ramanujan@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sridhar, I. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-10-28

    Low cost magnetocaloric nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for energy efficient applications. We report a very high relative cooling power (RCP) in a study of the magnetocaloric effect in quenched FeNiB nanoparticles. RCP increases from 89.8 to 640 J kg{sup −1} for a field change of 1 and 5 T, respectively, these values are the largest for rare earth free iron based magnetocaloric nanomaterials. To investigate the magnetocaloric behavior around the Curie temperature (T{sub C}), the critical behavior of these quenched nanoparticles was studied. Detailed analysis of the magnetic phase transition using the modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm plots yields critical exponents of β = 0.364, γ = 1.319, δ = 4.623, and α = −0.055, which are close to the theoretical exponents obtained from the 3D-Heisenberg model. Our results indicate that these FeNiB nanoparticles are potential candidates for magnetocaloric fluid based heat pumps and low grade waste heat recovery.

  10. Magnetocaloric properties and critical behavior of high relative cooling power FeNiB nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, V.; Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Chaturvedi, A.; Sridhar, I.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2014-10-01

    Low cost magnetocaloric nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention for energy efficient applications. We report a very high relative cooling power (RCP) in a study of the magnetocaloric effect in quenched FeNiB nanoparticles. RCP increases from 89.8 to 640 J kg-1 for a field change of 1 and 5 T, respectively, these values are the largest for rare earth free iron based magnetocaloric nanomaterials. To investigate the magnetocaloric behavior around the Curie temperature (TC), the critical behavior of these quenched nanoparticles was studied. Detailed analysis of the magnetic phase transition using the modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher method, and critical isotherm plots yields critical exponents of β = 0.364, γ = 1.319, δ = 4.623, and α = -0.055, which are close to the theoretical exponents obtained from the 3D-Heisenberg model. Our results indicate that these FeNiB nanoparticles are potential candidates for magnetocaloric fluid based heat pumps and low grade waste heat recovery.

  11. Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Oxidant Function Predicts Poor Outcome in Critically Ill Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Schrutka

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress affects clinical outcome in critically ill patients. Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL particles generally possess anti-oxidant capacities, deleterious properties of HDL have been described in acutely ill patients. The impact of anti-oxidant HDL capacities on clinical outcome in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore analyzed the predictive value of anti-oxidant HDL function on mortality in an unselected cohort of critically ill patients.We prospectively enrolled 270 consecutive patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU and determined anti-oxidant HDL function using the HDL oxidant index (HOI. Based on their HOI, the study population was stratified into patients with impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and the residual study population.During a median follow-up time of 9.8 years (IQR: 9.2 to 10.0, 69% of patients died. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant and independent association between impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and short-term mortality with an adjusted HR of 1.65 (95% CI 1.22-2.24; p = 0.001 as well as 10-year mortality with an adj. HR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.02-1.40; p = 0.032 when compared to the residual study population. Anti-oxidant HDL function correlated with the amount of oxidative stress as determined by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (r = 0.38; p<0.001.Impaired anti-oxidant HDL function represents a strong and independent predictor of 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality in critically ill patients.

  12. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating blood Aβ levels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  13. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  14. A critical examination of high-fidelity human patient simulation within the context of nursing pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brian C; Myrick, Florence

    2009-04-01

    The use of high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) have been embraced by nursing education programs in the development of immersive clinical simulations despite the lack of research into a pedagogy or educational philosophy appropriate to guide this technology-based learning tool. In this article, we explore this approach to clinical teaching through a critical examination of the application of behaviorist and constructivist pedagogy to high-fidelity scenario-based simulation sessions. Practical guidelines for developing simulation-based learning sessions that reflect both philosophical paradigms are provided. Consideration is also given to societal trends such as the digital revolution and the incoming millennial generation who represent the aptitude of the modern nursing student to utilize high-fidelity realistic and immersive simulation. Depending on the desired goal of simulator utilization, the nurse educator may want to draw on constructivism or behaviorism or a blend of both educational philosophies to best meet the needs of the adult learner.

  15. Critical pathogenic steps to high risk Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inchul

    2014-06-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis may progress to high risk gastropathy and cancer. However, the pathological progression has not been characterized in detail. H. pylori induce persistent inflammatory infiltration. Neutrophils are unique in that they directly infiltrate into foveolar epithelium aiming the proliferative zone specifically. Neutrophilic proliferative zone foveolitis is a critical pathogenic step in H. pylori gastritis inducing intensive epithelial damage. Epithelial cells carrying accumulated genomic damage and mutations show the Malgun (clear) cell change, characterized by large clear nucleus and prominent nucleolus. Malgun cells further undergo atypical changes, showing nuclear folding, coarse chromatin, and multiple nucleoli. The atypical Malgun cell (AMC) change is a novel premalignant condition in high risk gastropathy, which may progress and undergo malignant transformation directly. The pathobiological significance of AMC in gastric carcinogenesis is reviewed. A new diagnosis system of gastritis is proposed based on the critical pathologic steps classifying low and high risk gastritis for separate treatment modality. It is suggested that the regulation of H. pylori-induced neutrophilic foveolitis might be a future therapeutic goal replacing bactericidal antibiotics approach.

  16. High critical current density YBCO films and fabrication of dc-SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuriki, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Matsuda, M; Otowa, T

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity of SQUID magnetometers made of high-T sub c films, we have studied the conditions of pulsed-laser deposition of YBCO films. Among the different deposition parameters examined, extensive degassing of the vacuum chamber before and precise control of the substrate temperature during the film deposition were found effective for obtaining high critical temperature T sub c and high critical current density J sub c. It was also found that the residual-resistance ratio has a clear correlation with J sub c , indicating that it can be a good, and easy to measure, index of the film quality. Films having T sub c approx 89-90 K and J sub c >= 5x10 sup 6 A cm sup - sup 2 at 77 K were used to fabricate SQUIDs without a pickup loop. Grain-boundary junctions formed on bicrystal substrates with a 30 deg. misorientation angle exhibited I sub c R sub n values of more than 100 mu V at 77 K. The well-known scaling behaviour of the relation I sub c R sub n propor to (J sup G sup B sub c) sup 1 su...

  17. Magnus effects at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, A.; Ringel, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Magnus force and moment experienced by a yawed, spinning cylinder were studied experimentally in low speed and subsonic flows at high angles of attack and critical Reynolds numbers. Flow-field visualization aided in describing a flow model that divides the Magnus phenomenon into a subcritical region, where reverse Magnus loads are experienced, and a supercritical region where these loads are not encountered. The roles of the spin rate, angle of attack, and crossflow Reynolds number in determining the boundaries of the subcritical region and the variations of the Magnus loads were studied.

  18. Development of a low-energy and high-current pulsed neutral beam injector with a washer-gun plasma source for high-beta plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Toru; Gi, Keii; Umezawa, Toshiyuki; Asai, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 × 10(17) m(-3), i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2 power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field.

  19. A ribosomal S-6 kinase-mediated signal to C/EBP-beta is critical for the development of liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Buck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In response to liver injury, hepatic stellate cell (HSC activation causes excessive liver fibrosis. Here we show that activation of RSK and phosphorylation of C/EBPbeta on Thr217 in activated HSC is critical for the progression of liver fibrosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treatment with the hepatotoxin CCl(4 induced severe liver fibrosis in C/EBPbeta(+/+ mice but not in mice expressing C/EBPbeta-Ala217, a non-phosphorylatable RSK-inhibitory transgene. C/EBPbeta-Ala217 was present within the death receptor complex II, with active caspase 8, and induced apoptosis of activated HSC. The C/EBPbeta-Ala217 peptides directly stimulated caspase 8 activation in a cell-free system. C/EBPbeta(+/+ mice with CCl(4-induced severe liver fibrosis, while continuing on CCl(4, were treated with a cell permeant RSK-inhibitory peptide for 4 or 8 weeks. The peptide inhibited RSK activation, stimulating apoptosis of HSC, preventing progression and inducing regression of liver fibrosis. We found a similar activation of RSK and phosphorylation of human C/EBPbeta on Thr266 (human phosphoacceptor in activated HSC in patients with severe liver fibrosis but not in normal livers, suggesting that this pathway may also be relevant in human liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the RSK-C/EBPbeta phosphorylation pathway is critical for the development of liver fibrosis and suggest a potential therapeutic target.

  20. A high-resolution CMOS imaging detector for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay in $^{82}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Chavarria, A E; Li, X; Rowlands, J A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new technology of detectors for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{82}$Se. Based on the present literature, imaging devices from amorphous $^{82}$Se evaporated on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel array are expected to have the energy and spatial resolution to produce two-dimensional images of ionizing tracks of utmost quality, effectively akin to an electronic bubble chamber in the double beta decay energy regime. Still to be experimentally demonstrated, a detector consisting of a large array of these devices could have very low backgrounds, possibly reaching $10^{-7}$/(kg y) in the neutrinoless decay region of interest (ROI), as it may be required for the full exploration of the neutrinoless double beta decay parameter space in the most unfavorable condition of a strongly quenched nucleon axial coupling constant.

  1. High precision single-cluster Monte Carlo measurement of the critical exponents of the classical 3D Heisenberg model

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, C

    1992-01-01

    We report measurements of the critical exponents of the classical three-dimensional Heisenberg model on simple cubic lattices of size $L^3$ with $L$ = 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, 40, and 48. The data was obtained from a few long single-cluster Monte Carlo simulations near the phase transition. We compute high precision estimates of the critical coupling $K_c$, Binder's parameter $U^* and the critical exponents $\

  2. Critical properties of the high-energy electron-beam-irradiated superconductor weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon Gul [Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We have studied the effects of high-energy electron-beam irradiation on the superconducting transition properties of an YBCO bicrystal junction, a focused ion-beam (FIB)-patterned YBCO nanobridge, a MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge, and a BaKFeAs multigrain microbridge. We used one sample for each junction type and repeated the irradiation-and-measurement process at 6 accumulated-dose steps: 0, 3 x 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15}, 3 x 10{sup 15}, 10{sup 16}, and 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 2}. A uniform electron beam with a 1-MeV kinetic energy was irradiated indiscrimately over the samples. We measured the resistive transition temperature, the normal-state resistance, and the critical current. The irradiation effect was significant for all the samples except the BaKFeAs microbridge. The critical current data for the YBCO bicrystal junction and the MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge had a maximum at 3 x 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 2}, and the YBCO nanobridge showed a monotonic decrease. For all the samples, the normal state resistance increased monotonically with increasing dose by up to ∼20% at 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2}, and the change in T{sub c} was negligible. The results showed that the YBCO and MgB{sub 2} weak links were susceptive to irradiation, indicating the possibility of controlling the critical current of those junctions by using high-energy electron-beam irradiation.

  3. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K. V.; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-01

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic MA structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic MB , rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  4. Impact of high-critical-temperature superconductors on electromagnetic pump applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krazinski, J. L.; Holtz, R. E.; Jaross, R. A.

    1990-05-01

    The impact is studied of the development of practical, high critical temperature superconducting materials on applications involving electromagnetic (EM) pumping. Potential improvements in the operating characteristics of EM pumps were examined for current pump technology. In addition, the study addressed whether the development of high (Tc) superconductors could enable the implementation of EM pumps in applications where it has not been previously feasible. This assessment focused on two specific types of EM pumps: helical rotor pumps with rotating field coils and EM thruster pumps for ship propulsion. The design and performance of helical rotor pumps were analyzed for both liquid metals and nonmetallic fluids. For liquid metals, the impact of superconductors on the pump size, mass, and efficiency was examined for EM pumps operating at relatively lower magnetic field strengths. For nonmetallic fluids, the study investigated whether the use of high magnetic field strengths, in conjunction with high (Tc) superconductors, could enable the pumping of these fluids with EM pumps of reasonable size and efficiency. The impact of high (Tc) superconducting materials on the reliability and economics of EM pumps was also examined. In addition, the study assessed the impact of high field strength, superconducting magnets on the feasibility of using EM thrusters for ship propulsion. Parametric studies were conducted on the effects of magnetic field strength, thruster size, vessel speed, and vessel size on the predicted thruster efficiencies. The results were compared with these of earlier studies on electromagnetic propulsion that incorporated both superconducting and nonsuperconducting magnet designs.

  5. Visualization Study on High Heat Flux Boiling and Critical Heat Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, an integrated visible and infrared-based experimental method is introduced to simultaneously measure the details of high-resolution liquid-vapor phase and heat transfer distributions on a heated wall. The dynamics and heat transfer at high heat flux boiling and critical heat flux were observed. The experiment was conducted in pool of saturated water under atmospheric pressure. There have been many studies to examine the physical mechanisms of nucleation boiling and critical heat flux over several decades. Several visible and infrared-based optical techniques for time-resolved high resolution measurements for liquid-vapor phase and heater surface temperature during boiling have been introduced to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of them. Liquid-vapor phase, temperature, and heat flux distributions on the heated surface were measured during pool boiling of water using the integrated total reflection and infrared thermometry technique. Qualitative examination of the data for high heat flux boiling and CHF was performed. The main contributions of this work are summarized below. The existence and behavior of dry patches lead the way toward CHF condition. Therefore, the mechanistic modeling of the CHF phenomenon necessarily needs to include the physical parameters related to dynamics of the large dry patch such as life time and size. In addition to the dynamic behavior of the dry patch, the thermal behavior of the hot patch is also important. Even though the dry area was rewetted, the stored thermal energy in the hot patch can be remained if the rewetting time is short and the subsequent dry patch is regenerated quickly.

  6. The Effects of Moderate- and High-Fidelity Patient Simulator Use on Critical Thinking in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieck, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate- and high-fidelity patient simulator use on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design and the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to evaluate the critical thinking skills of third semester nursing…

  7. Using the regularities of high and critical technologies developing in innovative project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Selivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem-orientated to the innovative activity, computer-aided systems of production engineering (CASPE integrates design, manufacture, and organization activities using the interrelated innovation principles thus leaning the innovative activity towards the creation of innovative products and technological innovations of high science and technology level and efficiency. In this situation the innovative activity uses in practice not only the newest experience, but also the science laws and consequences, that is, in particular, “Science of Innovations”. The mentioned science laws explain wave dynamics of technical (technological systems development. In the course of innovation activities and/or innovation designing a modification of continuously acting technological system, usually, causes its developing and growing upwards by Sshaped curve. Changing a principle of action changes S-shaped curve development (Fig. 1. If such changes are within the certain “trace tube” we are entitled to state the steady system development.Analysis of changing target function of technological system within the “trace tube” of its steady development characterizes its growing wave dynamics (Fig. 1 using the S-shaped curves (sigmoid type relations. S-shaped innovative development relations of technological systems are, usually, explained by different mathematical models, each being in compliance with the certain process of science and technology. Singular innovative project management using the S-shaped curves can be explained by the following example (Fig.2.To use such management technique it is very important to know the mathematical models of S-curves for different types of innovation projects. That is why we consider given S-shaped relations in-detail for:- developing the high and critical technologies during R&D implementation using the cutting-edge CASSR (computer-aided systems of scientific research of high and critical technologies in innovation

  8. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  9. beta-Arrestin 1 and 2 stabilize the angiotensin II type I receptor in distinct high-affinity conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanni, S J; Hansen, J T; Bonde, M M;

    2010-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor belongs to family A of 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptors. The receptor has important roles in the cardiovascular system and is commonly used as a drug target in cardiovascular diseases. Interaction of 7TM receptors with G proteins or beta-arrestins often...

  10. Failing beta-cell adaptation in South Asian families with a high risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jainandunsing (Sjaam); B. Özcan (Behiye); T. Rietveld (Trinet); J.N.I. van Miert (Joram); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke); F.W.M. de Rooij (Felix); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe performed an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to investigate the relationship between early and late beta-cell response and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in families of South Asian origin and indigenous Dutch, burdened by T2D. Based on the OGTT, 22 individuals were normoglycemic, 1

  11. Orbital parameters, masses and distance to beta Centauri determined with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.; Mendez, A.; Seneta, E.B.; Tango, W.J.; Booth, A.J.; O'Byrne, J.W.; Thorvaldson, E.D.; Ausseloos, M.; Aerts, C.C.; Uytterhoeven, K.

