WorldWideScience

Sample records for high crime neighborhoods

  1. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  2. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    that the share of young people convicted for crimes, in particular violent crimes, in the neighborhood increases convictions of male assignees later in life. No such effects are found for other measures of neighborhood crime including the rate of committed crimes. Our findings suggest social interaction as a key......Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence...... channel through which neighborhood crime is linked to individual criminal behavior....

  3. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence that the share...

  4. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... criminal records are 6% more likely to be charged for criminal offenses (both drug and property crimes), and this impact manifests itself after six months of exposure. This neighborhood effect is stronger for previous offenders, and does not lead to criminal partnerships. Our exploration of alternative...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  5. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  6. The Effect of Neighborhood Recorded Crime on Fear: Does Neighborhood Social Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory; Ivory, Vivienne

    2015-09-01

    A number of individual and neighborhood-level factors may influence the relationship between recorded crime in one's neighborhood and fear of crime. Understanding these factors may assist in reducing fear, which has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of recorded crime rates on fear differs based on the neighborhood social context (social fragmentation) using hierarchical regression modelling, with separate analyses by crime type. Recorded crimes (2008-2010) and national (New Zealand) survey data were used. Higher crime in a neighborhood was associated with higher fear of crime, with only small effect size differences in feelings of fear by recorded type of crime. However, when stratified, the associations between violent and drug/alcohol crimes and fear of crime were larger for those living in highly fragmented neighborhoods compared with less fragmented neighborhoods. Efforts to alleviate fear of crime should focus on the broader neighborhood social context in which these feelings are espoused.

  7. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  8. Schools and neighborhoods: organizational and environmental factors associated with crime in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbos, Mary Ann P; Casteel, Carri

    2008-10-01

    While crime and violence in schools are derived primarily from factors external to schools, violent behavior may also be aggravated by factors in the school environment, including the physical environment, its educational and social climate, and its organizational capacity and composition. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of the school's organizational and educational environment on crime rates in secondary schools and to examine how neighborhood factors influence these relationships. School and neighborhood crime rates for 95 middle (MS) and high (HS) schools were calculated using data from the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) Police Department and Los Angeles Police Department, respectively. School-level organizational and educational variables, including the academic performance index (API), were obtained from the California Department of Education. A measure of neighborhood dilapidation was created using variables collected on a neighborhood environmental survey. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between organizational and educational school variables and school crime rates. Community crime and dilapidation were added to the model to examine the influence of the school-community context relationships. HS had higher crime rates than MS. As the percentage of certified teachers and student to staff ratios increased, school crime decreased (p school crime rates (p school crime, although dilapidation was positively and significantly associated with school crime even after controlling for community crime (p school- and neighborhood-level factors were associated with increasing crime rates in secondary schools. School violence prevention efforts should include school and community partnerships to address these potentially modifiable factors.

  9. Assault Injury Rates, Social Capital, and Fear of Neighborhood Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Hutchison, Peter; Monroe, Matthew G.; Reischl, Thomas; Morrel-Samuels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study develops an explanatory framework for fear of neighborhood crime based on respondents' social context and local rates of assault injuries. Rates of assault injuries within zip codes are based on hospital discharge records. We find that only four variables have a significant unique contribution to fear of crime: respondent's sex,…

  10. Study of Fear of Crime in High Crime Areas in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated fear of crime in the case of personal and neighborhood related variables. Aquestionnaire survey conducted in two high crime areas (Ahnmadino and Dehpialeh in Shiraz-Iran, among300 residents. Results showed that among personal variables, gender had significant relationship with fearand surprisingly males were more fearful than females. Other personal variables didn't have significantrelationship with fear of crime (age, education, ethnicity, income, home ownership. But neighborhoodrelated variables (incivility, neighborhood attachment, and neighborhood quality and crime perception inneighborhood significantly related to fear of crime. In regression multivariate analysis only incivilityentered and explained 19 percent of dependent variable.

  11. An Examination of Citizen Involvement in Crime Prevention in High-Risk versus Low- to Moderate-Risk Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattavina, April; Byrne, James M.; Garcia, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In the following study, the authors examine factors that explain citizen participation in crime prevention activities in Boston. Using survey data from a random sample, census data, and official crime and arrest data, the authors identified a wide range of individual- and community-based indicators that could potentially explain citizen…

  12. Demography, foreclosure, and crime:: Assessing spatial heterogeneity in contemporary models of neighborhood crime rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Baumer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research evaluates the possibility of spatial heterogeneity in the effects on neighborhood crime rates of both traditional demographic indicators - immigrant concentration, racial composition, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential instability - and a contemporary aspect of housing transition - foreclosure - that has garnered significant attention in recent scholarship. OBJECTIVE This research advances previous research by explicitly assessing the merits of the typical "global" or "one size fits all" approach that has been applied in most neighborhood studies of demographic context and neighborhood crime rates by juxtaposing it against an alternative strategy - geographically weighted regression (GWR - that highlights the potentially significant "local" variability in model parameters. We assess the local variation of these relationships for census tracts within the city of Chicago. METHODS This paper utilizes GWR to test for spatial heterogeneity in the effects of demographic context and other predictors on neighborhood crime rates. We map local parameter estimates and t-values generated from the GWR models to highlight some of the patterns of demographic context observed in our analysis. CONCLUSIONS GWR results indicate significant variation across Chicago census tracts in the estimates of logged percent black, immigrant concentration, and foreclosure for both robbery and burglary rates. The observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on robbery rates and residential stability on burglary rates also are found to vary across local neighborhood clusters in Chicago. Visual inspection of these effects illuminates the importance of supplementing current approaches by "thinking locally" when developing theoretical explanations and empirical models of how demographic context shapes crime rates.

  13. Social Cohesion, Criminal Victimization and Perceived Risk of Crime in Brazilian Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andres; Silva, Braulio F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological theories linking community characteristics to the level of crime have rarely been tested outside the context of the United States and Western Europe. In this study we examine the effects of social cohesion and neighborhood disorder on crime using data from a survey of neighborhoods in Brazil. We find that lower-income neighborhoods,…

  14. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  15. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford

  16. The Influence of Neighborhood Crime on Increases in Physical Activity during a Pilot Physical Activity Intervention in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Stephanie T; Myers, Candice A; Drazba, Kathryn T; Marker, Arwen M; Church, Timothy S; Newton, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether neighborhood crime moderated the response (increases in steps) to a pilot intervention to increase physical activity in children. Twenty-seven insufficiently active children aged 6-10 years (mean age = 8.7 years; 56 % female; 59 % African American) were randomly assigned to an intensive intervention group (IIG) or minimal intervention group (MIG). Change in average daily number of steps from baseline was regressed against an index of neighborhood crime in a multilevel repeated-measures model that included a propensity score to reduce confounding. Safer neighborhoods were associated with higher increases in steps during the pilot intervention (interaction p = 0.008). Children in the IIG living in low-crime neighborhoods significantly increased their physical activity (5275 ± 1040 steps/day) while those living in high-crime neighborhoods did not (1118 ± 1007) (p for difference = 0.046). In the IIG, the increase in daily steps was highly correlated with neighborhood crime (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for physical activity interventions to account for participants' environments in their design and/or delivery. To promote healthy behaviors in less-supportive environments, future studies should seek to understand how environments modify intervention response and to identify mediators of the relationship between environment and intervention.

  17. Neighborhood Crime and Self-Care: Risks for Aggression and Lower Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Heather; Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated associations among official rates of neighborhood crime, academic performance, and aggression in a sample of 581 children in 1st-3rd grade (6.3-10.6 years old). It was hypothesized that the influence of crime depends on children's unsupervised exposure to the neighborhood context through self-care. Average weekly…

  18. Modeling Fear of Crime in Dallas Neighborhoods: A Test of Social Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Mindel, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested a model of the effects of different predictors on individuals' levels of fear of crime in Dallas neighborhoods. Given its dual focus on individual perceptions and community-level interactions, social capital theory was selected as the most appropriate framework to explore fear of crime within the neighborhood milieu. A structural…

  19. The spatial context of the disorder-crime relationship in a study of Reno neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Lyndsay N; Maskaly, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study extends the current research on the relationship between neighborhood disorder and violent crime rates by incorporating spatial effects and the reciprocal relationship between disorder and violent crime. In particular, we test for both the potential effect of disorder on violence as well as how changes in violent crime rates can impact neighborhood levels of disorder. We control for a variety of factors related to social disorganization theory that can lead to crime and potentially disorder. In order to disentangle these relationships, we use a cross-lagged auto-regressive structural equation model and a unique dataset comprised of calls for police service and reported incidents for 117 neighborhoods in Reno, NV. We find that higher rates of disorder lead to significant, but modest, increases in violent crime, but only aggravated assaults lead to increases in disorder. These effects hold true above and beyond the effect of social disorganization and the influence of spatially proximate neighborhoods.

  20. The association of individual and neighborhood social cohesion, stressors, and crime on smoking status among African-American women in southeastern US subsidized housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Mueller, Martina; Newman, Susan D; Magwood, Gayenell; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; White, Kellee; Tingen, Martha S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood social contextual factors and smoking prevalence among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. We randomly sampled 663 adult women in 17 subsidized neighborhoods in two Southeastern US states. The smoking prevalence among participants was 37.6%, with an estimated neighborhood household prevalence ranging from 30 to 68%. Smokers were more likely to be older, have lower incomes, have lower BMI, and live with other smokers. Women with high social cohesion were less likely to smoke, although living in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion was not associated with smoking prevalence. Women with higher social cohesion were more likely to be older and had lived in the neighborhood longer. Women with high stress (related to violence and disorder) and who lived in neighborhoods with higher stress were more likely to smoke. Younger women were more likely to have higher stress than older women. There were no statistically significant associations with objective neighborhood crime data in any model. This is the first study to examine both individual and neighborhood social contextual correlates among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. This study extends findings about smoking behaviors and neighborhood social contexts in this high-risk, urban population. Future research is needed to explore age and residential stability differences and perceptions of social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and perceived violence in subsidized housing. Further research is also warranted on African-American women, subsidized housing, smoking, social context, health disparities' effective strategies to address these individual and contextual factors to better inform future ecological-based multilevel prevention, and cessation intervention strategies.

  1. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Lenk, Kathleen M; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous studies have found a positive association between the density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, MN with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as the total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. The presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with the presence of a college attenuating the association between the density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes, except for presence of a college, suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood, regardless of its other attributes, could result in an increase in a wide range of crime.

  2. The Perception and Fear of Crime: Implications for Neighborhood Cohesion, Social Activity, and Community Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected from interviews with residents of a western Canadian city did not support the hypothesis that the perception and fear of crime would be inversely related to neighborhood cohesion and social activity. But as hypothesized, the fear of crime was negatively related to affect for the community. (RLV)

  3. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Johnson, Renee M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103). The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood-Level LGBT Hate Crimes and Bullying Among Sexual Minority Youths: A Geospatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes.

  5. Urban Poverty and Neighborhood Effects on Crime: Incorporating Spatial and Network Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Corina; Gladfelter, Andrew S; Matthews, Stephen A

    2014-09-01

    Research on neighborhoods and crime is on a remarkable growth trajectory. In this article, we survey important recent developments in the scholarship on neighborhood effects and the spatial stratification of poverty and urban crime. We advance the case that, in understanding the impact of neighborhoods and poverty on crime, sociological and criminological research would benefit from expanding the analytical focus from residential neighborhoods to the network of neighborhoods individuals are exposed to during their daily routine activities. This perspective is supported by reemerging scholarship on activity spaces and macro-level research on inter-neighborhood connections. We highlight work indicating that non-residential contexts add variation in criminogenic exposure, which in turn influence offending behavior and victimization risk. Also, we draw on recent insights from research on gang violence, social and institutional connections, and spatial mismatch, and call for advancements in the scholarship on urban poverty that investigates the salience of inter-neighborhood connections in evaluating the spatial stratification of criminogenic risk for individuals and communities.

  6. Neighborhood social capital and crime victimization: comparison of spatial regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Ken'ichi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Crime is an important determinant of public health outcomes, including quality of life, mental well-being, and health behavior. A body of research has documented the association between community social capital and crime victimization. The association between social capital and crime victimization has been examined at multiple levels of spatial aggregation, ranging from entire countries, to states, metropolitan areas, counties, and neighborhoods. In multilevel analysis, the spatial boundaries at level 2 are most often drawn from administrative boundaries (e.g., Census tracts in the U.S.). One problem with adopting administrative definitions of neighborhoods is that it ignores spatial spillover. We conducted a study of social capital and crime victimization in one ward of Tokyo city, using a spatial Durbin model with an inverse-distance weighting matrix that assigned each respondent a unique level of "exposure" to social capital based on all other residents' perceptions. The study is based on a postal questionnaire sent to 20-69 years old residents of Arakawa Ward, Tokyo. The response rate was 43.7%. We examined the contextual influence of generalized trust, perceptions of reciprocity, two types of social network variables, as well as two principal components of social capital (constructed from the above four variables). Our outcome measure was self-reported crime victimization in the last five years. In the spatial Durbin model, we found that neighborhood generalized trust, reciprocity, supportive networks and two principal components of social capital were each inversely associated with crime victimization. By contrast, a multilevel regression performed with the same data (using administrative neighborhood boundaries) found generally null associations between neighborhood social capital and crime. Spatial regression methods may be more appropriate for investigating the contextual influence of social capital in homogeneous cultural settings such as Japan.

  7. Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Determinants of Fear of Violent Crime Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin G; Eisenman, David P; Cunningham, William E; Andersen, Ronald; Ettner, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Fear of violent crime is common among adolescents in urban settings; however, little is known about individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of fear. A generalized ordered logit model was used to analyze individual- and neighborhood-level variables among 2474 adolescents. Seeing violence significantly reduced the probability of feeling unafraid, as did higher levels of social disorder. The more block faces where police were visible, the higher the probability of feeling unafraid and lower the probability of feeling very afraid. Reducing fear could affect more people than just reducing crime. Fear-reduction strategies should target those most at risk of becoming fearful.

  8. Neighborhood Playgrounds, Fast Food Restaurants, and Crime: Relationships to Overweight in Low-Income Preschool Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L. Burdette; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  9. Neighborhood Playgrounds Fast Food Restaurants and Crime Relationships to Overweight in LowIncome Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hillary L Burdette Robert C Whitaker

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined over 7,000 low-income children between the ages of 3 and 5 living in Cincinnati. The authors hypothesized that children who lived farther from playgrounds, closer to fast food restaurants, and in unsafe neighborhoods might be more likely to be overweight. They conclude that overweight was not associated with proximity to playgrounds and fast food restaurants or with level of neighborhood crime.

  10. Child neglect and the development of externalizing behavior problems: associations with maternal drug dependence and neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2013-02-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.

  11. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation ("cheating"). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one's neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of antisocial

  12. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Britt Schroeder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”. Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1 motivation to avoid being suckered, (2 decreased

  13. One size doesn't fit all: cross-sectional associations between neighborhood walkability, crime and physical activity depends on age and sex of residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita B; Beckman, Robin; Hunter, Gerald P; DeSantis, Amy S; Colabianchi, Natalie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-01-19

    Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al. PLoS One 8(8):e71417, 2013). While neighborhood greenspace and walkability have been associated with increased MVPA, evidence also suggests that living in areas with high rates of crime limits MVPA. Few studies have examined to what extent the confluence of neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime might impact MVPA in low-income African American adults nor how associations may vary by age and sex. In 2013 we collected self-reported data on demographics, functional limitations, objective measures of MVPA (accelerometry), neighborhood greenspace (geographic information system), and walkability (street audit) in 791 predominantly African-American adults (mean age 56 years) living in two United States (U.S.) low-income neighborhoods. We also acquired data from the City of Pittsburgh on all crime events within both neighborhoods. To examine cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-related variables (i.e., neighborhood greenspace, walkability and crime) with MVPA, we used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Additionally, we examined potential interactions by age (over 65 years) and sex on relationships between neighborhood variables and MVPA. Overall, residents engaged in very little to no MVPA regardless of where they lived. However, for women, but not men, under the age of 65 years, living in more walkable neighborhoods was associated with more time engaged in MVPA in (β = 0.55, p = 0.007) as compared to their counterparts living in less

  14. Life in a Crime Scene: Stop, Question, and Frisk Activity in New York City Neighborhoods in the Aftermath of Homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lacoe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An incident of extreme violence, such as a homicide, disrupts daily life not only through the incident itself but also through the chaos and disruption that emerge in the aftermath of violence. This article presents descriptive evidence about how communities are affected by increased police activity—specifically, stop, question, and frisk (SQF activity—following an incident of extreme violence. Our results show that SQF activity in a block group increases in the week following a homicide in New York City, with the largest increases in neighborhoods with high crime rates. Furthermore, neighborhoods with different racial and ethnic compositions have differential levels of average SQF activity and also experience differential responses from the police in the aftermath of a homicide. African American residents have a higher probability of being stopped following a homicide than do nonblack residents across neighborhoods of all types.

  15. Neighborhood stressors and cardiovascular health: crime and C-reactive protein in Dallas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Cagney, Kathleen A; Iveniuk, James

    2012-10-01

    We apply neighborhood-based theories of social organization and environmental stress to examine variation in a key indicator of inflammation-related cardiovascular risk-C-reactive protein (CRP). Specifically, we emphasize the potentially health-compromising role of rapid increases in the crime rate or "crime spikes" (focusing on a particularly fear-inducing crime - burglary). We also consider the extent to which the magnitude and significance of the association between burglary rate change and inflammatory processes varies by gender. Data on CRP, neighborhood of residence, and individual-level characteristics for adult women and men ages 30-65 are drawn from the 2000-2002 Dallas Heart Study. Results from neighborhood fixed effects models using piecewise linear splines to estimate short-term burglary rate change effects offer support for the hypothesis that crime spikes are associated with CRP. Specifically, we find that short-term burglary rate change is independently associated with CRP for men. Short-term burglary rate change was not associated with CRP for women. These findings shed light on the contextual processes that influence cardiovascular health and point to the potentially important role of short-term changes in environmental stressors in shaping health outcomes.

  16. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of malt liquor sales restrictions adopted in 2005 in three liquor stores in a large Midwestern U.S. city. We hypothesized that the restrictions would be associated with crime reductions in adjacent neighborhoods. Using Poisson regression modeling, we compared crime rates two years prior to, and two years following policy adoption. Findings were mixed; malt liquor restrictions were associated with reductions in disorderly conduct citations, but increases in larceny/theft, beyond citywide trends. Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  17. The Neighborhood Context of Hate Crime: A Comparison of Violent and Property Offenses Using Rare Events Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benier, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Many studies into the antecedents of hate crime in the neighborhood combine offense categories, meaning that it is unclear whether or not there are distinct contextual factors associated with violent and property hate offenses. This study uses rare events modeling to examine the household and neighborhood factors associated with violent and property offenses. Using the Australian Community Capacity Study, the study focuses on the neighborhood characteristics influencing self-reported violent and property hate crime for 4,396 residents in Brisbane. Findings demonstrate important differences between the offense types. Violence is predicted by household renting and non-English language, whereas property offenses are predicted by household non-English language, neighborhood median income, and change in non-English-speaking residents. In both offense types, neighborhood place attachment acts as a protective factor. These findings highlight the theoretical implications of combining distinct hate crime types for methodological reasons.

  18. Linking Places to Problems: Geospatial Theories of Neighborhoods, Alcohol and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M; Gruenewald, Paul J; Waller, Lance A

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a critical review of two broad categories of social ecological theories of crime, social integration and place-based theories, and their relationships to spatial assessments of crime patterns. Social integration theories emphasize the role of neighborhood disorganization on crime, while place theories stress the social interactions within and between places as a source of crime. We provide an analysis of the extent to which these two types of theorizing describe processes and mechanisms that are truly ecologic (identify specific interactions between individuals and their environments) and truly spatial (identify specific movement and interaction patterns of individuals and groups) as they endeavor to explain crime outcomes. We suggest that social integration theories do not provide spatial signatures of sufficient specificity to justify the application of spatial statistical techniques as quantitative arbiters of the theory. On the other hand, place based theories go some way toward addressing these issues because the emphasis is placed on understanding the exact physical and social characteristics of place and the activities that occur around locations as sources of crime. Routine activities and crime potential theories attempt to explain clustering or "hot spots" of crime in ways that give clear spatial dimension by looking at micro-spatial interactions between offenders and targets of crime. These theories have strong ecological implications as well, since they contain specific statements about how people use the space around them and how these patterns of use are related to patterns of criminal activity. We conclude by identifying a set of requirements for successful empirical tests of geospatial theories, including the development of valid measures of key theoretical constructs and the formulation of critical empirical assessments of geospatial hypotheses derived from motivating theory.

  19. Nonresidential Crime Attractors and Generators Elevate Perceived Neighborhood Crime and Incivilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Eric S.; Ratcliffe, Jerry H.; Garcia, R. Marie; Taylor, Ralph B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have produced conflicting findings about the impacts of local nonresidential land uses on perceived incivilities. This study advances work in this area by developing a land-use perspective theoretically grounded in Brantingham and Brantingham's geometry of crime model in environmental criminology. That focus directs attention to…

  20. Crime in the School and in the Community: Offenders, Victims, and Fearful Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Examines research on crime, fear of crime and victimization in the school and community. Suggests that crime and fear of crime should be viewed in a community context since high-crime schools tend to be in high-crime neighborhoods with a higher fear level. (JAC)

  1. Neighborhood alcohol outlets and the association with violent crime in one mid-Atlantic City: the implications for zoning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M; Milam, Adam J; Greiner, Amelia; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Curriero, Frank C; Thornton, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Violent crime such as homicide causes significant excess morbidity and mortality in US urban areas. A health impact assessment (HIA) identified zoning policy related to alcohol outlets as one way to decrease violent crime. The objectives were to determine the relationship between alcohol outlets including off-premise alcohol outlets and violent crime in one urban area to provide local public health evidence to inform a zoning code rewrite. An ecologic analysis of census tracts in Baltimore City was conducted from 2011 to 2012. The data included violent crimes (n = 51,942) from 2006 to 2010, licensed alcohol outlets establishments (n = 1,327) from 2005 to 2006, and data on neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, and drug arrests from 2005 to 2009. Negative binomial regression models were used to determine the relationship between the counts of alcohol outlets and violent crimes controlling for other factors. Spatial correlation was assessed and regression inference adjusted accordingly. Each one-unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 2.2 % increase in the count of violent crimes adjusting for neighborhood disadvantage, percent minority, percent occupancy, drug arrests, and spatial dependence (IRR = 1.022, 95 % CI = 1.015, 1.028). Off-premise alcohol outlets were significantly associated with violent crime in the adjusted model (IRR = 1.048, 95 % CI = 1.035, 1.061). Generating Baltimore-specific estimates of the relationship between alcohol outlets and violent crime has been central to supporting the incorporation of alcohol outlet policies in the zoning code rewrite being conducted in Baltimore City.

  2. Spatial Dependence of Crime in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Aguayo Téllez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact that the characteristics of the environment have on crime using neighborhood aggregate data of the Monterrey Metropolitan Area for the year 2010. Data spatial autocorrelation is corroborated, i.e. neighborhoods with high crime rates have a positive impact on the crime rates of its surrounding neighborhoods. Once it was controlled through the bias caused by spatial autocorrelation and data censoring, it is evidenced that the likelihood of being a crime victim and the probability of becoming an offender is positively related to variables such as unemployment, the percentage of young men and the existence of schools, hospitals or markets in the neighborhood.

  3. Neighborhood Crime and Perception of Safety as Predictors of Victimization and Offending Among Youth: A Call for Macro-Level Prevention and Intervention Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Rine, Christine M; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William

    2012-09-01

    This paper is one of two in a series that reports detailed findings from a larger study that simultaneously explored individual, family and neighborhood level predictors of victimization and offending among youth. The current analysis aims to identify which neighborhood level factors have better predictive power with regard to type of victimization (direct and vicarious measures) and total offending overtime (Wave 1 and Wave 2). METHODS: Path analysis was conducted using data from a multi-wave, panel study (N=625) of youth ages 16-19 at Wave 1. A best fitting model was determined showing causal pathways from neighborhood level factors including crime and perception of safety, to direct and vicarious victimization through exposure to violence, and subsequent offending. FINDINGS: Neighborhood crime significantly predicted property victimization. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety significantly predicted vicarious victimization by exposure to violence in the neighborhood. Neighborhood crime and perception of safety were significantly associated with Wave 1 offending. Findings highlight the need for professionals who work with youth to be cognizant of how their environments influence their lives. Prevention and intervention models seeking to create sustainable change among youth should consider mezzo and macro level components that build and strengthen neighborhood capacity through community partnerships.

  4. Using the Community Readiness Model to Examine the Built and Social Environment: A Case Study of the High Point Neighborhood, Seattle, Washington, 2000–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner-Brown, Joyce; Sharify, Denise Tung; Blake, Bonita; Phillips, Tom; Whitten, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Residents of many cities lack affordable, quality housing. Economically disadvantaged neighborhoods often have high rates of poverty and crime, few institutions that enhance the quality of its residents’ lives, and unsafe environments for walking and other physical activity. Deteriorating housing contributes to asthma-related illness. We describe the redevelopment of High Point, a West Seattle neighborhood, to improve its built environment, increase neighborhood physical activity, ...

  5. Developmental associations between externalizing behaviors, peer delinquency, drug use, perceived neighborhood crime, and violent behavior in urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Saar, Naomi S

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the precursors of violent behavior among urban, racial/ethnic minority adults. Data are from an on-going study of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans, interviewed at four time waves, Time 1-Time 4 (T1-T4), from adolescence to adulthood. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the developmental pathways, beginning in mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years), to violent behavior in adulthood (T4; age = 29.2 years). The variables assessed were: components of externalizing behaviors (i.e., rebelliousness, delinquency; T1, T3); illicit drug use (T2); peer delinquency (T2); perceived neighborhood crime (T4); and violent behavior (T3, T4). Results showed that the participants' externalizing behaviors (rebelliousness and delinquency) were relatively stable from mid-adolescence (T1; age = 14.0 years) to early adulthood (T3; age = 24.4 years). The participants' externalizing behaviors in mid-adolescence also had a direct pathway to peer delinquency in late adolescence (T2; age = 19.1 years). Peer delinquency, in turn, had a direct pathway to the participants' illicit drug use in late adolescence (T2), and to externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3). The participants' illicit drug use (T2; age = 19.1 years) had both direct and indirect paths to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The participants' externalizing behaviors in early adulthood (T3) were linked with violent behavior at T3, and perceived neighborhood crime (T4), both of which had direct pathways to violent behavior in adulthood (T4). The findings suggest developmental periods during which externalizing behaviors, exposure to delinquent peers, illegal drug use, and neighborhood crime could be targeted by prevention and intervention programs in order to reduce violent behavior.

  6. A Test of Social Disorganization Theory in High-Risk Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly; Huizinga, David; Elliott, Delbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of research based on social disorganization theory that relates the neighborhood context to juvenile crime and delinquency, it is unknown whether neighborhood social processes operate in a similar way across all types of disadvantaged neighborhoods. It is possible that some social processes are unique to…

  7. A Test of Social Disorganization Theory in High-Risk Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly; Huizinga, David; Elliott, Delbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of research based on social disorganization theory that relates the neighborhood context to juvenile crime and delinquency, it is unknown whether neighborhood social processes operate in a similar way across all types of disadvantaged neighborhoods. It is possible that some social processes are unique to…

  8. High on Crime Fiction and Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    how crime fiction activates strong salience (in some respects similar to the effect of dopamine-drugs like cocaine, Ritalin, and amphetamine) and discusses the role of social intelligence in crime fiction. It further contrasts the unempathic classical detector fictions with two subtypes of crime...

  9. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  10. Crime

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Updated daily postings on Montgomery County’s open data website, dataMontgomery, provide the public with direct access to crime statistic databases - including raw...

  11. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  12. Crime and Context : The Impact of Individual, Neighborhood, City and Country Characteristics on Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, Johan Arend van

    2003-01-01

    This book deals with the distribution of criminal victimization across social groups and spatial areas. Why do certain kinds of people run higher risk of victimization than others? Why do spatial units, such as neighborhoods, cities and countries, differ in their rates of victimization? The present

  13. Communities, Students, Schools, and School Crime: A Confirmatory Study of Crime in U.S. High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…

  14. The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kimberly; Aday, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Tests two important theories in the history of mass communication research, agenda setting and cultivation, by comparing the effects of watching local television news with direct experience measures of crime on issue salience and fear of victimization. Finds that direct experience had no agenda-setting effect but did predict fear. (SG)

  15. Crime does pay (at least when it's violent)!: on the compensating wage differentials of high regional crime levels

    OpenAIRE

    Braakmann, Nils

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether high regional crime levels lead to a compensating wage differential paid by firms in the respective region. Using data from German social security records and official police statistics for 2003 to 2006, we consider both violent and non-violent crimes and use three-way error-components estimators to control for individual and regional heterogeneity. Our findings suggest a positive and rather large compensating differential for the risk of falling victim to a vi...

  16. 城市住区街道空间犯罪防控的规划设计策略-基于 CPTED 理论和空间句法的思考%Neighborhood Street Crime Prevention Planning:CPTED Based Space Syntax Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乃彦; 王国斌

    2015-01-01

    随着城市化进程的不断加快,我国的现代化水平和人们的生活品质也在不断提高,但“城市病”也日益凸显,大幅增长的城市犯罪就是最为严重的“病症”之一,而承载人们日常生活的住区公共空间是最为典型的区域。街道空间作为住区重要的公共活动区域,是犯罪集中的区域之一。CPTED 理论认为,住区公共空间的设计可影响犯罪率。研究旨在强调在住区规划中适当从犯罪防控的角度考虑街道空间的设计,并尝试挖掘典型住区案例的设计特征与犯罪行为发生之间的关系,从住区模式、街道网络、节点设计和后期监管等方面提出住区街道空间犯罪防控的规划设计对策。%Urban crime as a problem emerges as cities modernized and people’s living standards improved. Streets are high occurrence places of urban crimes. According to CPTED theory, public space design impacts crime rates. The paper indicates the significance of crime prevention design in neighborhood planning, studies the relationship between street design and crimes in classical cases, and puts forward design measures for crime prevention in neighborhood model, street network, node design, and supervision.