    2005-01-01

    The bright southern binary star beta Centauri (HR5267) has been observed with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) and spectroscopically with the European Southern Observatory Coude Auxiliary Telescope and Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla. The interferometric observations have confir

  12. Two-Phase Critical Discharge of Initially Saturated or Subcooled Water Flowing in Sharp-Edgred Tubes at High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The transient critical flow experiment with sharp-deged tubes as the break geometries is conducted in high pressure convective circulation test loop of Xi'an Jiantong University.The initial Steady operation pressure is up to 22.0MPa.An empirical correlation was made to obtain the critical mass flow rates,the critical pressure ratio and the thermal nonequilibrium number were correlated as the functions of the tube length to tube diameter ratio L/D.The predicted critical mass flow rate gets a higher accureacy for short tubes with L/D 12.

  13. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  14. Hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition therapy in older vs younger critically ill patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Medling, Theresa L; Smith, Ashley C; Maish, George O; Croce, Martin A; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2013-01-01

    Older patients require more protein than younger patients to achieve anabolism, but age-associated renal dysfunction may limit the amount of protein that can be safely provided. This study examined whether older, critically ill trauma patients with obesity can safely achieve nitrogen equilibrium and have positive clinical outcomes similar to younger obese patients during hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition therapy. Adult patients with traumatic injury and obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m(2)), admitted to the Presley Trauma Center from January 2009 to April 2011, were evaluated. Patients were targeted to receive hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition therapy (2 g/kg IBW/d of protein) for >10 days. Patients were stratified as older (≥60 years) or younger (18-59 years). Seventy-four patients (33 older, 41 younger) were studied. Older and younger patients were similar in BMI and injury severity. When given isonitrogenous regimens (2.3 ± 0.2 g/kg IBW/d), nitrogen balance was similar between older and younger patients (-3.2 ± 5.7 g/d vs -4.9 ± 9.0 g/d; P = .363). Older patients experienced a greater mean serum urea nitrogen concentration than younger patients (30 ± 14 mg/dL vs 20 ± 9 mg/dL; P = .001) during nutrition therapy. Clinical outcomes were not different between groups. Older critically ill trauma patients exhibited an equivalent net protein response as younger patients during hypocaloric, high-protein nutrition therapy. Older patients are at greater risk for developing azotemia. Close monitoring is warranted.

  15. Immunohistochemical response in rats of beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) with or without BMP-2 in the production of collagen matrix critical defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Júlio César Silva; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Antoniali, Cristina; Okamoto, Roberta

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to assess the biological response of BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2) in supplementation with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as a carrier in the bone healing of surgical defects in rats' calvaria. A critical-size defect (5mm in diameter) was filled with β-TCP alone or added with that plus 5mg of BMP-2 at 5, 15, and 30 postoperative days. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical (osteocalcin, collagen type I, and metalloproteinase-9) analysis was performed to assess the features of bone healing. Histological behavior and collagen type I labeling showed increased formation of the collagen matrix, leading to a higher percentage of newly formed bone and biomaterial for tissue and more total mineralization of pure TCP when compared to the other groups. The supplementation with BMP-2 promoted faster TCP remodeling; however, there was no statistically significant difference for the bone formed in both groups (P>0.05). Collagen-matrix formation and new bone formation reached maximum levels when the defects were filled with pure TCP, even exceeding the levels from BMP-2 supplementation.

  16. Signaling from beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors is defined by differential interactions with PDE4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Wito; Day, Peter; Agrawal, Rani

    2008-01-01

    Beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) are highly homologous, yet they play clearly distinct roles in cardiac physiology and pathology. Myocyte contraction, for instance, is readily stimulated by beta1AR but not beta2AR signaling, and chronic stimulation of the two receptors has opposing...

  17. High fidelity simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux on enhanced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Alahyari, Abbas; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios

    2015-11-01

    Surface enhancement is often is the primary approach for improved heat transfer performance of two-phase thermal systems particularly when they operate in nucleate boiling regime. This paper exploits the modeling capability developed by Yazdani et al. for simulation of nucleate boiling and transition to critical heat flux to study the nucleation phenomenon on various enhanced structures. The multi-scale of two-phase flow associated with boiling phenomena is addressed through combination of deterministic CFD for the macro-scale transport, asymptotic based representation of micro-layer, and stochastic representation of surface roughness so as to allow a high-fidelity simulation of boiling on an arbitrary surface. In addition, given the excessive complexity of surface structures often used for enhancement of boiling heat transfer, a phase-field-based method is developed to generate the structures where the numerical parameters in the phase-field model determine the topology of a given structure. The ``generated'' structure is then embedded into the two-phase flow model through virtual boundary method for the boiling simulation. The model is validated against experimental data for the boiling curve and the critical heat flux as well as nucleation and bubble dynamics characteristics.

  18. Anxiety and stress among anaesthesiology and critical care residents during high-fidelity simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christian; Rimmelé, Thomas; Duclos, Antoine; Prieto, Nathalie; Cejka, Jean-Christophe; Carry, Pierre-Yves; Grousson, Sébastien; Friggeri, Arnaud; Secco, Julien; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Lilot, Marc; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) calls heavily upon cognitive capacities and generates stress and anxiety. The objectives of this prospective, observational study were to assess trait anxiety and fear of negative evaluation (FNE) in anaesthesiology and critical care residents and appraise their state anxiety levels and cardiovascular responses during HFS training sessions. First-year anaesthesiology and critical care residents completed the French-Canadian adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (IASTA Y-1: state anxiety, IASTA Y-2: trait anxiety) and the French adaptation of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Their heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed before and after the training session. Twenty-three residents (8 women, 15 men) were included in the study. IASTA Y-1 and Y-2 scores were low (respectively 40.2±9.9 and 39.7±8) and FNE scores were moderate (16.7±5.5). HR measurements before and after the training sessions were significantly higher than at rest (respectively 78±19, 80±17 and 63±9b/min; Panxiety and FNE. HFS training increased their HR but not their BP. Their state anxiety also remained low. Several differences between individuals were noted, particularly between men and women. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. High-precision thermodynamic and critical properties from tensor renormalization-group flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A Nihat

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed tensor renormalization-group (TRG) method provides a highly precise technique for deriving thermodynamic and critical properties of lattice Hamiltonians. The TRG is a local coarse-graining transformation, with the elements of the tensor at each lattice site playing the part of the interactions that undergo the renormalization-group flows. These tensor flows are directly related to the phase diagram structure of the infinite system, with each phase flowing to a distinct surface of fixed points. Fixed-point analysis and summation along the flows give the critical exponents, as well as thermodynamic functions along the entire temperature range. Thus, for the ferromagnetic triangular lattice Ising model, the free energy is calculated to better than 10(-5) along the entire temperature range. Unlike previous position-space renormalization-group methods, the truncation (of the tensor index range D) in this general method converges under straightforward and systematic improvements. Our best results are easily obtained with D=24, corresponding to 4624-dimensional renormalization-group flows.

  20. High-Precision Thermodynamic and Critical Properties from Tensor Renormalization-Group Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2008-03-01

    The recently developed tensor renormalization-group (TRG) method [1] provides a highly precise technique for deriving thermodynamic and critical properties of lattice Hamiltonians. The TRG is a local coarse-graining transformation, with the elements of the tensor at each lattice site playing the part of the interactions that undergo the renormalization-group flows. These tensor flows are directly related [2] to the phase diagram structure of the infinite system, with each phase flowing to a distinct surface of fixed points. Fixed-point analysis and summation along the flows give the critical exponents, as well as thermodynamic functions along the entire temperature range. Thus, for the ferromagnetic triangular lattice Ising model, the free energy is calculated to better than 10-5 along the entire temperature range. Unlike previous position-space renormalization-group methods, the truncation (of the tensor index range D) in this general method converges under straightforward and systematic improvements. Our best results are easily obtained with D=24, corresponding to 4624-dimensional renormalization-group flows. [1] M. Levin and C.P. Nave, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120601 (2007). [2] M. Hinczewski and A.N. Berker, arXiv:0709.2803v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech], Phys. Rev. E, in press.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, alpha- and beta-bixin, and alpha- and beta-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1996-05-03

    During a study of natural food colours, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for use with cochineal and annato. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of methanol and 6% aqueous acetic acid, resolved bixin and norbixin, while a gradient system was used to separate carminic acid and the annato compounds. The carminic acid contents of cochineal extract, carmine and carmine hydrosoluble were determined using an isocratic mobile phase (40:60, v/v). The detection limit for carminic acid in the various products was approximately 100 ng/g. Carminic acid was determined quantitatively in fruit beverages, yogurt and candies. It was demonstrated that, because of decomposition, carminic acid was not suitable for use in candies when manufacturing temperatures above 100 degrees C were required. Most membrane filters are not suitable for use with cochineal solutions, but a cellulose membrane filter did not adsorb carminic acid and was used successfully to remove impurities from water-based cochineal products and food extracts containing carminic acid.

  2. Critical closing pressure in the fetal vessel of the human placenta in vitro. II. Compared effects of a beta adrenergic substance, Salbutamol, on the critical closing pressure and vascular resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, W L; González-Panizza, V H; Alvarez, H

    1976-01-01

    Salbutamol effects upon the fetal vessels of the human placenta were studied in vitro, comparing the changes induced upon the critical closing pressure (CCP) and viscous resistance (R). Four normal full-term placentas were used. In each of them, 4 cotyledonary areas were perfused, thus obtaining a total of 16 measurements for the observation of spontaneous variations (blank), by perfusion with Krebs solution, and the same amount for the variations due to Salbutamol. The concentration used was 10 microgram/ml, with a 4.25 ml/min flow. The relative effect of Salbutamol upon CCP was its decrease--30.4% against a relative spontaneous variation of --3.6%. The mean relative effect upon R was much lower, --9.4%. against a mean relative spontaneous variation of + 3.3%. The advantages of using CCP instead of R as a parameter of vascular contractility are discussed. Furthermore, Salbutamol is suggested to be useful in improving fetal placental circulation.

  3. Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Wu, Hung-Tsung; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2009-11-01

    Low levels of melatonin in circulation had been reported to be related to the development of diabetes. Melatonin administration in animals increases hepatic glycogen content to lower blood glucose. However, the signaling pathway for these effects is still unclear. The present study shows that intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg melatonin ameliorated glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice with an increase in hepatic glycogen and improvement in liver steatosis. We used HepG2 cells to investigate the signaling pathways for the melatonin-stimulated hepatic glycogen increment. Treatment of HepG2 cells with 1 nm melatonin markedly increased glycogen synthesis which was blocked by the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole. In addition, melatonin increased the phosphorylation of subcellular signals at the level of protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) while the increase in glycogen synthesis induced by melatonin was inhibited by PKCzeta pseudo-peptide. However, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was not influenced by melatonin treatment. Taken together, melatonin improves glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced diabetic mice and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in HepG2 cells.

  4. Perfectionism and eating psychopathology among dancers: the role of high standards and self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Huw; Arcelus, Jon; Geach, Nicole; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the associations between conscientious perfectionism (high standards), self-evaluative perfectionism (self-criticism) and eating psychopathology among dancers. A sample of 244 female dancers, with a mean age of 20.11 years (standard deviation=1.97) completed the Perfectionism Inventory and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Self-evaluative perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology (eating restraint, eating concern, weight concern and shape concern). This relationship was not moderated by conscientious perfectionism. The mediation analyses showed that although conscientious perfectionism predicted eating psychopathology, this relationship was fully mediated by self-evaluative perfectionism. These findings demonstrate the greater influence of self-evaluative perfectionism, rather than conscientious perfectionism, on eating psychopathology in dancers.

  5. Properties of high-temperature phase diagram and critical point parameters in silica

    CERN Document Server

    Iosilevskiy, Igor; Solov'ev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Some uncertainties are discussed on the high-temperature phase boundaries and critical point parameters for gas-liquid phase transition in silica (SiO2). The thermal and caloric phase diagrams are compared and examined as being predicted by various theoretical approaches, such as the quasi-chemical representation, the wide-range semi-empirical equation of state and the ionic model under direct molecular dynamic simulation. The theoretical predictions are confronted with handbook recommendations and scanty experimental data on the equilibrium vapor composition over SiO2 boiling. Validity of conventional semi-empirical rules is tested for the theoretically predicted SiO2-phase diagrams. The non-congruence of gas-liquid phase transition in SiO2 is considered for this matter to be used as a modeling body to study the non-congruent evaporation in uranium dioxide and other uranium-bearing fuels at both existing and perspective nuclear reactors.

  6. Strain induced irreversible critical current degradation in highly dense Bi-2212 round wire

    CERN Document Server

    Bjoerstad, R; Rikel, M.O.; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Jiang, J; Matras, M; Sugano, M; Hudspeth, J; Di Michiel, M

    2015-01-01

    The strain induced critical current degradation of overpressure processed straight Bi 2212/Ag wires has been studied at 77 K in self-field. For the first time superconducting properties, lattice distortions, composite wire stress and strain have been measured simultaneously in a high energy synchrotron beamline. A permanent Ic degradation of 5% occurs when the wire strain exceeds 0.60%. At a wire strain of about 0.65% a drastic n value and Ic reduction occur, and the composite stress and the Bi-2212 lattice parameter reach a plateau, indicating Bi-2212 filament fracturing. The XRD measurements show that Bi-2212 exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to the irreversible strain limit.

  7. Microstructural understanding and critical current optimization of advanced high field superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, L.A.; Willis, T.C.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    It is of great importance to improve critical current density, J[sub c] in A15 superconductors for high field magnet applications. Most current work to improve J[sub c] in A15 wires concentrates on increasing the overall J[sub c] by increasing the fraction of superconducting phase in the wire, by improving the uniformity of the superconductor cross section along the length of the wire and by adjusting the strainstate of the A15 layer. The goal of the A15 work in this group was to investigate the intrinsic J[sub c] of the A15 layer itself. To do this, a better understanding of factors controlling the intrinsic J[sub c]of the Nb[sub 3]Sn was pursued.

  8. High critical temperature nodal superconductors as building block for time-reversal invariant topological superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, F.; Campagnano, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lucignano, P.

    2016-10-01

    We study possible applications of high critical temperature nodal superconductors for the search for Majorana bound states in the DIII class. We propose a microscopic analysis of the proximity effect induced by d -wave superconductors on a semiconductor wire with strong spin-orbit coupling. We characterize the induced superconductivity on the wire employing a numerical self-consistent tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, and analytical considerations on the Green's function. The order parameter induced on the wire, the pair correlation function, and the renormalization of the Fermi points are analyzed in detail, as well as the topological phase diagram in the case of weak coupling. We highlight optimal Hamiltonian parameters to access the nontrivial topological phase which could display time-reversal invariant Majorana doublets at the boundaries of the wire.

  9. A New Multiaxial High-Cycle Fatigue Criterion Based on the Critical Plane for Ductile and Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Shang, De-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion based on the critical plane was proposed in this paper. The critical plane was defined as the plane of maximum shear stress (MSS) in the proposed multiaxial fatigue criterion, which is different from the traditional critical plane based on the MSS amplitude. The proposed criterion was extended as a fatigue life prediction model that can be applicable for ductile and brittle materials. The fatigue life prediction model based on the proposed high-cycle multiaxial fatigue criterion was validated with experimental results obtained from the test of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and some references.

  10. Boosted beta regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schmid

    Full Text Available Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1. Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures.

  11. High-speed gas chromatography in doping control: fast-GC and fast-GC/MS determination of beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Claudio; Bicchi, Carlo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2006-12-01

    In official doping controls, about 300 drugs and metabolites have to be screened for each sample. Moreover, the number of determinations to be routinely processed increases continuously as the number of both samples and potential illicit drugs keeps growing. As a consequence, increasingly specific, sensitive, and, above all, fast methods for doping controls are needed. The present study presents an efficient fast-GC/MS approach to the routine screening of two different classes of doping agents, namely beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics (belonging to the S3, P2, and S5 groups of the WADA list of prohibited substances). Narrow bore columns (100 mm id) of different lengths and coated with apolar stationary phases were successfully used to separate the derivatized analytes; preliminary experiments (results not shown) showed better performances with OV-1701 for the separation of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. On the same stationary phase some diuretics required too high a temperature or a long isothermal time for elution, in which case a DB1-MS column was preferred. Two methods of sample preparation, derivatization, and analysis were used on aqueous standard mixtures of, respectively, (i) eight beta-adrenoceptor ligands, including five beta-antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol) and three beta2-agonists (salbutamol, clenbuterol, terbutaline) and (ii) seventeen diuretic drugs (acetazolamide, althiazide, bendroflumethiazide, bumethanide, canrenone, chlorothiazide, chlortalidone, clopamide, ethacrinic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, indomethacine, spironolactone, triamterene, trichloromethiazide) and one masking agent (probenecid). The mixture of beta-adrenoceptor ligand derivatives was efficiently separated in about 5.6 min, while the one of 18 diuretics and masking agents required less than 5 min for analysis. Limits of detection were from 1 microg/L for pindolol, ethacrinic acid, furosemide

  12. High precision corrections to the neutron beta decay rate and electron asymmetry and current determination of V{sub ud}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Luna, J L [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino GarcIa Barragan 1508, CP 44840, Guadalajara Jal. (Mexico); GarcIa, A [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2006-03-01

    The goal of the present analysis is to find, in the free neutron beta decay, the expressions for the decay rate and the electron asymmetry that contain all the theoretical effects at the 10{sup -4} level. This accuracy is better than the current experimental precision that modern experiments allow. For this aim it is necessary to study the strong interaction effects, the radiative corrections and the recoil of the proton. A conceptual problem that we discuss in detail is the Fermi function additivity. The model dependence in the radiative corrections yields important effects which must be incorporated. We show that this is the only source of uncertainty that is out of control still at the mentioned order. As an application, we compare the values of the CKM matrix element |V{sub ud} | from this decay with the values both from the superallowed Fermi transition beta decays and the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We discuss the relevance of the observed discrepancies.

  13. High critical current density and enhanced irreversibility field in superconducting MgB2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, C B; Lee, M K; Choi, J H; Belenky, L J; Song, X; Cooley, L D; Naus, M T; Patnaik, S; Jiang, J; Rikel, M; Polyanskii, A; Gurevich, A; Cai, X Y; Bu, S D; Babcock, S E; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C; Rogado, N; Regan, K A; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Inumaru, K; Haas, M K; Cava, R J

    2001-05-31

    The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride offers the possibility of a new class of low-cost, high-performance superconducting materials for magnets and electronic applications. This compound has twice the transition temperature of Nb3Sn and four times that of Nb-Ti alloy, and the vital prerequisite of strongly linked current flow has already been demonstrated. One possible drawback, however, is that the magnetic field at which superconductivity is destroyed is modest. Furthermore, the field which limits the range of practical applications-the irreversibility field H*(T)-is approximately 7 T at liquid helium temperature (4.2 K), significantly lower than about 10 T for Nb-Ti (ref. 6) and approximately 20 T for Nb3Sn (ref. 7). Here we show that MgB2 thin films that are alloyed with oxygen can exhibit a much steeper temperature dependence of H*(T) than is observed in bulk materials, yielding an H* value at 4.2 K greater than 14 T. In addition, very high critical current densities at 4.2 K are achieved: 1 MA cm-2 at 1 T and 105 A cm-2 at 10 T. These results demonstrate that MgB2 has potential for high-field superconducting applications.

  14. Analysis of some metabolites of organic solvents in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, D H; Paik, N W; Shim, Y B

    1997-07-04

    Chromatographic separation of the metabolites derived from toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene and xylene was carried out on untreated urine samples from factory workers. The elution sequence was as follows: phenylglyoxilic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, hippuric acid, o-methylhippuric acid, p-methylhippuric acid, m-methylhippuric acid, p-cresol, m-cresol and o-cresol. The stability constants (K(G)) of cresol and methylhippuric acid derivatives were evaluated. The capacity factor (k'), selectivity factor (alpha) and resolution (Rs) are described with a variety of mobile phases containing beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD). The optimum concentration ratio of ethanol-water-acetic acid-beta-CD was determined to be 20:80:0.3:1.4%. Under these conditions, k' values of the five metabolites were 2

  15. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

  16. Experimental study of teaching critical thinking in civic education in Taiwanese junior high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Ching; Chung, Tung-Yu

    2009-03-01

    To effectively respond to the need for greater CT (critical thinking) in the classroom, this study examines the effects of cultivating CT skills within civic education to maximize its potential. Despite realizing the importance of CT in education, schools do not tend to apply it. Furthermore, since students frequently do not raise questions or otherwise think critically, CT modules are incorporated into civic learning to encourage students to question facts, interpret and analyse evidence, make reasoned inferences regarding events, and independently develop informed opinions. These skills are fundamental to cultivating an informed and humane citizenry. This investigation examines how teaching critical thinking in civic education affects the CT skills and disposition of junior high school students. The participants were two classes of eighth grade students in southern Taiwan, and were distributed into experimental and control groups. Each group comprised 34 students, with the experimental group containing 16 boys and 18 girls and the control group containing 18 boys and 16 girls. The teaching experiment in this study was initiated and performed using equivalent pre-test and post-test group design. During the 10-week experiment, the experimental group was taught using CT instruction in civic education, while the control group was not taught with any CT programme. The data analysis included: quantitative statistics of the two main sets of instruments for measuring the CT ability and disposition of experimental treatment, qualitative analysis of learning sheets, and surveys of student perceptions of instruction in CT. Statistical analysis showed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group on the scales of CT skill and disposition, but did not perform well on certain subscales (e.g. recognition of assumptions and deductions, truth-seeking, analyticity, and inquisitiveness). Notably however, when triangulating with qualitative analysis of

  17. Highly potent HIV inhibition: engineering a key anti-HIV structure from PSC-RANTES into MIP-1 beta/CCL4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Hubert; Lebeau, Olivier; Borlat, Irène; Cerini, Fabrice; Dufour, Brigitte; Kuenzi, Gabriel; Melotti, Astrid; Fish, Richard J; Offord, Robin; Springael, Jean-Yves; Parmentier, Marc; Hartley, Oliver

    2008-02-01

    The HIV coreceptor CCR5 is a validated target for both the prevention and therapy of HIV infection. PSC-RANTES, an N-terminally modified analogue of one of the natural chemokine ligands of CCR5 (RANTES/CCL5), is a potent inhibitor of HIV entry into target cells. Here, we set out to engineer the anti-HIV activity of PSC-RANTES into another natural CCR5 ligand (MIP-1beta/CCL4), by grafting into it the key N-terminal pharmacophore region from PSC-RANTES. We were able to identify MIP-1beta/CCL4 analogues that retain the receptor binding profile of MIP-1beta/CCL4, but acquire the very high anti-HIV potency and characteristic inhibitory mechanism of PSC-RANTES. Unexpectedly, we discovered that in addition to N-terminal structures from PSC-RANTES, the side chain of Lys33 is also necessary for full anti-HIV potency.

  18. Comparison between the magnetic and transport critical current densities in high critical current density melt-textured yttrium barium copper-oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Meng, R. L.; Xue, Y. Y.; Hor, P. H.; Chu, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    Using a recently developed pulsed critical current density (Jc) measuring system, the Jc of the high-Jc melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (Y123) bulk samples has been determined. I-V curves with a voltage resolution of 0.5 microV were obtained, and transport Jc's along the a-b plane as high as 7.2 x 10 to the 4th A/sq cm were extracted. These results are comparable to the values obtained magnetically. On the other hand, transport Jc along the c axis were found to be two orders of magnitude smaller, even though the magnetic Jc along the c axis is only about five times smaller than Jc along the a-b plane. It is suggested that for the high-temperature superconducting materials which are highly anisotropic, caution should be taken when using the nontransport magnetic methods to determine Jc.

  19. Critical state and vortex dynamics in high temperature superconductors: Experimental and numerical investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoelmesli, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this thesis, statics and dynamics of magnetic vortices in high temperature superconductors has been investigated by ac susceptibility, magnetic relaxation and transport measurements, using several different compounds. Measurements of the complex susceptibility of granular superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{sub -}x} (YBCO) reveal two distinct regimes of screening due to granular and intergranular currents respectively. In the critical state, the presence of a dc field breaks the symmetry of the experimental conditions if the critical current is field dependent. In such experiments two peaks in the loss component {chi}{sup ``}(B) of the complex susceptibility are found, both caused by intergranular currents. The symmetry breaking due to a dc field is seen directly in sampled waveforms of the pickup coil voltage, which represent the time derivative of the dynamic magnetization. In contrast to granular materials, a single crystal YBCO displays significant frequency dependence of the peak of the loss component {chi}{sup ``}(T). The power-law voltage current characteristic is equivalent to nonlinear vortex diffusion, with a characteristic length scale which reduces to the Bean depth and the classical skin-depth as the exponent tends to infinity and one, respectively. Magnetic relaxation measurements on the mercury based superconductor Hg-1212 has been done by means of a SQUID magnetometer. A new set-up for measurements of voltage-current characteristics of superconducting tapes and other samples has been constructed. Silver sheathed Bi-2223 tapes have been measured. 123 refs., 61 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  1. Microsatellite variability reveals high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in a critical giant panda population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiandong YANG; Zhihe ZHANG; Fujun SHEN; Xuyu YANG; Liang ZHANG; Limin CHEN; Wenping ZHANG; Qing ZHU; Rong HOU

    2011-01-01

    Understanding present patterns of genetic diversity is critical in order to design effective conservation and management strategies for endangered species.Tangjiahe Nature Reserve (NR) is one of the most important national reserves for giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China.Previous studies have shown that giant pandas in Tangjiahe NR may be threatened by population decline and fragmentation.Here we used 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the genetic variability in the Tangjiahe population.The results indicate a low level of genetic differentiation between the Hongshihe and Motianling subpopulations in the reserve.Assignment tests using the Bayesian clustering method in STRUCTURE identified one genetic cluster from 42 individuals of the two subpopulations.All individuals from the same subpopulation were assigned to one cluster.This indicates high gene flow between subpopulations.F statistic analyses revealed a low Fls-value of 0.024 in the total population and implies a randomly mating population in Tangjiahe NR.Additionally,our data show a high level of genetic diversity for the Tangjiahe population.Mean allele number (A),Allelic richness (AR) and mean expected heterozygosity (HE) for the Tangiiahe population was 5.9,5.173 and 0.703,respectively.This wild giant panda population can be restored through concerted effort [Current Zoology 57 (6):717-724,2011].

  2. Microsatellite variability reveals high genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation in a critical giant panda population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong YANG, Zhihe ZHANG, Fujun SHEN, Xuyu YANG, Liang ZHANG, Limin CHEN, Wenping ZHANG, Qing ZHU, Rong HOU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding present patterns of genetic diversity is critical in order to design effective conservation and management strategies for endangered species. Tangjiahe Nature Reserve (NR is one of the most important national reserves for giant pandas Ailuropoda melanoleuca in China. Previous studies have shown that giant pandas in Tangjiahe NR may be threatened by population decline and fragmentation. Here we used 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess the genetic variability in the Tangjiahe population. The results indicate a low level of genetic differentiation between the Hongshihe and Motianling subpopulations in the reserve. Assignment tests using the Bayesian clustering method in STRUCTURE identified one genetic cluster from 42 individuals of the two subpopulations. All individuals from the same subpopulation were assigned to one cluster. This indicates high gene flow between subpopulations. F statistic analyses revealed a low FIS-value of 0.024 in the total population and implies a randomly mating population in Tangjiahe NR. Additionally, our data show a high level of genetic diversity for the Tangjiahe population. Mean allele number (A, Allelic richness (AR and mean expected heterozygosity (HE for the Tangjiahe population was 5.9, 5.173 and 0.703, respectively. This wild giant panda population can be restored through concerted effort [Current Zoology 57 (6: 717–724, 2011].

  3. Magnetic hysteresis of the zero-resistance critical temperature of high-T{sub c} granular superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, L.; Altshuler, E.; Garcia, S. [Univ. of Havana (Cuba)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The authors have found a notorious hysteretic behavior in the dependence of the zero-resistance critical temperature obtained through resistivity ({rho}) versus temperature (T) measurements with applied field (H{sub c}) in High-T{sub c} granular superconductors. This behavior is explained semi-quantitatively based on the analogy between the present observation and a similar hysteresis found in the field dependence of the transport critical current in these materials.

  4. Phase transformations in the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy after quenching from the high temperature triclinic beta phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Jimenez, A., E-mail: asandovalj@correo.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dpto. de Aceleradores, Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Mexico, C.P. 52750, ESIME, Unidad Culhuacan, Dpto. Ing. Mecanica, IPN (Mexico); Negrete, J. [Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico); Torres-Villasenor, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ribbons of the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy obtained by melt-spinning, were heat treated at 350 deg. C during 30 min in a free atmosphere furnace, and then quenched in liquid nitrogen. The temperature correspond to {beta} phase zone, which has a triclinic crystalline structure [1, 2]. Some evidence, obtained by X-ray diffraction, show that the structures present in the just quenched material are both close-packed hexagonal ({eta}-phase) and rhombohedral (R-phase). X-ray diffractograms taken in the same ribbons after annealed 500 h at room temperature, show that the R phase its transform to {alpha} and {eta} phases.

  5. Phantom bursting is highly sensitive to noise and unlikely to account for slow bursting in beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells show bursting electrical activity with a wide range of burst periods ranging from a few seconds, often seen in isolated cells, over tens of seconds (medium bursting), usually observed in intact islets, to several minutes. The phantom burster model [Bertram, R., Previte, J...... and lowers the burst period dramatically in phantom bursters. It is therefore unlikely that slow bursting in single cells is driven by the slow phantom bursting mechanism, but could instead be driven by oscillations in glycolysis, which we show are stable to random ion channel fluctuations. Moreover, so...

  6. Conceptualizing Criticality as a Guiding Principle for High Quality Academic Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela Lewellyn; Kiser, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent service-learning literature proposed a dichotomous framework for understanding service learning as either traditional service learning or critical service learning. Within this proposal, critical service learning is differentiated from traditional service learning as emphasizing social change, working to redistribute power, and seeking to…

  7. Ideologies of English in a Chinese High School EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…

  8. Improving Junior High Schools' Critical Thinking Skills Based on Test Three Different Models of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuad, Nur Miftahul; Zubaidah, Siti; Mahanal, Susriyati; Suarsini, Endang

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2) to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female…

  9. Ideologies of English in a Chinese High School EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…

  10. High critical current densities in bulk MgB{sub 2} fabricated using amorphous boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, Miryala; Kenta, Nozaki; Murakami, Masato [Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Koblischka, Michael R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, P.O. Box 151150, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We prepared bulk MgB{sub 2} from high-purity commercial powders of Mg metal (99.9% purity) and amorphous B (99% purity) powders using a single-step solid state reaction at 775 C for varying sintering duration from 1 to 10 h in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the samples were single phase MgB{sub 2}. The magnetization measurements confirmed a sharp superconducting transition with T{sub c,onset} at around 38.2-38.8 K. The critical current density (J{sub c}) values for the MgB{sub 2} samples produced at 1 h sintering time is the highest one in all processed materials here. Scanning electron microscopy analyses indicated that the sintering time has a crucial influence on the grain size. As a result, the highest J{sub c} value of 270 kA cm{sup -2} at 20 K and self-field was achieved in the sample produced at 775 C for 1 h. Our results clearly demonstrate that the optimization of the sintering conditions is essential to improve the bulk MgB{sub 2} performance. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy and they are as saturated with politics as a presidential election, but they sure are fun.