  17. Adolescent coping and neighborhood violence: perceptions, exposure, and urban youths' efforts to deal with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Aber, Mark S; Bhana, Arvinkumar

    2004-03-01

    Neighborhood violence is a persistent source of danger, stress, and other adverse outcomes for urban youth. We examined how 140 African American and Latino adolescents coped with neighborhood danger in low, medium, and high crime neighborhoods throughout Chicago. Participants reported using a range of coping strategies (measured via a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale; R. S. Lazarus & S. Folkman, 1984). In low and medium crime rate areas, using confrontive strategies was significantly correlated with increased exposure to violence, and no strategies were associated with perceptions of safety. Coping strategies were associated with perceived safety to a substantial degree only in high crime neighborhoods, and none were associated with exposure to violence. A k means cluster analysis identified groups that differed in coping profiles and varied in rates of exposure to violence. Moderating effects of gender, ethnicity, and neighborhood were found for both person level and variable level analyses.

  18. Neighborhood Variation in Gang Member Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Charles M.; Schnebly, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighborhood structure, violent crime, and concentrations of gang members at the neighborhood level. We rely on official police gang list data, police crime data, and two waves of decennial census data characterizing the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of 93 neighborhoods in Mesa, Arizona.…

  19. Evaluation of the Urban Crime Prevention Program. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Janice A.; Cook, Royer F.

    The Urban Crime Prevention Program (UCPP) was designed to combat urban crime through the establishment of 85 innovative neighborhood-based crime prevention projects across nine cities for 18 months. UCPP's main goals were to increase citizen participation in innovative neighborhood crime prevention efforts, to bolster the capabilities of…

  20. High Anxiety: Fear of Crime in Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Joan

    1980-01-01

    Fear of crime in schools has become a special concern since the mid-1960s. Important research into the effects of "fear of crime" on the student population includes data gathered as part of the National Institute of Education's Violent Schools--Safe Schools Study. (JN)

  1. Everyday Life in Two High-Risk Neighborhoods: Growing Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    The mainstream economy and culture are unable to compete with the money, respect, and identity that selling crack offers. The infiltration of organized crime and narco-dollars into the local economy, the inadequacy of entry-level wages, and the breakdown of basic public services have created a new kind of poverty. (CJS)

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence in highly observant Jewish neighborhoods in metropolitan New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Laura E; Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J; Kahn, Amy R; Weinstein, Aura L; Qiao, Baozhen; McLaughlin, Colleen C

    2011-11-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence in New York State has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly in New York City and its surrounding metropolitan area. In 2007 among white non-Hispanics, incidence rates were about 40% higher in the New York City metropolitan area than in the rest of the state. Here we explore the extent to which living in neighborhoods with a high percentage of highly observant Jews may be associated with this pattern. We identify neighborhoods with concentrations of highly observant Jewish persons based on the use of Yiddish among children and the location of Orthodox synagogues. Thyroid cancer risk is modeled as a function of living in such a neighborhood, adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. The model was repeated for small (Jewish neighborhoods and downstate New York. A lesser association was found among those who live in neighborhoods of high levels of people born in Russia, Belarus, or Ukraine. Similar elevated rate ratios were seen for small and large tumors in Jewish neighborhoods, providing evidence against differences in diagnostic practices in this group. Smaller tumors were more pronounced among women and persons diagnosed more recently. The associations found do not seem to be diagnostically driven, but rather due to environmental, genetic, or cultural factors in the highly observant population of New York State.

  3. Disparities in neighborhood food environments: implications of measurement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Michael D M; Purciel, Marnie; Yousefzadeh, Paulette; Neckerman, Kathryn M

    2010-01-01

    Public health researchers have begun to map the neighborhood “food environment” and examine its association with the risk of overweight and obesity. Some argue that “food deserts”—areas with little or no provision of fresh produce and other healthy food—may contribute to disparities in obesity, diabetes, and related health problems. While research on neighborhood food environments has taken advantage of more technically sophisticated ways to assess distance and density, in general, it has not considered how individual or neighborhood conditions might modify physical distance and thereby affect patterns of spatial accessibility. This study carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to illustrate the effects on the measurement of disparities in food environments of adjusting for cross-neighborhood variation in vehicle ownership rates, public transit access, and impediments to pedestrian travel, such as crime and poor traffic safety. The analysis used geographic information systems data for New York City supermarkets, fruit and vegetable markets, and farmers' markets and employed both kernel density and distance measures. We found that adjusting for vehicle ownership and crime tended to increase measured disparities in access to supermarkets by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income, while adjusting for public transit and traffic safety tended to narrow these disparities. Further, considering fruit and vegetable markets and farmers' markets, as well as supermarkets, increased the density of healthy food outlets, especially in neighborhoods with high concentrations of Hispanics, Asians, and foreign-born residents and in high-poverty neighborhoods.

  4. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  5. Cyber Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正With the popularization of Internet,cyber crimes have be-come a serious problem facing us.Nowadays cyber criminalsseem to be everywhere on the Internet.To illustrate,somecommit fraud or lift intellectual property,others snatch pass-words or disrupt e-commerce,and still others unleash virusesto crash computers.As a result,these crimes destroy net-work security greatly and make computer users suffer great losses.However,we shouldn't tolerate these cyber criminals any more.It's high timefor us to take effective measures to fight against cyber crimes.

  6. Repeat Victimization in a High-Risk Neighborhood Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Huizinga, David

    2001-01-01

    Used longitudinal Denver Youth Survey data to examine repeat victimization and concentration of victimization among a relatively few high-frequency victims and intermittency of victimization in a sample of adolescents in a high-risk neighborhood. Chronic, multiple, intermittent victimization was the usual pattern among respondents. Men had higher…

  7. More neighborhood retail associated with lower obesity among New York City public high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Michael D M; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher C; Richards, Catherine A; Quinn, James W; Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-09-01

    Policies target fast food outlets to curb adolescent obesity. We argue that researchers should examine the entire retail ecology of neighborhoods, not just fast food outlets. We examine the association between the neighborhood retail environment and obesity using Fitnessgram data collected from 94,348 New York City public high school students. In generalized hierarchical linear models, the number of fast food restaurants predicted lower odds of obesity for adolescents (OR:0.972 per establishment; CI:0.957-0.988). In a "placebo test" we found that banks--a measure of neighborhood retail ecology--also predicted lower obesity (OR:0.979 per bank; CI:0.962-0.994). Retail disinvestment might be associated with greater obesity; accordingly, public health research should study the influence of general retail disinvestment not just food-specific investment.

  8. Effect of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED Measures on Active Living and Fear of Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED has become a popular urban planning approach to preventing crime and mitigating fear of crime through the improvement of physical neighborhood environments. CPTED is widely used to improve deteriorated neighborhoods that suffer from crime. However, few studies have empirically examined the complex relationships among CPTED, fear of crime, and active living. Our study, therefore, investigated the effects of CPTED measures on walking frequency and fear of crime, analyzing behavioral data of residents living in participatory neighborhood regeneration areas and matched neighborhoods. We analyzed survey data from 12 neighborhoods that implemented CPTED approaches and 12 matched neighborhoods in Seoul, Korea, using structural equation modeling, which could consistently estimate complex direct and indirect relationships between a latent variable (fear of crime and observable variables (CPTED measures and walking frequency. We designed the survey instrument as a smartphone app. Participants were recruited from 102 locations within the 24 selected neighborhoods; in total, 623 individuals returned surveys. The results revealed that sufficient closed-circuit television, street lighting, and maintenance played a significant role in mitigating fear of crime. This study has implications for planning and policy issues related to CPTED, mental health, and active living.

  9. Moving and the Neighborhood Glass Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, R. J

    2012-01-01

    .... From Victorian London to present-day America, research has shown links between neighborhood poverty and outcomes such as crime, economic dependency, poor physical health, teenage pregnancy, and school dropout...

  10. Attempted crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kalneja, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor paper is "Attempted Crime." Attempted crime is unfinished criminal offense and the person carrying out an attempted crime threat to the interests protected by the Criminal Law. In the Judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offenses, preparation for a crime. The judicial practice, there are problems of crime attempt qualification, distinguishing between the completed offense, preparation for a crime....

  11. Perceived neighborhood safety and incident mobility disability among elders: the hazards of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime, or living in high crime neighborhoods was associated with incident mobility disability in elderly populations. We hypothesized that low-income elders and elders at retirement age (65 – 74 would be at greatest risk of mobility disability onset in the face of perceived or measured crime-related safety hazards. Methods We conducted the study in the New Haven Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE, a longitudinal cohort study of community-dwelling elders aged 65 and older who were residents of New Haven, Connecticut in 1982. Elders were interviewed beginning in 1982 to assess mobility (ability to climb stairs and walk a half mile, perceptions of their neighborhood safety due to crime, annual household income, lifestyle characteristics (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and the presence of chronic co-morbid conditions. Additionally, we collected baseline data on neighborhood crime events from the New Haven Register newspaper in 1982 to measure local area crime rates at the census tract level. Results At baseline in 1982, 1,884 elders were without mobility disability. After 8 years of follow-up, perceiving safety hazards was associated with increased risk of mobility disability among elders at retirement age whose incomes were below the federal poverty line (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02 – 2.37. No effect of perceived safety hazards was found among elders at retirement age whose incomes were above the poverty line. No effect of living in neighborhoods with high crime rates (measured by newspaper reports was found in any sub-group. Conclusion Perceiving a safety hazard due to neighborhood crime was associated with increased risk of incident mobility disability among impoverished elders near retirement age. Consistent with prior literature, retirement age appears to be a vulnerable period with respect to the effect of

  12. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  13. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  14. Trying to make things right: adherence work in high-poverty, African American neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senteio, Charles; Veinot, Tiffany

    2014-12-01

    Adherence to treatment recommendations for chronic diseases is notoriously low across all patient populations. But African American patients, who are more likely to live in low-income neighborhoods and to have multiple chronic conditions, are even less likely to follow medical recommendations. Yet we know little about their contextually embedded, adherence-related experiences. We interviewed individuals (n = 37) with at least two of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Using an "invisible work" theoretical framework, we outline the adherence work that arose in patients' common life circumstances. We found five types: constantly searching for better care, stretching medications, eating what I know, keeping myself alive, and trying to make it right. Adherence work was effortful, challenging, and addressed external contingencies present in high-poverty African American neighborhoods. This work was invisible within the health care system because participants lacked ongoing, trusting relationships with providers and rarely discussed challenges with them.

  15. Crimes and the Bell Curve: The Role of People with High, Average, and Low Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan, Nik Ahmad Sufian; Kurniawan, Yohan; Sidek, Abdul Halim; Mohamad, Mohd Rosli

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines whether crime rates can be reduced by increasing the IQ of people with high, average, and low IQ. Previous studies have shown that as a determinant of the national level of income per capita growth and technological achievement, the IQ of the intellectual class (those at the 95th percentile of the Bell curve distribution of population intelligence) is more important than the IQ of those with average ability at the 50th percentile. Extending these findings, our study...

  16. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  17. Assessing the Role of Context on the Relationship Between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Property Crimes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, Carlos Javier; Allmang, Skye

    2017-01-28

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the association between marijuana use and adolescent crime in developing countries such as Mexico, where crime rates are high and marijuana use is increasing. To examine the association between the frequency of marijuana use and the likelihood of committing of a property crime, and to identify contextual factors explaining individual differences in the likelihood of committing a property crime. The contribution of marijuana use to property crimes was examined based on two nationwide probabilistic surveys of public high school students, using a multilevel mixed effects logistic regression model. Marijuana use significantly increased the odds of committing a property crime. Differences between schools were observed in the random effects of marijuana use, suggesting that the likelihood of committing a property crime was differentially affected by contextual factors. In addition, students who were victims of bullying by peers and who had parents that abused alcohol had higher odds of committing a property crime. Perceived disorder in students' schools and neighborhoods also increased students' odds of reporting that they had committed a property crime. The importance of the effect of school context on the relationship between marijuana use and the commission of a property crime among Mexican public high school students seemed to increase over time. However, these results may also be due to changes in sampling designs over time.

  18. Neighborhood environment and urban African American marijuana use during high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboussin, Beth A; Green, Kerry M; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-12-01

    African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure to drug activity and violence in high-risk urban neighborhoods may be the first step to potentially halt increasing rates of marijuana use among African Americans.

  19. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  20. The Situational Relationship Between Age and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffords, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines one's fear of crime while walking in the neighborhood, and in one's home. Results showed age was positively associated with fear of crime in the former situation, but slightly negatively associated in the latter. Suggested that the aged may only be more fearful of crime in particularly dangerous situations. (JAC)

  1. Hate crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not much interest for the subject of hate crime in our literature. In the article, the author defines hate crime, based on the facts mainly from the Anglosaxon literature, and tries to explain the origin of prejudice. There is a description of factors which can be the cause for these crimes to occur. The author highlights the importance of preventing bias motivated crime. The article ends with some propositions about how to fight hate crimes.

  2. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundArea-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  3. Neighborhood Residents' Production of Order: The Effects of Collective Efficacy on Responses to Neighborhood Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, William; Schafer, Joseph A.; Varano, Sean P.; Bynum, Timothy S.

    2006-01-01

    Community policing agencies seek to engage communities to build working partnerships, solicit the input of neighborhood residents, and stimulate informal control of crime. A common barrier to these efforts is a lack of citizen participation. The purpose of this article is to assess the relationship between neighborhood-level variables and citizen…

  4. From Bad to Worse: How Changing Inequality in Nearby Areas Impacts Local Crime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John R. Hipp; Charis E. Kubrin

    2017-01-01

    Recognition is growing that criminogenic neighborhood effects may not end at the borders of local communities, that neighborhoods are located relative to one another in ways that shape local crime rates...

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    individuals, i.e. high-tenure workers with strong attachment to their firm, who lose employment during a mass-layoff event. Pre-displacement data suggests no evidence of endogenous selection of workers for displacement during mass-layoffs: displaced workers’ propensity to commit crime exhibits...... theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  6. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    promote evidence-based crime and violence reduction policies and strategies. ... South Africa's high violent crime rates are ... economic deprivation are strongly associated.9 .... To estimate the relative poverty of a precinct compared.

  7. Perceived insecurity and fear of crime in a city with low crime rates

    OpenAIRE

    Valera, Sergi; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Fear of crime is one of the most important problems in our cities, even in low-crime rate areas. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the issues involved in the perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime in these contexts using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique. Five hundred and seventyone people living in a working-class neighborhood of Barcelona answered a 45-item questionnaire including the following 7 constructs: perception of insecurity, previous threat expe...

  8. Creating nurturing environments: a science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Living in poverty and living in areas of concentrated poverty pose multiple risks for child development and for overall health and wellbeing. Poverty is a major risk factor for several mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, as well as for other developmental challenges and physical health problems. In this paper, the Promise Neighborhoods Research Consortium describes a science-based framework for the promotion of child health and development within distressed high-poverty neighborhoods. We lay out a model of child and adolescent developmental outcomes and integrate knowledge of potent and malleable influences to define a comprehensive intervention framework to bring about a significant increase in the proportion of young people in high-poverty neighborhoods who will develop successfully. Based on a synthesis of research from diverse fields, we designed the Creating Nurturing Environments framework to guide community-wide efforts to improve child outcomes and reduce health and educational inequalities.

  9. Social Capital and Fear of Crime in Adolescence: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, Alessio; Lenzi, Michela; Roccato, Michele; Russo, Silvia; Monaci, Maria Grazia; Scacchi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relationships between social capital (at the individual, the neighborhood, and the regional levels) and adolescents' fear of crime, while controlling for the main individual (sociodemographics, television viewing, and bullying victimization), neighborhood (neighborhood size and aggregated victimization), and regional (crime rate and level of urbanization) variables. Data were analyzed using a three-level model based on 22,639 15.7-year-old (SD = 0.67) students nested within 1081 neighborhoods and 19 Italian regions. The findings revealed that individual and contextual measures of social capital, modeled at the individual, neighborhood, and regional levels simultaneously, showed negative associations with adolescents' fear of crime. Males and participants with higher family affluence were less likely to feel fear of crime, whereas victimization, both at the individual and neighborhood levels, had a positive association with fear of crime. Strengths, limitations, and potential applications of the study are discussed.

  10. Using administrative data to identify U.S. Army soldiers at high-risk of perpetrating minor violent crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Monahan, John; Street, Amy E; Hill, Eric D; Petukhova, Maria; Reis, Ben Y; Sampson, Nancy A; Benedek, David M; Bliese, Paul; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U.S. Army 2004-2009, among whom 25,966 men and 2728 women committed a first founded minor violent crime (simple assault, blackmail-extortion-intimidation, rioting, harassment). Temporally prior administrative records measuring socio-demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy, and contextual variables were used to build separate male and female prediction models that were then tested in an independent 2011-2013 sample. Final model predictors included young age, low education, early career stage, prior crime involvement, and outpatient treatment for diverse emotional and substance use problems. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (for men and women) in the 2004-2009 training sample and 0.74-0.82 (men-women) in the 2011-2013 test sample. 30.5-28.9% (men-women) of all administratively-recorded crimes in 2004-2009 were committed by the 5% of soldiers having highest predicted risk, with similar proportions (28.5-29.0%) when the 2004-2009 coefficients were applied to the 2011-2013 test sample. These results suggest that it may be possible to target soldiers at high-risk of violence perpetration for preventive interventions, although final decisions about such interventions would require weighing predicted effectiveness against intervention costs and competing risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moving teenagers out of high-risk neighborhoods: how girls fare better than boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampet-Lundquist, Susan; Kling, Jeffrey R; Edin, Kathryn; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    Moving to Opportunity (MTO) offered public housing residents the opportunity to move to low-poverty neighborhoods. Several years later, boys in the experimental group fared no better on measures of risk behavior than their control group counterparts, whereas girls in the experimental group engaged in lower-risk behavior than control group girls. The authors explore these differences by analyzing data from in-depth interviews conducted with 86 teens in Baltimore and Chicago. They find that daily routines, fitting in with neighborhood norms, neighborhood navigation strategies, interactions with peers, friendship making, and distance from father figures may contribute to how girls who moved via MTO benefited more than boys.

  12. Violence, Crime, and Violent Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Felson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available I propose a dual conceptualization of violent crime. Since violent crime is both violence and crime, theories of aggression and deviance are required to understand it. I argue that both harm-doing and rule breaking are instrumental behaviors and that a bounded rational choice approach can account for both behaviors. However, while some of the causes of harm-doing and deviance (and violent and nonviolent crime are the same, some are different. Theories of crime and deviance cannot explain why one only observes individual and group differences in violent crime and theories of aggression and violence cannot explain why one observes differences in all types of crimes. Such theories are “barking up the wrong tree.”

  13. The importance of social context: neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Wells, Kenneth B; Tang, Lingqi; Belin, Thomas R; Zhang, Lily; Sherbourne, Cathy D

    2007-11-01

    This study examines the relationship among neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and likelihood of alcohol, drug, and mental health (ADM) disorders in adults from 60 US communities (n=12,716). Research shows that larger support structures may interact with individual support factors to affect mental health, but few studies have explored buffering effects of these neighborhood characteristics. We test a conceptual model that explores effects of neighborhood stressors and stress-buffering mechanisms on ADM disorders. Using Health Care for Communities with census and other data, we found a lower likelihood of disorders in neighborhoods with a greater presence of stress-buffering mechanisms. Higher neighborhood average household occupancy and churches per capita were associated with a lower likelihood of disorders. Cross-level interactions revealed that violence-exposed individuals in high crime neighborhoods are vulnerable to depressive/anxiety disorders. Likewise, individuals with low social support in neighborhoods with high social isolation (i.e., low-average household occupancy) had a higher likelihood of disorders. If replicated by future studies using longitudinal data, our results have implications for policies and programs targeting neighborhoods to reduce ADM disorders.

  14. Self-Exciting Point Process Modeling of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    due to structural prop- erties of a given neighborhood and the latter from behavioral characteristics of individual burglars, police and community re...localized features of neighborhoods , and hence burglary. For all percentages of cells flagged the prospective hotspot map underperforms the point...G., and Ridgeway, G. (2007), “The Impact of Gang Formation on Local Patterns of Crime,” Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency , 44 (2), 208–237

  15. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  16. Youth, Crime and Community Development: A Guide for Collaborative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Richard

    This report is designed to help community-based organizations, youth-serving agencies, and the criminal justice and juvenile justice systems recognize their common stake in supporting healthy and positive youth development, both to revitalize their neighborhoods and to control crime. It focuses on: "The Basics: Youth, Crime and Community…

  17. Banks and the Racial Patterning of Homicide: A Study of Chicago Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Veléz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While bank investment is a driving force behind neighborhood viability, few studies have directly examined the effects of bank loan practices on neighborhood crime rates. This paper proposes that variation in residential bank loans helps explain the higher rates of homicide in minority neighborhoods in Chicago compared to white neighborhoods. It finds that black and Latino neighborhoods would experience fewer homicides if more financial capital were infused into these neighborhoods. These findings suggest that neighborhoods are shaped profoundly by the decisions of external economic actors.

  18. [Crime prevention in high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders with paraphilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Chiho; Oda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Masaharu; Ariki, Nagako; Hasaba, Miho; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Paraphilia refers to occasional concomitant disorders of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). When a restricted interest of PDD is focused on a sexual object, paraphilia may be develop as a problematic symptom. However, having this concomitant disorder does not always result in criminal behavior. When the social interactivity of a particular patient with PDD is severely impaired, paraphilia could lead to a sex crime. Because pedophilia targets sacrifice innocent and defenseless children, it is critical to prevent such sex crimes by understanding the psychopathology of PDD with paraphilia, especially pedophilia. Two cases of male adolescents with high-functioning PDD and pedophilia were reported; one ended up committing a serious crime, and the other controlled his sexual impulse. The psychopathology of these two cases was similar; however, the outcome turned out to be quite different. The similarity and dissimilarity of these two cases were analyzed. We came to a conclusion that early intervention could be a key to prevent the development of criminal sexual behavior in PDD with paraphilia (pedophilia). Both patients became aware of pedophilia during adolescence and developed a depressive state at the time of consulting our clinic. In the first case, the patient stabbed a woman with a knife. He could not respect other people, including women he was sexually interested in and has always been preoccupied with his own peculiar ideas. He did not listen to other people's opinions and his abnormal thoughts had never been corrected because of his lack of ability to form interpersonal relationships. The second patient could control his sexual impulse. He has an ability to sympathize with the child he is sexually interested in and has confronted his sexual impulses. He could build interpersonal relationship with others and listen to other people's opinions. He made an effort to manage his sexual impulses positively through individual psychotherapy. He was diagnosed at the

  19. Testing a General Model on the Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    1991b) which was later reduced to three categories: 18 to 25, 26 to 35, and over 35. Cow unity Incivility Community incivility was measured by having... work of LaGrange, et al. (1992), who informed the necessary link between perceived incivilities , perceived crime seriousness, and fear. The test of the...the differential effects of victimization, perceived community incivilities , and perceived crime seriousness in the neighborhood on fear of crime at two

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Reliance on the Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Lonnie M.; Hughes, Lorine A.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary theories suggest that, due to limited access and generalized distrust, residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods are relatively unlikely to report matters to police. Although existing studies reveal few ecological differences in crime reporting, findings may be limited to victim/offense subsets represented in aggregated victimization…

  1. The Geography of Transit Crime: Documentation and Evaluation of Crime Incidence on and around the Green Line Stations in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Liggett, Robert; Hiseki, Hiroyuki

    2002-01-01

    The link between the social and physical environment and transit crime is an important one, but is not well understood or explored. This study explores the environment - transit crime connection by examining in-depth the relation between crime incidence at the stations and their neighborhoods. The study employs a mix of qualitative and quantitative methodologies to analyze crime statistics, census and ridership data, and built environment data. It documents and evaluates the geography of crim...

  2. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  3. Human Mobility in Large Cities as a Proxy for Crime

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha, Carlos; Pequeno, Tarcisio H C; Ponte, Caio; Melo, Hygor P M; Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate at the subscale of the neighborhoods of a highly populated city the incidence of property crimes in terms of both the resident and the floating population. Our results show that a relevant allometric relation could only be observed between property crimes and floating population. More precisely, the evidence of a superlinear behavior indicates that a disproportional number of property crimes occurs in regions where an increased flow of people takes place in the city. For comparison, we also found that the number of crimes of peace disturbance only correlates well, and in a superlinear fashion too, with the resident population. Our study raises the interesting possibility that the superlinearity observed in previous studies [Bettencourt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7301 (2007) and Melo et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 6239 (2014)] for homicides versus population at the city scale could have its origin in the fact that the floating population, and not the resident one, should be taken as the relev...

  4. Human mobility in large cities as a proxy for crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Carlos; Furtado, Vasco; Pequeno, Tarcisio H. C.; Ponte, Caio; Melo, Hygor P. M.; Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate at the subscale of the neighborhoods of a highly populated city the incidence of property crimes in terms of both the resident and the floating population. Our results show that a relevant allometric relation could only be observed between property crimes and floating population. More precisely, the evidence of a superlinear behavior indicates that a disproportional number of property crimes occurs in regions where an increased flow of people takes place in the city. For comparison, we also found that the number of crimes of peace disturbance only correlates well, and in a superlinear fashion too, with the resident population. Our study raises the interesting possibility that the superlinearity observed in previous studies [Bettencourt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 7301 (2007) and Melo et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 6239 (2014)] for homicides versus population at the city scale could have its origin in the fact that the floating population, and not the resident one, should be taken as the relevant variable determining the intrinsic microdynamical behavior of the system. PMID:28158268

  5. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-04-01

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  6. Is the density of alcohol establishments related to nonviolent crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Lenk, Kathleen M; Ecklund, Alexandra M

    2012-01-01

    We examined the associations between the density of alcohol establishments and five types of nonviolent crime across urban neighborhoods. Data from the city of Minneapolis, MN, in 2009 were aggregated and analyzed at the neighborhood level. We examined the association between alcohol establishment density and five categories of nonviolent crime: vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, and underage alcohol possession/consumption. A Bayesian approach was used for model estimation accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant neighborhood demographics. Models were estimated for total alcohol establishment density and then separately for off-premise establishments (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premise establishments (e.g., bars and restaurants). We found positive associations between density and each crime category. The association was strongest for public consumption and weakest for vandalism. We estimated that a 3.3%-10.9% increase across crime categories would result from a 20% increase in neighborhood establishment density. Similar results were seen for on- and off-premise establishments, although the strength of the associations was lower for off-premise density. Our results indicate that communities should consider the potential increase in nonviolent crime associated with an increase in the number of alcohol establishments within neighborhoods.

  7. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  8. Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Amy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. Methods Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel models, this paper explored the relevance of four spatial violent crime exposures: two proximal violent crime categorizations (count of violent crime within a one-half mile radius of maternal residence and distance from maternal residence to nearest violent crime and two area-level crime categorizations (count of violent crimes within a block group and block group rate of violent crimes for adverse birth events among women in living in the city of Raleigh NC crime report area in 1999–2001. Models were adjusted for maternal age and education and area-level deprivation. Results In black and white non-Hispanic race-stratified models, crime characterized as a proximal exposure was not able to distinguish between women experiencing adverse and women experiencing normal birth outcomes. Violent crime characterized as a neighborhood attribute was positively associated with preterm birth and low birth weight among non-Hispanic white and black women. No statistically significant interaction between area-deprivation and violent crime category was observed. Conclusion Crime is variably categorized in the literature, with little rationale provided for crime type or categorization employed. This research represents the first time multiple crime categorizations have been directly compared in association with health outcomes. Finding an effect of area-level violent crime suggests crime may best be characterized as a neighborhood attribute with important implication for adverse birth outcomes.