  12. High pressure effects revisited for the cuprate superconductor family with highest critical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayako; Takeshita, Nao; Terakura, Chieko; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    How to enhance the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) has been a primary issue since the discovery of superconductivity. The highest Tc reported so far is 166 K in HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg1223) at high pressure of 23 GPa, as determined with the reduction onset, but not zero, of resistivity. To clarify the possible condition of the real maximum Tc, it is worth revisiting the effects of pressure on Tc in the highest Tc family. Here we report a systematic study of the pressure dependence of Tc in HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ (Hg1212) and Hg1223 with the doping level from underdoped to overdoped. The Tc with zero resistivity is probed with a cubic-anvil-type apparatus that can produce hydrostatic pressures. Variation, not only increase but also decrease, of Tc in Hg1212 and Hg1223 with pressure strongly depends on the initial doping levels. In particular, we confirm a maximum Tc of 153 K at 22 GPa in slightly underdoped Hg1223.

  13. Global existence for semilinear wave equations with the critical blow-up term in high dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Hiroyuki; Wakasa, Kyouhei

    2016-07-01

    We are interested in almost global existence cases in the general theory for nonlinear wave equations, which are caused by critical exponents of nonlinear terms. Such situations can be found in only three cases in the theory, cubic terms in two space dimensions, quadratic terms in three space dimensions and quadratic terms including a square of unknown functions itself in four space dimensions. Except for the last case, criteria to classify nonlinear terms into the almost global, or global existence case, are well-studied and known to be so-called null condition and non-positive condition. Our motivation of this work is to find such a kind of the criterion in four space dimensions. In our previous paper, an example of the non-single term for the almost global existence case is introduced. In this paper, we show an example of the global existence case. These two examples have nonlinear integral terms which are closely related to derivative loss due to high dimensions. But it may help us to describe the final form of the criterion.

  14. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy, but they sure are fun.

  15. Using high-throughput transcriptomic data for prognosis: a critical overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domany, Eytan

    2014-09-01

    Accurate prognosis and prediction of response to therapy are essential for personalized treatment of cancer. Even though many prognostic gene lists and predictors have been proposed, especially for breast cancer, high-throughput "omic" methods have so far not revolutionized clinical practice, and their clinical utility has not been satisfactorily established. Different prognostic gene lists have very few shared genes, the biological meaning of most signatures is unclear, and the published success rates are considered to be overoptimistic. This review examines critically the manner in which prognostic classifiers are derived using machine-learning methods and suggests reasons for the shortcomings and problems listed above. Two approaches that may hold hope for obtaining improved prognosis are presented. Both are based on using existing prior knowledge; one proposes combining molecular "omic" predictors with established clinical ones, and the second infers biologically relevant pathway deregulation scores for each tumor from expression data, and uses this representation to study and stratify individual tumors. Approaches such as the second one are referred to in the physics literature as "phenomenology"; they will, hopefully, play a significant role in future studies of cancer. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research."

  16. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  17. Nanocrystalline {beta}-sialon by reactive sintering of a SiO{sub 2}-AlN mixture subjected to high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, P. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: pascal.tessier@airliquide.com; Alamdari, H.D. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: alamdari.houshang@nanoxnps.com; Dubuc, R. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada); Boily, S. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)

    2005-04-05

    A mixture of powders of silica and aluminum nitride is subjected to high-energy ball milling for different milling times. This material is subsequently compacted by uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1450 deg. C. The resulting pellets are crushed and analysed by X-ray diffraction. For short milling times, the amount of phase transformation is minimal and the resulting material mostly consists of cristobalite and aluminum nitride. For long milling times, nanocrystalline {beta}-SiAl{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} is mainly produced.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta and Tau Concentrations Are Not Modulated by 16 Weeks of Moderate- to High-Intensity Physical Exercise in Patients with Alzheimer Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Portelius, Erik; Siersma, Volkert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercise may have some effect on cognition in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the underlying biochemical effects are unclear. Animal studies have shown that amyloid beta (Aβ), one of the pathological hallmarks of AD, can be altered with high levels of physical...... of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Effect of Physical Exercise (ADEX) study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid samples for Aβ species, total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) species. We also assessed the patients...

  19. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beta-2-mikroglobulin ved medicinske sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    -beta 2M. beta 2M is a sensitive but non-specific parameter in inflammation and infection. Determination of beta 2M in saliva has been found to be of value in Sjögren's syndrome. In HIV-positive patients, a high serum-beta 2M level is a poor prognostic sign. Determinations of CSF-beta 2M in AIDS patients......-interstitial nephropathy, increased quantities of beta 2M are excreted in the urine. If the rate of glomerular filtration is reduced, serum-beta 2M is increased and this is also the case in persons with increased cell division despite normal renal function. Serum-beta 2M is, therefore, raised in numerous malignant...... must be presumed to be of value not only in the diagnosis of cerebral AIDS and other (latent) CNS infections but also to demonstrate complicating cerebral malignant lymphomata at an early stage....

  1. An improved chemo-enzymatic synthesis of 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides: highly chemoselective enzymatic removal of protecting groups from corresponding methyl acetyl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Akiko; Yoshioka, Tadao

    2007-12-07

    An improved and widely applicable chemo-enzymatic method for the synthesis of a series of 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides 5a-f has been developed from the corresponding methyl acetyl derivatives 3a-f, which were stereospecifically synthesized from cesium salts of carboxylic acids 1a-f and methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranuronate (2). Chemoselectivity of lipase AS Amano (LAS) in the hydrolytic removal of O-acetyl groups of 3a-f to provide methyl esters 4a-f was influenced by the nature of their 1-beta-O-acyl groups; high selectivity was evident only for 3b and 3f. Carboxylesterase from Streptomyces rochei (CSR), newly screened as an alternative to LAS, showed much greater chemoselectivity toward the O-acetyl groups than LAS; 3a, 3d, and 3e were chemoselectively hydrolyzed only by CSR. The combination of CSR with LAS yielded better results in the hydrolysis of 3c and 3f than did single usage of CSR. Final deprotection of the methyl ester groups of 4a-f to provide 5a-f was chemoselectively achieved by using lipase from Candida antarctica type B (CAL-B) as well as esterase from porcine liver (PLE), although CAL-B possessed higher chemoselectivity and catalytic efficiency than did PLE. CSR also exhibited high chemoselectivity in the synthesis of (S)-naproxen 1-beta-O-acyl glucopyranoside (7) from its 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl derivative 6.

  2. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.

  3. Limiting the spread of highly resistant hospital-acquired microorganisms via critical care transfers: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkada, Umanka H; Adamic, Lada A; Kahn, Jeremy M; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2011-10-01

    Hospital-acquired infections with highly resistant organisms are an important problem among critically ill patients. Control of these organisms has largely focused within individual hospitals. We examine the extent to which transfers of critically ill patients could be a vector for the wide spread of highly resistant organisms, and compare the efficiency of different approaches to targeting infection control resources. We analyzed the network of interhospital transfers of intensive care unit patients in 2005 US Medicare data and 2004-2006 Pennsylvania all-payer data. We simulated the spread of highly resistant hospital-acquired infections by randomly choosing a single hospital to develop a highly resistant organism and following the spread of infection or colonization throughout the network under varying strategies of infection control and varying levels of infectivity. Critical care transfers could spread a highly resistant organism between any two US hospitals in a median of 3 years. Hospitals varied substantially in their importance to limiting potential spread. Targeting resources to a small subset of hospitals on the basis of their position in the transfer network was 16 times more efficient than distributing infection control resources uniformly. Within any set of targeted hospitals, the best strategy for infection control heavily concentrated resources at a few particularly important hospitals, regardless of level of infectivity. Critical care transfers provide a plausible vector for widespread dissemination of highly resistant hospital-acquired microorganisms. Infection control efforts can be made more efficient by selectively targeting hospitals most important for transmission.

  4. Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Graça; Oliveira, Luísa; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Nunes, Baltazar; Versloot, Pieter; Hulshof, Paul J M

    2010-05-21

    Three sets of extraction/saponification/HPLC conditions for food carotenoid quantification were technically and economically compared. Samples were analysed for carotenoids alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. All methods demonstrated good performance in the analysis of a composite food standard reference material for the analytes they are applicable to. Methods using two serial connected C(18) columns and a mobile phase based on acetonitrile, achieved a better carotenoid separation than the method using a mobile phase based on methanol and one C(18)-column. Carotenoids from leafy green vegetable matrices appeared to be better extracted with a mixture of methanol and tetrahydrofuran than with tetrahydrofuran alone. Costs of carotenoid determination in foods were lower for the method with mobile phase based on methanol. However for some food matrices and in the case of E-Z isomer separations, this was not technically satisfactory. Food extraction with methanol and tetrahydrofuran with direct evaporation of these solvents, and saponification (when needed) using pyrogallol as antioxidant, combined with a HPLC system using a slight gradient mobile phase based on acetonitrile and a stationary phase composed by two serial connected C(18) columns was the most technically and economically favourable method.

  5. Semi-preparative separation of {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin by high performance liquid chromatographic; Separacao semipreparativa de {alpha} e {beta}-amirina por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Pinto, Angelo C., E-mail: hamerski_1@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The resin obtained from species of the genus Protium (Burseraceae) is formed mostly of pentacyclic triterpenes: {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin. The separation and purification of these triterpenes were optimized in three steps. (author)

  6. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the deleterious effects of palmitate and high glucose on human pancreatic beta-cell turnover and function

    OpenAIRE

    Maedler, Kathrin; Oberholzer, José; Bucher, Pascal Alain Robert; Spinas, Giatgen A.; Donath, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to the impaired beta-cell function observed in type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the effect of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids at different glucose concentrations on human beta-cell turnover and secretory function. Exposure of cultured human islets to saturated fatty acid and/or to an elevated glucose concentration for 4 days increased beta-cell DNA fragmentation and decreased beta-cell proliferation. In contrast, the monounsaturated palmitol...

  7. PIC Simulations of Continuously Driven Mirror and Ion Cyclotron Instabilities in High Beta Astrophysical and Heliospheric Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme, Mario; Verscharen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of ion velocity space instabilities in an idealized problem in which a background velocity shear continuously amplifies the magnetic field. We simulate the astrophysically relevant regime where the shear timescale is long compared to the ion cyclotron period, and the plasma beta is ~ 1-100. The background field amplification in our calculation is meant to mimic processes such as turbulent fluctuations or MHD-scale instabilities. The field amplification continuously drives a pressure anisotropy with the perpendicular pressure larger than the parallel pressure, and the plasma becomes unstable to the mirror and ion cyclotron instabilities. In all cases, the nonlinear state is dominated by the mirror instability, not the ion cyclotron instability, and the plasma pressure anisotropy saturates near the threshold for the linear mirror instability. The magnetic field fluctuations initially undergo exponential growth but saturate in a secular p...

  8. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires with high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, G [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Fang, H [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Hanna, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4006 (United States); Yen, F [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4006 (United States); Lv, B [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States); Alessandrini, M [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4006 (United States); Keith, S [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Hoyt, C [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Tang, Z [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5003 (United States); Salama, K [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4006 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB{sub 2} wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J{sub c}, measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10{sup 5}, 3.6 x 10{sup 4}, and 1.4 x 10{sup 4} A cm{sup -2}, respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J{sub c} is about 2.4 x 10{sup 5} A cm{sup -2}. These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J{sub c} for Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires. At high fields, however, the J{sub c} for Ti-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB{sub 2} wires.

  9. Electron capture and beta-decay rates for sd-shell nuclei in stellar environments relevant to high density O-Ne-Mg cores

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Toshio; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture and beta-decay rates for nuclear pairs in sd-shell are evaluated at high densities and high temperatures relevant to the final evolution of electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with the initial masses of 8-10 solar mass. Electron capture induces a rapid contraction of the electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg core. The outcome of rapid contraction depends on the evolutionary changes in the central density and temperature, which are determined by the competing processes of contraction, cooling, and heating. The fate of the stars are determined by these competitions, whether they end up with electron-capture supernovae or Fe core-collapse supernovae. Since the competing processes are induced by electron capture and beta-decay, the accurate weak rates are crucially important. The rates are obtained for pairs with A=20, 23, 24, 25 and 27 by shell-model calculations in sd-shell with the USDB Hamiltonian. Effects of Coulomb corrections on the rates are evaluated. The rates for pairs with A=23 and 25 ar...

  10. Effect of Sertraline on Current-Source Distribution of the High Beta Frequency Band: Analysis of Electroencephalography under Audiovisual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy, Right-Handed Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Hyun, Jae Seog; Kwon, Oh-Young

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cerebral changes in high beta frequency oscillations (22-30 Hz) induced by sertraline and by audiovisual erotic stimuli in healthy adult males. Scalp electroencephalographies (EEGs) were conducted twice in 11 healthy, right-handed males, once before sertraline intake and again 4 hours thereafter. The EEGs included four sessions recorded sequentially while the subjects were resting, watching a music video, resting, and watching an erotic video for 3 minutes, 5 minutes, 3 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively. We performed frequency-domain analysis using the EEGs with a distributed model of current-source analysis. The statistical nonparametric maps were obtained from the sessions of watching erotic and music videos (perotic stimuli decreased the current-source density of the high beta frequency band in the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in the baseline EEGs taken before sertraline intake (perotic stimuli did not induce any changes in current-source distribution of the brain 4 hours after sertraline intake. It is speculated that erotic stimuli may decrease the function of the middle frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the supramarginal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere in healthy adult males. This change may debase the inhibitory control of the brain against erotic stimuli. Sertraline may reduce the decrement in inhibitory control.

  11. Developmental changes in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and pigments in fruit exocarp of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes: beta-carotene, high pigment-1, ripening inhibitor, and 'Rutgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C A; Andrews, P K

    2006-01-01

    In surface cell layers of fleshy fruit, antioxidants must limit photooxidative reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high light. Our objective was to measure changes in the concentrations of antioxidant metabolites and pigments, and the activities of enzymes of the Mehler-peroxidase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle in fruit exocarp tissue under non-stress conditions of the following fruit-specific tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.=Solanum lycopersicum) mutants and their parent: (1) beta-carotene (B), (2) high pigment (hp-1), (3) ripening inhibitor (rin), and (4) the nearly isogenic wild-type 'Rutgers'. Developmental variables included days after anthesis (DAA) and fruit surface color. The highest total ascorbic acid (AsA) concentration was in the exocarp of immature green fruit of hp-1, being 32% higher than 'Rutgers'. The hp-1 mutant also had the highest chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations, comprised mostly of lycopene in red ripe fruit; whereas, beta-carotene comprised 90% of the carotenoids in B. Although enzyme activities varied within genotype, they generally increased with development, then decreased as fruit maturity was reached, being coupled with AsA and glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In all mutants, dark-green (DG) exocarp had more chlorophyll and protein, higher concentrations of reduced AsA and GSH, and usually lower enzyme activities than light-green (LG) exocarp taken from the same fruit.

  12. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Beta Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Beta talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  13. Improved preservation of residual beta cell function by atorvastatin in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and high CRP levels (DIATOR trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of atorvastatin treatment on the progression of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes suggested a slower decline of residual beta cell function with statin treatment. Aim of this secondary analysis was to identify patient subgroups which differ in the decline of beta cell function during treatment with atorvastatin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The randomized placebo-controlled Diabetes and Atorvastatin (DIATOR Trial included 89 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and detectable islet autoantibodies (mean age 30 years, 40% females, in 12 centers in Germany. Patients received placebo or 80 mg/d atorvastatin for 18 months. As primary outcome stimulated serum C-peptide levels were determined 90 min after a standardized liquid mixed meal. For this secondary analysis patients were stratified by single baseline characteristics which were considered to possibly be modified by atorvastatin treatment. Subgroups defined by age, sex or by baseline metabolic parameters like body mass index (BMI, total serum cholesterol or fasting C-peptide did not differ in C-peptide outcome after atorvastatin treatment. However, the subgroup defined by high (above median baseline C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations exhibited higher stimulated C-peptide secretion after statin treatment (p = 0.044. Individual baseline CRP levels correlated with C-peptide outcome in the statin group (r(2 = 0.3079, p<0.004. The subgroup with baseline CRP concentrations above median differed from the corresponding subgroup with lower CRP levels by higher median values of BMI, IL-6, IL-1RA, sICAM-1 and E-selectin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Atorvastatin treatment may be effective in slowing the decline of beta cell function in a patient subgroup defined by above median levels of CRP and other inflammation associated immune mediators. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00974740.