  9. Neighborhood disorder and screen time among 10-16 year old Canadian youth: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Screen time activities (e.g., television, computers, video games) have been linked to several negative health outcomes among young people. In order to develop evidence-based interventions to reduce screen time, the factors that influence the behavior need to be better understood. High neighborhood disorder, which may encourage young people to stay indoors where screen time activities are readily available, is one potential factor to consider. Methods Results are based on 15,917 youth in grades 6-10 (aged 10-16 years old) who participated in the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC). Total hours per week of television, video games, and computer use were reported by the participating students in the HBSC student questionnaire. Ten items of neighborhood disorder including safety, neighbors taking advantage, drugs/drinking in public, ethnic tensions, gangs, crime, conditions of buildings/grounds, abandoned buildings, litter, and graffiti were measured using the HBSC student questionnaire, the HBSC administrator questionnaire, and Geographic Information Systems. Based upon these 10 items, social and physical neighborhood disorder variables were derived using principal component analysis. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between social and physical neighborhood disorder and individual screen time variables. Results High (top quartile) social neighborhood disorder was associated with approximately 35-45% increased risk of high (top quartile) television, computer, and video game use. Physical neighborhood disorder was not associated with screen time activities after adjusting for social neighborhood disorder. However, high social and physical neighborhood disorder combined was associated with approximately 40-60% increased likelihood of high television, computer, and video game use. Conclusion High neighborhood disorder is one environmental factor that may be important

  10. Neighborhood disorder and screen time among 10-16 year old Canadian youth: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Janssen, Ian

    2012-05-31

    Screen time activities (e.g., television, computers, video games) have been linked to several negative health outcomes among young people. In order to develop evidence-based interventions to reduce screen time, the factors that influence the behavior need to be better understood. High neighborhood disorder, which may encourage young people to stay indoors where screen time activities are readily available, is one potential factor to consider. Results are based on 15,917 youth in grades 6-10 (aged 10-16 years old) who participated in the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC). Total hours per week of television, video games, and computer use were reported by the participating students in the HBSC student questionnaire. Ten items of neighborhood disorder including safety, neighbors taking advantage, drugs/drinking in public, ethnic tensions, gangs, crime, conditions of buildings/grounds, abandoned buildings, litter, and graffiti were measured using the HBSC student questionnaire, the HBSC administrator questionnaire, and Geographic Information Systems. Based upon these 10 items, social and physical neighborhood disorder variables were derived using principal component analysis. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between social and physical neighborhood disorder and individual screen time variables. High (top quartile) social neighborhood disorder was associated with approximately 35-45% increased risk of high (top quartile) television, computer, and video game use. Physical neighborhood disorder was not associated with screen time activities after adjusting for social neighborhood disorder. However, high social and physical neighborhood disorder combined was associated with approximately 40-60% increased likelihood of high television, computer, and video game use. High neighborhood disorder is one environmental factor that may be important to consider for future public health

  11. Neighborhood disorder and screen time among 10-16 year old Canadian youth: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Valerie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screen time activities (e.g., television, computers, video games have been linked to several negative health outcomes among young people. In order to develop evidence-based interventions to reduce screen time, the factors that influence the behavior need to be better understood. High neighborhood disorder, which may encourage young people to stay indoors where screen time activities are readily available, is one potential factor to consider. Methods Results are based on 15,917 youth in grades 6-10 (aged 10-16 years old who participated in the Canadian 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC. Total hours per week of television, video games, and computer use were reported by the participating students in the HBSC student questionnaire. Ten items of neighborhood disorder including safety, neighbors taking advantage, drugs/drinking in public, ethnic tensions, gangs, crime, conditions of buildings/grounds, abandoned buildings, litter, and graffiti were measured using the HBSC student questionnaire, the HBSC administrator questionnaire, and Geographic Information Systems. Based upon these 10 items, social and physical neighborhood disorder variables were derived using principal component analysis. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between social and physical neighborhood disorder and individual screen time variables. Results High (top quartile social neighborhood disorder was associated with approximately 35-45% increased risk of high (top quartile television, computer, and video game use. Physical neighborhood disorder was not associated with screen time activities after adjusting for social neighborhood disorder. However, high social and physical neighborhood disorder combined was associated with approximately 40-60% increased likelihood of high television, computer, and video game use. Conclusion High neighborhood disorder is one environmental

  12. Parental Involvement Across Middle and High School: Exploring Contributions of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Sakshi; Witherspoon, Dawn P

    2015-09-01

    Parental involvement in education is crucial during adolescence when grades decline and youth autonomy increases. This study examined parental involvement trajectories from 7th to 11th grade and explored whether individual and neighborhood characteristics affected this change. European American and African American (66 %) families participated (N = 1377, primary caregivers: 92 % female; adolescents: 51 % male, initial age range: 11-14). Results showed that, over time, parents reduced home- and school-based involvement but consistently engaged in academic socialization. Individual and neighborhood characteristics contributed differentially to parental involvement trajectories. These findings suggest that parental investment in adolescents' education persists during this critical developmental period, but individual and contextual differences impact the use of these strategies, which has implications for family-school partnerships and interventions.

  13. Association Between Neighborhood Violence and Biological Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theall, Katherine P.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Dismukes, Andrew R.; Wallace, Maeve; Drury, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    of violent crime in a 500-m radius of a child’s home (β [SE], −0.006 [0.002]; P < .001). Children exposed to more liquor and convenience stores within 500 m of their home were significantly less likely to reduce cortisol levels after a reactivity test (β, 0.029; P = .047), as were children exposed to high rates of domestic violence (β, 0.088; P = .12) and violent crime (β. 0.029; P = .006). Children exposed to more liquor and convenience stores within 500 m of their home had a steeper diurnal decline in cortisol levels during the day (β [SE], −0.002 [0.001]; P = .04), as did children exposed to more violent crime within 500 m of their home (β [SE] −0.032 [0.014]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Neighborhoods are important targets for interventions to reduce the effect of exposure to violence in the lives of children. These findings provide the first evidence that objective exposures to neighborhood-level violence influence both physiological and cellular markers of stress, even in children. PMID:27842189

  14. Forced Displacement From Rental Housing: Prevalence and Neighborhood Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Matthew; Shollenberger, Tracey

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on novel survey data of Milwaukee renters, this study documents the prevalence of involuntary displacement from housing and estimates its consequences for neighborhood selection. More than one in eight Milwaukee renters experienced an eviction or other kind of forced move in the previous two years. Multivariate analyses suggest that renters who experienced a forced move relocate to poorer and higher-crime neighborhoods than those who move under less-demanding circumstances. By providing evidence implying that involuntary displacement is a critical yet overlooked mechanism of neighborhood inequality, this study helps to clarify why some city dwellers live in much worse neighborhoods than their peers.

  15. Identification of contrastive and comparable school neighborhoods for childhood obesity and physical activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Katherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neighborhood social and physical environments are considered significant factors contributing to children's inactive lifestyles, poor eating habits, and high levels of childhood obesity. Understanding of neighborhood environmental profiles is needed to facilitate community-based research and the development and implementation of community prevention and intervention programs. We sought to identify contrastive and comparable districts for childhood obesity and physical activity research studies. We have applied GIS technology to manipulate multiple data sources to generate objective and quantitative measures of school neighborhood-level characteristics for school-based studies. GIS technology integrated data from multiple sources (land use, traffic, crime, and census tract and available social and built environment indicators theorized to be associated with childhood obesity and physical activity. We used network analysis and geoprocessing tools within a GIS environment to integrate these data and to generate objective social and physical environment measures for school districts. We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to categorize school district groups according to their neighborhood characteristics. We tested the utility of the area characterizations by using them to select comparable and contrastive schools for two specific studies. Results We generated school neighborhood-level social and built environment indicators for all 412 Chicago public elementary school districts. The combination of GIS and cluster analysis allowed us to identify eight school neighborhoods that were contrastive and comparable on parameters of interest (land use and safety for a childhood obesity and physical activity study. Conclusion The combination of GIS and cluster analysis makes it possible to objectively characterize urban neighborhoods and to select comparable and/or contrasting neighborhoods for community-based health studies.

  16. Crime scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the significance of locations in TV series, in particular in crime series. The author presents different theoretical approaches on settings and landscapes in TV series and crime stories. By analysing both the Swedish and the British versions...... of the Wallander series, the author examines the various types of location used, focusing especially on their dramaturgic and aesthetic roles and on the various ways in which locations are conceptualized in the two series. The analysis also includes extra materials on the DVDs. Finally, the author discusses some...... theoretical and methodological challenges of analysing the significance and impact of locations in TV productions....

  17. The effects of social capital and neighborhood characteristics on intimate partner violence: a consideration of social resources and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Maritt; Lazgare, Luis Palma; Zhang, Yu Janice; O'Campo, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a growing public health problem, and gaps exist in knowledge with respect to appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of research evidence suggests that beyond individual factors (e.g., socio-economic status, psychological processes, substance abuse problems), neighborhood characteristics, such as neighborhood economic disadvantage, high crime rates, high unemployment and social disorder, are associated with increased risk for IPV. However, existing research in this area has focused primarily on risk factors inherent in neighborhoods, and has failed to adequately examine resources within social networks and neighborhoods that may buffer or prevent the occurrence of IPV. This study examines the effects of neighborhood characteristics, such as economic disadvantage and disorder, and individual and neighborhood resources, such as social capital, on IPV among a representative sample of 2412 residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Using a population based sample of 2412 randomly selected Toronto adults with comprehensive neighborhood level data on a broad set of characteristics, we conducted multi-level modeling to examine the effects of individual- and neighborhood-level effects on IPV outcomes. We also examined protective factors through a comprehensive operationalization of the concept of social capital, involving neighborhood collective efficacy, community group participation, social network structure and social support. Findings show that residents who were involved in one or more community groups in the last 12 months and had high perceived neighborhood problems were more likely to have experienced physical IPV. Residents who had high perceived social support and low perceived neighborhood problems were less likely to experience non-physical IPV. These relationships did not differ by neighborhood income or gender. Findings suggest interesting contextual effects of social capital on IPV. Consistent with

  18. True Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyer Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This poem is a creative response to contemporary true crime narratives about baby farming in Victorian times, namely Alison Rattle and Allison Vale’s The Woman Who Murdered Babies for Money: The Story of Amelia Dyer (London: André Deutsch, 2011; and the TV documentary, “Amelia Dyer: Martina Cole’s Lady Killers.”

  19. Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Sallis, James F; Deforche, Benedicte; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2013-03-21

    The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix - diversity, land use mix - access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 -0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 -0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. The NEWS-Nigeria demonstrated acceptable measurement

  20. Availability of Medical and Recreational Marijuana Stores and Neighborhood Characteristics in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the availability of marijuana stores in Colorado and associations with neighborhood characteristics. Methods. The addresses for 650 medical and recreational marijuana stores were geocoded and linked to the characteristics of 1249 census tracts in Colorado. Accounting for spatial autocorrelations, autologistic regressions were used to quantify the associations of census tract socioeconomic characteristics with the availability of marijuana stores. Results. Regardless of store types, marijuana stores were more likely to locate in neighborhoods that had a lower proportion of young people, had a higher proportion of racial and ethnic minority population, had a lower household income, had a higher crime rate, or had a greater density of on-premise alcohol outlets. The availability of medical and recreational marijuana stores was differentially correlated with household income and racial and ethnic composition. Conclusions. Neighborhood disparities existed in the availability of marijuana stores, and associations between availability of stores and neighborhood characteristics varied by store types. This study highlighted the need for regulatory measures to prevent marijuana related outcomes in high risk neighborhoods.

  1. How much choice is there in housing choice vouchers? Neighborhood risk and free market rental housing accessibility for active drug users in Hartford, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convey Mark

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid-1970s, the dominant model for U.S. federal housing policy has shifted from unit-based programs to tenant based vouchers and certificates, intended to allow recipients a choice in their housing and neighborhoods. Surprisingly little research has examined the question of where those with Section 8 housing vouchers are able to live, but some research suggests that voucher holders are more likely to reside in distressed neighborhoods than unsubsidized renter households. Further, federal housing policy has limited drug users' access to housing subsidies. In turn, neighborhood disorder has been associated with higher levels of injection drug risk behaviors, and higher drug-related mortality. This paper explores rental accessibility and neighborhood characteristics of advertised rental housing in Hartford CT. Methods Brief telephone interviews were conducted with landlords or management companies with units to rent in Hartford to explore housing accessibility measured as initial move in costs, credit and criminal background checks, and whether rental subsidies were accepted. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with landlords, shelter staff and active users of heroin, crack or cocaine. Apartments for rent were geocoded and mapped using ArcGIS. We used location quotients to identify areas where low-income rental housing is concentrated. Finally, we mapped apartments in relation to drug and violent arrest rates in each neighborhood. Results High security deposits, criminal background and credit checks limit housing accessibility even for drug users receiving vouchers. While most landlords or management companies accepted housing subsidies, several did not. Voucher units are concentrated in neighborhoods with high poverty neighborhoods. Landlords reported little incentive to accept rental subsidies in neighborhoods with low crime rates, but appreciated the guarantee provided by Section 8 in high crime

  2. Spectral Difference in the Image Domain for Large Neighborhoods, a GEOBIA Pre-Processing Step for High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeland de Kok

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrast plays an important role in the visual interpretation of imagery. To mimic visual interpretation and using contrast in a Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA environment, it is useful to consider an analysis for single pixel objects. This should be done before applying homogeneity criteria in the aggregation of pixels for the construction of meaningful image objects. The habit or “best practice” to start GEOBIA with pixel aggregation into homogeneous objects should come with the awareness that feature attributes for single pixels are at risk of becoming less accessible for further analysis. Single pixel contrast with image convolution on close neighborhoods is a standard technique, also applied in edge detection. This study elaborates on the analysis of close as well as much larger neighborhoods inside the GEOBIA domain. The applied calculations are limited to the first segmentation step for single pixel objects in order to produce additional feature attributes for objects of interest to be generated in further aggregation processes. The equation presented functions at a level that is considered an intermediary product in the sequential processing of imagery. The procedure requires intensive processor and memory capacity. The resulting feature attributes highlight not only contrasting pixels (edges but also contrasting areas of local pixel groups. The suggested approach can be extended and becomes useful in classifying artificial areas at national scales using high resolution satellite mosaics.

  3. Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: the importance of formal and informal social controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, David; Groff, Elizabeth R; Yang, Sue-Ming

    2014-02-01

    Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs that address opportunity or structural factors related to crime are usually delivered to entire cities, sections of cities or to specific neighborhoods, but our results indicate geographically targeting these programs to specific street segments may increase their efficacy. We link crime incidents to over 24,000 street segments (the two block faces on a street between two intersections) over a 16-year period, and identify distinct developmental patterns of crime at street segments using group-based trajectory analysis. One of these patterns, which we term chronic crime hot spots, includes just 1 % of street segments but is associated with 23 % of crime in the city during the study period. We then employ multinomial regression to identify the specific risk and protective factors that are associated with these crime hot spots. We find that both situational opportunities and social characteristics of places strongly distinguish chronic crime hot spots from areas with little crime. Our findings support recent efforts to decrease crime opportunities at crime hot spots through programs like hot spots policing, but they also suggest that social interventions directed at crime hot spots will be important if we are to do something about crime problems in the long run. We argue in concluding that micro level programs which focus crime prevention efforts on specific street segments have the potential to be less costly and more effective than those targeted at larger areas such as communities or neighborhoods.

  4. Does Religious Involvement Generate or Inhibit Fear of Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In victimology, fear of crime is understood as an emotional response to the perceived threat of crime. Fear of crime has been found to be affected by several variables besides local crime rates and personal experiences with victimization. This study examines the relationship between religion and fear of crime, an underexplored topic in the criminological literature. This gap is rather surprising given the central role religion has been found to play in shaping the attitudes and perceptions of congregants. In particular, religion has been found to foster generalized trust, which should engender lower levels of distrust or misanthropy, including that which is directed towards a general fear of crime. OLS regression was performed using data from the West Georgia Area Survey (n = 380. Controlling for demographic, community involvement, and political ideology variables, frequency of religious attendance was significantly and negatively associated with fear of property crime. This relationship remained even after a perceived neighborhood safety variable was introduced to the model. However, religious attendance was not significantly related to fear of violent crime, and religious orientation was unrelated to fear of property and violent crime. These results suggest that religious involvement conditionally reduces fear of crime, and the authors recommend that future research explore relationships between religion and fear of crime.

  5. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  6. Linking Neighborhood Characteristics and Drug-Related Police Interventions: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552, providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.

  7. Social Disadvantage and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H.; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features – i.e., their exposure – which leads to their interaction. PMID:27524829

  8. NEIGHBORHOOD POVERTY AND NONMARITAL FERTILITY: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced this risk. The effect of local neighborhood poverty was especially pronounced when surrounding neighborhoods were economically advantaged. Measuring e...

  9. The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics and Parenting Practices on Academic Problems and Aggression Outcomes among Moderately to Highly Aggressive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D.; Lochman, John E.; Fite, Paula J.; Wells, Karen C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to examine the effects of neighborhood and parenting on 120 at-risk children's academic and aggressive outcomes, concurrently and at two later timepoints during the transition to middle school. Random effects regression models were estimated to examine whether neighborhood characteristics and harsh…

  10. Crime As Entertainment or Entertainment as A Crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Article presents one part of pop culture is crime portrayed as entertainment in television shows. Television has the means of information and entertainment, resulting in the shift of crime shows, initially crime was portrayed in the news but due to the high popularity, it becomes part of the entertainment as well. In terms of information, the most famous of crime drama show is Crime Scene Investigation (CSI, and this show gave effect known as the CSI effect, which is people have more appreciation to scientific evidences and DNA testing in trials. On the other hand, with so many shows involving crime resulting in cultivation impact, which is accumulation and the formation of perception of reality. People who are more exposed to this crime show will form the same perception as the one depicted by television and resulted to changes in their behavior. Several proposals to reduce this negative effects are audience learning, the use of rating system and electronic key in television set.  

  11. Crime and Mental Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Cornaglia, Francesca; Naomi E. Feldman; Leigh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence of crime's impact on the mental wellbeing of both victims and non-victims. We differentiate between the direct impact to victims and the indirect impact to society due to the fear of crime. The results show a decrease in mental wellbeing after violent crime victimization and that the violent crime rate has a negative impact on mental wellbeing of non-victims. Property crime victimization and property crime rates show no such comparable impact. Finally, we estimat...

  12. Hating the Neighbors: The Role of Hate Crime in the Perpetuation of Black Residential Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami M. Lynch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in group conflict theory and the defended neighborhoods thesis, this nationwide empirical study of cities and their residential segregation levels examines the occurrence of hate crime using data for all U.S. cities with populations over 95,000 and Uniform Crime Reporting data for hate crime, in conjunction with 2000 census data. Hate crime is any illegal act motivated by pre-formed bias against, in this case, a person’s real or perceived race. This research asks: Do hate crime levels predict white/black segregation levels? How does hate crime predict different measures of white/black segregation? I use the dissimilarity index measure of segregation operationalized as a continuous, binary, and ordinal variable, to explore whether hate crime predicts segrega- tion of blacks from whites. In cities with higher rates of hate crime there was higher dissimilarity between whites and blacks, controlling for other factors. The segregation level was more likely to be “high” in a city where hate crime occurred. Blacks are continually multiply disadvantaged and distinctly affected by hate crime and residential segregation. Prior studies of residential segregation have focused almost exclusively on individual choice, residents’ lack of finances, or discriminatory actions that prevent racial minorities from moving, to explore the correlates of segregation. Notably absent from these studies are measures reflecting the level of hate crime occurring in cities. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hate crime and neighborhood conflict when contemplating the causes of residential segregation.

  13. Fear of Crime among the Elderly: The Role of Crime Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Lee; Courlander, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effect of police patrol and crime education on the fear of crime and security-conscious behavior of 152 senior citizens. Results indicated that, although those who were highly affected by the crime education component exhibited increased security-conscious behavior, they also showed increased fear. (Author)

  14. Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: moderation of home neighborhood influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Amrhein, Kelly E; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system in a small Midwestern city on their perceptions of their home neighborhood and self-reported delinquency. While perceptions of several home neighborhood characteristics significantly predicted severity of delinquency for all respondents, neighborhood effects were significantly weaker for those adolescents who tended to engage in illegal behaviors outside their home neighborhood. These findings suggest that future research and prevention efforts should include more attention to how adolescents may be influenced by multiple neighborhoods.

  15. Organized crime impact study highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porteous, S.D.

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to address the issue of how organized crime impacts on Canadians and their communities both socially and economically. As far as environmental crime is concerned, three main areas of concern have been identified: (1) illicit trade in ozone depleting substances, (2) illicit hazardous waste treatment, and (3) disposal of illicit trade in endangered species. To gauge the magnitude of organized crime activity, the market value of worldwide illegal trafficking in illicit drugs was estimated to be as high as $100 billion worldwide (between $1.4 to 4 billion in Canada). It is suspected that Canada supplies a substantial portion of the U.S. black market in chlorofluorocarbons with most of the rest being supplied from Mexico. Another area of concern involves the disposal of hazardous wastes. Canada produces approximately 5.9 million tonnes of hazardous waste annually. Of these, 3.2 million tonnes are sent to off-site disposal facilities for specialized treatment and recycling. The treatment of hazardous waste is a very profitable business, hence vulnerable to fraudulent practices engaged in by organized crime groups. Environmental implications of this and other environmental crimes, as well as their economic, commercial, health and safety impact were examined. Other areas of organized crime activity in Canada (drugs, economic crimes, migrant trafficking, counterfeit products, motor vehicle theft, money laundering) were also part of the study.

  16. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...... search....

  17. Fear of Crime Among Military Personnel in Different Residential Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    satisfaction of Accession For the requirements for the degree of I S R DTTC TAB Unanmounced 5 MASTER OF SCIENCE Justification By in Distribution/ Availability...your local police are doing a(n) job ?" 51 4.11 Reporting Crime to Police in Response to: "If you were the victim of any crime would you report it to...the fact that incivility in a neighborhood affects fear levels more than actual crime statistics. There is still some discussion as to whether there is

  18. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  19. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  20. The spatial extent of the effect of foreclosures on crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Seth B; Stucky, Thomas D; Ottensmann, John R

    2015-01-01

    Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches and units of analysis. This variation led us to examine the spatial extent to which foreclosures affect a relatively small surrounding area. In this paper, we consider the spatial extent of the foreclosure effect on crime by estimating fixed effect negative binomial models using geocoded UCR data for 2003-2008 and foreclosure data to predict crime counts using the number of foreclosures within various small area radii. Results show that, independently and jointly, foreclosures are a predictor of crime up to at least a distance of 2250 feet. Importantly, that effect declines with distance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of those findings.

  1. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion.

  2. Relations of Parenting to Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Distress Moderated by Perception of Neighborhood Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan S; Quimby, Dakari; Richards, Maryse H; Zakaryan, Arie; Miller, Steve; Dickson, Daniel; Chilson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Parental monitoring and warmth have traditionally been studied in the context of White, middle-class families. This article explores optimal levels of these parenting behaviors in preventing adolescent psychopathology in impoverished, urban high-crime areas while accounting for child perceptions of neighborhood danger. In this study, data were collected longitudinally at 2 time points 1 year apart from a sample of 254 African American young adolescents (T1: M age = 12.6 years, 41% male) and their parents. Parental monitoring and warmth, child perception of neighborhood danger, and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured using questionnaires. Child internalizing behaviors were also measured using a time sampling technique capturing in vivo accounts of daily distress. Findings indicated associations between parental monitoring and children's externalizing behaviors along with linear and quadratic associations between parental monitoring and internalizing behaviors. Monitoring and warmth were differentially related to symptoms depending on neighborhood danger level. When children perceived less danger, more monitoring related to less externalizing. When children perceived more danger, more warmth related to less internalizing. In addition, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood danger emerged as equally strong as monitoring and warmth in predicting symptoms. This study underscores the influence of carefully considering parenting approaches and which techniques optimally prevent adolescents' externalizing, as well as prevent internalizing difficulties. It also highlights how context affects mental health, specifically how perceptions of danger negatively influence adolescents' psychopathology, emphasizing the importance of initiatives to reduce violence in communities.

  3. Quantitative assessment of similarity between randomly acquired characteristics on high quality exemplars and crime scene impressions via analysis of feature size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetelli, Nicole; Nobel, Madonna; Bodziak, William J; Speir, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    Forensic footwear evidence can prove invaluable to the resolution of a criminal investigation. Naturally, the value of a comparison varies with the rarity of the evidence, which is a function of both manufactured as well as randomly acquired characteristics (RACs). When focused specifically on the latter of these two types of features, empirical evidence demonstrates high discriminating power for the differentiation of known match and known non-match samples when presented with exemplars of high quality and exhibiting a sufficient number of clear and complex RACs. However, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the media, substrate, and deposition process encountered during the commission of a crime, RACs on crime scene prints are expected to exhibit a large range of variability in terms of reproducibility, clarity, and quality. Although the pattern recognition skill of the expert examiner is adept at recognizing and evaluating this type of natural variation, there is little research to suggest that objective and numerical metrics can globally process this variation when presented with RACs from degraded crime scene quality prints. As such, the goal of this study was to mathematically compare the loss and similarity of RACs in high quality exemplars versus crime-scene-like quality impressions as a function of RAC shape, perimeter, area, and common source. Results indicate that the unpredictable conditions associated with crime scene print production promotes RAC loss that varies between 33% and 100% with an average of 85%, and that when the entire outsole is taken as a constellation of features (or a RAC map), 64% of the crime-scene-like impressions exhibited 10 or fewer RACs, resulting in a 0.72 probability of stochastic dominance. Given this, individual RAC description and correspondence were further explored using five simple, but objective, numerical metrics of similarity. Statistically significant differences in similarity scores for RAC shape and size

  4. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E

    2017-01-13

    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  5. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  6. Exploring Neighborhood Influences on Small-Area Variations in Intimate Partner Violence Risk: A Bayesian Random-Effects Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses spatial data of cases of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW to examine neighborhood-level influences on small-area variations in IPVAW risk in a police district of the city of Valencia (Spain. To analyze area variations in IPVAW risk and its association with neighborhood-level explanatory variables we use a Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach, as well as disease mapping methods to represent risk probabilities in each area. Analyses show that IPVAW cases are more likely in areas of high immigrant concentration, high public disorder and crime, and high physical disorder. Results also show a spatial component indicating remaining variability attributable to spatially structured random effects. Bayesian spatial modeling offers a new perspective to identify IPVAW high and low risk areas, and provides a new avenue for the design of better-informed prevention and intervention strategies.

  7. Enclaves of opportunity or "ghettos of last resort?" Assessing the effects of immigrant segregation on violent crime rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Harris, Casey T; Scroggins, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of research indicates that immigration to the U.S. has crime-reducing effects on aggregate levels of violence, which researchers have often attributed to the protective and revitalizing effects of immigrants settling in spatially concentrated neighborhoods. However, recent scholarship suggests that growing shares of the foreign-born population are bypassing these segregated immigrant enclaves and are dispersing more widely to other urban neighborhoods. Moreover, some scholars suggest that spatially isolating immigrant populations may not always be protective, but could actually contribute to social problems like crime, particularly in disadvantaged contexts. The current study offers one of the first analyses exploring the way that segregation of immigrant populations (relative to the U.S.-born) is related to year 2000 violent crime rates for nearly 500 census places in California and New York. Results of our analysis reveal no direct link between immigrant segregation and macro-level violence, but instead show that these effects are highly contextualized and depend on the resources present in locales. Specifically, immigrant segregation contributes to violence in highly disadvantaged places but is linked to lower violence in areas with greater resources.

  8. The local phase transitions of the solvent in the neighborhood of a solvophobic polymer at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkov, Yu. A., E-mail: urabudkov@rambler.ru [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vyalov, I. I. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Kolesnikov, A. L. [Ivanovo State University, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie e.V., Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Georgi, N., E-mail: bancocker@mail.ru [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Chuev, G. N. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kiselev, M. G. [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-28

    We investigate local phase transitions of the solvent in the neighborhood of a solvophobic polymer chain which is induced by a change of the polymer-solvent repulsion and the solvent pressure in the bulk solution. We describe the polymer in solution by the Edwards model, where the conditional partition function of the polymer chain at a fixed radius of gyration is described by a mean-field theory. The contributions of the polymer-solvent and the solvent-solvent interactions to the total free energy are described within the mean-field approximation. We obtain the total free energy of the solution as a function of the radius of gyration and the average solvent number density within the gyration volume. The resulting system of coupled equations is solved varying the polymer-solvent repulsion strength at high solvent pressure in the bulk. We show that the coil-globule (globule-coil) transition occurs accompanied by a local solvent evaporation (condensation) within the gyration volume.

  9. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    Settlement in a socially deprived neighborhood may hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed or highly skilled contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were...... assigned to municpalities quasi-randomly, which successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. I show that individuals sort intor neighborhoods. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes...... of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  10. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  11. Aging and fear of crime: an experimental approach to an apparent paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Raphael; Mitchell, David B

    2003-01-01

    Many fear of crime studies have revealed an interesting paradox: Although older adults are less likely to be victims, they report a higher fear of crime than younger adults. In this study, we experimentally manipulated vicarious exposure to crime. Younger (ages 18-29) and older adults (ages 61-78) were randomly assigned to view either a vivid video reenactment of a violent crime or a crime report newscast. Subjects in the violent video condition demonstrated significantly higher fear than did control group participants, but this effect was reliable only for younger adults. The older adults appeared to be unfazed by the violent video, and reported significantly less fear than the younger group. This could not be explained away on the basis of age group differences in neighborhood crime rates, victimization experience, or media exposure. Thus, when greater fear of crime is found in older adults, "old age" per se is not the cause.

  12. Sociological Predictors of Fear of Crime: Is It Social Capital or Social Control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder KARAKUŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sociological predictors of fear of crime among a clustered sample of 1800 participants residing in 60 different neighborhoods in İstanbul have been examined in this study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that women, elderly and those who have been victimized in the last five years havehigher rates of fear than males, younger people and those who were not victimized in the last five years respectively. Among sociological factors, while social capital decreases individuals’ fear of crime; unexpectedly, social control increases fear of crime. Perceived physical and social disorder in the neighborhood, on the other hand, increases fear of crime. Based on a comparative investigation of the relationships among fear,social capital, and social control with Western countries, thisstudy also presents policy implications and suggestions for future studies aimed at decreasing fear of crime and increasing social organization and social control in Turkish society.

  13. Digitized crime scene forensics: automated trace separation of toolmarks on high-resolution 2D/3D CLSM surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Eric; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    Locksmith forensics is an important and very challenging part of classic crime scene forensics. In prior work, we propose a partial transfer to the digital domain, to effectively support forensic experts and present approaches for a full process chain consisting of five steps: Trace positioning, 2D/3D acquisition with a confocal 3D laser scanning microscope, detection by segmentation, trace type determination, and determination of the opening method. In particular the step of trace segmentation on high-resolution 3D surfaces thereby turned out to be the part most difficult to implement. The reason for that is the highly structured and complex surfaces to be analyzed. These surfaces are cluttered with a high number of toolmarks, which overlap and distort each other. In Clausing et al., we present an improved approach for a reliable segmentation of relevant trace regions but without the possibility of separating single traces out of segmented trace regions. However, in our past research, especially features based on shape and dimension turned out to be highly relevant for a fully automated analysis and interpretation. In this paper, we consequently propose an approach for this separation. To achieve this goal, we use our segmentation approach and expand it with a combination of the watershed algorithm with a graph-based analysis. Found sub-regions are compared based on their surface character and are connected or divided depending on their similarity. We evaluate our approach with a test set of about 1,300 single traces on the exemplary locking cylinder component 'key pin' and thereby are able of showing the high suitability of our approach.

  14. Restructuring Philadelphia's Neighborhood High Schools: A Conversation with Constance Clayton and Michelle Fine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This interview with Constance Clayton, superintendent of the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) public schools, and Michelle Fine, professor of psychology and consultant, discusses the Philadelphia Schools Collaborative, a nonprofit organization established to lead the restructuring of the city's high schools. Central to the effort is the concept of…

  15. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  16. Young People's Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱平

    2002-01-01

    Crime is a very serious problem in Britain. One sort of crime which particularly worries people is juvenile crimes-that is, crimes committed (犯罪) by young. people.For some years juvenile crimes have been increasing.There are two main sorts of juvenile crimes:stealing and violence(暴力).