  14. Critical Loads of Heavy Metals in a Highly Polluted Catchment Area in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A. Melegy; T. Paces

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals in different environmental compartments can be hazardous to ecosystems. Budgets of Cd, Pb and Zn in small ecosystems of the Shubra El-Kheima area in Egypt are presented. The budgets are not in steady state because they change with time. So the concentrations of the metals are a function of time. The critical loads of heavy metals to soils can be calculated from an inventory of inputs and outputs of the trace components in the catchment area. Critical time is an important parameter for critical load evaluation because it can indicate which of the heavy metals may be the most acute threat to the soils. Egyptian soil in the Shubra El-Kheima area seems to be in danger of heavy metal pollution by Zn, Cd and Pb. The calculated critical loads and their exceedances are approximate indicators of the hazards in the soil system. The critical time is a warning signal to initiate an environmental evaluation of possible pollution hazards.

  15. Aumento en la prevalencia de estreptococos beta hemolíticos en hisopados faríngeos en Buenos Aires High prevalence of beta hemolytic streptococci isolated from throat swabs in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Villar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El estreptococo beta hemolítico grupo A (EBHGA es el agente bacteriano más frecuentemente aislado en casos de faringoamigdalitis. Otros estreptococos beta hemolíticos no A también pueden producir esta enfermedad. Ante el elevado número de aislamientos obtenidos en el año 2004 decidimos realizar un estudio con el objeto de evaluar la prevalencia de estos microorganismos durante un período de 5 años. Se incluyeron todos los cultivos de hisopados faríngeos que se realizaron con idéntica metodología. Se consideró niños a los comprendidos entre 6 meses y 18 años de edad, y adultos a los mayores de 18 años. Los aislamientos fueron identificados según la metodología habitual. La determinación de grupo se realizó mediante la aglutinación con partículas de látex. La recuperación de EBHGA fue significativamente mayor en niños en relación a los adultos. En el año 2004 se obtuvo una recuperación significativamente mayor de EBHGA, EBHGC y EBHGG en niños y de EBHGA y EBHGG en adultos respecto de los años anteriores. El aislamiento de EBHGG fue mayor en adultos. El 18.9% y el 5.8% de los estreptococos beta hemolíticos aislados en niños y adultos respectivamente no pertenecieron al grupo A. El incremento en la prevalencia de estreptococos beta hemolíticos refuerza la buena práctica de realizar cultivos en adultos y niños así como la correcta búsqueda en el laboratorio de bacteriología de los estreptococos beta hemolíticos no pertenecientes al grupo A.Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from

  16. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  17. Intelligence and High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA’s): A Critical Evaluation of the HIDTA Investigative Support Center (ISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate critically the ongoing reform of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Investigative Support...or Fusion Center for information sharing between agencies investigating crimes relating to drug trafficking , terrorism, and money laundering.

  18. A Critical Analysis of the Common Elements of a High School Social Justice Curriculum: Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this article is high school social justice curriculum [SJC]. Three socially-just focused studies were critically analyzed. Sample sizes in these studies varied from n = 12 to n = 55. It is the author's belief, based on the research of others (Kerssen-Griep & Eifler, 2008) that an effective SJC should consist of the following elements:…

  19. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  20. Supporting Critical Literacy in High School English by Using Systemic Functional Linguistics to Analyze Fantasy, Canonical, and Nonfiction Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    While important work has been done on assessing classroom texts and investigating classroom discourse, there is little research on teachers doing systemic functional linguistics (SFL) with students for critical ends, especially in the high school arena. This article discusses how instructional use of SFL analytic resources in subject English…

  1. Students' Critical Mathematical Thinking Skills and Character: Experiments for Junior High School Students through Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinussa, Anderson L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students' critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME) culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in…

  2. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  3. Teaching of Critical Thinking Skills in the English Content Area in South Dakota Public High Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Becky A.

    2009-01-01

    Quality education is imperative in preparing students in the United States to succeed in a competitive and ever-changing global society. Critical thinking, an essential component of a quality educational program, has been identified as a key 21st Century skill. However, research indicates a gap in educational preparedness between high school and…

  4. Defining Advancement Career Paths and Succession Plans: Critical Human Capital Retention Strategies for High-Performing Advancement Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Jon Derek; Wolk, Holly Gordon

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence whether a highly talented staff member will build a career within an institution or use it as a stepping stone. This article defines and explores the notions of developing career paths and succession planning and why they are critical human capital investment strategies in retaining the highest performers…

  5. beta(2)-Glycoprotein I : evolution, structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P. G.; Meijers, J. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    beta(2)-Glycoprotein I (beta(2)-GPI) is a protein that circulates in blood at high concentrations. The function of beta(2)-GPI has long been an enigma. More than 20 years ago, it was discovered that beta(2)-GPI is the major antigen for the circulating antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome. How

  6. [High flow nasal cannula in infants: Experience in a critical patient unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner A, Adriana; Cespedes F, Pamela; Godoy M, María Loreto; Erices B, Pedro; Urrutia C, Luis; Venthur U, Carina; Labbé C, Marcela; Riquelme M, Hugo; Sanchez J, Cecilia; Vera V, Waldo; Wood V, David; Contreras C, Juan Carlos; Urrutia S, Efren

    2015-01-01

    The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a method of respiratory support that is increasingly being used in paediatrics due to its results and safety. To determine the efficacy of HFNC, as well as to evaluate the factors related to its failure and complications associated with its use in infants. An analysis was performed on the demographic, clinical, blood gas, and radiological data, as well as the complications of patients connected to a HFNC in a critical care unit between June 2012 and September 2014. A comparison was made between the patients who failed and those who responded to HFNC. A failure was considered as the need for further respiratory support during the first 48hours of connection. The Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, chi squared and the Exact Fisher test were used, as well as correlations and a binary logistic regression model for P≤.05. The study included 109 patients, with a median age and weight: 1 month (0.2-20 months) and 3.7kg (2-10kg); 95 percentile: 3.7 months and 5.7kg, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis and radiological pattern was bronchiolitis (53.2%) and interstitial infiltration (56%). Around 70.6% responded. There was a significant difference between failure and response in the diagnosis (P=.013), radiography (P=018), connection context (P<.0001), pCO2 (median 40.7mmHg [15.4-67 mmHg] versus 47.3mmHg [28.6-71.3mmHg], P=.004) and hours on HFNC (median 60.75hrs [5-621.5 hrs] versus 10.5hrs [1-29 hrs], P<.0001). The OR of the PCO2 ≥ 55mmHg for failure was 2.97 (95% CI; 1.08-8.17; P=.035). No patient died and no complications were recorded. The percentage success observed was similar to that published. In this sample, the failure of HFNC was only associated with an initial pCO2 ≥ 55mmHg. On there being no complications reported as regards it use, it is considered safe, although a randomised, controlled, multicentre study is required to compare and contrast these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatr

  7. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  8. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead, the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  9. Plasma beta dependence of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence: high-resolution 2D hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We investigate properties of the ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence by means of two-dimensional high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box and add a spectrum of in-plane, large-scale, magnetic and kinetic fluctuations. We perform a set of simulations with different values of the plasma beta, distributed over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10. In all the cases, once turbulence is fully developed, we observe a power-law spectrum of the fluctuating magnetic field on large scales (in the inertial range) with a spectral index close to -5/3, while in the sub-ion range we observe another power-law spectrum with a spectral index systematically varying with $\\beta$ (from around -3.6 for small values to around -2.9 for large ones). The two ranges are separated by a spectral break around ion scales. The length scale at which this transition occurs is found to be proportional to the ion inertial length, $d_i$...

  10. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. VI. Velocity-resolved Reverberation Mapping of H$\\beta$ Line

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Huang, Ying-Ke; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    In the sixth of the series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with high accretion rates, we present velocity-resolved time lags of H$\\beta$ emission lines for nine objects observed in the campaign during 2012$-$2013. In order to correct the line-broadening caused by seeing and instruments before the analysis of velocity-resolved RM, we adopt Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to reconstruct their H$\\beta$ profiles. The validity and effectiveness of the deconvolution are checked out by Monte Carlo simulation. Five among the nine objects show clear dependence of time delay on velocity. Mrk 335 and Mrk 486 show signatures of gas inflow whereas the clouds in the broad-line regions (BLRs) of Mrk 142 and MCG +06-26-012 tend to be radial outflowing. Mrk 1044 is consistent with the case of virialized motions. The lags of the rest four are not velocity-resolvable. The velocity-resolved RM of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) shows that t...

  11. Moderate Exercise Restores Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Obese Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mello Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Metabolic syndrome has been identified as one of the most significant threats to human health in the 21st century. Exercise training has been shown to counteract obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate exercise training on pancreatic beta-cell function and autonomic nervous system (ANS activity in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Weaning rats were divided into four groups: rats fed a standard chow or HFD (sedentary, Control-SED and HFD-SED; or exercised, Control-EXE and HFD-EXE, respectively. Exercised rats ran (from 21- to 91-days-old for 60 minutes (3 times/week over a 10-week period. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. Pancreatic islets were isolated to study glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve electrical signals were measured, and liver samples were processed and histologically analyzed. Results: Exercise prevented obesity, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis as well as improved total cholesterol, ALT, and AST levels. Islets from HFD rats showed insulin hypersecretion which was ameliorated by exercise. Exercise decreased vagal nerve activity in the HFD-EXE group and increased the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in both exercised groups. Conclusion: Exercise prevents obesity and liver steatosis and restores pancreatic beta-cell function and ANS activity in HFD-obese rats.

  12. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  13. Feasibility of Using High-Performance Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete for Simplifying Reinforcement Details of Critical Members

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Joon Jang; Dae-Hyun Kang; Kyung-Lim Ahn; Wan-Shin Park; Sun-Woong Kim; Hyun-Do Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of hooked-end steel fibre contents on the mechanical properties of high-performance concrete (HPC) and investigates the feasibility of utilizing steel fibres to simplify the complicated reinforcement detailing of critical HPC members under high shear stress. Mechanical properties of HPCs with specified compressive strength of 60 and 100 MPa include the flow, air content, compressive strength, and flexural strength. The effectiveness of 1.50% steel fibre conten...

  14. The Effects of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) Towards Critical Thinking Skills of Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukaesih, S.; Sutrisno

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the application of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning to the students’ critical thinking skills in the matter of categorisaed in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan. This study was quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent control group design. The population in this study was entire class X. The samples that were taken by convenience sampling were class X MIA 1 and X MIA 2. Primary data in the study was the student’s critical thinking skills, which was supported by student activity, the level of adherence to the CUPs learning model, student opinion and teacher opinion. N-gain test results showed that the students’ critical thinking skills of experimental class increased by 89.32%, while the control group increased by 57.14%. Activity grade of experimental class with an average value of 72.37 was better than that of the control class with an average of only 22.69 student and teacher opinions to the learning were excellegoodnt. Based on this study concluded that the model of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) had an effect on the student’s critical thinking skills in the matter of protest in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan.

  15. Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions around Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum…

  16. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  17. "We're 'Already' Somebody": High School Students Practicing Critical Media Literacy IRL (in Real Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen; Salazar, Isabelle; Pruitt, Rowan; Wallach, Daniel; Breed, Ellie; Saldana, Sean; Szachacz, Ana

    2017-01-01

    As new media and multiliteracies become an expanding space for reading and writing both in and out of schools, it seems fitting to document events where students are engaged in authentic literacy events. This article tells the story of what happened when a group of news writers chose to publish an editorial in their news magazine critical of an…

  18. Critical properties of the Anderson localization transition and the high-dimensional limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, E.; Biroli, G.; Tarzia, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a thorough study of transport, spectral, and wave-function properties at the Anderson localization critical point in spatial dimensions d =3 , 4, 5, 6. Our aim is to analyze the dimensional dependence and to assess the role of the d →∞ limit provided by Bethe lattices and treelike structures. Our results strongly suggest that the upper critical dimension of Anderson localization is infinite. Furthermore, we find that dU=∞ is a much better starting point compared to dL=2 to describe even three-dimensional systems. We find that critical properties and finite-size scaling behavior approach by increasing d those found for Bethe lattices: the critical state becomes an insulator characterized by Poisson statistics and corrections to the thermodynamics limit become logarithmic in the number N of lattice sites. In the conclusion, we present physical consequences of our results, propose connections with the nonergodic delocalized phase suggested for the Anderson model on infinite-dimensional lattices, and discuss perspectives for future research studies.

  19. Low-Achieving Readers, High Expectations: Image Theatre Encourages Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozansky, Carol Lloyd; Aagesen, Colleen

    2010-01-01

    Students in an eighth-grade, urban, low-achieving reading class were introduced to critical literacy through engagement in Image Theatre. Developed by liberatory dramatist Augusto Boal, Image Theatre gives participants the opportunity to examine texts in the triple role of interpreter, artist, and sculptor (i.e., image creator). The researchers…

  20. Critical Social Skills for Adolescents with High Incidence Disabilities: Parental Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Sharon M.; Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    In this study, 11 parents shared their beliefs that emotional intelligence and character play critical roles in the social and emotional development of their children with disabilities. Although the parents agree academic performance is important, they also want their children to develop moral and interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. (Contains…

  1. Short communication: the beta-casein (CSN2) silent allele C1 is highly spread in goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Küpper, J; Pagnacco, G; Erhardt, G; Caroli, A

    2008-11-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the goat milk casein genes, most of them modifying the amino acid sequence of the coded protein. At least 9 variants have been found in goat beta-CN (CSN2); 6 of them were characterized at the DNA level (A, A1, C, E, 0, and 0'), whereas the other 3 variants were described only at the protein level. The recently identified silent A1 allele is characterized by a C-->T transition at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon. In the present work, typing results from different breeds (3 Italian, 3 German, and a composite of African breeds for a total of 335 samples) demonstrated that the same mutation is carried by the CSN2*C allele. In addition, the T nucleotide at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon was always associated with CSN2*C in all the breeds analyzed. Thus, another silent allele occurs at goat CSN2 and can be named CSN2*C1. The much wider distribution of C1 with respect to the A1 allele indicates that the single nucleotide polymorphisms characterizing the silent mutation originated from CSN2*C. A method for the identification of this allele simultaneously with 5 of the 6 DNA-characterized alleles is also proposed. The mutation involved codifies for the same protein of the C allele; nevertheless, its location in the 3' untranslated region of the gene might affect the specific casein expression.

  2. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed {beta}-decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ames, F.; Engels, O. [Sektion Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Audi, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824-1321 (United States); Moore, R.B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 2T8 (Canada); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 9, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Mass measurements of {sup 34}Ar, {sup 73-78}Kr, and {sup 74,76}Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q{sub EC}-values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0{sup +} {yields} 0{sup +} nuclear {beta}-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q{sub EC}-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with {delta}m/m {<=} 3{sup .}10 {sup -8}. For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The {sup 34}Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10{sup -8}. The Q {sub EC}-value of the {sup 34}Ar 0 {sup +} {yields} 0 {sup +} decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, {sup 74}Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  3. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Continuously Driven Mirror and Ion Cyclotron Instabilities in High Beta Astrophysical and Heliospheric Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    We use particle-in-cell simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of ion velocity space instabilities in an idealized problem in which a background velocity shear continuously amplifies the magnetic field. We simulate the astrophysically relevant regime where the shear timescale is long compared to the ion cyclotron period, and the plasma beta is β ~ 1-100. The background field amplification in our calculation is meant to mimic processes such as turbulent fluctuations or MHD-scale instabilities. The field amplification continuously drives a pressure anisotropy with p > p ∥ and the plasma becomes unstable to the mirror and ion cyclotron instabilities. In all cases, the nonlinear state is dominated by the mirror instability, not the ion cyclotron instability, and the plasma pressure anisotropy saturates near the threshold for the linear mirror instability. The magnetic field fluctuations initially undergo exponential growth but saturate in a secular phase in which the fluctuations grow on the same timescale as the background magnetic field (with δB ~ 0.3 langBrang in the secular phase). At early times, the ion magnetic moment is well-conserved but once the fluctuation amplitudes exceed δB ~ 0.1 langBrang, the magnetic moment is no longer conserved but instead changes on a timescale comparable to that of the mean magnetic field. We discuss the implications of our results for low-collisionality astrophysical plasmas, including the near-Earth solar wind and low-luminosity accretion disks around black holes.