  17. Media and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild; Waade, Anne Marit

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account......Recent developments in the relationship between media and crime are analyzed, taking both fiction and journalism in account...

  18. The SAPS crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Learning and Performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Neighborhoods with Low Bystander CPR Prevalence and High Rates of Cardiac Arrest in Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S.; Bond, Cindy; Rabe, Marilyn; Colbert, Susan H.; King, Renee; Sayre, Michael; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background Residents who live in neighborhoods that are primarily African-American, Latino, or poor are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), less likely to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and less likely to survive. No prior studies have been conducted to understand the contributing factors that may decrease the likelihood of residents learning and performing CPR in these neighborhoods. The goal of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to learning and performing CPR in three low-income, “high-risk” predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio. Methods and Results Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to develop and conduct six focus groups in conjunction with community partners in three target high-risk neighborhoods in Columbus, Ohio in January-February 2011. Snowball and purposeful sampling, done by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Three reviewers analyzed the data in an iterative process to identify recurrent and unifying themes. Three major barriers to learning CPR were identified and included financial, informational, and motivational factors. Four major barriers were identified for performing CPR and included fear of legal consequences, emotional issues, knowledge, and situational concerns. Participants suggested that family/self-preservation, emotional, and economic factors may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Conclusion The financial cost of CPR training, lack of information, and the fear of risking one's own life must be addressed when designing a community-based CPR educational program. Using data from the community can facilitate improved design and implementation of CPR programs. PMID:24021699

  20. School Engagement among Urban Adolescents of Color: Does Perception of Social Support and Neighborhood Safety Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Shin, Richard Q.; Thakral, Charu; Selders, Michael; Vera, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of risk factors (perceived neighborhood crime/delinquency problems, neighborhood incivilities) and protective factors (teacher support, family support, peer support) on the school engagement of 123 urban adolescents of color. Age and gender were also examined to determine if different ages (younger or older)…

  1. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  2. Education Policy and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Lance

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between education and crime from an economic perspective, developing a human capital-based model that sheds light on key ways in which early childhood programs and policies that encourage schooling may affect both juvenile and adult crime. The paper first discusses evidence on the effects of educational attainment, school quality, and school enrollment on crime. Next, the paper discusses evidence on the crime reduction effects of preschool programs like P...

  3. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    This paper matches a comprehensive Danish employer-employee data set with individual crime information (timing of offenses, charges, convictions, and prison terms by crime type) to estimate the impact of job displacement on an individual’s propensity to commit crime. We focus on displaced individ...

  4. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper expl...

  5. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  6. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  7. Characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department: neighborhood correlates and behavioral comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Carter, Patrick M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about characteristic profiles of substance use - and their individual- and neighborhood-level correlates - among high-risk youth. To identify characteristic substance misuse profiles among youth entering an urban emergency department (ED) and explore how those profiles relate to individual- and community-level factors. Individual-level measures came from screening surveys administered to youth aged 14-24 at an ED in Flint, Michigan (n = 878); alcohol outlet and crime data came from public sources. Binary misuse indicators were generated by using previously established cut-points on scores of alcohol and drug use severity. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified classes of substance use; univariate tests and multinomial models identified correlates of class membership. Excluding non-misusers (51.5%), LCA identified three classes: marijuana-only (27.9%), alcohol/marijuana (16.1%), and multiple substances (polysubstance) (4.6%). Moving from non-misusers to polysubstance misusers, there was an increasing trend in rates of: unprotected sex, motor vehicle crash, serious violence, weapon aggression, and victimization (all p < .001). Controlling for individual-level variables, polysubstance misusers lived near more on-premises alcohol outlets than non-misusers (RRR = 1.42, p = .01) and marijuana-only misusers (RRR = 1.31, p = .03). Alcohol/marijuana misusers were more likely to live near high violent crime density areas than non-misusers (RRR = 1.83, p = .01), and were also more likely than marijuana-only misusers to live in areas of high drug crime density (RRR = 1.98, p = .03). No other relationships were significant. Substance-misusing youth seeking ED care have higher risk for other problem behaviors and neighborhood-level features display potential for distinguishing between use classes. Additional research to elucidate at-risk sub-populations/locales has potential to improve interventions for substance misuse by incorporating geographic information.

  8. Analysis and Countermeasures of High Arrest Rate of Alien Crime%外国人犯罪高逮捕率的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冰

    2016-01-01

    随着全球经济一体化的加速和国际交往的进一步扩大,内地城市对外开放程度日益加深。外国人在内地犯罪案件呈上升态势,对现行司法制度及法治运行构成一定挑战。当前,外国人犯罪案件逮捕率居高不下,已高于对本国人的逮捕率。如何保障人权,给予外国籍犯罪嫌疑人国民待遇,是值得探讨的法学课题。本文试以合肥市某区人民检察院侦查监督科办理的外国人犯罪审查逮捕案件为例,分析外国人犯罪高逮捕率的原因,并试提出对策、建议。%With the acceleration of the global economic integration and the further expansion of international exchanges, the opening-up of the mainland cities is deepening gradually. Alien crime in the mainland is rising, which creates certain challenges to the current judicial system and the rule of law. At present, the rate of arrest of alien crime cases remains high and has been higher than that of the native. How to protect human rights and to give foreign suspects the national treatment is worthy of judicial discussion. Taking the alien crimes cases conducted by Luyang District of Hefei City People's Procuratorate investigation and supervision department for example, this paper tries to analyze the reasons for the high rate of arrest of alien crimes, and tries to put forward countermeasures and suggestions.

  9. The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: the effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, D R; Caspi, A; Moffitt, T E; Wikström, P O; Loeber, R; Novak, S

    2000-11-01

    This research blends 2 traditions of theorizing on the causes of crime, one focused on the role of individual differences and the other focused on structural and contextual variables. Two related studies examined the relations among impulsivity, neighborhood context, and juvenile offending. The first, cross-sectional study uses a large sample of 13-year-old inner-city boys, whereas the second, longitudinal study offers a conceptual replication using 17-year-old inner-city boys who are a subset of the original sample. Across both studies, results indicate that the effects of impulsivity on juvenile offending are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Furthermore, nonimpulsive boys in poor neighborhoods were at no greater risk for delinquency than nonimpulsive boys in better-off neighborhoods.

  10. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone.

  11. Regional Crime Rates and Fear of Crime: WISIND Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  12. Regional crime rates and fear of crime: WISIND findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, Mathias; Kroh, Martin; Meier, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Many people are afraid of falling prey to crime. The present report investigates the extent to which this fear is in line with the actual regional crime rates. This analysis is based on data from a comprehensive database on the fear of crime, combined with police crime statistics (specifically, adjusted crime statistics which factor in the "dark figure" of unreported crime). No evidence was found to support the (occasionally voiced) contention that the fear of falling prey to crime is irratio...

  13. Travel Beyond the Home Neighborhood for Delinquent Behaviors: Moderation of Home Neighborhood Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Amrhein, Kelly E.; Hassan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood research indicates that adolescents are at higher risk for delinquency when they reside in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy, low in perceived prosocial norms and values, and high in availability of substances and firearms. However, as adolescents develop, they are more likely to independently travel during their day-to-day activities, and the effects of their home neighborhood may be weakened as they spend time in other communities. The current study surveyed 179 adolesce...

  14. Crime and German Decadence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    subjects are dealt with collectively and in doing so he establishes new grounds for reflection on crime and culture – both factual and fictional representation as such. Approaches to crime fiction often build on an acknowledged history of the genre which, then, reproduces an established concord...... the boundaries of understanding the cultural and historical roots of genre and crime fiction. Nevertheless, the missing link in dealing with crime fiction – even though Nestingen takes certain steps in that direction – is often its connection to criminological and cultural studies. If we approach crime stories...

  15. Neighborhoods - MO 2014 Springfield Neighborhood Organizations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Neighborhood Organization polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created by the Planning and Development Department. Maintained by the GIS...

  16. Neighborhoods - MO 2011 Springfield Neighborhood Organizations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Neighborhood Organization polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created by the Planning and Development Department. Maintained by the GIS...

  17. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9-11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9-7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47-3.64) in 8.0-9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13-5.36) in 10.0-11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68-6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27-0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime.

  18. Full moon and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  19. Neighborhood Effects on Felony Sentencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldredge, John

    2007-01-01

    The relatively high imprisonment rates of African American men from poor neighborhoods raise a question of whether felony sentences are influenced by ecological factors, separately from or in conjunction with a defendant's race. To provide insight on the topic, both legal and extralegal effects on imprisonment and sentence length were modeled for…

  20. Seasons and neighborhoods of high lead toxicity in New York City: The feral pigeon as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fayme; Calisi, Rebecca M

    2016-10-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental change has created a global pandemic of neurobehavioral disorders in which industrial compounds like lead are the root cause. We assessed the feral pigeon (Columba livia) as a lead bioindicator in New York City. We collected blood lead level records from 825 visibly ill or abnormally behaving pigeons from various NYC neighborhoods between 2010 and 2015. We found that blood lead levels were significantly higher during the summer, an effect reported in children. Pigeon blood lead levels were not significantly different between years or among neighborhoods. However, blood lead levels per neighborhood in Manhattan were positively correlated with mean rates of lead in children identified by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene as having elevated blood lead levels (>10 μg/dl). We provide support for the use of the feral pigeon as a bioindicator of environmental lead contamination for the first time in the U.S. and for the first time anywhere in association with rates of elevated blood lead levels in children. This information has the potential to enable measures to assess, strategize, and potentially circumvent the negative impacts of lead and other environmental contaminants on human and wildlife communities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Clayton, Stephen; Neary, David; Whitehead, Margaret; Petticrew, Mark; Thomson, Hilary; Cummins, Steven; Sowden, Amanda; Renton, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the links between crime and fear of crime, the social and built environment, and health and wellbeing. A pragmatic approach was employed, with iterative stages of searching and synthesis. This produced a holistic causal framework of pathways to guide future research. The framework emphasises that crime and fear of crime may have substantial impacts on wellbeing, but the pathways are often highly indirect, mediated by environmental factors, difficult to disentangle and not always in the expected direction. The built environment, for example, may affect health via its impacts on health behaviours; via its effects on crime and fear of crime; or via the social environment. The framework also helps to identify unexpected factors which may affect intervention success, such as the risk of adverse effects from crime prevention interventions as a result of raising awareness of crime.

  2. How neighborhood structural and institutional features can shape neighborhood social connectedness: a multilevel study of adolescent perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Perkins, Douglas D

    2013-06-01

    According to the norms and collective efficacy model, the levels of social connectedness within a local community are a function of neighborhood structural characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and ethnic composition. The current work aims to determine whether neighborhood structural and institutional features (neighborhood wealth, percentage of immigrants, population density, opportunities for activities and meeting places) have an impact on different components of neighborhood social connectedness (intergenerational closure, trust and reciprocity, neighborhood-based friendship and personal relationships with neighbors). The study involved a representative sample of 389 early and middle adolescents aged 11-15 years old, coming from 31 Italian neighborhoods. Using hierarchical linear modeling, our findings showed that high population density, ethnic diversity, and physical and social disorder might represent obstacles for the creation of social ties within the neighborhood. On the contrary, the presence of opportunities for activities and meeting places in the neighborhood was associated with higher levels of social connectedness among residents.

  3. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Ellaway, Anne

    2011-12-14

    Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants. Our findings highlight the

  4. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  5. Patterns and Costs of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alan Jay

    1984-01-01

    Presents results of the Library Crime Research Project, a three-year study of crime and disruption patterns in public libraries in all 50 states. Patterns of crime, costs of crime (direct, indirect), losses due to crime, patterns of security use, and effects of victimization are covered. Three references are listed. (EJS)

  6. Youth Withdrawal Moderates the Relationhips Between Neighborhood Factors and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents higher in temperamental withdrawal are at risk for anxiety and depressive symptoms; however, not all youth higher in withdrawal exhibit internalizing symptoms, suggesting that contextual factors may influence these relationships. We examined whether youth withdrawal moderates the relationships between neighborhood processes (crime, social cohesion) and internalizing symptoms and whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility hypotheses. Participants were 775 adolescents (M = 15.50 ± 0.56 years, 72 % male, 76 % White). Adolescents higher in withdrawal manifested higher internalizing symptoms in the context of lower neighborhood crime and lower neighborhood social cohesion than youth lower in withdrawal, supporting diathesis-stress. These findings elucidate neighborhood processes associated with internalizing symptoms, which can inform models of risk and resilience for these symptoms among children who differ in temperamental withdrawal.

  7. Challenges and complications in neighborhood mapping: from neighborhood concept to operationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongxin

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines complications in neighborhood mapping and corresponding challenges for the GIS community, taking both a conceptual and a methodological perspective. It focuses on the social and spatial dimensions of the neighborhood concept and highlights their relationship in neighborhood mapping. Following a brief summary of neighborhood definitions, five interwoven factors are identified to be origins of neighborhood mapping difficulties: conceptual vagueness, uncertainty of various sources, GIS representation, scale, and neighborhood homogeneity or continuity. Existing neighborhood mapping methods are grouped into six categories to be assessed: perception based, physically based, inference based, preexisting, aggregated, and automated. Mapping practices in various neighborhood-related disciplines and applications are cited as examples to demonstrate how the methods work, as well as how they should be evaluated. A few mapping strategies for the improvement of neighborhood mapping are prescribed from a GIS perspective: documenting simplifications employed in the mapping procedure, addressing uncertainty sources, developing new data solutions, and integrating complementary mapping methods. Incorporation of high-resolution data and introduction of more GIS ideas and methods (such as fuzzy logic) are identified to be future opportunities.

  8. Comparing neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population: research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Thomas; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Metraux, Stephen; Salzer, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health emphasizes the importance of assessing the impact of environmental factors on functioning and disability. Drawing on this emphasis, this study used a set of objective measures to compare the characteristics of neighborhoods of adults with serious mental illness and of the general population. It also examined the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. The sample comprised 15,246 adults who were treated for serious mental illness in Philadelphia between 1997 and 2000. Principal-components analysis of 22 neighborhood characteristics resulted in an ideal-factor solution of six components. The mean values of each component in neighborhoods of persons with serious mental illness were compared with values in an equally sized group of neighborhoods created by randomly generated addresses representative of the city's general population. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to assess the association between neighborhood characteristics and neighborhood concentration of persons with serious mental illness. Neighborhoods in which adults with serious mental illness resided had higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, drug-related activity, and crime than comparison neighborhoods. Higher levels of physical and structural inadequacy, crime, drug-related activity, social instability, and social isolation were associated with higher concentration of persons with serious mental illness in the neighborhood's adult population. The differences in neighborhood characteristics identified in this study point to factors that merit closer attention as potential barriers or facilitators in the functioning, participation, and community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

  9. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  10. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  11. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  12. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001. Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  13. Crime as tourism externality

    OpenAIRE

    Biagi, Bianca; Detotto, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the linkage between tourism and crime with particular focus on the distortions generated onto criminal activities by the presence of visitors. Controlling for socio-demographic and economic variables, we empirically investigate the contribution of tourist arrivals to different types of crimes for 103 Italian provinces and for the year 2005. Possible spill-over effects of crime are taken into account by testing two spatial models (one spatial lag model and one spatial error...

  14. Crime and immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is one of the most important policy debates in Western countries. However, one aspect of the debate is often mischaracterized by accusations that higher levels of immigration lead to higher levels of crime. The evidence, based on empirical studies of many countries, indicates that there is no simple link between immigration and crime. Crucially, the evidence points to substantial differences in the impact on property crime, depending on the labor market opportunities of immigrant ...

  15. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  16. The Economics of Crime: Investigating the Drugs-Crime Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Winker, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The rising trends both in drug addiction and crime rates are of major public concern in Germany. Surprisingly, the economic theory of crime seems to ignore the drugs-crime nexus, whereas the criminological literature considers illicit drug use a main reason of criminal activities. This paper provides an econometric assessment of the drugs-crime channel within a Becker-Ehrlich model of crime supply. We analyse three different channels from drug abuse to crime: system-related, economic-related ...

  17. Relationships among neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and preterm birth in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1)  = 33 with preterm birth; n(2)  = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Relationships among Neighborhood Environment, Racial Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Preterm Birth in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang G.; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Design Descriptive correlational comparative. Setting Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. Participants African American women (n1 = 33 with preterm birth; n2 = 39 with full-term birth). Methods Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Results Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Conclusion Women’s neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. PMID:23030593

  19. Crime Mapping and Geographical Information Systems in Crime Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dağlar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As essential apparatus in crime analysis, crime mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are being progressively more accepted by police agencies. Development in technology and the accessibility of geographic data sources make it feasible for police departments to use GIS and crime mapping. GIS and crime mapping can be utilized as devices to discover reasons contributing to crime, and hence let law enforcement agencies proactively take action against the crime problems before they become challenging. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review of Geographical Information System and Crime Mapping in Crime Analysis and to propose policy recommendations regarding to implementation of crime mapping and GIS. To achieve this purpose, first a historical evaluation of GIS and crime mapping will be rendered and then the importance of place will be explained in terms of assessing crime problems accurately.

  20. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

  1. Is immigrant neighborhood inequality less pronounced in suburban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Chad R; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2016-05-01

    We investigate suburbanization and neighborhood inequality among 14 immigrant groups using census tract data from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey. Immigrant neighborhood inequality is defined here as the degree to which immigrants reside in neighborhoods that are poorer than the neighborhoods in which native whites reside. Using city and suburb Gini coefficients which reflect the distributions of groups across neighborhoods with varying poverty rates, we find that the immigrant-white gap is attenuated in the suburbs. This finding applies to most of the nativity groups and remains after accounting for metropolitan context, the segregation of poverty, and group-specific segregation levels, poverty rates, and acculturation characteristics. Despite reduced neighborhood inequality in the suburbs, large group differences persist. A few immigrant groups achieve residential parity or better vis-à-vis suburban whites while others experience high levels of neighborhood inequality and receive marginal residential returns on suburban location.

  2. The lived experience of victims of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrearty, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this research study was to ascertain the impact of crime on individuals, who presented with an injury to the emergency department. Given the high prevalence of crime in our society today, victims of crime are identified as a growing patient population seeking help in emergency departments. To maximise holistic care for these patients it is important that healthcare professionals gain insight into the experience of being a victim of crime. The study was qualitative in nature and used a phenomenological approach. In-depth, unstructured audio taped interviews were conducted to elicit the essence of the experience of being a victim of crime. The voices of the victims revealed four themes; "Fear, Shock and Disbelief", "Guilt/Self-blame", "Physical and Psychological Scars" and "Lifestyle Changes". The management of victims of crime in the emergency department appears to be concerned exclusively with physical injuries. Unseen is the potential psychological sequelae of the assault. Pivotal to these findings is the absence of psychological follow-up support for these victims of crime. This study affords healthcare professionals working in the emergency department, the opportunity to reflect upon current practice and highlight the value of their role in the provision of optimal care for this patient population.

  3. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  4. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  5. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  6. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67, low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78, and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62. The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.. Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  7. An Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Urban Crimes by Spatial Database (the Case of Islamabad in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohamadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The city of Zanjan in recent decades has enjoyed a considerable growth in population and physical size. However, rapid irregular growth in the number of population has caused in unfavorable formation of informal settlement areas in the city. Islamabad is of the largest informal accommodation regions in Zanjan which is built as a consequence of massive rural migration during 1970s. Although the area, for the time being, is considered within the boundaries of official areas of the city, it is suffering from different skeletal, service, demographic, social and cultural malfunctions. This paper aims at identifying and analyzing the spatial patterns of the conflicts and criminal behaviors happening in Islamabad and discuss crime facilitators in the region using statistical models and Geographical Information Systems. Material & Method This study is based on analytic-comparative method. The spatial distributions of conflicts and criminal behaviors in Islamabad Zanjan are identified using statistical methods such as Mean center, Standard Deviation Distance, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Tests for Clustering, Nearest Neighborhood Index (NNI and Quartic Kernel Density Estimation. Discussion of Results & Conclusions According to the findings of the study, one of the focal areas of crime is located in this informal settlement region. Specifically, certain crimes are concentrated in this region, while most of the other parts of the city remain clear. Islamabad region, one of the most crime-spotted districts of Zanjan is among the largest informal settlement areas, as a result of massive rural migration in 1970s. Newer census indicates that 39439 people i.e. more than 11.2 percent of Zanjan's population, live in Islamabad, while it has only 1.8% of the total living space in Zanjan. So this region suffers from a very high rate of density. It contains 422 people per hectares, while the relative population density of Zanjan is 69 person per hectare

  8. Crime and Crime Management in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanjo, Margaret Adewunmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines crime and its management in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions today have become arenas for crime activities such as rape, cultism, murder, theft, internet fraud, drug abuse, and examination malpractices. This paper delves into what crime is, and its causes; and the positions of the law on crime management.…

  9. Fear of Crime and Perceptions of Law Enforcement Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bayley, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Fear of crime and the public's satisfaction with police has been a focus of criminologists for a number of years. Most studies, however, have focused on the general population as a whole. What is not known is how fearful American youth are of the crime in their neighborhoods and how they perceive those in law enforcement. The purpose of this study was to explore this subgroup of the population and to begin the investigation of youths' fear of crime and their perceptions of law enforcement. ...

  10. Residence-Based Fear of Crime: A Routine Activities Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Lien; Ren, Ling; Greenleaf, Richard

    2016-01-14

    Most fear-of-crime research uses resident's neighborhood as a key reference location to measure fear, yet the location effects of one's own dwelling unit on crime-specific fear has not been explicitly studied theoretically in the literature. Drawing upon routine activities theory, this study undertakes an investigation into the levels and determinants of residence-based fear of crime across three racial/ethnic groups-Whites, African Americans, and non-White Hispanics. Data used in the analyses were collected from a random-sample telephone survey of 1,239 respondents in Houston, Texas. The results derived from factor analyses revealed that residents do distinguish between fear in the neighborhood and fear at home. Proximity to motivated offenders measured by perception of crime was found to be the most salient predictor of fear, followed by the measures of target vulnerability and capable guardianship. In addition, residence-based fear varies significantly across racial/ethnic groups. The significance of these findings and the policy implications are highlighted.

  11. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  12. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  13. Crime and the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Much work on crime has focused on the effect of criminal sanctions on crime, ignoring (except as a control variable) the effect of labor market conditions on crime. This study reviews studies of time series, cross area, and individual evidence pertaining to the effect of unemployment and other labor market variables on crime and compares the "strength" of the labor market-crime and the sanctions-crime relations. It concludes that there is a labor market-crime link but that this link is not we...

  14. The Impact of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Black-White Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Madyun, Na'im

    2009-01-01

    Contextual analysis of the achievement gap has gained much momentum within the last few decades. This study furthers the discourse by examining the applicability of 2 sociological contextual development approaches on achievement. We analyzed 79 neighborhoods organized by the level of crime and poverty from both a social disorganization and social…

  15. How Neighborhoods Matter for Immigrant Adolescents. CPRC Brief. Volume 14, Number 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min

    2002-01-01

    Today, many immigrant neighborhoods are plagued with poverty, inadequate schools, family disruption, single parenthood, teenage pregnancies, youth gangs, violent crimes, drug abuse and alcoholism, and anti-intellectual youth subcultures. Such unsettling environments put immigrant children of the inner city at greater risk than those living…

  16. Crime and Partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper tests whether being convicted of a crime affects marriage market outcomes. While it is relatively well documented that crime hurts in terms of reduced future income, there has been little systematic analysis on the association between crime and marriage market outcomes. This paper...... exploits a detailed Danish register-based data set to fill this gap in the literature. The main findings are that male convicts do not face lower transition rates into partnerships as such, but they face a lower chance of forming partnerships with females from more well-o¤ families. In addition males who...

  17. Organized Crime, Corruption and Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kugler, Maurice; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves

    2003-01-01

    We analyze an oligopoly model in which differentiated criminal organizations globally compete on criminal activities and engage in local corruption to avoid punishment. When law enforcers are sufficiently well-paid, difficult to bribe and corruption detection highly probable, we show that increasing policing or sanctions effectively deters crime. However, when bribing costs are low, that is badly-paid and dishonest law enforcers work in a weak governance environment, and the rents from crimin...

  18. Living in Neighborhoods with High or Low Co-Ethnic Concentration: Turkish-Norwegian-Speaking Students' Vocabulary Skills and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant students may use and develop language and literacy skills differently depending on the dominance of the first and second language (L1 and L2) in the neighborhoods where they live. In this study, neighborhood effects on students' reported language use at home and with peers, and on measured language and literacy proficiency, were…

  19. The Economic Epidemiology of Crime.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas J. Philipson; Posner, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    Economic analysis of infectious diseases emphasizes the self-correcting character of epidemics, as rising risk of infection causes potential victims to take self-protective measures. We apply the analysis to crime, showing how rational potential victims of crime will take increased self-protective measures in response to rising crime rates, causing those rates to moderate. Victim responses to crime can offset public expenditures on crime control; this implies that there may be a "natural" rat...

  20. Association of father involvement and neighborhood quality with kindergartners' physical activity: a multilevel structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Foley, John T

    2008-01-01

    Examine the effects of father-child involvement and neighborhood characteristics with young children's physical activity (PA) within a multilevel framework. Cross-sectional analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998. Nationally representative sample. Data were available for 10,694 kindergartners (5-6 years; 5240 girls) living in 1053 neighborhoods. Parental report of child's PA level, father characteristics (e.g., time spent with child, age, education, socioeconomic status, hours worked), family time spent doing sports/ activities together, and neighborhood quality (e.g., safety, presence of crime violence, garbage). Child weight status, motor skills, ethnicity, and television viewing were used as covariates. Multilevel structural equation modeling with children nested within neighborhoods. At the child level father-child time and family time doing sports together were positively associated with children's PA. At the neighborhood level parental perception of a neighborhood's safety for children to play outside fully mediated the effect of neighborhood quality on children's PA. Overall 19.1% and 7.6% of the variance in PA was explained at the child and neighborhood levels, respectively. Family-based interventions for PA should consider father-child time, with this contributing to a child's overall PA level. Further, neighborhood quality is an important predictor of PA only to the extent by which parents perceive it to be unsafe for their child to play outdoors.

  1. ‘It’s what you have to do!’ : Exploring the role of high-risk edgework and advanced marginality in a young man’s motivation for crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on one young man’s self-presentations in a secure care unit for young offenders in Denmark, this article explores how his contradictory and incoherent self-presentations can be analysed as meaningful. Drawing on Stephen Lyng’s theory of high-risk edgework and Loïc Wacquant’s theory...... of advanced marginalization, it is argued that this young man’s engagement in youth crime cannot be fully understood by focusing only on the criminal experience itself. Also, specific social and symbolic relations must be integrated into the analysis to understand his engagement in crime. The article argues...... that although edgework theory is compelling, it needs further development if it is to capture the full complexity of young people’s motivation for crime....

  2. An improved Hough Transform neighborhood map for straight line segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shengzhi; van Wyk, Barend Jacobus; Tu, Chunling; Zhang, Xinghui

    2010-03-01

    The distance between a straight line and a straight line segment in the image space is proposed in this paper. Based on this distance, the neighborhood of a straight line segment is defined and mapped into the parameter space to obtain the parameter space neighborhood of the straight line segment. The neighborhood mapping between the image space and parameter space is a one to one reversible map. The mapped region in the parameter space is analytically derived and it is proved that it can be efficiently approximated by a quadrangle. The proposed straight line segment neighborhood technique for the HT outperforms conventional straight line neighborhood methods currently used with existing HT variations. In contrast to the straight line neighborhoods used in existing HT variations, the proposed straight line segment neighborhood has several advantages including: 1) the detection error of the proposed neighborhood is not affected by the length of the straight line segments; 2) a precision requirement in the image space described using the proposed distance can be explicitly resolved using the proposed formulation; 3) the proposed neighborhood has the ability to distinguish between segments belonging to the same straight line. A variety of experiments are executed to demonstrate that the proposed neighborhood has a variety of interesting properties of high practical value.

  3. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  4. Theorising Nigerian Crime Problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aigbovo & Eidenoje

    1971-09-08

    Sep 8, 1971 ... single theory or definition can be exhaustive on the issue of crime.4 A major .... Postulations of this theory recommend proper town planning, ...... addition to imprisonment, restitution is also to be made to victims.76 Advance.

  5. Physical activity and perceived insecurity from crime in adults: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Almeida Mendes

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the perception of safety from crime in the neighborhood and to evaluate its association with leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in adults.A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2012. Perceived insecurity from crime in the neighborhood was measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and the City Stress Inventory (CSI. Physical activity was measured using an adapted version of the leisure and transportation sections of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.Overall, 52.3% (95%CI49.0; 55.6 of the participants reported perceived exposure to an unsafe neighborhood. Subjects who practiced 150 or more minutes per week of physical activity during leisure-time and transportation were 10.5% (95%CI9.0; 12.0 and 51.7% (95%CI 48.7; 54.7, respectively. There were no significant associations between physical activity (leisure-time or transport-related and perceived insecurity from crime, neither in unadjusted nor in adjusted analyses.There was no evidence that the perception of safety from crime is associated to higher physical activity levels among Brazilian adults.

  6. Defending Turf: Racial Demographics and Hate Crime against Blacks and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how racial composition, in-migration and community identity influence the distribution of antiblack and antiwhite hate crimes. Drawing on six years of Chicago Police Department reports, two decades of census data and community survey data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, the paper evaluates…

  7. Joint Association of Neighborhood Environment and Fear of Falling on Physical Activity Among Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Park, Hyuntae; Lee, Sangyoon; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity among frail older adults and whether these associations are moderated by fear of falling. Participants were 238 frail older adults. Daily step counts and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Participants completed the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale; fear of falling and demographic and health-related factors were measured by a questionnaire. The interaction between crime safety and fear of falling was significantly associated with step count (p = .009) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = .018) in multiple regression analysis. Stratified according to fear of falling, crime safety was significantly associated with steps (p = .007) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = .030) in the low fear of falling group. The results suggest that crime safety is associated with physical activity among frail older adults, and this association is moderated by fear of falling.