  4. Quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary drugs: amoxicillin and ampicillin determination by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coelho Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the development and validation of an RP-HPLC-UV method for quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in three pharmaceutical samples. Active principles analyzed were amoxicillin and ampicillin, in 3 veterinary drugs. Mobile phase comprised 5 mmol L-1 phosphoric acid solution at pH 2.00, acetonitrile with gradient elution mode and detection wavelength at 220 nm. The method was validated according to the Brazilian National Health Surveillance regulation, where linear range and linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and ruggedness were evaluated. Inter day precision and accuracy for pharmaceutical samples 1, 2 and 3 were: 1.43 and 1.43%; 4.71 and 3.74%; 2.72 and 1.72%, respectively, while regression coefficients for analytical curves exceeded 0.99. The method had acceptable merit figure values, indicating reliable quantification. Analyzed samples had active principle concentrations varying from -12 to +21% compared to manufacturer label claims, rendering the medicine unsafe for administration to animals.

  5. Realized Beta GARCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Voev, Valeri Radkov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that incorporates realized measures of variances and covariances. Realized measures extract information about the current levels of volatilities and correlations from high-frequency data, which...... is particularly useful for modeling financial returns during periods of rapid changes in the underlying covariance structure. When applied to market returns in conjunction with returns on an individual asset, the model yields a dynamic model specification of the conditional regression coefficient that is known...... as the beta. We apply the model to a large set of assets and find the conditional betas to be far more variable than usually found with rolling-window regressions based exclusively on daily returns. In the empirical part of the paper, we examine the cross-sectional as well as the time variation...

  6. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad

  7. The Role of Beta and Size in the Cross-Section of European Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Heston; K. Rouwenhorst; Roberto Wessels

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of beta and size to explain cross-sectional variation in average returns in twelve European countries. We find that average stock returns are positively related to beta and negatively related to firm size. The beta premium is in part due to the fact that high beta countries outperform low beta countries. Within countries high beta stocks outperform low beta stocks only in January, not in other months. We reject the hypothesis that differences in average returns...

  8. Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    transected into transverse 36 slices of 2.5cm thickness. Photon dose was measured using a Capintec PR-06C ionization chamber with Capintec 192 electrometer (Capintec Inc., Ramsey, NJ), TLD(VICTOREEN 5000. LiF) and film dosimetry V-Omat, Kodak). In case of fetus, the dosimeter was placed at a depth of 10cm in this phantom at 100cm source to axis distance and located centrally 15cm from the inferior edge of the 30cm x 30cm{sup 2} x-ray beam irradiating the Rando phantom chest wall. A acryl bridge of size 40 cm x 40 cm{sup 2} and a clear space of about 20 cm was fabricated and placed on top of the rectangular polystyrene phantom representing the abdomen of the patient. The lead pot for testicle shielding was made as various shape, sizes, thickness and supporting stand. The scattered photon with and without shielding were measured at the representative position of the fetus and testicle. Measurement of radiation scattered dose outside fields and critical organs, like fetus position and testicle region, from chest or pelvic irradiation by large field of high energy radiation beam was performed using an ionization chamber and film dosimetry. The scattered doses outside field were measured 5 - 10% of maximum doses in fields and exponentially decrease from field margins. The scattered photon dose received the fetus and testicle from thorax field irradiation was measured about 1 mGy/Gy of photon treatment dose. Shielding construction to reduce this scattered dose was investigated using lead sheet and blocks. Lead pot shield for testicle reduced the scatter dose under 10 mGy when photon beam of 60 Gy was irradiated in abdomen region. The scattered photon dose is reduced when the lead shield was used while the no significant reduction of scattered photon dose was observed and 2-3 mm lead sheets reduced the skin dose under 80% and almost electron contamination. The results indicate that it was possible to improve shielding to reduce scattered photon for fetus and testicle when a young

  9. Reconstitution of high-affinity binding of a beta-scorpion toxin to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on purified sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, W; Martin-Eauclaire, M F; Rochat, H; Catterall, W A

    1995-09-01

    Reconstitution of purified sodium channels into phospholipid vesicles restores many aspects of sodium channel function including high-affinity neurotoxin binding and action at neurotoxin receptor sites 1-3 and 5, but neurotoxin binding and action at receptor site 4 has not previously been demonstrated in purified and reconstituted preparations. Toxin IV from the venom of the American scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css IV), a beta-scorpion toxin, shifts the voltage dependence of sodium channel activation by binding with high affinity to neurotoxin receptor site 4. Sodium channels were purified from rat brain and reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (65:35). 125I-Css IV, purified by reversed-phase HPLC, bound rapidly and specifically to reconstituted sodium channels. Dissociation of the bound toxin was biphasic with half-times of 0.22 min-1 and 0.015 min-1. At equilibrium, the toxin bound to two classes of specific high-affinity sites, a variable minor class with KD of approximately 0.1 nM and a major class with a KD of approximately 5 nM. Approximately 0.8 mol 125I-Css IV was bound per mole of reconstituted, right-side-out sodium channels, as assessed from comparison of binding of saxitoxin and Css IV. Binding of Css IV was unaffected by membrane potential or by neurotoxins that bind at sites 1-3 or 5, consistent with the characteristics of binding of beta-scorpion toxins to sodium channels in cells and membrane preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Coulon, P.; Maı̂trejean, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.

    2004-07-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of β radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as 99mTc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range γ-rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm 2 for 3H and 0.01 for 14C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10 4) and spatial resolution (50 μm for 3H or 99mTc to 150 μm for 32P or 18F (β +)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitted during the interaction with an intensified CCD camera. This property may suggest new potential applications, particularly in the field of β-rays selection according to their energy. This detector provides a new fast way to detect all β-emitting isotopes in biological samples up to 20 cm×25 cm (electrophoresis gels, hybridization membranes, tissue sections on glass slides, TLC plates and any other planar two-dimension samples). It is ideal for tritium detection, 500 times faster than classical film, thus maximizing the research productivity. (2) A micro imager is based on contact imaging through a solid scintillator sheet. Light emitted is amplified through an image intensifier tube and is analyzed with a CCD camera. The full field of view is smaller than the first one (24 mm×32 mm) but a better spatial resolution is obtained (typically 15 μm for 3H, 20 μm for 14C and 35S). The specifications of this detector are: efficiency 50-100% depending on isotope, linear response over a dynamic range of 10 4, smallest activity

  11. High prevalence of extensively drug-resistant and metallo beta-lactamase-producing clinical Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspi, Hossein; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method. The MBL-producing isolates were screened using combined disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM was detected by PCR. 34.9% of isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 81 (94.2%) and 62 (71.2%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and XDR, respectively. 44 (51.2%) and 65 (75.6%) isolates were MBL-producing strains with resistance to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. 2 (2.3%), 13 (15.1%), 2 (2.3%), 4 (4.7%) and 2 (2.3%) isolates carried blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes, respectively. Our data showed that the rate of XDR and MBL A. baumannii is on the rise.

  12. The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Roschel, Hamilton; Jesus, Flávia de; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the effect of beta-alanine (BA) alone (study A) and in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SB) (study B) on 100- and 200-m swimming performance. In study A, 16 swimmers were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 4 weeks) or placebo (PL; dextrose). At baseline and after 5 weeks of supplementation, 100- and 200-m races were completed. In study B, 14 were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 3 weeks) or PL. Time trials were performed once before and twice after supplementation (with PL and SB), in a crossover fashion, providing 4 conditions: PL-PL, PL-SB, BA-PL, and BA-SB. In study A, BA supplementation improved 100- and 200-m time-trial performance by 2.1% (p = 0.029) and 2.0% (p = 0.0008), respectively. In study B, 200-m time-trial performance improved in all conditions, compared with presupplementation, except the PL-PL condition (PL-SB, +2.3%; BA-PL, +1.5%; BA-SB, +2.13% (p supplementation. The probability of BA having a positive effect was 65.2%; when SB was added to BA, the probability was 71.8%. BA and SB supplementation improved 100- and 200-m swimming performance. The coingestion of BA and SB induced a further nonsignificant improvement in performance.

  13. Higher critical current density achieved in Bi-2223 High-Tc superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Shalaby

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 were prepared using a solid state reaction method at different sintering times and temperatures. Structural phase identifications have been done using X-Ray analysis and refinement by Reitveld method which proves the coexistence of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. The critical transition temperature Tc and critical current density Jc values were measured using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and by the magneto-optics technique. A remarkable rapid decrease to the diamagnetic signal in the magnetization versus temperature M(T at 110 K and Jc around 1.2 × 107 A/m2 at 5 K are confirmed for the Bi-2223 compound.

  14. Effects of grain size and grain boundary on critical current density of high T(sub c) superconducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Q. R.; Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    By means of adding impurity elements in high T sub c oxides, the effects were studied of grain size and grain boundary on the critical current density of the following systems: YBa2Cu3O(7-y) and Bi-Pr-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. In order to only change the microstructure instead of the superconductivity of the grains in the samples, the impurity elements were added into the systems in terms of the methods like this: (1) substituting Y with the lanthanide except Pr, Ce, and Tb in YBa2Cu3O(7-y) system to finning down grains in the samples, therefore, the effect can be investigated of the grain size on the critical current density of 1:2:3 compounds; (2) mixing the high T sub c oxides with the metal elements, such as Ag, according to the composition of (high T sub c oxide)1-xAgx to metallize the grain boundaries in the samples, studying the effect of the electric conductivity of the grain boundaries on the critical current density; (3) adding SiO2, PbO2, and SnO2 into the high T sub c oxide to form impurity phases in the grain boundaries, trying to find out the effects of the impurity phases or metalloid grain boundaries on the critical current density of the high T sub c superconductors. The experimental results indicate that in the case of of the presence of the metalloid grain boundaries finning down grains fails to enhance the j sub c, but restrains it strongly, the granular high T sub c superconductors with the small size grains coupled weakly is always the low j sub c system.

  15. Reflection: a critical proficiency essential to the effective development of a high competence in communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cindy L; Nestel, Debra; Wolf, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Reflection, or the ability to step back from an experience and consider it critically, in an analytical, non-subjective manner, is an essential aspect of problem solving and decision making, and also of effective communication with clients and colleagues. Reflective practice has been described as the essence of professionalism and is therefore a core professional skill; rarely, however, has it been explicitly taught in veterinary curricula, and it has only a recent history in undergraduate human medical curricula. We describe here two preliminary case studies, one in a veterinary medical education context and the other within a human medical education framework, as examples of approaches to assessing a student's ability for ''reflection.'' The case studies also illustrate some of the key principles. Both of the case studies described had as their end goal the enhancement of communication skills through critical reflection. At Monash University, Australia, the majority of students were assessed as being at a level of ''reflection in development.'' The students in the Ontario Veterinary College case study showed moderately good use of self-awareness and critical reflection as a basis for modifying and integrating communication skills into practice. While both preliminary case studies point to the fact that students recognize the importance of communication and value the opportunity to practice it, few students in either case study identified the importance of reflection for lifelong learning and professional competence. Opportunities to complete critical reflection exercises in other parts of curricula and outside of communication would likely reinforce its importance as a generic skill. Ongoing scholarly approaches to teaching, learning, and evaluating reflection and self-awareness are needed.

  16. Critical parameters affecting the design of high frequency transmission lines in standard CMOS technology

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Attar, Talal

    2017-05-13

    Different structures of transmission lines were designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology to estimate some critical parameters including the RMS value of the surface roughness and the loss tangent. The input impedances for frequencies up to 50 GHz were modeled and compared with measurements. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the used model with the proposed coefficients and the measured results, attesting the robustness of the model and the reliability of the incorporated coefficients values.

  17. beta-catenin is strongly elevated in rat colonic epithelium following short-term intermittent treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Dashwood, W Mohaiza; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay A; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2008-09-01

    Colon tumors expressing high levels of beta-catenin and c-myc have been reported in male F344 rats given three short cycles of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) alternating with a high-fat (HF) diet. Using the same experimental protocol, rats were euthanized 24 h after the last dose of PhIP so as to examine early changes in colonic crypt homeostasis and beta-catenin expression, before the onset of frank tumors. PhIP/HF dosing caused a significant increase in the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index throughout the entire colon, and within the colonic crypt column cleaved caspase-3 was elevated in the basal and central zones, but reduced in the luminal region. In vehicle/HF controls, beta-catenin was immunolocalized primarily at the border between cells at the top of the crypt, whereas in rats given PhIP/HF diet there was strong cytoplasmic staining, which appeared as a gradient of increased beta-catenin extending from the base of the crypt column to the luminal region. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that beta-catenin and c-myc were increased significantly in the colonic mucosa of rats given PhIP/HF diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that PhIP/HF cycling alters beta-catenin and c-myc expression in the colonic mucosa, resulting in expansion of the proliferative zone and redistribution of apoptotic cells from the lumen to the central and basal regions of the colonic crypt. Thus, during the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, alternating exposure to heterocyclic amines and a high-fat diet might facilitate molecular changes resulting in dysregulated beta-catenin and c-myc expression.

  18. High-resolution, far-ultraviolet study of Beta Draconis (G2 Ib-II) - Transition region structure and energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Jordan, C.; Stencel, R. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution far ultraviolet spectra of the star Beta Draconis have been obtained with the IUE satellite. The observations and emission line data from the spectra are presented, the interpretation of the emission line widths and shifts is discussed, and the implications are given in terms of atmospheric properties. The emission measure distribution is derived, and density diagnostics involving both line ratios and line opacity arguments is investigated. The methods for calculating spherically symmetric models of the atmospheric structure are outlined, and several such models are presented. The extension of these models to log T(e) greater than 5.3 using the observed X-ray flux is addressed, the energy balance of an 'optimum' model is investigated, and possible models of energy transport and deposition are discussed.

  19. Serine protease espP subtype alpha, but not beta or gamma, of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Basit; Naim, Asma; Orth, Dorothea; Grif, Katharina; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Prager, Rita; Dierich, Manfred P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2009-04-01

    Besides Shiga toxins (Stx), Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) harbour several other putative virulence factors, including the serine protease EspP. We have investigated 214 STEC strains from Austria belonging to 61 different serotypes from humans, animals, and food for the presence of this serine protease gene and have determined the espP subtypes and their association with clinical outcome. espP was detected in 121 (57%) out of 214 strains. Sixty-five of 68 strains (96%) of non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM (NM, non-motile) were positive for espP, while none of 8 SF E. coli O157:NM isolates contained this gene. All 9 strains of serotype O145:NM and 17 of 21 strains (81%) of serotype O26:H11/NM were positive for espP. Nineteen STEC serogroups including O103 and O111 serogroups--considered to be highly pathogenic--were completely negative for espP. Only 5 of 12 strains isolated from patients suffering from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) were espP-positive (all serogroup NSF O157) as well as 28 of 39 strains from patients with bloody diarrhoea, 40 of 63 strains from patients with non-bloody diarrhoea, and 15 of 19 strains from asymptomatic patients. In O157:H7/NM, O26:H11/NM, and O145:NM only espP subtype alpha was found, whereas in most of the other non-O157 serogroups, subtypes beta and gamma were found. Subtype delta was not detected in our strain collection. Regarding the espP subtypes, only subtype alpha, but not beta and gamma, were found in HUS patients. Moreover, we could demonstrate that espP, and in particular subtype alpha, is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

  20. Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Alexeev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart.

  1. The critical period of high mortality of larvae fish —A discussion based on current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sifa; Mathias, J. A.

    1987-03-01

    Most fishes suffer high mortality during early development stages. The existence of a “critical period” was hypothesized by Hjort (1914). However, several decades of research have resulted in considerable controversy over the hypothesis. This paper attempts to clarify the critical period concept, demonstrate its usefulness, and resolve some of the controversy surrounding it. Based on our own studies and the literature, we find that within the “aquaculture school” (those concerned with culturing fishes, particulary larval stages), there is a great deal of evidence for the critical period concept. But we redefine the concept of “critical period” of mortality of fish larvae in this way. The deepest, sharpest, and fastest physiological and ecological changes during the development of the larvae are produced with the shift from endogenous nutrition to exogenous. At this stage, the old functions are quickly being replaced by new functions inside the body. Because of this shifting of function and imperfection of organs, the larvae are most sensitive at this time to environmental factors, particularly food supply. A higher specific mortality rate often occurs immediately folowing the period of strictly endogenous yolk feeding, and during the period of first exogenous feeding. Then it may be followed by a lower specific mortality rate. The significance of a “critical period” for fish populations is discussed. A good understanding of the “critical period” would provide a means for predicting the strength of year classes in natural fish populations, and also suggests approaches for increasing survival in aquaculture systems.

  2. Critical perspectives on cultural competence as a strategic opportunity for achieving high performance in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelitz, Philippa; Watson, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    * Cultural proficiency is a critical component of diversity competence. Diversity competency attends to issues of cultural proficiency and links cultural competence to issues of diverse representation and organizational inclusivity. * Developing and applying cultural competencies in diagnostic and invasive imaging services provides strategic opportunities to experience better patient cooperation, increase patient satisfaction, reduce medical errors, reduce patient complaints, and improve service recovery. * New Jersey recently passed legislation that requires 16 hours of cultural competency education as a condition of licensure to practice medicine. Four other states have similar legislation pending. The state of Washington passed legislation requiring all state accredited programs to include cultural competency education.

  3. Herman Feshbach Prize in Theoretical Nuclear Physics Xiangdong Ji, University of Maryland PandaX-III: high-pressure gas TPC for Xe136 neutrinoless double beta decay at CJPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; PandaX-III Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX-III in China's Jinping Underground Lab is a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using Xe136 high-pressure gas TPC. The first phase of the experiment uses a 4 m3 gas detector with symmetric Micromegas charge readout planes. The gas TPC allows full reconstruction of the event topology, capable of distinguishing the two electron events from gamma background with high confidence level. The energy resolution can reach about 3% FWHM at the beta decay Q-value. The detector construction and the experimental lab is currently under active development. In this talk, the current status and future plan are reported.

  4. Beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Origa Raffaella

    2010-05-01

    , deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+ or absent (beta0 synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb. Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia. Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload.

  5. Beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload.

  6. Beta-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

  7. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ying [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Gui-yuan, E-mail: sungy2004@sohu.com [Department of Histology and Embryology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Rui-tian, E-mail: rtliu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  8. Simultaneous critical values for $t$-tests in very high dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Hongyuan; 10.3150/10-BEJ272

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the problem of multiple hypothesis testing using $t$-tests. The observed data are assumed to be independently generated conditional on an underlying and unknown two-state hidden model. We propose an asymptotically valid data-driven procedure to find critical values for rejection regions controlling the $k$-familywise error rate ($k$-FWER), false discovery rate (FDR) and the tail probability of false discovery proportion (FDTP) by using one-sample and two-sample $t$-statistics. We only require a finite fourth moment plus some very general conditions on the mean and variance of the population by virtue of the moderate deviations properties of $t$-statistics. A new consistent estimator for the proportion of alternative hypotheses is developed. Simulation studies support our theoretical results and demonstrate that the power of a multiple testing procedure can be substantially improved by using critical values directly, as opposed to the conventional $p$-value approach. Our method is applie...

  9. Vegetation community change points suggest that critical loads of nutrient nitrogen may be too high

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian; Bleasdale, Andy

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated nitrogen deposition can have detrimental effects on semi-natural ecosystems, including changes to plant diversity. Empirical critical loads of nutrient nitrogen have been recommended to protect many sensitive European habitats from significant harmful effects. In this study, we used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) to investigate shifts in vegetation communities along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient for twenty-two semi-natural habitat types (as described under Annex I of the European Union Habitats Directive) in Ireland. Significant changes in vegetation community, i.e., change points, were determined for twelve habitats, with seven habitats showing a decrease in the number of positive indicator species. Community-level change points indicated a decrease in species abundance along a nitrogen deposition gradient ranging from 3.9 to 15.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which were significantly lower than recommended critical loads (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; V = 6, p Changes to vegetation communities may mean a loss of sensitive indicator species and potentially rare species in these habitats, highlighting how emission reductions policies set under the National Emissions Ceilings Directive may be directly linked to meeting the goal set out under the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy of "halting the loss of biodiversity" across Europe by 2020.

  10. Effective Teachers/Inspired Students: The Critical Role of Teachers in "Yeshiva" High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Chana

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are thought to be the backbone of any high school. Data indicating how students perceive their teachers was gathered from a questionnaire completed by 355 recent Yeshiva high-school graduates. Results show that Yeshiva High School teachers are thought of as open minded and tolerant (51.9%), caring (73.2%), and interested in developing the…

  11. Synthesis of a highly fluorescent beta-diketone-europium chelate and its utility in time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of serum total thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Bo; Han, Shi-Quan; Zhang, Chao; He, You-Feng

    2002-11-15

    A new highly fluorescent beta-diketone-europium chelate was synthesized and employed as a tracer to develop a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) for detection of serum total thyroxine (T4). The tetradentate beta-diketone chelator, 1,10-bis(thiophene-2'-yl)-4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-octafluorodecane-1,3,8,10-tetraone (BTOT), was structurally composed of two units of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) derivatives but expressed fluorescence that was greatly enhanced, as compared to the original TTA molecules, in the presence of excess amount of Eu3+. The luminescence properties of the europium chelate of BTOT werestudied in aqueous solution. Chlorosulfonylation of BTOT afforded 1, 10-bis(5'-chlorosulfo-thiophene-2'-yl)-4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-octafluorodecane-1,3,8,10-tetraone (BCTOT), which could be coupled to proteins (i.e., streptavidin or the BSA-T4 conjugate) and used as a tracer for TRFIA. Although the BCTOT-Eu complex could be detected at a very low level (approximately 1.07 x 10(-12) mol/L) in buffered aqueous solution (50 mmoVLTris-HCl; pH, 8.0), the application of the chelate label in direct serum T4 TRFIA experienced a problem of matrix interference, which was probably caused by some unknown chelating components in the samples as a result of the fact that the fluorescence of the BCTOT-Eu chelate was prone to quenching or enhancement by some chelating reagents. To remove this problem, an indirect serum T4 TRFIA was proposed with the use of BCTOT-Eu-labeled streptavidin (SA) as signal generation reagent. The concentrations of T4 in 27 human serums were determined by indirect T4 TRFIA, and the assay results correlated well with those obtained by commercial Coming-CLIA (r = 0.955) and Wallac-DELFIA (r 0.965).

  12. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: a potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidal, D A; Ricordi, C; Garcia-Contreras, M; Sonnino, A; Fabbri, A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have evaluated the role of inflammation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The safety profile and anti-inflammatory properties of high dose omega-3 fatty acids combined with Vitamin D supplementation make this therapy a possible candidate for T1D intervention trials. Herein, we describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with new onset T1D treated with high dose Omega-3 and vitamin D3. By 12 months, peak C-peptide increased to 0.55 nmol/L (1.66 ng/mL) corresponding to a 20% increment from baseline and AUC C-peptide was slightly higher compared to 9 months (0.33 vs. 0.30 nmol/L/min) although remaining slightly lower than baseline. Combination high-dose Omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose vitamin D3 therapy was well tolerated and may have beneficial effects on beta-cell function. Randomized controlled trials could be of assistance to determine whether this therapy may result in the preservation of beta-cell function in patients with new onset T1D.

  13. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  14. Angular dependence of critical current density and magnetoresistance of sputtered high-T{sub c}-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerkens, A.; Frenck, H.J.; Ewert, S. [Technical Univ. of Cottbus (Germany)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The angular dependence of the critical current density and the magnetoresistance of high-T{sub c}-films in high and low magnetic fields and for different temperatures were measured to investigate the flux pinning and the superconducting properties. A comparison of the results for the different superconductors shows their increasing dependence on the angle {Theta} between the magnetic field and the c-axis of the film due to the anisotropy of the chosen superconductor. Furthermore the influence of the current direction to the {Theta}-rotation plane is discussed.

  15. High Resolution Crystal Structure of Human [beta]-Glucuronidase Reveals Structural Basis of Lysosome Targeting: e79687

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Imtaiyaz Hassan; Abdul Waheed; Jeffery H Grubb; Herbert E Klei; Sergey Korolev; William S Sly

    2013-01-01

    ...). Here we report a high resolution crystal structure of human GUS at 1.7 Å resolution and present an extensive analysis of the structural features, unifying recent findings in the field of lysosome targeting and glycosyl hydrolases...

  16. Spontaneous formation of zero magnetic field region near the axis of a high-{beta} mirror device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotov, K.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1996-04-01

    It is shown that in open field line geometry with high expansion ratios of the flux conserver there appears a region of zero magnetic field near the axis. Once the zero-field region is formed, all magnetic field is concentrated in the thin near-wall layer, where high gradients of plasma pressure are present as well. These gradients cause enhanced plasma and heat diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Low background and high contrast PET imaging of amyloid-{beta} with [{sup 11}C]AZD2995 and [{sup 11}C]AZD2184 in Alzheimer's disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Anton; Andersson, Jan; Varnaes, Katarina; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Jureus, Anders; Swahn, Britt-Marie; Sandell, Johan; Julin, Per; Svensson, Samuel [AstraZeneca Research and Development, Neuroscience Research and Therapy Area, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Cselenyi, Zsolt; Schou, Magnus; Johnstroem, Peter; Farde, Lars [Karolinska Institutet, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Hospital, AstraZeneca Translational Sciences Centre, PET CoE, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksdotter, Maria; Freund-Levi, Yvonne [Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jeppsson, Fredrik [AstraZeneca Research and Development, Neuroscience Research and Therapy Area, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate AZD2995 side by side with AZD2184 as novel PET radioligands for imaging of amyloid-{beta} in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro binding of tritium-labelled AZD2995 and AZD2184 was studied and compared with that of the established amyloid-{beta} PET radioligand PIB. Subsequently, a first-in-human in vivo PET study was performed using [{sup 11}C]AZD2995 and [{sup 11}C]AZD2184 in three healthy control subjects and seven AD patients. AZD2995, AZD2184 and PIB were found to share the same binding site to amyloid-{beta}. [{sup 3}H]AZD2995 had the highest signal-to-background ratio in brain tissue from patients with AD as well as in transgenic mice. However, [{sup 11}C]AZD2184 had superior imaging properties in PET, as shown by larger effect sizes comparing binding potential values in cortical regions of AD patients and healthy controls. Nevertheless, probably due to a lower amount of nonspecific binding, the group separation of the distribution volume ratio values of [{sup 11}C]AZD2995 was greater in areas with lower amyloid-{beta} load, e.g. the hippocampus. Both AZD2995 and AZD2184 detect amyloid-{beta} with high affinity and specificity and also display a lower degree of nonspecific binding than that reported for PIB. Overall [{sup 11}C]AZD2184 seems to be an amyloid-{beta} radioligand with higher uptake and better group separation when compared to [{sup 11}C]AZD2995. However, the very low nonspecific binding of [{sup 11}C]AZD2995 makes this radioligand potentially interesting as a tool to study minute levels of amyloid-{beta}. This sensitivity may be important in investigating, for example, early prodromal stages of AD or in the longitudinal study of a disease modifying therapy. (orig.)

  18. Zerumbone protects INS-1 rat pancreatic beta cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyin; Zou, Shibo; Cui, Zhengjun; Guo, Pengfei; Meng, Qingnan; Shi, Xun; Gao, Ya; Yang, Gaoyuan; Han, Zhaofeng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of zerumbone, a natural sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, on high glucose-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic β cells. INS-1 rat pancreatic β cells were treated with 33 mM glucose with or without different concentrations of zerumbone and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the action of zerumbone was examined. Notably, zerumbone significantly (P in a concentration-dependent fashion up to 60 μM of zerumbone. Annexin-V/propidium iodide staining analysis showed that zerumbone impaired the apoptotic response of high glucose-treated INS-1 cells, which was coupled with a significant decline in cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9. Pretreatment with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine abrogated the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK induced by high glucose. Zerumbone significantly (P in high glucose-treated INS-1 cells. Pharmacological activation of p38 and JNK with anisomycin reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of zerumbone. Additionally, simultaneous inhibition of p38 and JNK significantly (P in high glucose-treated INS-1 cells. In conclusion, zerumbone confers protection against high glucose-induced apoptosis of INS-1 pancreatic β cells, largely through interfering with ROS production and p38 and JNK activation. Zerumbone may have potential therapeutic effects against hyperglycemia-induced β cell damage in diabetes.

  19. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Morris, Amanda S.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Criss, Michael M.; Judah, Matt R.; Eagleton, Sally G.; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Methods Eighteen females (ages 12–16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Results Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Conclusions Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses. PMID:27158587

  20. Neural responses to maternal praise and criticism: Relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms in high-risk adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupperle, Robin L; Morris, Amanda S; Silk, Jennifer S; Criss, Michael M; Judah, Matt R; Eagleton, Sally G; Kirlic, Namik; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Phillips, Raquel; Alvarez, Ruben P

    2016-01-01

    The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype. Eighteen females (ages 12-16) listened to maternal praise, neutral, and critical statements during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. The OXTR single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, was genotyped. Linear mixed models were used to identify symptom or allele (GG, AA/AG) by condition (critical, neutral, praise) interaction effects on brain activation. Greater symptoms related to greater right amygdala activation for criticism and reduced activation to praise. For left amygdala, greater symptoms related to reduced activation to both conditions. Anxiety symptoms related to differences in superior medial PFC activation patterns. Parental OXTR AA/AG allele related to reduced activation to criticism and greater activation to praise within the right amygdala. Results support a relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and prefrontal-amygdala responses to maternal feedback. The lateralization of amygdala findings suggests separate neural targets for interventions reducing reactivity to negative feedback or increasing salience of positive feedback. Exploratory analyses suggest that parents' OXTR genetic profile influences parent-child interactions and related adolescent brain responses.

  1. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  2. High School Diversification against Educational Equality: A Critical Analysis of Neoliberal Education Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeongran

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms of high school education in Korea have focused on transforming the uniform and standardized system into a deregulated and diversified system that has an emphasis on school choice and competition. Situating the high school diversification policy in the context of the recent controversy of the neoliberal educational reform, this study…

  3. A critical review of liquid helium temperature high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Gan, Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The importance of liquid helium temperature cooling technology in the aerospace field is discussed, and the results indicate that improving the efficiency of liquid helium cooling technologies, especially the liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers, is the principal difficulty to be solved. The state of the art and recent developments of liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are summarized. The main scientific challenges for high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers to efficiently reach liquid helium temperatures are outlined, and the research progress addressing those challenges are reviewed. Additionally some possible solutions to the challenges are pointed out and discussed.

  4. The case for super-critical accretion on massive black holes at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Short-lived intermittent phases of super-critical (super-Eddington) growth, coupled with star formation via feedback, may account for early growth of massive black holes (MBH) and coevolution with their host spheroids. We estimate the possible growth rates and duty cycles of these episodes, assuming slim disk solutions, where the emerging luminosity depends logarithmically on the accretion rate. As long as radiation is trapped in the disk, the effective radiative efficiency is low and several short episodes (~1e4 years) are possible, especially if energy flows through collimated funnels and feedback is limited. When the host galaxy is able to sustain inflow rates at 1-100 msun/yr, replenishing and circulation lead to a sequence of short episodes that may increase the growth rates of MBHs, with respect to an Eddington-limited case, by several orders of magnitude in ~ 1e7 years. Our model for e MBH growth predicts that the ratio of MBH accretion rate to star formation rate is 1e-2 or higher, naturally leading t...