  8. Crimes In New York And Seoul A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia G. Patino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Across the world highly populated urban areas are widely regarded as generators of various crimes. From petty crimes to organized crime activities cities and other urban areas provide some form of haven for criminal activities and their proponents. In this paper we look at two highly-urbanized areas New York City and Seoul South Korea. We look to compare the crime trends and activities in these two areas and see if there are points of comparison by which these two are similar or if they are separated by some factors..

  9. Dal computer crime al computer-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Apruzzese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Digital Identity Theft has become one of the most lucrative illegitimate business. Also known as “phishing”, it consists in unauthorized access to an individual’s personal financial data aiming to capture information relative to on line banking and on line financial services. At the beginning people were the victims of such scams, currently the attention is directed to computer networks. “Pharming” and “keylogging” are some of the latest and utmost sophisticated data processing techniques used by computer crime fraudsters. Latest entries are the “botnets”, herds of infected machines, usually managed by one sole command centre which can determine serious damages to network systems. Botnets have made large scale identity theft much simpler to realize. Organized crime is becoming more and more involved in this new crime world that can easily assure huge profits. The Italian State Police, in order to respond more effectively to this new rising challenge, has created, with the Postal and Communication Police, an agency highly specialized in combating such new phenomenon

  10. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  11. Neighborhoods, Neighborhoods, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Neighborhoods dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. It is described as 'Neighborhoods'. Data by this publisher are...

  12. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  13. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children’...... who benefit most from being old-for-grade are those with high latent abilities whereas those with low latent ability seem to be unaffected by being old-for-grade in school.......This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  14. Long-term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples.

  15. Structural and experiential neighborhood contexts, developmental stage, and antisocial behavior among urban adolescents in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, E; Yoshikawa, H; Roberts, A; Chesir-Teran, D; Allen, L; Friedman, J L; Aber, J L

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the effects of structural and experiential neighborhood factors and developmental stage on antisocial behavior, among a sample of poor urban adolescents in New York City. Conceptually and empirically distinct profiles of neighborhood experience were derived from the data, based on measures of perceived neighborhood cohesion, poverty-related hassles, and involvement in neighborhood organizations and activities. Both the profiles of neighborhood experience and a measure of census-tract-level neighborhood hazard (poverty and violence) showed relationships to antisocial behavior. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of antisocial behavior were reported among adolescents residing in moderate-structural-risk neighborhoods than those in high-structural-risk neighborhoods. This effect held only for teens in middle (not early) adolescence and was stronger for teens perceiving their neighborhoods as hassling than for those who did not. Implications for future research and preventive intervention are discussed.

  16. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  17. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  18. Assaults, murders and walkers: The impact of violent crime on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    We investigate an underexplored externality of crime: the impact of violent crime on individuals' participation in walking. For many adults walking is the only regular physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people in 323 small areas in England between 2005 and 2011 matched to quarterly crime data at the small area level. Within area variation identifies the causal effect of local violent crime on walking and a difference-in-difference analysis of two high-profile crimes corroborates our results. We find a significant deterrent effect of violent crime on walking that translates into a drop in overall physical activity.

  19. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Halil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a) theories about youth crime, (b) risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d) solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group...

  20. Internet Bad Neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane

    2013-01-01

    A significant part of current Internet attacks originates from hosts that are distributed all over the Internet. However, there is evidence that most of these hosts are, in fact, concentrated in certain parts of the Internet. This behavior resembles the crime distribution in the real world: it

  1. Internet bad neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane César

    2013-01-01

    A significant part of current Internet attacks originates from hosts that are distributed all over the Internet. However, there is evidence that most of these hosts are, in fact, concentrated in certain parts of the Internet. This behavior resembles the crime distribution in the real world: it occur

  2. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality, integ

  3. Planning against crime: preventing crime with people not barriers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In SA Crime Quarterly No 8 2004, the argument was made for better use of bylaws by city governments in an effort to prevent crime. Another equally effective tool available to municipalities lies in the area of urban planning. Crime is closely tied...

  4. Cyber-crime Science = Crime Science + Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Junger, Marianne; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-crime Science is an emerging area of study aiming to prevent cyber-crime by combining security protection techniques from Information Security with empirical research methods used in Crime Science. Information security research has developed techniques for protecting the confidentiality,

  5. Buffalo: Public Attitudes About Crime; A National Crime Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    The National Crime Survey found that about three-fourths of the Buffalo residents perceived national crime as on the upswing, and one-third sensed an increase locally. Fewer than 10% believed crime in either place declined. Most felt their own victimization rate had increased. Fear of criminal attack appeared largely dependent upon the time of day…

  6. High mortality, violence and crime in alcohol dependents: 5 years after seeking treatment in a Brazilian underprivileged suburban community Alta mortalidade, violência e crime em dependentes de álcool: seguimento após 5 anos de tratamento em periferia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Valentim Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the results of alcohol-related consequences in an underprivileged area of São Paulo. METHOD: One hundred and ninety one adult patients who sought alcohol treatment in 2002 were reassessed in 2007 regarding alcohol use and involvement with crime. The interview consisted of demographic questions and questionnaires assessing alcohol dependence and pattern of alcohol use. Risk and protective factors and involvement with crime were further explored. RESULTS High mortality rate (16.9%, n = 41 was found in this sample and 97.4% were identified as being severe alcohol dependents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group, average age of 42, 81.9% male, 57.5% black, 52.2% unemployed and 100% of low socioeconomic status. Individuals ageing 35 or younger, not engaged in religious activities and with intense alcohol consumption in the last month had 2.7 times more chance on committing crimes (95% CI = [1.22; 5.93] p = 0.014. Subjects who consumed alcohol in the last month also had a 4.1 greater chance of becoming involved in crime (95% CI = [1.2; 14.24] p = 0.024. CONCLUSION: Alcohol dependence within an underprivileged community was associated with high rates of crime and mortality. Religious affiliation was negatively associated with delinquent behavior.OBJETIVO: Explorar as consequências relacionadas ao uso de álcool na periferia de São Paulo. MÉTODO: Pacientes que procuraram tratamento para alcoolismo em 2002 foram convidados para reavaliação em 2007 para estudo de seguimento retrospectivo. A entrevista consistiu de questões sociodemográficas e questionários que avaliaram a dependência alcoólica e o padrão do consumo. Pesquisa adicional sobre fatores de risco e de proteção e envolvimento com crime foi contemplada neste estudo. RESULTADOS: A alta taxa de mortalidade (16,9% n = 41 e a dependência grave de álcool foi confirmada em 97,4% da amostra. O grupo se mostrou homogêneo, média de idade (42 anos, sexo

  7. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from high-resolution optical spectra. I. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the solar neighborhood and Kepler field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nordlander, T.; Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Hartman, H.; Jönsson, P.; Eriksson, K.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Galactic bulge is an intriguing and significant part of our Galaxy, but it is hard to observe because it is both distant and covered by dust in the disk. Therefore, there are not many high-resolution optical spectra of bulge stars with large wavelength coverage, whose determined abundances can be compared with nearby, similarly analyzed stellar samples. Aims: We aim to determine the diagnostically important alpha elements of a sample of bulge giants using high-resolution optical spectra with large wavelength coverage. The abundances found are compared to similarly derived abundances from similar spectra of similar stars in the local thin and thick disks. In this first paper we focus on the solar neighborhood reference sample. Methods: We used spectral synthesis to derive the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of both the local and bulge samples of giants. We took special care to benchmark our method of determining stellar parameters against independent measurements of effective temperatures from angular diameter measurements and surface gravities from asteroseismology. Results: In this first paper we present the method used to determine the stellar parameters and elemental abundances, evaluate them, and present the results for our local disk sample of 291 giants. Conclusions: When comparing our determined spectroscopic temperatures to those derived from angular diameter measurements, we reproduce these with a systematic difference of +10 K and a standard deviation of 53 K. The spectroscopic gravities reproduce those determined from asteroseismology with a systematic offset of +0.10 dex and a standard deviation of 0.12 dex. When it comes to the abundance trends, our sample of local disk giants closely follows trends found in other works analyzing solar neighborhood dwarfs, showing that the much brighter giant stars are as good abundance probes as the often used dwarfs. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope

  8. Crime, In/Security and Mob Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... justice is an insurgent mode of social control or securitisation as well as a contextual expression of contested sovereignty directed at the state’s unwillingness or incapacity to contain dangerous forms of violent crime.......Violent crime poses important challenges for quotidian concerns over security and safety by ordinary citizens in several Africa states. This is especially so in contexts where state security agents are perceived as highly corrupt and/or where African states seem unable to “protect” their citizens...... from violent crime. The widespread sense of anxiety over various forms of violent crime and state failure to guarantee protection for citizens generates a quest for alternative practices of safety-making that, in turn, evoke serious concerns over state power and sovereignty in Africa. Focusing on mob...

  9. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  10. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  11. Economical Crime Control

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip J.; Jens Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the introductory chapter for the forthcoming NBER volume Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs. The Great Recession has led to cuts in criminal justice expenditures, and the trend towards ever-higher incarceration rates that has been underway since the 1970s in the U.S. appears to have turned the corner. That raises the question of whether the crime drop can be sustained. State and local revenue shortfalls have engendered intense interest in cost-cutting measures that do n...

  12. Less crime, more punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mark; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2008-09-01

    Recasting Durkheim's "community of saints" thesis, the authors argue that the severity of punishment is predicted in part by the prevalence of the deviant behavior of which the deviant stands accused. Although there is some curvilinearity at low levels of prevalence, the relationship is generally negative. Thus, all else equal, where a particular crime is frequent, any punishment applied to it is likely to be mild; conversely, where a crime is infrequent, its punishment ought to be severe. Using hierarchical regression models, the authors support this hypothesis with 1988 homicide conviction and imprisonment decisions in 32 U.S. counties.

  13. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City's low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops.

  14. The Effects of Local Police Surges on Crime and Arrests in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John; Fagan, Jeffrey; Geller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The New York Police Department (NYPD) under Operation Impact deployed extra police officers to high crime areas designated as impact zones. Officers were encouraged to conduct investigative stops in these areas. City officials credited the program as one of the leading causes of New York City’s low crime rate. We tested the effects of Operation Impact on reported crimes and arrests from 2004 to 2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in crime and arrest counts before and after census block groups were designated as impact zones compared to census block groups in the same NYPD precincts but outside impact zones. Impact zones were significantly associated with reductions in total reported crimes, assaults, burglaries, drug violations, misdemeanor crimes, felony property crimes, robberies, and felony violent crimes. Impact zones were significantly associated with increases in total reported arrests, arrests for burglary, arrests for weapons, arrests for misdemeanor crimes, and arrests for property felony crimes. Impact zones were also significantly associated with increases in investigative stops for suspected crimes, but only the increase in stops made based on probable cause indicators of criminal behaviors were associated with crime reductions. The largest increase in investigative stops in impact zones was based on indicators of suspicious behavior that had no measurable effect on crime. The findings suggest that saturating high crime blocks with police helped reduce crime in New York City, but that the bulk of the investigative stops did not play an important role in the crime reductions. The findings indicate that crime reduction can be achieved with more focused investigative stops. PMID:27310252

  15. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  16. CRIME MAPS AND COMPUTER TECNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal KARAKAŞ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Crime maps show crime density values and locations where crime have accured. For this reason it had been easy to examine the spatial distribution of crime locations with crime maps. There for crime maps have long been part of the process to crime analysis. In this study, the crime of home burglary was mapped with respect to general areal distribution by GIS (Geographic Information System in the city of Elazig The distribution of the crime was handled considering the parameters such as month, day and hour, and related to the land use. As a result, it was determined that there were differences in the distribution and concentration in the crime of theft with respect to the land use inside the city. The methods and findings in this study will provide rapid and accurate analyses for such kinds of studies. In addition, Interrelating the type of the crime with the regions or areas will contribute to preventing crime, and security in urban areas.

  17. International Crimes and Transitional Justice: where does organised crime fit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmentier Stephan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.

  18. Affective dimensions of urban crime areas : towards the psycho-geography of urban problem areas

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Traditional studies of crime areas within cities by geographers focus on the spatial variations in the incidence of crime, as well as the social deprivation and social disorganization of these areas. Although these social content and behavioural features are often highly correlated with crime areas. it is argued that analytical studies of crime areas need to be extended to deal with the feelings and attitudes of people in these areas.Ten separate dimensions of the affecti...

  19. A New Perspective on Violent Crime Burden Index: Evidence from Indian Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Kausik; Chowdhury, Payel; Reilly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Given limited resource availability in a developing nation like India, faced with high incidences of crime, it is important to optimize on the resources spent in combating crime by channelling them to proper direction. This requires an understanding of the actual and overall level of crime across India. Our paper provides a complete understanding…

  20. A New Perspective on Violent Crime Burden Index: Evidence from Indian Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Kausik; Chowdhury, Payel; Reilly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Given limited resource availability in a developing nation like India, faced with high incidences of crime, it is important to optimize on the resources spent in combating crime by channelling them to proper direction. This requires an understanding of the actual and overall level of crime across India. Our paper provides a complete understanding…

  1. Crime, Culture Conflict, and the Sources of Support for Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether attitudes towards gun control are influenced primarily by exposure to high crime rates, prior victimization, and fear of crime, or result from membership in social groups hostile to gun ownership. Maintains that support for gun control is more a product of culture conflict than a response to crime. (MJP)

  2. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  3. Cities, Crowding and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This article considers the effects of human crowding in light of recent tests and observations. Factors such as sex, age, culture, socio-economic standing, frustration, and interpersonal physical distance are examined. Results indicate that crowding contributes to social problems and crime. (TK)

  4. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  5. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound

  6. Crime, Race, and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1992-01-01

    Fear can produce behavior that is indistinguishable from racism. The best way to reduce real or imagined racism is to reduce the African-American crime rate to equal that of whites. This will require an enormous commitment to the problems of the innercity. (SLD)

  7. Crime and Punishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dostoevsky, Fyodor

    2005-01-01

    Crime and Punishment is the story of a brutal double murder and its aftermath. Raskolnikov, a poor student, kills a pawnbroker and her sister, and then has to face up to the moral consequences of his actions. The novel is compelling and rewarding, full of meaning and symbolism, and raises profound q

  8. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  9. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  10. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  11. Social cohesion and self-rated health: The moderating effect of neighborhood physical disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstrom, Eileen E S; Ralston, Margaret L; Kuhl, Danielle C

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey and its companion datasets, we examined how neighborhood disorder, perceived danger and both individually perceived and contextually measured neighborhood social cohesion are associated with self-rated health. Results indicate that neighborhood disorder is negatively associated with health and the relationship is explained by perceived cohesion and danger, which are both also significant predictors of health. Further, individually perceived cohesion emerges as a more important explanation of self-rated health than neighborhood-level social cohesion. Finally, neighborhood disorder and perceived cohesion interact to influence health, such that cohesion is especially beneficial when residents live in neighborhoods characterized by low to moderate disorder; once disorder is at high levels, cohesion no longer offers protection against poor health. We interpret our findings as they relate to prior research on neighborhoods, psychosocial processes, and health, and discuss their implications for intervention efforts that address disorder in urban communities.

  12. Responding to Identity Crime on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Holm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unique challenges of responding to identity crime. Identity crime involves the use of personal identification information to perpetrate crimes. As such, identity crime involves using personal and private information to for illegal purposes. In this article, the two significant issues that obstruct responses to this crime are considered. These are first, the reporting of crime, and second the issue of jurisdiction. The paper also presents an exploration of some responses to identity crime.

  13. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti-social...... behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  14. Active labor market policies and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...

  15. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  16. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Kawakami, Naomi; Skog, Lars; Ohlsson, Henrik; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    More knowledge concerning the association between physical activity and objectively measured attributes of the built environment is needed. Previous studies on the association between objectively measured neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking have been conducted in the U.S. or Australia and research findings are available from only one country in Europe - Belgium. The first aim of this Swedish study of 2269 adults was to examine the associations between neighborhood walkability and walking for active transportation or leisure, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and whether these hypothesized associations are moderated by age, gender, income, marital status and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. The second aim was to determine how much of the total variance of the walking and physical activity outcomes can be attributed to neighborhood-level differences. Neighborhood walkability was objectively measured by GIS methods. An index consisting of residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix was constructed to define 32 highly and less walkable neighborhoods in Stockholm City. MVPA was measured objectively during 7 days with an accelerometer and walking was assessed using the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Multilevel linear as well as logistic models (mixed-effects, mixed-distribution models) were used in the analysis. The statistically significant and "adjusted" results for individuals living in highly walkable neighborhoods, as compared to those living in less walkable neighborhoods, were: (1) 77% and 28% higher odds for walking for active transportation and walking for leisure, respectively, (2) 50 min more walking for active transportation/week, and (3) 3.1 min more MVPA/day. The proportion of the total variance at the neighborhood level was low and ranged between 0.0% and 2.1% in the adjusted models. The findings of the present study stress that future policies concerning the

  17. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... and that a high quality of contacts increases the individual’s employment chances and annual earnings....

  18. Food shopping behaviors of residents in two Bronx neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dannefer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous researchers have documented associations between neighborhood food environments and residents’ diets. However, few quantitative studies have examined the food shopping behaviors of residents in low-income neighborhoods, including the types of stores patronized and frequency of visits. This study presents findings on the food shopping behaviors of residents in the Bronx neighborhoods of West Farms and Fordham. Methods: Street-intercept surveys were conducted in spring 2012 with residents of West Farms and Fordham as part of a broader program evaluation. The survey included questions on general food shopping behaviors including visits to neighborhood bodegas (corner stores and supermarkets, mode of transportation to the supermarket most commonly frequented, and the primary source for purchases of fruits and vegetables. Results: The survey was conducted with 505 respondents. The sample was 59% Hispanic and 34% black, with a median age of 45 years. Thirty-four percent of respondents had less than a high school education, 30% were high school graduates or had their GED, and 36% had attended some college. Almost all respondents (97% shopped at supermarkets in their neighborhood; 84% usually shopped at a supermarket within their neighborhood, and 16% usually shopped at a supermarket outside of their neighborhood. Most respondents (95% shopped at bodegas in their neighborhood, and 65% did so once per day or more. Conclusions: Residents of these neighborhoods have high exposure to local food stores, with the vast majority of respondents shopping at neighborhood supermarkets and bodegas and almost 2 in 3 respondents going to bodegas every day. These findings demonstrate the important role of supermarkets and bodegas in local residents’ shopping patterns and support the inclusion of these stores in efforts to create food environments that support and promote healthy eating.

  19. Second-Generation Effects of Chicago's Gautreaux Residential Mobility Program on Children's Participation in Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2008-01-01

    Data from the Gautreaux residential mobility program, which relocated low-income African American families from high poverty, segregated inner-city, Chicago neighborhoods into mostly European American, suburban neighborhoods, and mostly European American or mostly African American neighborhoods within Chicago, are used to assess whether children's…

  20. The social context moderates the relationship between neighborhood safety and adolescents' activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Jeanne Salvy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of neighborhood safety and physical activity have typically neglected to consider the youth's peer context as a modifier of these relationships. This study fills this gap in testing the independent and interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and time spent with friends and peers on young adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Participants (N = 80; ages 13–17 completed the Pedestrian/Traffic Safety and Crime Safety subscales of the adolescent version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS. An experience sampling methodology was used to assess sedentary behaviors/screen time and the social context in which physical activity and sedentary time/behavior occurred. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Multilevel models were used to estimate the relationships between predictors (neighborhood safety and social context and outcomes (physical activity and sedentary time/behavior. Frequency of peer/friend interactions moderated the relationships between neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Specifically, physical activity was more strongly influenced by neighborhood safety among adolescents who reported spending less time with peers and friends than among those who reported frequent peer interactions. Among youths who perceived that their neighborhoods were safer, spending more time with friends and peers was related to greater engagement in sedentary activities, whereas this was not the case among adolescents who perceived that their neighborhoods were less safe. The peer social context moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Improving social interactions at the individual level within neighborhoods may decrease concerns of safety.

  1. Web Crime Mining by Means of Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hosseinkhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide a review to mining useful information by means of Data Mining. The procedure of extracting knowledge and information from large set of data is data mining that applying artificial intelligence method to find unseen relationships of data. There is more study on data mining applications that attracted more researcher attention and one of the crucial field is criminology that applying in data mining which is utilized for identifying crime characteristics. Detecting and exploring crimes and investigating their relationship with criminals are involved in the analyzing crime process. Criminology is a suitable field for using data mining techniques that shows the high volume and the complexity of relationships between crime datasets. Therefore, for further analysis development, the identifying crime characteristic will be the first step and obtained knowledge from data mining approaches is a very useful tool to help and support police forces. This research aims to provide a review to extract useful information by means of Data Mining, in order to find crime hot spots out and predict crime trends for them using crime data mining techniques.

  2. Crime prevalence and frequency among Danish outlaw bikers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the very limited quantitative research on outlaw bikers, basic questions about crime prevalence and frequency have not been sufficiently addressed. The current study contributes to fill this void. Data are derived from two sources: the Danish National Police, who maintain a file on individuals...... bikers is approximately 18. These individuals are generally first registered in the National Police file on outlaw bikers between the ages of 27 and 32. A significant proportion of these individuals are involved in crime both before and after their affiliations with outlaw motorcycle clubs...... and are responsible for a disproportionate amount of all cleared crime in Denmark. The findings suggest that a broad and high-intensity police approach to the prevention of outlaw biker crime in Denmark is appropriate. On the other hand, they also imply that reductions in outlaw biker crime might not matter much...

  3. Modeling the underlying dynamics of the spread of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillon, David; Simon, Carl P; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The spread of crime is a complex, dynamic process that calls for a systems level approach. Here, we build and analyze a series of dynamical systems models of the spread of crime, imprisonment and recidivism, using only abstract transition parameters. To find the general patterns among these parameters--patterns that are independent of the underlying particulars--we compute analytic expressions for the equilibria and for the tipping points between high-crime and low-crime equilibria in these models. We use these expressions to examine, in particular, the effects of longer prison terms and of increased incarceration rates on the prevalence of crime, with a follow-up analysis on the effects of a Three-Strike Policy.

  4. Causes and Consequences of Fear of Crime: The Impact of Fear of Crime on Behavioral Health Outcomes and Behavioral Health Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Grinshteyn, Erin Greer

    2013-01-01

    Fear of crime has been defined in many ways; one definition is that it is an emotional reaction marked by feeling as though danger could result in physical harm. The amount of fear a person feels is dependent on factors that affect actual risk and perception of risk. For adolescents, personal characteristics, neighborhood characteristics, and characteristics of their caregiver contribute how much fear is felt. Potential consequences of fear are behavior changes, physical/ behavioral health ou...

  5. The Crime Curve of Turkey: Does crime decrease with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akalın

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age distribution of crime is one of the few issues in criminology that received sufficient attention in the West. Some scholars argued that this age distribution is adequately invariant over time, place and type of crime; whereas, others admit that this distribution differs over place and type of crime. Although age-crime curve looks similar in many ways, in fact, a slight difference has been recognized in most countries. This age-crime curve may also help out to focus more on the causes of criminality of specific age groups. Establishing this age distribution is also important because it may play a guiding role for law enforcement personnel and in constructing preventive programs. This article is written primarily to find out how age-crime curve looks like in Turkey. In doing this, prison statistics used here as the primary source.

  6. Fear of Crime Among the Aged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Frank; Kleiman, Michael B.

    1976-01-01

    Compares the patterns of fear of crime among the aged and the non-aged. Four key specifying variables were used in the analysis--sex, race, socioeconomic status, and size of community. Findings indicated that elderly respondents who were either female, black, or metropolitan residents possessed extremely high fear rates. (Author)

  7. The status of low-income neighborhoods in the post-welfare reform environment: mapping the relationship between poverty and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Johnson, Michelle A; Austin, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that children and adults living in poverty are at risk for a number of negative outcomes. As inequality in the distribution of wealth, income and opportunity has grown in the U.S. during the post-welfare reform era, impoverished children and their families have tended to become increasingly concentrated in urban low-income neighborhoods. Research evidence demonstrates that living in these neighborhoods affects family well-being in several key areas: economic and employment opportunity, health and mental health condition, crime and safety, and children's behavioral and educational outcomes. Using the neighborhood indicator approach, public and nonprofit social service agencies will be better positioned to develop a comprehensive and integrated service delivery model at the neighborhood level by using neighborhood assessment to locate services and utilize neighborhood intervention strategies.

  8. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  9. Crime Without Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As gangs grow increasingly globalized, organized crime is becoming a problem hindering international economic development In late 2005, Dutch police raided Hells Angels clubhouses around the country. In a coordinated sweep that followed a yearlong investigation, police carried out predawn searches in six towns and cities in the Netherlands, arresting 45 members of the motorcycle club, laying scores of charges and seizing an assortment of weapons. Such large-scale raids were rare in Dutch history, and the...

  10. Sexual disorders and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda, José G V; Michalski-Jaeger, Camila A

    2012-09-01

    Highlighting the relationship between sexual disorders and crime, reviewing and summarizing the articles published throughout 2011 which add to the current knowledge on this subject. Studies on specific populations confirm the association between sexual disorders and crime, particularly between paraphilias and sexual crimes regarding male offenders. Female offenders are less likely to be diagnosed with a sexual disorder. Some case reports focus on unusual paraphilias and lead us to question the vast possibilities of paraphilic contents and sexual arousal patterns. The variations of paraphilic-associated sexual arousal patterns, unconventional sex behaviors or paraphilic disorders are constantly changing. In this sense, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5 current proposals for a sexual dysfunction diagnostic category are under intense discussion because of their important clinical and forensic consequences. Sexual violence is a theme not well understood yet. Because of its nature, researching it can raise many ethical problems. There is no possibility of clinical trials and of case-control studies. Even cohort studies may be problematic in themselves. So, most of the research involves biased samples or case reports, or is merely theoretical. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the subject, so that preventive and rehabilitative measures can be taken.

  11. Crime fiction and mediatized religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  12. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In recent Scandinavian crime fiction an ongoing discussion on religion and religiosity is taking place. This undercurrent goes historically a long way back, but the past few decades seem to have left room for an altered view on religion in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has usually been...... connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...

  13. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Effects in Latino Comunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Sanchez, Ninive; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To obtain rich information about how adult Latinos living in high-poverty/high-drug use neighborhoods perceive and negotiate their environment. Methods In 2008, thirteen adult caregivers in Santiago, Chile were interviewed with open-ended questions to ascertain beliefs about neighborhood effects and drug use. Analysis Inductive analysis was used to develop the codebook/identify trends. Discussion Residents externalized their understanding of drug use and misuse by invoking the concept of delinquent youth. A typology of their perceptions is offered. Learning more about residents’ circumstances may help focus on needs-based interventions. More research with Latino neighborhoods is needed for culturally-competent models of interventions. PMID:22497879

  14. Reconsidering the Neighborhood Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Martin; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The state of the national economy often directs voting. But how do citizens form perceptions of a complex and abstract macroeconomy? This study examines whether exposure to unemployment in citizens’ immediate residential surroundings shapes their perceptions of the national economy. Using novel...... microcontexts when forming perceptions of the national economy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that measures of unemployment in more aggregate contexts are not only poor reflections of what individuals are likely to experience in their immediate neighborhood but also seem to capture a different mechanism...

  15. Neighborhood safety factors associated with older adults' health-related outcomes: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Chanam; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-09-01

    Neighborhood safety is important for older adults' health and wellbeing, but there has not been a synthesis in the literature of what is currently known about this construct. This systematic literature review, following the PRISMA guidelines, focuses on identifying neighborhood safety factors associated with health-related outcomes and behaviors of older adults in the U.S. A search was conducted in 2014 via Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, SportDis, and Transportation Databases. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified thirty-two articles for review. Sixteen studies examined health outcomes such as health status, mental health, physical function, morbidity/mortality, and obesity; the other sixteen studies focused on health behaviors, such as physical activity and walking. Four domains of neighborhood safety were identified: overall/general neighborhood safety; crime-related safety; traffic-related safety; and proxies for safety (e.g., vandalism, graffiti). Overall/general neighborhood safety appeared most relevant to mental health and physical function. Traffic-related safety was most pertinent to physical activity, while crime-related safety was more consistently associated with mental health and walking. While all safety variables were significantly associated with mental health, no significant associations were found for obesity. We also found that specific measures or constructs of safety were not applied consistently across the examined studies, making it difficult to compare the results. This review identified several important gaps in the existing studies dealing with neighborhood safety-health relationships among older adults. Further studies are needed that examine the different roles of multidimensional neighborhood safety in promoting the community health, not only in the U.S., but globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Johnson, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI re...

  17. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  18. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  19. An Attribute Oriented Stimulate Algorithm For Detecting and Mapping Crime Hot Spots

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar, M.; Chandrasekar, Dr. C.

    2011-01-01

    cCrime mapping is a very effective method for detecting high-crime-density areas known as hot spots. Crime hot spot is an area where the number of criminal or disorder events is larger than that in any other places, or an area where people have a higher risk of victimization. There are many theories and methods in common use by far. They explain different types of crime phenomena that occur at different geographic levels. The method which is used most widely for detecting crime hot spots is t...

  20. Social Disadvantage and Crime: A Criminological Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Per-Olof H; Treiber, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between social disadvantage and crime, starting from the paradox that most persistent offenders come from disadvantaged backgrounds, but most people from disadvantaged backgrounds do not become persistent offenders. We argue that despite the fact that social disadvantage has been a key criminological topic for some time, the mechanisms which link it to offending remain poorly specified. Drawing on situational action theory, we suggest social disadvantage is linked to crime because more people from disadvantaged versus affluent backgrounds develop a high crime propensity and are exposed to criminogenic contexts, and the reason for this is that processes of social and self-selection place the former more frequently in (developmental and action) contexts conducive to the development and expression of high crime propensities. This article will explore this hypothesis through a series of analyses using data from the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+), a longitudinal study which uses a range of data collection methods to study the interaction between personal characteristics and social environments. It pays particular attention to the macro-to-micro processes behind the intersection of people with certain characteristics and environments with certain features - i.e., their exposure - which leads to their interaction.

  1. Housing, Neighborhoods, and Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Glied, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    In theory, improving low-income families' housing and neighborhoods could also improve their children's health, through any number of mechanisms. For example, less exposure to environmental toxins could prevent diseases such as asthma; a safer, less violent neighborhood could improve health by reducing the chances of injury and death, and by…

  2. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan; Garces, Len Patrick Dominic M.; Angelica Nicole C. Purisima; Zaratan, Angelo Christian L.

    2015-01-01

    Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population) and total tourist arrivals is found....

  3. A Cure for Crime? Psycho-Pharmaceuticals and Crime Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider possible links between the diffusion of new pharmaceuticals used for treating mental illness and crime rates. We describe recent trends in crime and review the evidence showing that mental illness is a clear risk factor both for criminal behavior and victimization. We summarize the development of a number of new…

  4. Associations of adult physical activity with perceived safety and police-recorded crime: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the inconsistent findings of prior studies, we explored the association of perceived safety and police-recorded crime measures with physical activity. Methods The study included 818 Chicago participants of the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 45 to 84 years of age. Questionnaire-assessed physical activity included a transport walking; b leisure walking; and c non-walking leisure activities. Perceived safety was assessed through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Police-recorded crime was assessed through 2-year counts of selected crimes (total and outdoor incivilities, criminal offenses, homicides per 1000 population. Associations were examined using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Perceiving a safer neighborhood was positively associated with transport walking and perceiving lower violence was associated with leisure walking. Those in the lowest tertile of total or outdoor incivilities were more likely to report transport walking. Models with both perceived safety and police-recorded measures of crime as independent variables had superior fit for both transport walking and leisure walking outcomes. Neither perceived safety nor police-recorded measures of crime were associated with non-walking leisure activity. Conclusions Perceived and police-recorded measures had independent associations with walking and both should be considered in assessing the impact of neighborhood crime on physical activity.

  5. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  6. Crime, Punishment, and Evolution in an Adversarial Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    nature than standard social dilemmas. Such settings have been largely ignored in the literature , yet an important exception is Short, Brantingham...highly influential in driving the system away from the “Dystopian” state of high crime and toward the efficient, no- crime, “ Utopian ” steady state...Specifically, the presence of Informants is a sufficient, but not necessary, condition for achieving the Utopian state. Our paper more closely examines

  7. Street crime, tourism and casinos: An empirical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochrym, R G

    1990-06-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to study the "causes" of crime in tourist destinations, particularly in those areas which offer casino gaming. Critics, who cite the high crime rates of Atlantic City, New Jersey and Las Vegas, Nevada, fail to understand the relationship between tourism and crime. Casino gaming is a catalyst for tourism and one of the social consequences of tourism is increased crime.The mean crime rates of three tourist areas (including Atlantic City) and two urban centers in New Jersey were examined to determine if the rates were significantly different. Additionally, the study examined and identified which types of crime have changed since the advent of tourism in Atlantic City.Policy makers who reject gaming in favor of other mechanisms for urban revitalization need to take note. Tourist destinations have mean crime rates significantly different (higher) from urban areas, at least in New Jersey. Gaming-free tourism initiatives will have similar consequences for a community, as gaming has been identified to have had on Atlantic City.

  8. Perceived neighborhood safety and sleep quality: a global analysis of six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Wen, Ming; Hale, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    Building on previous North American and European studies of neighborhood context and sleep quality, we tested whether several self-reported sleep outcomes (sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sleepiness, lethargy, and overall sleep quality) vary according to the level of perceived neighborhood safety in six countries: Mexico, Ghana, South Africa, India, China, and Russia. Using data (n = 39,590) from Wave I of the World Health Organization's Longitudinal Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010), we estimated a series of multinomial and binary logistic regression equations to model each sleep outcome within each country. Taken together, our results show that respondents who feel safe from crime and violence in their neighborhoods tend to exhibit more favorable sleep outcomes than respondents who feel less safe. This general pattern is especially pronounced in China and Russia, moderately evident in Mexico, Ghana, and South Africa, and sporadic in India. Perceptions of neighborhood safety are strongly associated with insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality (past 30 days), moderately associated with sleepiness, lethargy, and poor sleep quality (past 2 days), and inconsistently associated with sleep duration (past two days). We show that perceived neighborhood safety is associated with more favorable self-reported sleep outcomes in six understudied countries. Additional research is needed to replicate our findings using longitudinal data, more reliable neighborhood measures, and more direct measures of sleep quality in these and other regions of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Longitudinal association between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood in old age: A Japanese prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Nishi, Mariko; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Yokoyama, Yuri; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing evidence of the relationship between neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood, little is known about this longitudinal association in old age. This study examined the association between perceived neighborhood cohesion and depressive mood and the stress-buffering effect of perceived neighborhood cohesion on depressive mood among older Japanese people using the 2010 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) Hatoyama Cohort Study datasets. We analyzed 655 participants aged 65-84 at baseline. Although perceived neighborhood cohesion at baseline was not associated with depressive mood at follow-up, high neighborhood cohesion partially offset the deleterious effect of anticipated daily stressors on depressive mood. This effect was stronger for long-term residents of the neighborhood. Interventions to strengthen neighborhood cohesion may help reduce the deleterious effect of stressors on older residents' depressive mood.

  10. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  11. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  12. CyberCrime and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Surveys ways in which criminal laws are finding their way into cyberspace, the implications of such actions for communicative rights and liabilities, and the media differentials of crime and punishment. Examines crime committed using email and the Internet; computer mediated felonies, misdemeanors, and violations committed in cyberspace; forgery;…

  13. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  14. Crime, accidents and social control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Terlouw, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses to questions. (1) Is there a demonstrable relation between accidents and crime, does this relation hold for each type of crime and each means of transport, and does it subsist after controlling for age and gender? (2) Can social control theory explain involvements in both

  15. Childhood Victimization and Crime Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jared Kean; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether abused and neglected children are at increased risk for subsequent crime victimization. We ask four basic questions: (a) Does a history of child abuse/neglect increase one's risk of physical, sexual, and property crime victimization? (b) Do lifestyle characteristics (prostitution, running away,…

  16. Álcool, drogas e crime Alcohol, drugs and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Chalub

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve duas situações complexas e duplamente preocupantes em termos de saúde pública, seja, por sua alta prevalência e/ou por suas conseqüências. Trata-se dos transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e a criminalidade. Será relatada a forma como diversos pesquisadores as associam, bem como a situação das perícias de usuários e dependentes de álcool e drogas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão das publicações sobre o tema, utilizando-se, como bancos de dados, o Medline e o Lilacs, cobrindo o período de 1986 a 2006. Os descritores usados foram: "alcoholism", "drug dependence", "drug abuse" e "crime". Resumos de congressos, artigos e livros relevantes sobre o tema, publicados por diferentes autoridades no assunto, em diversas fases de pesquisa, foram consultados e incluídos. CONCLUSÃO: As diversas pesquisas coincidem na afirmação de uma associação entre transtornos do uso de substâncias psicoativas e criminalidade. O que é possível constatar é a alta proporção de atos violentos quando o álcool ou as drogas ilícitas estão presentes entre agressores, suas vítimas ou em ambos. Quando se realiza um exame pericial em autores que alegam alguma relação do ato praticado com consumo de álcool/drogas, esta perícia deve levar em consideração a substância em uso, o quadro clínico por ela causado, bem como verificar a presença de um diagnóstico, a existência de nexo causal e possíveis alterações na capacidade de entendimento e/ou determinação do agente.OBJECTIVE: This article describes two complex and doubly preoccupying situations in terms of public health, either, for its high prevalence and/or its consequences. These problems are the psychoactive substance use disorder and crime. The form will be told as diverse researchers associate them, as well as the situation of the exam of users and alcohol dependents and drugs. METHOD: A revision of publications was become fulfilled on the

  17. Punishment goals of crime victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Uli

    2003-04-01

    Research on subjective punishment goals has focused on the perspective of third-party observers of criminal offenses and neglected the perspective of victims. This study investigates punishment goals among 174 adult crime victims (rape and nonsexual assault) for each participant's real criminal case. Scales measuring support for punishment goals are constructed by factor analysis of an 18-item list. Results show that 5 highly supported goals can be distinguished: retaliation, recognition of victim status, confirmation of societal values, victim security, and societal security. Analysis of relations between punishment goal scales and personal variables, situational variables, and demanded punishment severity corroborates the view that the punishment goals revealed can be classified according to the two independent dichotomies of moral versus instrumental goals, and micro versus macro goals.

  18. Melville's Carnival Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyn Kelley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of the relationship between Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville have tended to focus on it as a failed friendship or aborted romance —as inspiring in Melville hopes and longings that Hawthorne could never fulfill. Viewed as a relationship between neighbors, not only friends or lovers, and seen through the prism of unconsidered works like Melville’s Israel Potter (1854­5, 1855 and “The Encantadas” (1854, 1856, the connection might look slightly different. For as neighbors Hawthorne and Melville may have found opportunities for greater freedom, fluidity, and festivity than friendship or love could always offer. Taking place in the carnival neighborhood of their redoubtable friend, Sarah Huyler Morewood, Hawthorne’s and Melville’s relationship may have explored some of her subversive energies as well.

  19. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  20. Neighborhood walkability and the walking behavior of Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Neville; Cerin, Ester; Leslie, Eva; duToit, Lorinne; Coffee, Neil; Frank, Lawrence D; Bauman, Adrian E; Hugo, Graeme; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F

    2007-11-01

    The physical attributes of residential neighborhoods, particularly the connectedness of streets and the proximity of destinations, can influence walking behaviors. To provide the evidence for public health advocacy on activity-friendly environments, large-scale studies in different countries are needed. Associations of neighborhood physical environments with adults' walking for transport and walking for recreation must be better understood. Walking for transport and walking for recreation were assessed with a validated survey among 2650 adults recruited from neighborhoods in an Australian city between July 2003 and June 2004, with neighborhoods selected to have either high or low walkability, based on objective measures of connectedness and proximity derived from geographic information systems (GIS) databases. The study design was stratified by area-level socioeconomic status, while analyses controlled for participant age, gender, individual-level socioeconomic status, and reasons for neighborhood self-selection. A strong independent positive association was found between weekly frequency of walking for transport and the objectively derived neighborhood walkability index. Preference for walkable neighborhoods moderated the relationship of walkability with weekly minutes, but not the frequency of walking for transport--walkability was related to higher frequency of transport walking, irrespective of neighborhood self-selection. There were no significant associations between environmental factors and walking for recreation. Associations of neighborhood walkability attributes with walking for transport were confirmed in Australia. They accounted for a modest but statistically significant proportion of the total variation of the relevant walking behavior. The physical environment attributes that make up the walkability index are potentially important candidate factors for future environmental and policy initiatives designed to increase physical activity.

  1. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  2. The contemporary foreclosure crisis and US crime rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnio, Ashley N; Baumer, Eric P; Wolff, Kevin T

    2012-11-01

    Foreclosure rates in America reached unprecedented levels during the last half of the 2000s, and many observers have speculated that elevated crime rates were one of the probable negative collateral consequences of this trend. We examine this issue with a comprehensive county-level analysis of the role of foreclosure in shaping contemporary crime patterns, highlighting the possibility of theoretically informed non-linear and conditional relationships. Multivariate regression models that account for the well-documented spatial autocorrelation of crime rates and the possible endogeneity of foreclosure reveal a positive association between rates of foreclosure and property crime that accelerates significantly once foreclosure rates attain historically high levels. Multiplicative models indicate that this pattern holds for burglary across diverse county conditions, but the observed non-linear effect of foreclosure on robbery rates is limited primarily to areas that also exhibit relatively high levels of resource deprivation and limited new housing construction.

  3. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  4. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  5. Geo-Political Position and Importance of Turkey in the Crime Trafficking between the Continents Asia, Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Nurdan; Ozel, Ali

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2006 data of Turkish National Police (TNP), throughout Turkey, 1742 cases comprised of organized crime, collective or individual smuggling, nuclear stuff smuggling were recorded. Between 2000 and 2006, 11600 organized crimes had been recorded. It is known that the high number of crime is closely related to the geo-strategic and…

  6. A Cure for Crime: Can Mental Health Treatment Diversion Reduce Crime among Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Wasserman, Gail A.

    2006-01-01

    Youth crime is a serious social problem, as is the high proportion of young offenders in the juvenile justice system who have mental disorders. A recent policy innovation applies the theory of therapeutic jurisprudence and diverts youth with mental disorders to treatment in lieu of further court processing. The expansion of mental health diversion…

  7. Crime and public transport: designing a safer journey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, Tinus

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ). Of particular concern, though, is the high level of violence experienced, with crimes such as murder, rape and assault having amongst the highest incidence rates in the world (Du Plessis & Louw, 2005). Despite promising decreases in the reported levels... and jewellery theft, but more serious violent crimes such as assault, stabbings and rape had also been experienced. These incidents had all taken place in locations specifically associated with public transport such as train stations, taxi ranks, bus stops...

  8. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rollings

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  9. Measuring Physical Neighborhood Quality Related to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A.; Wells, Nancy M.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work. PMID:25938692

  10. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Joan, Ed.; Widom, Cathy Spatz, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.

    This book discusses patterns and trends in crimes committed by children and adolescents, analyzing youth crime as a subset of general crime and studying the impact of race and gender. It evaluates different approaches to forecasting future crime rates. Data come from a national panel that examined what is known about juvenile crime and its…

  11. LGBTI Variations in Crime Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Miles-Johnson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people vary in their willingness to report crime to police depending on the type of crime experienced, their gender, age, and their race or ethnicity. Whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI and heterosexual people vary in their willingness to report crime to the police is not well understood in the extant literature. In this article, I examine variations in LGBTI respondents’ attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to report crimes to the police. Drawing on a survey of LGBTI individuals sampled from a Gay Pride community event and online LGBTI community forums (N = 329, I use quantitative statistical methods to examine whether LGBTI people’s beliefs in police homophobia are also directly associated with the behavioral intention to report crime. Overall, the results indicate that LGBTI and heterosexual people differ significantly in their intention to report crime to the police, and that a belief in police homophobia strongly influences LGBTI people’s intention to underreport crime to the police.

  12. Investigating the Influence of Tree Coverage on Property Crime: a Case Study in the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yuenan; Li, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), crime mapping becomes an effective approach to investigate the spatial pattern of crime in a defined area. Understanding the relationship between crime and its surrounding environment can reveal possible strategies that can reduce crime in a neighbourhood. The relationship between vegetation density and crime has been under debate for a long time. This research is conducted to investigate the impacts of tree coverage on property crime in the City of Vancouver. High spatial resolution airborne LiDAR data collected in 2013 was used for the extraction of tree covered area for cross-sectional analysis. The independent variables were put into Ordinary Least-Squares (OLS) regression, Spatial Lag regression, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models to examine their influences on property crime rates. According to the results, the cross-sectional analysis demonstrated statistical evidences that property crime rates had negative correlations with tree coverage, with greater influences occurred around Downtown Vancouver.

  13. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  14. Neighborhoods, Published in 2003, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Neighborhoods dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane...

  15. On the Prevention of Juvenile Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Kosheleva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    Crimes committed by juveniles are among the most urgent social problems. Juvenile crime is as prevalent as crime itself is, and it has not been solved completely in any society and cannot be solved through law enforcement measures alone. In this article, the authors discuss the dynamics and structure of juvenile crime in Russia and present data…

  16. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyun Zhao; Zhilan Feng; Carlos Castillo-Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  17. Emotional reactions to crime across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Hwang, Hyisung C

    2015-10-01

    Information about the emotions experienced by observers when they witness crimes would have important theoretical and practical implications, but to date no study has broadly assessed such emotional reactions. This study addressed this gap in the literature. Observers in seven countries viewed seven videos portraying actual crimes and rated their emotional reactions to each using 14 emotion scales. Observers reported significantly high levels of negative emotions including anger, contempt, disgust, fear and sadness-related emotions, and anger, contempt and disgust were the most salient emotions experienced by viewers across all countries. Witnesses also reported significantly high levels of positive emotions as well (compared to not feeling the emotion at all), which was unexpected. Country moderated the emotion ratings; post-hoc analyses indicated that masculine-oriented cultures reported less nervousness, surprise, excitement, fear and embarrassment than feminine cultures.

  18. ‘It’s what you have to do!’ : Exploring the role of high-risk edgework and advanced marginality in a young man’s motivation for crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on one young man’s self-presentations in a secure care unit for young offenders in Denmark, this article explores how his contradictory and incoherent self-presentations can be analysed as meaningful. Drawing on Stephen Lyng’s theory of high-risk edgework and Loïc Wacquant’s theory...... that although edgework theory is compelling, it needs further development if it is to capture the full complexity of young people’s motivation for crime....

  19. Foreign Nationals as Offenders and Victims in Malaysian Crime News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misman Norealyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign nationals in Malaysia come from all corners of the world. They are here as migrant labour, highly skilled and professional migrants (expatriates, illegal migrants, refugees, asylum-seekers (Burmese asylum seekers with UNHCR card, forced migrants (human trafficking victims, students, and tourists. The influx of foreign nationals residing in Malaysia coincides with greater number of crime news featuring foreign nationals. This study explores the social construction of foreign nationals as the ‘other’ in the local crime news published by Malaysian newspapers. 94 news headlines and lead sentences of local crime news involving foreign nationals were identified and analysed for this study. Findings suggest that Malaysian newspapers magnify foreign nationals’ migration status in each crime news.

  20. Borderless Crime - Computer Fraud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the consideration that fighting cybercrime is a continuous process, the more the types of old crimes are committed today through modern means (computer fraud at distances of thousands of kilometers, international cooperation is vital to combat this phenomenon.In EU countries, still under financial crisis "the phrase", cybercrime has found a "positive environment" taking advantage of poor security management systems of these countries.Factors that led criminal groups to switch "their activities" are related to so-called advantages of the "gains" obtained with relatively low risk.In Romania, more than any of the EU member states criminal activities set as target financial institutions or foreign citizens, weakening confidence in financial systems and the security of communication networks in our country, people's confidence in electronic payment instruments and those available on the Internet.

  1. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  2. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Claude; Rutés, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  3. Avant le crime politique

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La créativité récente dans le sous-genre policier au Mexique, que l’on appelle « néo-policier » favorise la mise en valeur des romans et nouvelles à caractère policier qui n’avaient pas dans ce pays le développement éditorial pris aux Etats-Unis. Le crime et l’enquête policière ont des composantes de fiction qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le profil conventionnel du roman de détective. Des œuvres de plusieurs écrivains marquent cette évolution vers le néo-policier.Dans Ensayo de un crimen (1986)...

  4. White-Collar Crimes and Financial Corruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞENTÜRK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crime, defined as act which is contrary to the law, creates negative influence in the society both economically and spiritually. There are various factors like professional experience as well as biological, psychological and sociological ones that make individuals turn to crime. Edwin Sutherland claim that life experiences and some facts learned from the environment account for occupational crimes in his study on the theory of crime in 1939. White-collar crime, which is perhaps the most important of types of crime in terms of havoc and committed by the superior contrary to common belief, has much more influence than conventional crime. This crime, which inflict significant financial loses and psychological collapse on states, communities, businesses and people, are committed by well-respected professionals in their business. In this study, white collar crimes are examined with conceptual view and detailed. Besides, this study explain this type of crime is so forceful, by giving remarkable examples on economic losses.

  5. A Statistical Approach to Crime Linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this paper is to develop a statistical approach to criminal linkage analysis that discovers and groups crime events that share a common offender and prioritizes suspects for further investigation. Bayes factors are used to describe the strength of evidence that two crimes are linked. Using concepts from agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the Bayes factors for crime pairs are combined to provide similarity measures for comparing two crime series. This facilitates crime series...

  6. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  7. Individual health care system distrust and neighborhood social environment: how are they jointly associated with self-rated health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A; Shoff, Carla

    2011-10-01

    Americans' distrust in the health care system has increased in the past decades; however, little research has explored the impact of distrust on self-rated health and even less is known about whether neighborhood social environment plays a role in understanding the relationship between distrust and self-rated health. This study fills these gaps by investigating both the direct and moderating associations of neighborhood social environment with self-rated health. Our analysis is based on the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's household survey and neighborhood-level data. Findings from multilevel logistic regression show that after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, distrust is directly and adversely related to self-rated health, and that neighborhood social affluence and stability are directly and negatively associated with the odds of reporting poor/fair health. Neighborhood disadvantage and crime rates are not directly related to self-rated health, but increase the odds of having poor/fair health via distrust. Overall, our results suggest that macro-level actions can alter individual's perception of residential environment and lead to improved health. To improve the public health in an urban setting, rebuilding confidence in the health care system is integral, and the policies that help establish safe and cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the adverse effect of distrust on self-rated health.

  8. Mapping the Racial Inequality in Place: Using Youth Perceptions to Identify Unequal Exposure to Neighborhood Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Black youth are more likely than white youth to grow up in poor, segregated neighborhoods. This racial inequality in the neighborhood environments of black youth increases their contact with hazardous neighborhood environmental features including violence and toxic exposures that contribute to racial inequality in youth health and well-being. While the concept of neighborhood effects has been studied at length by social scientists, this work has not been as frequently situated within an environmental justice (EJ paradigm. The present study used youth perceptions gained from in-depth interviews with youth from one Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania neighborhood to identify neighborhood environmental health hazards. We then mapped these youth-identified features to examine how they are spatially and racially distributed across the city. Our results suggest that the intersection of race and poverty, neighborhood disorder, housing abandonment, and crime were salient issues for youth. The maps show support for the youths’ assertions that the environments of black and white individuals across the city of Pittsburgh differ in noteworthy ways. This multi-lens, mixed-method analysis was designed to challenge some of the assumptions we make about addressing environmental inequality using youths’ own opinions on the issue to drive our inquiry.

  9. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  10. Podcast: The Electronic Crimes Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sept 26, 2016. Chris Lukas, the Special Agent in Charge of the Electronic Crimes Division within the OIG's Office of Investigations talks about computer forensics, cybercrime in the EPA and his division's role in criminal investigations.

  11. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    The inadequate conditions of South Africa's correctional facilities are well known. Health care, sanitation, food provision, access to education and reading materials, and, in particular, ..... J Belknap, The invisible woman: gender, crime and.

  12. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  13. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  14. Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This essay was written for the essay competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It discusses the possible determinant factors of youth crimes in Pakistan and provides logical suggestion to tackle the problem.

  15. Prediction of crime and early interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    This paper presents a prospective longitudinal study that attempts to predict juvenile delinquency measured by first contact with the police (arrest, pre-trial detention or charges of crimes) taking a complete cohort of all children born in Denmark in 1984 (N=54,458). The children are followed from...... birth to early adulthood in 2006. The predictors represent the major crime reduction paradigms, such as family circumstance and individual skills. A discrete-time Cox model is used to allow for changing covariates over time. The population had 6,075 first time contacts with the police over the 300......,591 person-years available. More than twenty risk factors were significantly predicting first-time contact with the police. Predictions were substantially more accurate than chance. Results also showed that the proportion of ‘false-positives’ were about 77 % of estimated high-risk subjects when observing...

  16. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  17. 基于中心路径大邻域上的一类非单调线性互补问题的高阶可行内点算法%HIGH-ORDER FEASIBLE INTERIOR POINT ALGORITHMS FOR A CLASS OF NONMONOTONIC LINEAR COMPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS BASED ON LARGE NEIGHBORHOODS OF CENTRAL PATH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浚岭

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a high-order feasible interior point algorithm for a class of nonmonotonic (P-matrix) linear complementary problem based on large neighborhoods of central path is presented and its iteration complexity is discussed.These algorithms are implicitly associated with a large neighborhood whose size may depend on the dimension of the problems. The complexity of these algorithms bound depends on the size of the neighborhood. It is well known that the complexity of large-step algorithms is greater than that of short- step ones. By using high-order power series (hence the name high-order algorithms), the iteration complexity can be reduced. We show that the upper bound of complexity for our high-order algorithms is equal to that for short-step algorithms.

  18. Neighborhood poverty and allostatic load in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Lei, Man-Kit; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether living in a neighborhood in which poverty levels increase across adolescence is associated with heightened levels of allostatic load (AL), a biological composite reflecting cardiometabolic risk. The researchers also sought to determine whether receipt of emotional support could ameliorate the effects of increases in neighborhood poverty on AL. Neighborhood concentrations of poverty were obtained from the Census Bureau for 420 African American youth living in rural Georgia when they were 11 and 19 years of age. AL was measured at age 19 by using established protocols for children and adolescents. When youth were 18, caregivers reported parental emotional support and youth assessed receipt of peer and mentor emotional support. Covariates included family poverty status at ages 11 and 19, family financial stress, parental employment status, youth stress, and youths' unhealthful behaviors. Youth who lived in neighborhoods in which poverty levels increased from ages 11 to 19 evinced the highest levels of AL even after accounting for the individual-level covariates. The association of increasing neighborhood poverty across adolescence with AL was not significant for youth who received high emotional support. This study is the first to show an association between AL and residence in a neighborhood that increases in poverty. It also highlights the benefits of supportive relationships in ameliorating this association. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion a......-constrained modernity and the theological theory of a welfare theodicy as valuable discussions of why we see this spiritual interest in crime fiction....

  20. Crime victimization and the implications for individual health and wellbeing: A Sheffield case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Su-Yin; Haining, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Public health and criminology have developed largely independently of one another at the research and policy levels so that the links between crime victimization and health status are not well understood. Although it is not difficult to support the idea of crime as a threat to the health of individuals and the wider community, the difficulty lies in quantifying the impact of crime on public health, while controlling other variables, including gender and ethnicity. We report the results of a study, the goals of which were to: develop an understanding conceptually of the relationships between different types of crime (violent and non-violent) and health; explore the impact of victimization on quality of life and physical and psychological wellbeing; investigate the role of social and demographic factors in shaping any relationships. The study is based on 840 responses from a postal survey administered to 4,100 households in Sheffield, England, located primarily in deprived areas where overall crime rates were high. Non-violent crimes were more frequently reported than violent crimes and in general, inner city neighbourhoods were associated with higher violent crime rates. Out of 392 victims of crime, 27% of individuals detailed physical injuries resulting directly from a crime event and 31% had taken some medical steps to treat a crime-related injury. 86% experienced at least one psychological or behavioural change, including stress, sleeping difficulties, loss of confidence, and depression. Logistic regression models estimated victimization risk based on various social and demographic variables. Violent crimes were consistently linked with higher odds of seeking medical treatment and a higher likelihood of experiencing psychological ill health effects or behavioural changes. In comparison, victims of non-violent or property crimes were not significantly associated with mental health or behavioural/lifestyle effects.

  1. An android application for crime analysis in San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchikara, Likhita

    Over the past few years, smartphone adoption has increased worldwide. In this era of smartphones, one of the easiest ways to make this information available to many users is through smartphone applications. Smartphone applications can provide requested information in a readable and user friendly format. Information related to data such as real estate, property, post offices, crime locations and many others can be very useful. Such information helps city planners, residents, students and commuters to identify and communicate trends and patterns about places. ESRI`s ARCGIS provides various services and tools which help visualize real-world features, discover patterns, obtain information, and communicate that information to others. When these services work in conjunction with GPS based location services in smartphones, they create new avenues for applications. This thesis implements an Android smartphone application with features to analyze location based crime data. The user of this application can view crime data in a region and filter different crime types. The application allows the user to query and analyze crimes that have occurred near his location or at a location of interest. The application includes features to measure distance between crime spots and also measure area on the map. The user can also switch the base-map from street map to NatGeo map. Powered with this information, renters and home buyers can ensure that their new home is in a safe location. Real estate agents can buy or sell property in safer locations. Commuters can find routes which avoid crime spots. Tourists can find accommodation in safer places. Students can be aware of the high crime rate areas around the school campus. This application uses ArcGIS feature service by ESRI to render all data on the map.

  2. Eliminating Tuberculosis One Neighborhood at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, David E.; McGaha, Paul K.; Wolfgang, Melanie; Robinson, Celia B.; Clark, Patricia A.; Hassell, Willis L.; Robison, Valerie A.; Walker, Kerfoot P.; Wallace, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a strategy for preventing tuberculosis (TB) in communities most affected by it. Methods. In 1996, we mapped reported TB cases (1985–1995) and positive tuberculin skin test (TST) reactors (1993–1995) in Smith County, Texas. We delineated the 2 largest, densest clusters, identifying 2 highest-incidence neighborhoods (180 square blocks, 3153 residents). After extensive community preparation, trained health care workers went door-to-door offering TST to all residents unless contraindicated. TST-positive individuals were escorted to a mobile clinic for radiography, clinical evaluation, and isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) as indicated. To assess long-term impact, we mapped all TB cases in Smith County during the equivalent time period after the project. Results. Of 2258 eligible individuals, 1291 (57.1%) were tested, 229 (17.7%) were TST positive, and 147 were treated. From 1996 to 2006, there were no TB cases in either project neighborhood, in contrast with the preintervention decade and the continued occurrence of TB in the rest of Smith County. Conclusions. Targeting high-incidence neighborhoods for active, community-based screening and IPT may hasten TB elimination in the United States. PMID:24899457

  3. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  4. Computer Crimes and Counter Measures in the Nigerian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasanmi, Omoneye Olufunke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of the information and communication technology (ICT facilities such as computers and the Internet in the perpetration of criminal activities like spamming, credit card frauds, ATM fra uds, phishing, identity theft, denial - of - service, and a host of others has lend credence to the view that ICT is contributing to crime in the banking sector. A greater understanding of such computer crimes may complement existing security practices by poss ibly highlighting new areas of counter measures. This paper thus assesses whether these crimes can be totally eradicated or not and whether the new generation banks experience more computer crimes than the old generation banks in Nigeria. Based on the find ings of this study, the paper concludes that total eradication of computer crimes is not possible but can be highly reduced if internal control measures are adequately put in place within a bank’s organizational structure and that new generation banks seem to experience more crimes than their old generation counterparts due to the fact that majority of their services, which are automated, are subjected to technological changes at a rapid rate

  5. Are Educated Societies Less Violent? Education, Deprivation and Crime in Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Puech, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    The intuition behind this paper is that education has a significant role to play in the reduction crime policies in developing countries. In other words, the fact that universal education is not completed in developing countries could be one of the reasons of their high crime rates. This paper brings an augmented economic model of individual crime behavior in order to take into account relative deprivation, discusses the impact of education in this model, distinguishing between property and i...