  5. Research on the critical parameters initialization of optical PMD compensator in high bit-rate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Zhang, Haiyi; Ji, Yuefeng; Xu, Daxiong

    2004-05-01

    Based on the proposed polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation simulation model and statistical analysis method (Monte-Carlo), the critical parameters initialization of two typical optical domain PMD compensators, which include optical PMD method with fixed compensation differential group delay (DGD) and that with variable compensation DGD, are detailedly investigated by numerical method. In the simulation, the line PMD values are chosen as 3ps, 4ps and 5ps and run samples are set to 1000 in order to achieve statistical evaluation for PMD compensated systems, respectively. The simulation results show that for the PMD value pre-known systems, the value of the fixed DGD compensator should be set to 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD value in order to reach the optimum performance, but for the second kind of PMD compensator, the DGD range of lower limit should be 1.5~1.6 times of line PMD provided that of upper limit is set to 3 times of line PMD, if no effective ways are chosen to resolve the problem of local minimum in optimum process. Another conclusion can be drawn from the simulation is that, although the second PMD compensator holds higher PMD compensation performance, it will spend more feedback loops to look up the optimum DGD value in the real PMD compensation realization, and this will bring more requirements on adjustable DGD device, not only wider adjustable range, but rapid adjusting speed for real time PMD equalization.

  6. Beta-carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patches on the tongue and mouth called oral leukoplakia. Taking beta-carotene by mouth for up to 12 months seems to decrease symptoms of oral leukoplakia. Osteoarthritis. Beta-carotene taken by mouth may prevent ...

  7. Downregulation of TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein in the muscles of patients with inflammatory myopathies after treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, K; Semino-Mora, C; Granger, R P; Dalakas, M C

    2000-02-01

    We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to study the level of TGF-beta1 mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry to examine the immunoreactive TGF-beta1 in muscle biopsy specimens from five patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and five patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) obtained before and after 3 months treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). At baseline, the mRNA expression of TGF-beta1 was increased up to fivefold in the muscles of DM patients compared to that of IBM patients. After IVIg, TGF-beta1 was downregulated and the TGF-beta1 mRNA decreased twofold in the muscles of patients with DM who had successfully responded to therapy, but remained unchanged in the muscles of patients with IBM who did not respond. The downregulation of TGF-beta1 in DM was associated with improvement of the muscle cytoarchitecture and reduction of the endomysial inflammation and connective tissue, suggesting that in DM the excess of TGF-beta1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins.

  8. High creatinine clearance in critically ill patients with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautrette Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high dose of anti-infective agents is recommended when treating infectious meningitis. High creatinine clearance (CrCl may affect the pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic relationships of anti-infective drugs eliminated by the kidneys. We recorded the incidence of high CrCl in intensive care unit (ICU patients admitted with meningitis and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of two common methods used to identify high CrCl. Methods Observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis (defined by >7 white blood cells/mm3 in cerebral spinal fluid between January 2006 and December 2009 to one medical ICU. During the first 7 days following ICU admission, CrCl was measured from 24-hr urine samples (24-hr-UV/P creatinine and estimated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula and the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation. High CrCl was defined as CrCl >140 ml/min/1.73 m2 by 24-hr-UV/P creatinine. Diagnostic accuracy was performed with ROC curves analysis. Results Thirty two patients were included. High CrCl was present in 8 patients (25% on ICU admission and in 15 patients (47% during the first 7 ICU days for a median duration of 3 (1-4 days. For the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 101 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.96, specificity: 0.75, AUC = 0.90 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.06. For the simplified MDRD equation, the best threshold to predict high CrCl was 108 ml/min/1.73 m2 (sensitivity: 0.91, specificity: 0.80, AUC = 0.88 ± 0.03 with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.11. There was no difference between the estimated methods in the diagnostic accuracy of identifying high CrCl (p = 0.30. Conclusions High CrCl is frequently observed in ICU patients admitted with community-acquired acute infectious meningitis. The estimated methods of CrCl could be used as a screening tool to

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta-alanine on physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-alanine and an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise.

  10. Amplitude limits and nonlinear damping of shear-Alfvén waves in high-beta low-collisionality plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Quataert, E.

    2017-05-01

    This work, which extends Squire et al (Astrophys. J. Lett. 2016 830 L25), explores the effect of self-generated pressure anisotropy on linearly polarized shear-Alfvén fluctuations in low-collisionality plasmas. Such anisotropies lead to stringent limits on the amplitude of magnetic perturbations in high-β plasmas, above which a fluctuation can destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, ‘interrupting’ the wave and stopping its oscillation. These effects are explored in detail in the collisionless and weakly collisional ‘Braginskii’ regime, for both standing and traveling waves. The focus is on simplified models in one dimension, on scales much larger than the ion gyroradius. The effect has interesting implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-β conditions that are prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas.

  11. High-beta analytic equilibria in circular, elliptical, and D-shaped large aspect ratio axisymmetric configurations with poloidal and toroidal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, O. E.; Guazzotto, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Grad-Shafranov-Bernoulli system of equations is a single fluid magnetohydrodynamical description of axisymmetric equilibria with mass flows. Using a variational perturbative approach [E. Hameiri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 024504 (2013)], analytic approximations for high-beta equilibria in circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections in the high aspect ratio approximation are found, which include finite toroidal and poloidal flows. Assuming a polynomial dependence of the free functions on the poloidal flux, the equilibrium problem is reduced to an inhomogeneous Helmholtz partial differential equation (PDE) subject to homogeneous Dirichlet conditions. An application of the Green's function method leads to a closed form for the circular solution and to a series solution in terms of Mathieu functions for the elliptical case, which is valid for arbitrary elongations. To extend the elliptical solution to a D-shaped domain, a boundary perturbation in terms of the triangularity is used. A comparison with the code FLOW [L. Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11(2), 604-614 (2004)] is presented for relevant scenarios.

  12. Beta-blockers for hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Bradley, Hazel A; Volmink, Jimmy; Mayosi, Bongani M; Opie, Lionel H

    2017-01-01

    Background Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review initially published in 2007 and updated in 2012. Objectives To assess the effects of beta-blockers on morbidity and mortality endpoints in adults with hypertension. Search methods The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to June 2016: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and ClinicalTrials.gov. We checked reference lists of relevant reviews, and reference lists of studies potentially eligible for inclusion in this review, and also searched the the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 06 July 2015. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year of duration, which assessed the effects of beta-blockers compared to placebo or other drugs, as first-line therapy for hypertension, on mortality and morbidity in adults. Data collection and analysis We selected studies and extracted data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by consensus. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and conducted fixed-effect or random-effects meta-analyses, as appropriate. We also used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE classifies the certainty of evidence as high (if we are confident that the true effect lies

  13. Endocrine expression of the active form of TGF-beta1 in the TGF-beta1 null mice fails to ameliorate lethal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Glenn; Thyagarajan, Tamizchelvi; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Flanders, Kathleen C; Factor, Valentina; Miller, Georgina; Ward, Jerrold M; Nalca, Aysegul; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Thorgeirsson, Snorri; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2002-04-01

    TGF-beta1 null mice die by 3 to 4 weeks of age due to a severe autoimmune-mediated multifocal inflammation resulting in multi-organ failure. To assess the therapeutic potential of circulating levels of active TGF-beta1, we generated mice with endocrine expression of active TGF-beta1 on a TGF-beta1 null background (TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG)) by crossing TGF-beta1(+/-) mice with transgenic mice (TG) that express recombinant TGF-beta1 specifically in the liver and secrete it in the blood. The TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice exhibit a survival profile similar to the TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice indicating a failure to rescue the lethal phenotype. However, serum TGF-beta1 levels in the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice were restored to near normal levels with expression in all the tissues, notably in the kidney and spleen. Histopathology showed reduced inflammation in the target tissues, especially in the heart. Interestingly, unlike TGF-beta1 (-/-) mice, the TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) mice have glomerulonephritis in their kidneys similar to the TG mice. Thus, the phenotype of TGF-beta1 (-/-/TG) animal model indicates the potential role of circulating active-TGF-beta1 in reducing inflammation, but its failure to rescue lethality in TGF-beta1 null mice indicates a critical autocrine role of TGF-beta1.

  14. Vav3, a GEF for RhoA, Plays a Critical Role under High Glucose Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of small GTPase molecules is poorly understood under high glucose conditions.MethodsWe analyzed the expression pattern of Vav3 in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose culture condition with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We also measured glucose uptake using isotope-labelled glucose.ResultsWe showed that expression of Vav3 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA increased. mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells under high glucose conditions. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxy-amide-1-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR suppressed high glucose-induced Vav3 induction. In addition, exposure of cells to high glucose concentration increased the phosphorylation of PAK-1, a molecule downstream of RhoA. The phosphorylation of paxillin, a downstream molecule of PAK-1, was also increased by exposure to high glucose. Phosphorylation of these molecules was not observed in the presence of AICAR, indicating that AMPK is involved in the RhoA signal pathway under high glucose conditions. Knock down of Vav3 enhances metformin-mediated glucose uptake. Inhibition of AMPK blocked the increases of Vav3 knock down-induced glucose uptake. Metformin-mediated Glut4 translocation was also increased by Vav3 knock-down, suggesting that Vav3 is involved in metformin-mediated glucose uptake.ConclusionThese results demonstrate that Vav3 is involved in the process of metformin-mediated glucose regulation.

  15. High Mobility Group Box-1 Protein and Outcomes in Critically Ill Surgical Patients Requiring Open Abdominal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Malig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies assessing various cytokines in the critically ill/injured have been uninformative in terms of translating to clinical care management. Animal abdominal sepsis work suggests that enhanced intraperitoneal (IP clearance of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs improves outcome. Thus measuring the responses of DAMPs offers alternate potential insights and a representative DAMP, High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1, was considered. While IP biomediators are being recognized in critical illness/trauma, HMGB-1 behaviour has not been examined in open abdomen (OA management. Methods. A modified protocol for HMGB-1 detection was used to examine plasma/IP fluid samples from 44 critically ill/injured OA patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing two negative pressure peritoneal therapies (NPPT: Active NPPT (ANPPT and Barker’s Vacuum Pack NPPT (BVP. Samples were collected and analyzed at the time of laparotomy and at 24 and 48 hours after. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in survivor versus nonsurvivor HMGB-1 plasma or IP concentrations at baseline, 24 hours, or 48 hours. However, plasma HMGB-1 levels tended to increase continuously in the BVP cohort. Conclusions. HMGB-1 appeared to behave differently between NPPT cohorts. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship of HMGB-1 and outcomes in septic/injured patients.

  16. Acute overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A perturbs beta-cell mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, E K; Zhao, C; Rutter, G A

    2000-07-01

    Islet beta-cells express low levels of lactate dehydrogenase and have high glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity. To determine whether this configuration favors oxidative glucose metabolism via mitochondria in the beta-cell and is important for beta-cell metabolic signal transduction, we have determined the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion of acute overexpression of the skeletal muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Monitored in single MIN6 beta-cells, LDH hyperexpression (achieved by intranuclear cDNA microinjection or adenoviral infection) diminished the response to glucose of both phases of increases in mitochondrial NAD(P)H, as well as increases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic free ATP, and cystolic free Ca2+. These effects were observed at all glucose concentrations, but were most pronounced at submaximal glucose levels. Correspondingly, adenoviral vector-mediated LDH-A overexpression reduced insulin secretion stimulated by 11 mmol/l glucose and the subsequent response to stimulation with 30 mmol/l glucose, but it was without significant effect when the concentration of glucose was raised acutely from 3 to 30 mmol/l. Thus, overexpression of LDH activity interferes with normal glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the islet beta-cell type, and it may therefore be directly responsible for insulin secretory defects in some forms of type 2 diabetes. The results also reinforce the view that glucose-derived pyruvate metabolism in the mitochondrion is critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta-cell.

  17. Critical assessment of methods for treating airborne effluents from high-level waste solidification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.D.; Pence, D.T.

    1977-06-01

    Off-gas treatment systems are reviewed for high-temperature processes which are being developed for the solidification of high-level liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A brief description of each of the processes is given and detailed analyses are made of the expected magnitudes of airborne effluent release rates from each system. The estimated release rates of the various processes are compared with present and anticipated regulatory limits. A number of recommendations are made for additional development studies to better understand and control certain airborne effluents from the solidification processes.

  18. Laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for high-volume non-critical 193-nm photolithographic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Rémi; Gopalakrishnan, Selvi; Mazur, Martin; Öner, Nevzat; Mühle, Sven; Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Photomasks are key elements of photolithographic processes, implying that their degradation must be reliably monitored and strongly mitigated. Indeed, the photo-induced oxidation of Cr in Cr On Glass (COG) photomasks and the concomitant electrostatic-field migration present in high-volume production using 193-nm photolithographic scanners severely deteriorate the pattern transfer quality, therefore limiting the lifetime of these reticles. To moderate this effect, Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) photomasks, significantly less prone to such degradation, are currently being massively used in leading-edge microfabrication flows. The type of mask fabrication process normally used involving ebeam writing is however not adapted for non-critical photolithographic layers that do not yet benefit from its inherent performances but still suffer from its high cost and its long processing time. It is therefore proposed in this work to combine the simplicity of laser writing and the resistance of MoSi to degradation by using laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for the non-critical layers (e.g. ion-implantation) of a 28-nm production flow. To evaluate one of this new reticle, its pattern transfer fidelity is compared to the one of a laser-written binary COG mask already qualified for production from a photolithographic quality perspective, both masks being treated using the same optical proximity correction (OPC) model. Dispersive and dissipative properties, critical dimension uniformity, pattern linearity and pattern proximity are directly measured on wafer level, subsequently revealing that both photomasks match in terms of OPC parameters. The utilized OPC model is moreover proven robust against the use of both types of masks, consequently making the conversion from COG to OMOG particularly simple. These experimental results therefore qualify the new mask fabrication type and pave the way for a major utilization in high-volume production.

  19. Control of Alzheimer's amyloid beta toxicity by the high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP52 and copper homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Sanokawa-Akakura

    Full Text Available FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs, also called immunophilins, are prolyl-isomerases (PPIases that participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including hormone signaling and protein folding. Recent studies indicate that proteins that contain PPIase activity can also alter the processing of Alzheimer's Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP. Originally identified in hematopoietic cells, FKBP52 is much more abundantly expressed in neurons, including the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and basal ganglia. Given the fact that the high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP52 is highly expressed in CNS regions susceptible to Alzheimer's, we investigated its role in Abeta toxicity. Towards this goal, we generated Abeta transgenic Drosophila that harbor gain of function or loss of function mutations of FKBP52. FKBP52 overexpression reduced the toxicity of Abeta and increased lifespan in Abeta flies, whereas loss of function of FKBP52 exacerbated these Abeta phenotypes. Interestingly, the Abeta pathology was enhanced by mutations in the copper transporters Atox1, which interacts with FKBP52, and Ctr1A and was suppressed in FKBP52 mutant flies raised on a copper chelator diet. Using mammalian cultures, we show that FKBP52 (-/- cells have increased intracellular copper and higher levels of Abeta. This effect is reversed by reconstitution of FKBP52. Finally, we also found that FKBP52 formed stable complexes with APP through its FK506 interacting domain. Taken together, these studies identify a novel role for FKBP52 in modulating toxicity of Abeta peptides.

  20. Critical currents and thermally activated flux motion in high-temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, T.T.M.; Batlogg, B.; Dover, R.B. van; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the resistance below Tc of single crystals of the high-temperature superconductors Ba2YCu3O7 and Bi2.2Sr2Ca0.8Cu2O8+δ in magnetic fields up to 12 T. The resistive transition of both compounds is dominated by intrinsic dissipation which is thermally activated, resulting in an exponen