  6. Social defeat or social resistance? Reaction to fear of crime and violence among people with severe mental illness living in urban 'recovery communities'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2011-12-01

    This article is propelled by recent theory positing that 'social defeat' is a common experience for people with severe mental illness, potentially affecting course and outcome. The primary objective is to investigate how far fear of crime and violence contributes toward 'social defeat' among people with mental illness. This is done through examining 6 years of ethnographic data collected from a sample of urban-dwelling people with severe mental illness, all securely-housed in apartments located in small scale "recovery communities." Findings suggest that many participants living in the highest crime neighborhoods report that they deliberately restrict their temporal and spatial movement as a consequence of such crime. This hinders aspects of their recovery. Nevertheless, participants actively confront the nefarious affects of neighborhood crime by engaging in various empowering strategies of resistance. These include confronting disruptive people, fortifying homes, moving around the neighborhood in small groups and carrying objects such as umbrellas and canes that can be used in self-defense. Some reported that fear of crime directly contributed to the development of a rich and gratifying domestic life, centered on hospitality and religion. I conclude that participants partake in valiant and durable "social resistance," and may better be perceived as imaginative and resourceful resistors, rather than passive victims of "social defeat." An influential factor fostering such resistance is the "recovery community' itself, which creates secure and reliable housing within a micro-community in which participants could thrive.

  7. Health in the cities: when the neighborhood matters more than income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Marcel; Carrieri, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Using a rich Italian cross-sectional dataset, we estimate the effect of a neighborhood problems aggregate (including pollution, crime, and noise) on self-assessed health, presence of chronic conditions and limitations in daily activities. We address the self-selection of the residents in their neighborhoods, as well as the possible endogeneity of income with respect to health, through instrumental variable methods and several endogeneity tests. The main novelty is the sound estimation of the neighborhood effect on health using observational data, which has the advantage of providing general results that are not dependent on any experimental design. This allows us to fully compare the neighborhood effect with the traditional socioeconomic determinants of health. Our main findings are that low quality neighborhoods are strongly health damaging. This effect is comparable to the primary/upper secondary education health differential and is even higher than the impact that poor economic circumstances have on health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neighborhood-following algorithms for linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Wenbao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present neighborhood-following algorithms for linear programming. When the neighborhood is a wide neighborhood, our algorithms are wide neighborhood primal-dual interior point algorithms. If the neighborhood degenerates into the central path, our algorithms also degenerate into path-following algorithms. We prove that our algorithms maintain the O(√nL)-iteration complexity still, while the classical wide neighborhood primal-dual interior point algorithms have only the O(nL)-iteration complexity. We also proved that the algorithms are quadratic convergence if the optimal vertex is nondegenerate. Finally, we show some computational results of our algorithms.

  9. The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brax, David; Munthe, Christian

    2015-06-01

    In this introduction to the special symposium on the philosophy of hate crime, we provide an overview of the main philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation. We point out that there are two overarching philosophical issues that span over the literature: the Conceptual Question--concerning what hate crime is--and the Normative Question--concerning the status of hate crimes and the justification of hate crime legislation. We also provide brief summaries of the articles in the special section and point to their relations to the broader themes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Youht Crime and Its Relations With Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil IŞIK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to make a conceptual analysis relation with youth crime, crime - school relations. Under this general purpose, following topics will be presented; (a theories about youth crime, (b risk factors for youth crime, school crime relations, and (d solutions for youth crime. To analyze the issue of youth crime, there are two basic theories. These theories are general strain theory and escape theory. Possible risk factorsmotivating youth crime are related to peer group, family, community, and schools. Schools have number of different devices to fight with youth crime. Using these devices can help to solve the problem. There is no one type model or solution because; every school is unique in its nature.

  11. ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER IN MONEY LAUNDERING CRIME: REGULATION NEEDED IN RESPONSE TO MEETING OF TECHNOLOGY AND CRIME IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Lisanawati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in information technology have affected modern society in numerous areas, including communication, education, commerce, and so on. These advancements have brought incredible benefits; they have also provided opportunities and motivation for various forms of crime. Information technology has also made crime highly profitable. Among the many types of criminal activities, modern technology has allowed money laundering to become an online crime. This new type of crime has raised some legal questions about the capability of national and international regulations in relation to current and upcoming issues. These include finding electronic funds transfer records after the fact, and determining money laundering activity that includes electronic funds transfer. Although Indonesia is an integral member of a community concerned with the interaction between technology and money laundering, it has not provided regulations to deal with the current and upcoming issues involving the crime of electronic money laundering. The increase in the amount of crime indicates the following series of techniques and mechanisms that had been detected in relation to money laundering activity. This research will examine current issues under the light of Indonesian regulations, and will put forward some proposals to close the legal vacuum.

  12. Crime scene investigation (as seen on TV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnal, Evan W

    2010-06-15

    A mysterious green ooze is injected into a brightly illuminated and humming machine; 10s later, a printout containing a complete biography of the substance is at the fingertips of an attractive young investigator who exclaims "we found it!" We have all seen this event occur countless times on any and all of the three CSI dramas, Cold Cases, Crossing Jordans, and many more. With this new style of "infotainment" (Surette, 2007), comes an increasingly blurred line between the hard facts of reality and the soft, quick solutions of entertainment. With these advances in technology, how can crime rates be anything but plummeting as would-be criminals cringe at the idea of leaving the smallest speck of themselves at a crime scene? Surely there are very few serious crimes that go unpunished in today's world of high-tech, fast-paced gadgetry. Science and technology have come a great distance since Sir Arthur Conan Doyle first described the first famous forensic scientist (Sherlock Holmes), but still have light-years to go. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Assessing the benefits of a rising tide: Educational attainment and increases in neighborhood socioeconomic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William R

    2017-02-01

    An emerging approach to studying associations between neighborhood contexts and educational outcomes is to estimate the outcomes of adolescents growing up in neighborhoods that are experiencing economic growth in comparison to peers that reside in economically stable or declining communities. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I examine the association between education attainment and changes in socioeconomic advantage in urban neighborhoods between 1990 and 2000. I find that residing in a neighborhood that experiences economic improvements has a positive association with educational attainment for urban adolescents. Furthermore, race-based analyses suggest consistently positive associations for all race subgroups, lending support to protective models of neighborhood effects that argue high neighborhood SES supports positive outcomes for adolescents residing in these contexts.

  14. A systematic review of relations between neighborhoods and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Ma, Sai

    2006-09-01

    modest relative to individual effects. Although the evidence is highly consistent across studies, detailed evaluation of each individual study reveals a complex reality. The included studies used various study designs and measures of mental health and neighborhoods, making generalization of their relationships less meaningful. It is not possible to conclude that studies with weaker controls for individual characteristics found stronger association between neighborhoods and mental health and vice versa. As only two studies used randomized and controlled trials, causal effects must be interpreted with caution. Formal meta-analysis techniques cannot be used due to large heterogeneity across the included studies. Efficient methods for quantitative analysis remain a great challenge. The current evidence suggests that efforts to improve mental health may be limited if only individual-level interventions are implemented. The calculation of the costs and benefits of neighborhood-level interventions deserves more attention. Moreover, policy makers may want to incorporate mental health as a measure for evaluating neighborhood improvement programs. There are not enough replicated or comparable studies in this literature to make more precise quantitative conclusions of this relation. Key aspects of study design and analyses could be improved to better understand the true nature of causal relationships. The data resolution of neighborhood characteristics needs to better match with the scale of neighborhood definition that is hypothesized to affect the residents' mental health. As experimental designs are rare in this area, thoughtful use of panel data, instrumental variable (IV) techniques, and other non-experimental approaches deserves further exploration.

  15. Unemployment and Gang Crime: Could Prosperity Backfire?

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Priks, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Empirical evidence reveals that unemployment tends to increase property crime but that it has no effect on violent crime. To explain these facts, we examine a model of criminal gangs and suggest that there is a substitution effect between property crime and violent crime at work. In the model, non-monetary valuation of gang membership is private knowledge. Thus the leaders face a trade-off between less crime per member in large gangs and more crime per member in small gangs. Unemployment i...

  16. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  17. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim

    2015-12-22

    Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.

  18. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rogers-Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.

  19. Neighborhood poverty, aspirations and expectations, and initiation of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbin, Catherine; Brindis, Claire D; Jain, Sonia; Santelli, John; Braveman, Paula

    2010-10-01

    Cross-sectional research has demonstrated associations between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and adolescents' initiation of heterosexual intercourse. Prospective designs are needed to move toward causal inference, and to identify mediating and moderating influences to inform policies and programs. Among 5,838 nonsexually active participants in wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to predict initiation of sex by wave II (1996); models were stratified by gender and age group (11-14 and 15-17 yr). Predictors measured at wave I included census tract-level (neighborhood) poverty concentration, family-level income, parental education, race/ethnicity, and family structure. Adolescent college aspirations and life expectations were tested as possible mediators or moderators of the neighborhood poverty-sexual initiation association. Neighborhood poverty concentration predicted older (15-17 yr) girls' and boys' sexual initiation, after considering individual-level covariates. However, adolescent college aspirations and life expectations were not found to mediate the prediction relationship. Moderating effects were identified for girls (college aspirations) and boys (positive life expectations) in high-poverty neighborhoods, paradoxically reflecting increased risk. In this longitudinal study, moderating effects generally considered protective against sexual initiation were not protective or were harmful for adolescents living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Subsequent research to understand how to reduce the health risks of living in poor neighborhoods must examine an even wider range of variables and/or use different methodologies. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The global financial crisis and neighborhood decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; Bolt, G.; Van Ham, M.; Van Kempen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it impo

  1. Reviewing the concept of healthy communities in traditional neighborhoods of Iran (Case study: Imamzade Yahya neighborhood of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shieh

    2013-01-01

    : www.rivm.nl/milieu/milieubalans_verkenning/milieuverkenningSampson,R. J. et al,(1997, Neighborhoods and Violent Crime:A multilevel study of collective efficacy.science N0.9,pp. 18-24.Sundquist, K. et al. (2004, Neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study of 2.6 million women and men in Sweden. In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health,NO 58,PP. 71-77.Tajdar,V.(2009, assessment of health status with urban planning approach,Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of art (M.A in urban and regional planning, Rafeian, M, Tarbiat modares university, faculty of art and architecture.WHO (2002, Community Participation in local health and sustainable development: Approaches and techniques, European Sustainable Development and Health Series: 4, (available at: www.euro.who.int/document/e78652.pd.

  2. Where You Live May Make You Old: The Association between Perceived Poor Neighborhood Quality and Leukocyte Telomere Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    Full Text Available Strong evidence supports that living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct unfavorable impact on mental and physical health. However, whether it also has direct impact on cellular health is largely unknown. Thus we examined whether neighborhood quality was associated with leukocyte telomere length, an indicator of cellular aging.In May 2014, we extracted and analyzed baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA, a large epidemiological study of individuals age between 18-65 years (n=2902. Telomere length was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Neighborhood quality was assessed using modified measures of perceived neighborhood disorder, fear of crime, and noise. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine association between perceived neighborhood quality and telomere length with comprehensive adjustment for individual and community characteristics related to socioeconomic and demographic status, urbanization level, mental and physical health, and lifestyle.Compared to individuals who reported good neighborhood quality, the mean telomere length of those who reported moderate neighborhood quality was approximately 69 base pair shorter (β =-69.33, 95% CI: -119.49, -19.17, p= 0.007, and that of those who reported poor neighborhood quality were 174 base pair shorter (β =-173.80, 95% CI: -298.80, -49.01, p=0.006. For illustrative purposes, one could extrapolate these outcomes to 8.7 and 11.9 years in chronological age, respectively.We have established an association between perceived neighborhood quality and cellular aging over and above a range of individual attributes. Biological aging processes may be impacted by socioeconomic milieu.

  3. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. L’impossible crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Giuliani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Figure appréciée des romanciers du xixe siècle, l’incestueuse prend tour à tour le visage de Lucrèce, Salomé ou Phèdre. Toujours voluptueuse, cette dernière est une fille, une sœur, mais jamais, elle n’est présentée comme une mère. Est-ce à dire que les mères ne pratiquent pas l’inceste ? La lecture de la littérature médicale, qui ne dialogue pas sur le phénomène, ainsi que celle des procès de Cours d’assises, qui traduisent 92% d’hommes devant les jurés, entérine cette vision masculine du crime. Pourtant, plongé dans une lecture attentive des sources, l’historien croise des histoires de mères, souvent violentes, qui s’attaquent sexuellement à leurs enfants. Comment expliquer ce décalage ?Salome, Phèdre and Lucrezia Borgia were the most appreciated figures of incest in the French literature during the nineteenth-century. Sister or daugther, they were always described as voluptuous women. But concerning the incestuous mother, the writers remained silent. Didn’t she exist? Even the medical literature and the Justice System, which judged 92% of male, agreed with this social imaginary in keeping quiet about incestuous mother. By a careful glance at the sources, the historian can however cross the path of these incestuous mothers, often more violent than the fathers with their children. How can this gap be explained?

  5. Assessing Crime as a Problem: The Relationship between Residents' Perception of Crime and Official Crime Rates over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relationship between official crime rates in census tracts and resident perceptions of crime. Using a unique data set that links household-level data from the American Housing Survey metro samples over 25 years (1976-1999) with official crime rate data for census tracts in selected cities during selected years, this study…

  6. Crime and Justice: Taking a Futuristic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Gene; Tafoya, William L.

    1985-01-01

    How to apply futuristic approaches to crime and justice in an effort to prevent crime and deal more effectively with offenders is described. Planning, brainstorming, using the Delphi method, and opinion polling are discussed. (Author/RM)

  7. Neighborhood and developmental differences in children's perceptions of opportunities for play and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N L; Spence, J C; Sehn, Z L; Cutumisu, N

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine perceptions of places to play and be physically active among children from two different urban neighborhoods, and evaluate these perceptions for age-related developmental differences. One hundred and sixty-eight children from grades K-6 (aged 6-12 years old) completed mental maps depicting places where they could play and be physically active. The children were recruited from schools in two neighborhoods-one a high-walkability (H-W) grid-style neighborhood, the other a low-walkability (L-W) lollipop-style (i.e., cul-de-sacs) neighborhood. Analysis revealed that children in the H-W neighborhood depicted more active transportation and less non-active transportation than children in the L-W neighborhood. Children in the lowest grades (K-2) in the L-W neighborhood depicted more play in the home/yard environment than the oldest children, more good weather image events than children in Grades 3-6, and less play outside the home/yard environment than children in Grades 3 and 4. In the H-W neighborhood, the youngest children (K-2) depicted significantly less play in the home/yard environment and less play outside the home/yard environment than older children (Grades 3-6). Thus, both the type of urban neighborhood and children's age moderated perceptions of places to play and be physically active.

  8. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  9. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses t

  10. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  11. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities.

  12. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  13. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  14. Internet bad neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Giovane C.M.; Sadre, Ramin; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In thi

  15. Internet Bad Neighborhoods Temporal Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In th

  16. Cyber economic crime and commonwealth laws

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers-Jones, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the legal issues affecting commonwealth countries in terms of virtual/cyber financial crime. Virtual financial crime or cyber financial crime is where acts of fraud money laundering etc… take place over the internet. Virtual financial crime is a present and real threat to global economies and creating an international agreement to prevent, detect and punish virtual criminals is an increasing problem for governments and law enforcement agencies. This paper i...

  17. articles: Links between rural development and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Terance J. Rephann

    1999-01-01

    Over the past few years, metropolitan crime has fallen in the United States while nonmetropolitan crime has continued to increase. This article examines nonmetropolitan crime during the period 1977-1995, and describes its characteristics and spatial dynamics. The article outlines eight categories of causal factors and investigates their role in nonmetropolitan county crime variation using regression analysis. This analysis shows that many variables commonly identified with "rural development"...

  18. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  19. Public concern about serious organised crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K.; Leeney, D

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 cross-government Organised Crime Strategy (Home Office, 2011) emphasises the need for community safety practitioners to provide information to help citizens recognise when they may be vulnerable to serious organised crime so that they might take steps to prevent victimisation and the need for the state response to serious organised crime to be supported by local communities. Drawing on focus group data, this article examines the nature of public concern about serious organised crime;...

  20. The car and crime: critical perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Nic

    1997-01-01

    This thesis critically examines the literature on joyriding, car crime, motor projects and masculinities. Fieldwork in motor projects combined with the methods of cultural studies locates car crime within a gendered car culture. Thus motor projects are seen to 'work' within that gendered car culture but a longer term solution to car crime is to be found in 'green' transport policies and changes in gender relations. Theoretically it recognises the reality of car crime and also the reality of t...

  1. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent

  2. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  3. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...... connect this with what has been dubbed mediatized religion and a more general, philosophical explanation of why we see this development: The project of modernity is, as a result of cultural changes, at the moment transgressing its own epistemological boundaries opening up into what has been called...

  4. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  5. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  6. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  7. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  8. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  9. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  10. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Chapman, Christopher D.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy

    This report provides detailed statistical information on crime in schools. It is a companion document to the "Annual Report on School Safety: 1999," which offers an overview of the nature and scope of school crime. This report is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and…

  11. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  12. The effects of education on crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a unique data set on criminal behaviour to analyse the effects of education on offences and crimes committed. The findings suggest that substantial savings on the social costs of crime can be obtained by investing in education. We find that the probability of committing crime

  13. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  14. Role of health in predicting moves to poor neighborhoods among Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Subramanian, S V; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C

    2014-11-18

    In contrast to a large literature investigating neighborhood effects on health, few studies have examined health as a determinant of neighborhood attainment. However, the sorting of individuals into neighborhoods by health status is a substantively important process for multiple policy sectors. We use prospectively collected data on 569 poor, predominantly African American Hurricane Katrina survivors to examine the extent to which health problems predicted subsequent neighborhood poverty. Our outcome of interest was participants' 2009-2010 census tract poverty rate. Participants were coded as having a health problem at baseline (2003-2004) if they self-reported a diagnosis of asthma, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart problems, or any other physical health problems not listed, or complained of back pain, migraines, or digestive problems at baseline. Although health problems were not associated with neighborhood poverty at baseline, those with baseline health problems ended up living in higher poverty areas by 2009-2010. Differences persisted after adjustment for personal characteristics, baseline neighborhood poverty, hurricane exposure, and residence in the New Orleans metropolitan area, with baseline health problems predicting a 3.4 percentage point higher neighborhood poverty rate (95% confidence interval: 1.41, 5.47). Results suggest that better health was protective against later neighborhood deprivation in a highly mobile, socially vulnerable population. Researchers should consider reciprocal associations between health and neighborhoods when estimating and interpreting neighborhood effects on health. Understanding whether and how poor health impedes poverty deconcentration efforts may help inform programs and policies designed to help low-income families move to--and stay in--higher opportunity neighborhoods.

  15. Crime among young Moroccan men in the Netherlands: Does their regional orgin matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bovenkerk (Frank); T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract High crime rates among second-generation immigrants are usually attributed to the ethnic group’s weak socioeconomic position in the host society. The causes of crime can, however, also be sought in their native countries or regions. Owing to a lack of empirical data, this

  16. Crime among young Moroccan men in the Netherlands: Does their regional origin matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, F.; Fokkema, T.

    2016-01-01

    High crime rates among second-generation immigrants are usually attributed to the ethnic group’s weak socioeconomic position in the host society. The causes of crime can, however, also be sought in their native countries or regions. Owing to a lack of empirical data, this has rarely been tested. The

  17. Parent and Peer Pathways to Adolescent Delinquency: Variations by Ethnicity and Neighborhood Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of ethnicity and neighborhood quality often are confounded in research on adolescent delinquent behavior. This study examined the pathways to delinquency among 2,277 African American and 5,973 European American youth residing in high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods. Using data from a national study of youth, a meditational model was tested…

  18. Instability versus quality: residential mobility, neighborhood poverty, and children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amanda L; McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has found that higher residential mobility is associated with increased risk for children's academic and behavioral difficulty. In contrast, evaluations of experimental housing mobility interventions have shown moving from high poverty to low poverty neighborhoods to be beneficial for children's outcomes. This study merges these disparate bodies of work by considering how poverty levels in origin and destination neighborhoods moderate the influence of residential mobility on 5th graders' self-regulation. Using inverse probability weighting with propensity scores to minimize observable selection bias, this work found that experiencing a move during early or middle childhood was related to negative child outcomes (as indicated by increased behavioral and cognitive dysregulation measured via direct assessment and teacher-report) in 5th grade. However, these relationships were moderated by neighborhood poverty; moves out of low poverty and moves into high poverty neighborhoods were detrimental, while moves out of high poverty and moves into low poverty neighborhoods were beneficial.

  19. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children.

  20. µ-shapes: Delineating urban neighborhoods using volunteered geographic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aadland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods are a unique form of geography in that their boundaries rely on a social definition rather than a well-defined physical or administrative boundary. Currently, geographic gazetteers capture little more than then the centroid of a neighborhood, limiting potential applications of the data. In this paper, we present µ-shapes, an algorithm that employs fuzzy-set theory to model neighborhood boundaries suitable for populating gazetteers using volunteered geographic information (VGI. The algorithm is evaluated using a reference dataset and VGI from the Map Kibera Project. A confusion matrix comparison between the reference dataset and µ-shape's output demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy. Analysis of variance indicated that the algorithm was able to distinguish between boundary and interior blocks. This suggests that, given the existing state of GIS technology, the µ-shapes algorithm can enable neighborhood-related queries that incorporate spatial uncertainty, e.g., find all restaurants within the core of a neighborhood.

  1. Neighborhood, family and individual influences on school physical victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-10-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49 % Hispanic; 34 % African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds (49 % female) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. These children were followed up at Wave II at ages 8 and 11 (n = 1,425). Results of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models reveal neighborhood residential instability increases school victimization net of family and individual correlates. Furthermore, cross-level interactions were also supported where residential family mobility has a stronger risk influence in areas of high residential instability. Also, the influence of residential family mobility is decreased in areas with higher levels of immigrant concentration. We also found cross-context connections where parent-to-child aggression in the home is connected to a higher risk of victimization at school. The role of neighborhood and family residential instability on victimization warrants further research.

  2. Local Linear Embedding Algorithm with Adaptively Determining Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenduo Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local linear embedding is a kind of very competitive nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique with good representational capacity for a broader range of manifolds and high computational efficiency. However, it is based on the assumption that the whole data manifolds are evenly distributed so that it determines the neighborhood for all points with the same neighborhood size. Accordingly, it fails to nicely deal with most real problems that are unevenly distributed. This paper presents a new approach that takes the general conceptual framework of Hessian locally linear embedding so as to guarantee its correctness in the setting of local isometry for an open connected subset, but dynamically determines the local neighborhood size for each point. This approach estimates the approximate geodesic distance between any two points by the shortest path in the local neighborhood graph, and then determines the neighborhood size for each point by using the relationship between its local estimated geodesic distance matrix and local Euclidean distance matrix. This approach has clear geometry intuition as well as the better performance and stability. It deals with the sparsely sampled or noise contaminated data sets that are often unevenly distributed. The conducted experiments on benchmark data sets validate the proposed approach

  3. Predictors of discordance between perceived and objective neighborhood data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Erin J; Malecki, Kristen C; Engelman, Corinne D; Walsh, Matthew C; Bersch, Andrew J; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Peppard, Paul E; Nieto, F Javier

    2014-03-01

    Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 nonresidential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood, and urbanicity predictors of discordance. Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant's residence. Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to more than 90% for golf courses. Higher education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level. These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including the level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study. DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status. RESULTS: Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex

  5. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Odgers, Candice L.; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children’s risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Methods: Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children’s mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Results: Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16–2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15–2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Conclusions: Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms

  6. Associations Among Neighborhood Characteristics, Mobility Limitation, and Social Participation in Late Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Carri L; Howrey, Bret T

    2017-02-01

    Although emerging research suggests neighborhood characteristics can support and restrict social participation in older adults, further research regarding a wider range of neighborhood characteristics and interactions between individual and neighborhood characteristics is needed. This study explored associations between neighborhood characteristics and frequency of participation in three social activities among older adults and interactions between neighborhood characteristics and mobility limitation as they relate to participation. Data from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study linked with American Community Survey data were used. Participants included community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. Analysis involved multivariate logistic regression. High proportion of neighborhood residents aged 65 and older was associated with increased odds of more frequent participation in all three activities. High population density was associated with increased odds of club attendance. High neighborhood social cohesion was associated with increased odds of attending nonreligious meetings. Interactions between walking limitation and population density or social cohesion related to increased odds of participation. Findings suggest that improving older adults' ability to participate in community life and age in place requires strategies that consider how neighborhood and individual characteristics interact and how these characteristics may differentially affect types of participation.

  7. Neighborhood cohesion and daily well-being: results from a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    Neighborly cohesiveness has documented benefits for health. Furthermore, high perceived neighborhood cohesion offsets the adverse health effects of neighborhood socioeconomic adversity. One potential way neighborhood cohesion influences health is through daily stress processes. The current study uses participants (n = 2022, age 30-84 years) from The Midlife in the United States II and the National Study of Daily Experiences II, collected between 2004 and 2006, to examine this hypothesis using a within-person, daily diary design. We predicted that people who perceive high neighborhood cohesion are exposed to fewer daily stressors, such as interpersonal arguments, lower daily physical symptoms and negative affect, and higher daily positive affect. We also hypothesized that perceptions of neighborhood cohesion buffer decline in affective and physical well-being on days when daily stressors do occur. Results indicate that higher perceived neighborhood cohesion predicts fewer self-reported daily stressors, higher positive affect, lower negative affect, and fewer physical health symptoms. High perceived neighborhood cohesion also buffers the effects of daily stressors on negative affect, even after adjusting for other sources of social support. Results from the present study suggest interventions focusing on neighborhood cohesion may result in improved well-being and may minimize the adverse effect of daily stressors.

  8. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahraz Hussain

    Full Text Available Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population.This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied.Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of 'sheesha' across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods.This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Zain; Noor, Arish; Aqil, Amash; Bham, Nida Shahab; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Hassan, Irfan Nazir; Kadir, M. Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied. Results Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of ‘sheesha’ across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods. Conclusion This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25946006

  10. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  11. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods. We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using

  12. Crime Solving Techniques: Training Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Jack M.

    The document is a training bulletin for criminal investigators, explaining the use of probability, logic, lateral thinking, group problem solving, and psychological profiles as methods of solving crimes. One chpater of several pages is devoted to each of the five methods. The use of each method is explained; problems are presented for the user to…

  13. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA Crime QuArterly No. 59 • mArCh ... Section 77 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 deals with the treatment of persons who are unable to ..... resource considerations alone.36 .... membership of groups; as demonstrated in. President of ...

  14. How 'Digital' is Traditional Crime?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Measuring how much cybercrime exists is typically done by first defining cybercrime and then quantifying how many cases fit that definition. The drawback is that definitions vary across countries and many cybercrimes are recorded as traditional crimes. An alternative is to keep traditional

  15. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  16. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  17. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available ’ Crime Administration System (CAS), and they record over 80% of all crime reported in South Africa in near real time on CAS. Hence, at any time one can get a report of the crime situation for most of the country that is no more than a few hours old... in South Africa, which has led us to concentrate on the analysis of crime data aggregated to CAS Blocks or police-station precincts. However, SAPS are digitising manually several priority crimes on a daily basis in Johannesburg and we have helped them...

  18. CULTURAL APPROACHES IN CYBERPORN CRIME PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Angkupi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of law in cyberporn law enforcement demands the need for non-penal approach as pre-ventive effort to eliminate causes of Cyberporn crimes. This approach includes crime prevention which aims to prevent a crime from being recurred. This approach can be implemented through situ-ational control by active involvement of cultural roles in community. However, it cannot be separat-ed from observing human life variations including childhood, youth, family, school, gender, peer group which play significant role during productive period. Those variations cane be taken as a theo-retical base for cyberporn crime prevention. Keywords: pornography, internet, crime prevention

  19. Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

    2014-01-01

    Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones.

  20. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes in a South Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisetty, Pooja A; Wen, Ming; Choi, Hwajung; Heisler, Michele; Kanaya, Alka M; Kandula, Namratha R

    2016-12-01

    South Asians have a high burden of cardiovascular disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Little has been done to evaluate how neighborhood environments may influence cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and type 2 diabetes in this immigrant population. We evaluated the association of perceived neighborhood social cohesion with hypertension and type 2 diabetes among 906 South Asian adults who participated in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Study. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and physiologic covariates. Subgroup analyses examined whether associations differed by gender. South Asian women living in neighborhoods with high social cohesion had 46 % reduced odds of having hypertension than those living in neighborhoods with low social cohesion (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.30-0.99). Future research should determine if leveraging neighborhood social cohesion prevents hypertension in South Asian women.

  1. Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y): reliability and relationship with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori; Ding, Ding; Sallis, James F; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J; Durant, Nefertiti; Harris, Sion K; Saelens, Brian E

    2009-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) and explore its associations with context-specific and overall physical activity (PA) among youth. In 2005, parents of children ages 5-11 (n=116), parents of adolescents ages 12-18 (n=171), and adolescents ages 12-18 (n=171) from Boston, Cincinnati, and San Diego, completed NEWS-Y surveys regarding perceived land use mix-diversity, recreation facility availability, pedestrian/automobile traffic safety, crime safety, aesthetics, walking/cycling facilities, street connectivity, land use mix-access, and residential density. A standardized neighborhood environment score was derived. Self-reported activity in the street and in parks, and walking to parks, shops, school, and overall physical activity were assessed. The NEWS-Y subscales had acceptable test-retest reliability (ICC range .56-.87). Being active in a park, walking to a park, walking to shops, and walking to school were related to multiple environmental attributes in all three participant groups. Total neighborhood environment, recreation facilities, walking and cycling facilities, and land use mix-access had the most consistent relationships with specific types of activity. The NEWS-Y has acceptable reliability and subscales were significantly correlated with specific types of youth PA. The NEWS-Y can be used to examine neighborhood environment correlates of youth PA.

  2. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth.......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  3. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...... knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth....

  4. Statistical physics of crime: A review

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orsogna, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics o...

  5. Associations between Neighborhood Characteristics, Well-Being and Health Vary over the Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibich, Peter; Krekel, Christian; Demuth, Ilja; Wagner, Gert G

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics are important determinants of individual health and well-being. For example, characteristics such as noise and pollution affect health directly, while other characteristics affect health and well-being by either providing resources (e.g. social capital in the neighborhood), which individuals can use to cope with health problems, or limiting the use thereof (e.g. crime). This also suggests that there might be age differentials in the impact of these characteristics, since individuals at different stages of life might need different resources. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on age differentials in associations between well-being, health, and neighborhood characteristics. This paper studies associations between a wide range of neighborhood characteristics with the health and well-being of residents of the greater Berlin area. In particular, we focus on differences in the effects between younger (aged 20-35) and older (aged 60+) residents. We used data from the Berlin Aging Study II (312 younger and 993 older residents of the Berlin metropolitan area in Germany). We used survey data on health and well-being, combined these with subjective perceptions of the neighborhood, and geo-referenced indicators on the neighborhood, e.g. amenities (public transport, physicians, and hospitals). The results show that access to public transportation is associated with better outcomes on all measures of health and well-being, and social support is associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health. There are considerable differences between both age groups: while the associations between access to public transport and health and well-being are similar for both age groups, neighborhood social capital shows stronger associations for older residents. However, the difference is not always statistically significant. Having access to services is associated with better health and well-being regardless of age. Local policy makers

  6. Neighborhood perceptions and active school commuting in low-income cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweese, Robin S; Yedidia, Michael J; Tulloch, David L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2013-10-01

    Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by school-aged children. This study identifies the association of parents' perceptions of the neighborhood, geospatial variables, and demographic characteristics with ATS among students in four low-income, densely populated urban communities with predominantly minority populations. Data were collected in 2009-2010 from households with school-attending children in four low-income New Jersey cities. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (n=765) identified predictors of ATS. Analyses were conducted in 2012. In all, 54% of students actively commuted to school. Students whose parents perceived the neighborhood as very unpleasant for activity were less likely (OR=0.39) to actively commute, as were students living farther from school, with a 6% reduction in ATS for every 0.10 mile increase in distance to school. Perceptions of crime, traffic, and sidewalk conditions were not predictors of ATS. Parents' perceptions of the pleasantness of the neighborhood, independent of the effects of distance from school, may outweigh concerns about crime, traffic, or conditions of sidewalks in predicting active commuting to school in the low-income urban communities studied. Efforts such as cleaning up graffiti, taking care of abandoned buildings, and providing shade trees to improve neighborhood environments are likely to increase ATS, as are efforts that encourage locating schools closer to the populations they serve. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  7. Social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders: a 7-year first-contact incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Susser, E; Selten, J-P; Hoek, H W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental factors such as urban birth and ethnic minority position have been related to risk for psychotic disorders. There is some evidence that not only individual, but also neighborhood characteristics influence this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders. The research was a 7-year first-contact incidence study of psychotic disorders in The Hague. Neighborhood characteristics included continuous, dichotomous and cumulative measures of socio-economic level, residential mobility, ethnic diversity, proportion of single person households, voter turnout, population density and crime level. Using multilevel Poisson regression analysis, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of psychotic disorders were calculated for the indicators of neighborhood social disorganization. A total of 618 incident cases were identified. Neighborhood socio-economic level and residential mobility had the strongest association with incidence of psychotic disorders [individual-level adjusted Wald χ2 1 = 13.03 (p = 0.0003) and 5.51 (p = 0.02), respectively]. All but one (proportion of single person households) of the dichotomous neighborhood indicators were significantly associated with a higher IRR. The cumulative degree of neighborhood social disorganization was strongly and linearly associated with the incidence of psychotic disorders (trend test, Wald χ2 5 = 25.76, p = 0.0001). The IRR in neighborhoods with the highest degree of social disorganization was 1.95 (95% CI 1.38-2.75) compared with the lowest disorganization category. The findings suggest that the risk for developing a psychotic disorder is higher for people living in socially disorganized environments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate causality.

  8. Linguistic spatial classifications of event domains in narratives of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Stephen Howald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.

  9. Society as a crime victim of legal entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tortious acts of legal entities have unforeseen harmful consequences in all areas. In the greedy desire to gain profit, certain legal entities do not have any regard for the most important resources of individuals and society. Damage resulting from the commission of criminal acts is very high for the whole society, especially when it comes to crimes against the environment. In order to prevent and combat corporate crime in criminal law, an increasingly wider acceptance of criminal liability of legal entities was adopted. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of corporate crime, as well as the reasons for the introduction of the criminal responsibility of legal entities. In this regard, we analyzed the law provisions regarding the liability of legal entities for criminal offenses, and concluded that despite the criminal-political need to react with more serious sanctions to the offenses of legal entities, there are certain obstacles and problems that stand in the way of introducing this responsibility.

  10. The association of neighborhood characteristics and domestic violence in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huiyun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Han, Yoonsun; Maurizi, Laura; Delva, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    The growing tension between conservative attitudes and liberal policies on gender issues in Chile is reflected by the high rates of domestic violence juxtaposed by a strong governmental policy aimed at preventing this social problem. Attempts to understand factors associated with domestic violence in Chile, and in other countries as well, have not paid much attention to neighborhood-level factors. This manuscript examined the extent to which selected neighborhood characteristics were associated with domestic violence against women. Relying on theories of social disorganization and social stress, this study conceptualized residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood as a source of stress and examined the relationship between detrimental physical and social characteristics of neighborhoods and the chance of women experiencing domestic violence. Results revealed that a higher level of trash in neighborhoods was associated with increased rates of domestic violence above and beyond individual characteristics. Findings also suggested that the relationship between high levels of trash in neighborhoods and domestic violence was greater for women with higher levels of financial stress. Given the potential role of neighborhood environments in reducing domestic violence, a comprehensive approach incorporating both neighborhood- and individual-level factors may be critical in designing effective preventive interventions for domestic violence.

  11. Tourism, art and urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Skoll

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: One of the most troubling aspects of cultural studies, is the lack of comparative cases to expand the horizons of micro-sociology. Based on this, the present paper explores the effects of gentrification in one neighborhood, Riverwest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA. This essay-review explores the role of arts, not only as creating an image of neighborhoods, but as a mechanism to prevent the commoditization of spaces. Riverwest has never been commoditized as a tourist-product like many other tourist-sites. The concept of patrimony and heritage are placed under the lens of scrutiny in this investigation. To some extent, some cities are produced to be consumed while others do not, is one of the intriguing points this research explores.

  12. Tourism, art and urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Skoll

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most troubling aspects of cultural studies, is the lack of comparative cases to expand the horizons of micro-sociology. Based on this, the present paper explores the effects of gentrification in one neighborhood, Riverwest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA. This essay-review explores the role of arts, not only as creating an image of neighborhoods, but as a mechanism to prevent the commoditization of spaces. Riverwest has never been commoditized as a tourist-product like many other tourist-sites. The concept of patrimony and heritage are placed under the lens of scrutiny in this investigation. To some extent, some cities are produced to be consumed while others do not, is one of the intriguing points this research explores.

  13. “Stones run it”: taking back control of organized crime in Chicago, 1940-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Will

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s African American “supergangs” emerged in Chicago. Many scholars have touted the “prosocial” goals of these gangs but fail to contextualize them in the larger history of black organized crime. Thus, they have overlooked how gang members sought to reclaim the underground economy in their neighborhoods. Yet even as gangs drove out white organized crime figures, they often lacked the know-how to reorganize the complex informal economy. Inexperienced gang members turned to extreme violence, excessive recruitment programs, and unforgiving extortion schemes to take power over criminal activities. These methods alienated black citizens and exacerbated tensions with law enforcement. In addition, the political shelter enjoyed by the previous generation of black criminals was turned into pervasive pressure to break up street gangs. Black street gangs fulfilled their narrow goal of community control of vice. Their interactions with their neighbors, however, remained contentious.

  14. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  15. Spatial cognition and crime: the study of mental models of spatial relations in crime analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luini, Lorenzo P; Scorzelli, Marco; Mastroberardino, Serena; Marucci, Francesco S

    2012-08-01

    Several studies employed different algorithms in order to investigate criminal's spatial behaviour and to identify mental models and cognitive strategies related to it. So far, a number of geographic profiling (GP) software have been implemented to analyse mobility and its relation to the way criminals are using spatial environment when committing a crime. Since crimes are usually perpetrated in the offender's high-awareness areas, those cognitive maps can be employed to create a map of the criminal's operating area to help investigators to circumscribe search areas. The aim of the present study was to verify accuracy of simple statistical analysis in predicting spatial mobility of a group of 30 non-criminal subjects. Results showed that statistics such as Mean Centre and Standard Distance were accurate in elaborating a GP for each subject according to the mobility area provided. Future analysis will be implemented using mobility information of criminal subjects and location-based software to verify whether there is a cognitive spatial strategy employed by them when planning and committing a crime.

  16. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem...

  17. [Do daily newspapers of former West and East Germany cover crime in a different way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Karlhans

    2007-01-01

    The question investigated in the presented paper is whether crime is discussed differently in the media of former East and West Germany, how it is weighted and whether the real crime situation provides an explanation for any differences in press coverage. The study showed that there are no significant differences in the press coverage and that violent crime is not overrepresented. Coverage of offences like robbery, damage to property, sexual assaults or bodily injury, which are also categorized as violent crime, was of average frequency, so that again there was no overrepresentation in the newspapers of the two cities compared in this study (Stuttgart and Dresden). Surprisingly, sexual offences such as rape or sexual abuse played a minor role in the daily newspapers. Further interesting results of the analysis were that offences in the field of "intelligent crime" (e. g. white-collar crime) were of no importance in the print media, whereas the number of reports on crimes for which the general public assumes a higher probability to become a victim itself (e. g. burglary and robbery) was disproportionately high in relation to the recorded number of cases. Reports on drug offences played a more important role in the newspapers analyzed by us than violent crime.

  18. Cohesive Neighborhoods Where Social Expectations Are Shared May Have Positive Impact On Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Louis; McLanahan, Sara; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Wagner, Brandon G; Jacobsen, Wade C; Gold, Sarah; Gaydosh, Lauren

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent mental health problems are associated with poor health and well-being in adulthood. We used data from a cohort of 2,264 children born in large US cities in 1998-2000 to examine whether neighborhood collective efficacy (a combination of social cohesion and control) is associated with improvements in adolescent mental health. We found that children who grew up in neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms during adolescence than similar children from neighborhoods with low collective efficacy. The magnitude of this neighborhood effect is comparable to the protective effects of depression prevention programs aimed at general or at-risk adolescent populations. Our findings did not vary by family or neighborhood income, which indicates that neighborhood collective efficacy supports adolescent mental health across diverse populations and urban settings. We recommend a greater emphasis on neighborhood environments in individual mental health risk assessments and greater investment in community-based initiatives that strengthen neighborhood social cohesion and control. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E; Russell, Daniel W; Brown, P Adama; Clark, Lee Anna; Hessling, Robert M; Gardner, Kelli A

    2005-02-01

    The authors tested neighborhood context, negative life events, and negative affectivity as predictors of the onset of major depression among 720 African American women. Neighborhood-level economic disadvantage (e.g., percentage of residents below the poverty line) and social disorder (e.g., delinquency, drug use) predicted the onset of major depression when controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics. Neighborhood-level disadvantage/disorder interacted with negative life events, such that women who experienced recent negative life events and lived in high disadvantage/disorder neighborhoods were more likely to become depressed than were those who lived in more benign settings, both concurrently and over a 2-year period. Neighborhood disadvantage/disorder can be viewed as a vulnerability factor that increases susceptibility to depression following the experience of negative life events.

  20. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (prestaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities.

  1. Trade Promotion from Neighborhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "If you are considering to trade with companies in Japan or expanding your business to Japan,we are ready to help from the very beginning."You will find this greeting at the first sight on the Chinese website of Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).JETRO has committed itself in delivering highly efficient and quality services to meet the demand of internal and external customs including Japanese companies,hence winning a good reputation in the international trade arena.

  2. Tourism and Crime: Evidence from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Palanca-Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data gathered from 16 regions of the Philippines for the period 2009–11, this paper investigates the relationship between tourism and crime. The findings of the study show that the relation between tourism and crime may largely depend on the characteristics of visitors and the types of crime. For all types of crime and their aggregate, no significant correlation between the crime rate (defined as the number of crime cases divided by population and total tourist arrivals is found. However, a statistically significant positive relation is found between foreign tourism and robbery and theft cases as well as between overseas Filipino tourism and robbery. On the other hand, domestic tourism is not significantly correlated with any of the four types of crimes. These results, together with a strong evidence of the negative relationship between crime and the crime clearance efficiency, present much opportunity for policy intervention in order to minimize the crime externality of the country’s tourism-led development strategy.

  3. Social Learning, Reinforcement and Crime: Evidence from Three European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Charles R.; Antonaccio, Olena; Botchkovar, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural test of Social Learning Theory using direct measures of social learning constructs and focusing on the causal structure implied by the theory. Overall, the results strongly confirm the main thrust of the theory. Prior criminal reinforcement and current crime-favorable definitions are highly related in all three…

  4. Pennsylvania's Pre-Kindergarten Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Noting that at-risk children who attend high quality early childhood care and pre-kindergarten programs are less likely to commit delinquent or criminal behaviors than children denied access to such programs, this report presents information on the effectiveness of such programs for preventing crime and argues that Pennsylvania can prevent crime…

  5. Social Learning, Reinforcement and Crime: Evidence from Three European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittle, Charles R.; Antonaccio, Olena; Botchkovar, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural test of Social Learning Theory using direct measures of social learning constructs and focusing on the causal structure implied by the theory. Overall, the results strongly confirm the main thrust of the theory. Prior criminal reinforcement and current crime-favorable definitions are highly related in all three…

  6. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  7. Influences on Neighborhood Walking in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose; Clarke, Philippa J.; Ronis, David L.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Nyquist, Linda; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and environment on neighborhood walking in older adults with (n=163, mean age=78.7, SD=7.96 years) and without (n=163, mean age=73.6, SD=7.93 years) mobility limitations (controlling for demographic characteristics). Measures included: Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire, Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale, Neighborhood Environment Walkability Sca...

  8. Neighborhood income and income distribution and the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David

    2007-06-01

    Evidence about the relationship between contextual variables and substance use is conflicting. Relationships between neighborhood income and income distribution and the prevalence and frequency of substance use in 59 New York City (NYC) neighborhoods were assessed while accounting for individual income and other socio-demographic variables. Measures of current substance use (in the 30 days prior to the survey) were obtained from a random-digit-dial phone survey of adult residents of NYC and data from the 2000 U.S. Census to calculate median neighborhood income and income distribution (assessed using the Gini coefficient). Among 1355 respondents analyzed (female=56.2%, mean age=40.4), 23.9% reported cigarette, 40.0% alcohol, and 5.4% marijuana use in the previous 30 days. In ecologic assessment, neighborhoods with both the highest income and the highest income maldistribution had the highest prevalence of drinking alcohol (69.0%) and of smoking marijuana (10.5%) but not of cigarette use; there was no clear ecologic association between neighborhood income, income distribution, and cigarette use. In multilevel multivariable models adjusting for individual income, age, race, sex, and education, high neighborhood median income and maldistributed neighborhood income were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use but not of cigarette use. Both high neighborhood income and maldistributed income also were associated with greater frequency of alcohol use among current alcohol drinkers. These observations suggest that neighborhood income and income distribution may play more important roles in determining population use of alcohol and marijuana than individual income, and that determinants of substance use may vary by potential for drug dependence. Further research should investigate specific pathways that may explain the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and use of different substances.

  9. Active living neighborhoods: is neighborhood walkability a key element for Belgian adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Meester Femke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult research, neighborhood walkability has been acknowledged as an important construct among the built environmental correlates of physical activity. Research into this association has only recently been extended to adolescents and the current empirical evidence is not consistent. This study investigated whether neighborhood walkability and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES are associated with physical activity among Belgian adolescents and whether the association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity is moderated by neighborhood SES and gender. Methods In Ghent (Belgium, 32 neighborhoods were selected based on GIS-based walkability and SES derived from census data. In total, 637 adolescents (aged 13-15 year, 49.6% male participated in the study. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. To analyze the associations between neighborhood walkability, neighborhood SES and individual physical activity, multivariate multi-level regression analyses were conducted. Results Only in low-SES neighborhoods, neighborhood walkability was positively associated with accelerometer-based moderate to vigorous physical activity and the average activity level expressed in counts/minute. For active transport to and from school, cycling for transport during leisure time and sport during leisure time no association with neighborhood walkability nor, with neighborhood SES was found. For walking for transport during leisure time a negative association with neighborhood SES was found. Gender did not moderate the associations of neighborhood walkability and SES with adolescent physical activity. Conclusions Neighborhood walkability was related to accelerometer-based physical activity only among adolescent boys and girls living in low-SES neighborhoods. The relation of built environment to adolescent physical activity may depend on the context.

  10. 75 FR 20889 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    .... Though crime rates have declined in recent years, crime and its devastating effects still require our... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8499 of April 16, 2010 National Crime Victims' Rights Week, 2010 By the.... This week, we renew our commitment to supporting crime victims and preventing crimes that threaten...

  11. Is Polish Crime Economically Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether crime in Poland is governed by economic rationality. An economic model of rational behavior claims that the propensity to commit criminal activi-ties is negatively related to deterrence. The potential presence of higher risk profiles for certain population segments is investigated. Panel data aggregated to sub-regional levels and observed annually for the years 2003 to 2005 are applied. Controls for endogeneity among criminal activity level and deterrence, intr...

  12. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  13. The Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument: Evaluating features, amenities and incivilities of physical activity resources in urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Gail

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood environment factors may influence physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief instrument to systematically document and describe the type, features, amenities, quality and incivilities of a variety of PA resources. Method The one-page Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument was developed to assess all publicly available PA resources in thirteen urban lower income, high ethnic minority concentration neighborhoods that surrounded public housing developments (HDs and four higher income, low ethnic minority concentration comparison neighborhoods. Neighborhoods had similar population density and connectivity. Trained field coders rated 97 PA resources (including parks, churches, schools, sports facilities, fitness centers, community centers, and trails on location, type, cost, features, amenities, quality and incivilities. Assessments typically took about 10 minutes to complete. Results HD neighborhoods had a mean of 4.9 PA resources (n = 73 with considerable variability in the type of resources available for each neighborhood. Comparison neighborhoods had a mean of 6 resources (n = 24. Most resources were accessible at no cost (82%. Resources in both types of neighborhoods typically had about 2 to 3 PA features and amenities, and the quality was usually mediocre to good in both types of neighborhoods. Incivilities at PA resources in HD neighborhoods were significantly more common than in comparison neighborhoods. Conclusion Although PA resources were similar in number, features and amenities, the overall appearance of the resources in HD neighborhoods was much worse as indicated by substantially worse incivilities ratings in HD neighborhoods. The more comprehensive assessment, including features, amenities and incivilities, provided by the PARA may be important to distinguish between PA resources in lower and higher deprivation areas.

  14. Temperature and Violent Crime in Dallas, Texas: Relationships and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Gamble

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To investigate relationships between ambient temperatures and violent crimes to determine whether those relationships are consistent across different crime categories and whether they are best described as increasing linear functions, or as curvilinear functions that decrease beyond some temperature threshold. A secondary objective was to consider the implications of the observed relationships for injuries and deaths from violent crimes in the context of a warming climate. To address these questions, we examined the relationship between daily ambient temperatures and daily incidents of violent crime in Dallas, Texas from 1993–1999.Methods: We analyzed the relationships between daily fluctuations in ambient temperature, other meteorological and temporal variables, and rates of daily violent crime using time series piece-wise regression and plots of daily data. Violent crimes, including aggravated assault, homicide, and sexualassault, were analyzed.Results: We found that daily mean ambient temperature is related in a curvilinear fashion to daily rates of violent crime with a positive and increasing relationship between temperature and aggravated crime that moderates beyond temperatures of 80 F and then turns negative beyond 90 F.Conclusion: While some have characterized the relationship between temperature and violent crime as a continually increasing linear function, leaving open the possibility that aggravated crime will increase in a warmer climate, we conclude that the relationship in Dallas is not linear, but moderatesand turns negative at high ambient temperatures. We posit that higher temperatures may encourage people to seek shelter in cooler indoor spaces, and that street crime and other crimes of opportunity are subsequently decreased. This finding suggests that the higher ambient temperatures expected with climate change may result in marginal shifts in violent crime in the short term, but are not likely to be

  15. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices.

  16. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  17. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov.

  18. Racial/ethnic residential segregation, neighborhood poverty and urinary biomarkers of diet in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Stella S; Ruff, Ryan R; Jung, Molly; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham

    2014-12-01

    Consuming less sodium and more potassium are components of a healthy diet and reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Racial/ethnic segregation and poverty are both associated with dietary habits, but data linking dietary intake to neighborhood characteristics are limited, particularly in Hispanic and Asian American ethnic enclaves. This study presents relationships between neighborhood-level segregation, poverty and biologic indicators of sodium and potassium consumption. Data were from the 2010 Heart Follow-Up Study, a cross-sectional health survey, which included 24-h urine collections and self-reported health status (n = 1656). Black, Hispanic, and Asian segregated areas and neighborhood poverty were defined for aggregated zip-code areas. Multivariable models assessed the association between neighborhood segregation and poverty and sodium and potassium intake, after adjustment for individual-level covariates. In unadjusted models, potassium intake (a marker of fruit and vegetable consumption) was lower in high-versus low-Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and the sodium-potassium ratio was higher in high-versus low black and Hispanic segregated neighborhoods, and in high-versus low-poverty neighborhoods; the sodium-potassium ratio was lower in high-versus low Asian segregated neighborhoods. Segregation and poverty were not independently associated with nutrition biomarkers after adjustment for demographics and for each other; however, practical consideration of neighborhood race/ethnic composition may be useful to understand differences in consumption.

  19. The association between neighborhood residential rehabilitation and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Jennings, Jacky M; Latkin, Carl A; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2014-07-01

    This study utilized multilevel cross-classified models to longitudinally assess the association between neighborhood residential rehabilitation and injection drug use. We also assessed whether relocating between neighborhoods of varying levels of residential rehabilitation was associated with injection drug use. Residential rehabilitation was categorized into three groups (e.g. low, moderate, high), and lagged one visit to ensure temporality. After adjusting for neighborhood and individual-level factors, residence in a neighborhood with moderate residential rehabilitation was associated with a 23% reduction in injection drug use [AOR=0.77; 95% CI (0.67,0.87)]; residence in a neighborhood with high residential rehabilitation was associated with a 26% reduction in injection drug use [AOR=0.74; 95% CI (0.61,0.91)]. Continuous residence within neighborhoods with moderate/high rehabilitation, and relocating to neighborhoods with moderate/high rehabilitation, were associated with a lower likelihood of injection drug use. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind these relationships.

  20. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  1. Connecting Schools to Neighborhood Revitalization: The Case of the Maple Heights Neighborhood Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lawrence P.

    2014-01-01

    This case study focuses on the way a neighborhood association connects schools to broad change in an urban neighborhood of a large Midwestern city. The first section provides a review of the literature on community involvement in school and neighborhood reform. It reviews the historical origins of the current school-community relationship, the…

  2. Ecology matters: Neighborhood differences in the protective role of self-control and social support for adolescent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F

    2015-11-01

    Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Templin, Thomas; Engeland, Christopher G.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight infants, postpartum depression and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African American women. Methods Pregnant African American women (N = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15-25 weeks and 25-37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Findings Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time one (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time one and depressive symptoms at time two (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between time one and time two also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time one on depressive symptoms at time two. Conclusion Pregnant African American women’s negative perceptions of their neighborhoods

  4. A Proposed Solution for Crime Reporting and Crime Updates on Maps in Android Mobile Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Mujtaba Raza; Leelavathi Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this research paper is to propose and develop an android mobile application for the general public awareness of the crime situation of their area and to provide them crime locations on the map...

  5. Crime Data, crimes, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Crime Data dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'crimes'. Data by...

  6. Direct Neighborhood Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is a challenging problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. Recently, many local geometrical structure-based techiniques are presented to obtain the low-dimensional representation of face images with enhanced discriminatory power. However, these methods suffer from the small simple size (SSS problem or the high computation complexity of high-dimensional data. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel local manifold structure learning method for face recognition, named direct neighborhood discriminant analysis (DNDA, which separates the nearby samples of interclass and preserves the local within-class geometry in two steps, respectively. In addition, the PCA preprocessing to reduce dimension to a large extent is not needed in DNDA avoiding loss of discriminative information. Experiments conducted on ORL, Yale, and UMIST face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Fear of Crime in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides analyses of data on crime-associated trepidation obtained from surveys administered to college students in South Korea. The survey contained questions about, and the analyses distinguished between, offense-specific fears (fear of burglary and fear of home invasion, perceived risk of victimization (day and night, and crime avoidance behaviors (avoidance of nocturnal activity and avoidance of particular areas. Regression analyses of the data show that victimization was not consistently associated with crime-associated trepidation, while gender significantly impacted all measures of concern about crime. Women were more likely than men to report being fearful, perceiving risk, and crime avoidance behaviors. Building upon prior scholarship (for example, Madriz 1997; Stanko 1989 and considering the social context in which the data were gathered, it is herein suggested that the gendered variation in crime-associated anxiety may reflect patriarchal power relations. The methodological and policy implications of the study are also discussed.

  8. Imprisonment and the crime rate in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Eoin O’Sullivan; Ian O’Donnell

    2003-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, the number of indictable crimes recorded in Ireland dropped by 21 per cent and the daily average prison population rose by 33 per cent. The Government has claimed that a causal relationship exists here: more prisoners means less crime. The purpose of this paper is to map recent trends in the use of prison and to explore the interaction between rates of crime and rates of imprisonment.

  9. A Survey of Cyber Crime in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papanikolaou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, the Internet has evolved into the so-called “Web 2.0”. Nevertheless, the wide use of the offered Internet services has rendered individual users a potential target to cyber criminals. The paper presents a review and analysis of various cyber crimes, based on the cases that were reported to the Cyber Crime and Computer Crime Unit of the Greek Police Force and compares them to similar data of other EU countries.

  10. Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Arndt, Stephan; Cadoret, Remi J

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of impulsive and callous personality traits on delinquent behavior varied across neighborhood context in a population-based, statewide sample of 85,000 Iowa schoolchildren ages 10-19. Two previous studies examining the association between impulsivity and delinquency across disadvantaged and affluent neighborhoods have yielded contrasting findings. Results of the present study suggested a robust moderating effect of neighborhood context on personality risk for delinquency. The relation between impulsivity and delinquency was greater in neighborhoods low in collective efficacy compared to neighborhoods high in collective efficacy. A similar interaction was found for callous personality traits, indicating the consistency of the moderating effect of neighborhood context on personality risk for delinquency. Gender differences were also examined, and results were replicated in a holdout sample.

  11. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  12. Cartography of crime: Portrait of metropolitan Vilnius

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasiliauskas, Darius; Beconytė, Giedrė

    In Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, geographic research in criminology deals mainly with data analysis and accompanying cartographic communication through the visualisation of crime maps is less developed...

  13. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Lumpur in their urban parks; concealment (vegetation), being alone, signs of physical disorder, presence of social incivilities, familiarity, prior information about crime and previous crime experience. This study also found that among the residents of Kuala Lumpur there is some form of defensive...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  14. City of Durham Police Crime Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This metadata contains information on crime definitions and location obfuscation techniques to protect citizen identification data. Officers responding to incidents...

  15. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the boundaries 3rd Annual Crime Mapping Research Conference 11 - 14 December 1999, Orlando, Florida Panel: Mapping around the world Crime clocks and target performance maps AK Cooper, TC Gilfillan, MA Potgieter, PMU Schmitz and PM du Plessis Division.... In an American context, a CAS Block could be equated to a Beat. Using the centroids and/or faces of the CAS Blocks, one can readily map the crime data using a GIS. Figure 1: Location of the study area Traditionally, automated crime mapping and analysis...

  16. Statistical physics of crime: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    Containing the spread of crime in urban societies remains a major challenge. Empirical evidence suggests that, if left unchecked, crimes may be recurrent and proliferate. On the other hand, eradicating a culture of crime may be difficult, especially under extreme social circumstances that impair the creation of a shared sense of social responsibility. Although our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the emergence and diffusion of crime is still incomplete, recent research highlights applied mathematics and methods of statistical physics as valuable theoretical resources that may help us better understand criminal activity. We review different approaches aimed at modeling and improving our understanding of crime, focusing on the nucleation of crime hotspots using partial differential equations, self-exciting point process and agent-based modeling, adversarial evolutionary games, and the network science behind the formation of gangs and large-scale organized crime. We emphasize that statistical physics of crime can relevantly inform the design of successful crime prevention strategies, as well as improve the accuracy of expectations about how different policing interventions should impact malicious human activity that deviates from social norms. We also outline possible directions for future research, related to the effects of social and coevolving networks and to the hierarchical growth of criminal structures due to self-organization.

  17. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  18. The Prosecution of Hate Crimes: The Limitations of the Hate Crime Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nickie D.

    2009-01-01

    Since the development of bias crime legislation over the past few decades, scholars have debated the merits of the legislation and questioned its enforcement. In light of such concerns, this study presents characteristics of all cases prosecuted as bias crimes in a New Jersey county between 2001 and 2004 and applies the hate crime typology…

  19. Joint Utility of Event-Dependent and Environmental Crime Analysis Techniques for Violent Crime Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joel M.; Kennedy, Leslie W.; Piza, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Violent crime incidents occurring in Irvington, New Jersey, in 2007 and 2008 are used to assess the joint analytical capabilities of point pattern analysis, hotspot mapping, near-repeat analysis, and risk terrain modeling. One approach to crime analysis suggests that the best way to predict future crime occurrence is to use past behavior, such as…

  20. Free State educators' perceptions of the scope of learner crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    related .... conventional crimes as violent and property-related crimes poses problems. ..... injuria, as well as written and oral defamation can only be punishable crimes ..... to work and play in a secure and safe school environment and neigh-.