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Sample records for high cotton-content fire-retardant

  1. A NOVEL FIRE RETARDANT AFFECTS FIRE PERFORMANCE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD FLOUR-HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Pan,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared to investigate the effects of ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant content (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10-wt%, on the flammability, mechanical, and morphological properties of the wood flour-HDPE composites in this study. Cone calorimetry analysis showed that the addition of fire retardant could decrease the heat release rate (HRR and total smoke release of wood flour-HDPE composites, while it had no obviously effects on effective heat of combustion. Most of the decrease of the HRR occurred with the concentration of the fire retardant up to 4-wt%. With addition of fire retardant, the composites showed a decrease in tensile elongation at break and impact strength, and had no obvious effect on tensile and flexural strength. The scanning electron microscopy observation on the fracture surface of the composites indicated that fire retardant had a uniform dispersion in the wood flour-HDPE composites. However, interfacial bonding would be suggested to improve in wood flour-HDPE composites with ammonium polyphosphate based fire retardant.

  2. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  3. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  4. Development of novel fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  5. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  6. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  7. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde;

    2015-01-01

    application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%).......An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... of the Psingle bondH containing fire retardants to a double bonds of poly(butadiene) block of SBS were found, affording varied degree of the modification (0.2–21 mol%). Alternatively, a two-step procedure based on an epoxidation step followed by hydrolysis of the epoxides with phosphoric acid was developed...

  8. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System...

  9. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... resulting in 20 mol% of poly(butadiene) block modification. Based on TGA results, organophosporus-modified SBS was found to be amenable to charring – a property which correlated directly with the reduced flammability of the modified polymer observed in Cone Calorimetry tests. Furthermore, conceptually novel...... application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%)....

  10. Fire Retardant Textiles: A Particular Reference to China and Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Oyondi Nganyi; YU Chong-wen

    2002-01-01

    As more and more attention is paid to the utilization of fire retardant textile products in apparel, household,furnishing, and industrial sectors, this paper presents a brief survey of the use of fire retardant (FR) textile products, the rules, and regulations concerning their use, and their market potential in China and in Kenya.

  11. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  12. FRW阻燃刨切薄竹的阻燃特性%Fire Retardancy of Sliced Bamboo Veneer Treated by Fire-Retardant FRW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金春德; 杜春贵; 李延军; 王清文

    2011-01-01

    采用FRW阻燃剂对刨切薄竹进行阻燃处理,用锥形量热仪(CONE)测定不同载药率下处理材与未处理材的阻燃性能.结果表明:在25 kW·m-2的热辐射功率下,刨切薄竹经FRW阻燃处理后,热释放速率、总热释放量和总烟释放量随着载药率的增大而减小,处理材在燃烧过程中不会出现较高火焰的燃烧过程;处理材与未处理材相比,点燃时间延长,残余物质量增加;FRW阻燃处理刨切薄竹的阻燃和抑烟效果明显.%The sliced bamboo veneer was treated by fire retardant FRW, and the fire retardancy of the treated and untreated sliced bamboo veneer was tested by cone calorimeter under different retentions. The results showed that; at the heat radiation of 25 kW·m-2, heat release rate(HRR) , total heat release(THR)and total smoke release (TSR) of treated sliced bamboo veneer decreased with the increasing of FRW retention, and it doesn' t produce more high flame in burning process, time to ignite(TTI) of treated sliced bamboo veneer was longer, and its residue mass was increased compared with the untreated sliced bamboo veneer; the obvious fire retardation and smoke inhibition effects of the sliced bamboo veneer treated by fire retardant FRW was observed.

  13. Fire-retardant mechanism of fire-retardant FRW by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingwen; LI Jian; LI Shujun

    2006-01-01

    The structures of the solid state products formed by the partial combustion of Korean pine wood treated with fire-retardant FRW were analyzed by microscopic FTIR.The volatile pyrolytic products of basswood (Tilia amurensis)specimens treated with FRW and its components guanylurea phosphate and boric acid were analyzed by GC-FTIR.The pyrolytic and charring process,the effects of fire-retardant,and the structural characteristics of the pyrolytic products were discussed.It was concluded that upon heating and by the catalysis of FRW and its decomposition products reactions of wood took place successively,namely the dehydration of polysaccharide,the elimination of acetic acid from hemicellulose,the degradation of polysaccharide,the degradation of lignin,the polymerization of the pyrolytic products of wood,reactions of oxygen-element-elimination of aliphatic polymers and the structural change of the latter to form aromatic structures,and charring.The pyrolysis process of wood was altered and the yield of volatile pyrolytic products was decreased by FRW treatment.

  14. Surface Modification of Fire-retardant Asphalt with Silane Coupling Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiqiang; TANG Boming

    2012-01-01

    The theory and approach of the surface modified of asphalt fire-retardant with silane coupling agent were introduced,The optimum silane dosage was determined,and the structure and properties of the asphalt fire-retardant before and after the surface modification were characterized by infrared spectrum and thermo gravimetric analysis.The dispersion effect of asphalt fire-retardant was studied.The influence of the surface modification on the hydrophilicity and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire-retardant was analyzed.The experimental results showed that there were physical and chemical interactions between the silane coupling agent and the asphalt fire-retardant,which reduced the surface polarity of the asphalt fire retardant.The optimum silane coupling agent dosage was 0.95% of the asphalt fire retardant.The surface modification improved the thermal stability,dispersibility and lipophilicity of the asphalt fire retardant,which enhanced the compatibility between asphalt fire retardant and asphalt.

  15. Study on fire retardant mechanism of nano-LDHs in intumescent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZeJiang; LAN Bin; MEI XiuJuan; XU ChengHua

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the fire-retardant mechanism of the nano-LDHs in the intumescent system by the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Researches were also conducted to explore the function of the nano-LDHs in the composite fire-retardant agents in air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively.The results indicated that the nano-LDHs species were responsible for the catalytic oxidation of the rich-carbon compound in oxygen atmosphere. In addition, the nano-LDHs species and their calcinated products at high temperature could increase the carbonaceous residue-shield of the carbon-rich materials, improve the quality and the graphitization degree of the formed char-layer, and accelerate the intumescence and expansion of the melting carbon-rich materials to a certain degree under the oxygen-free condition, leading to the carbonization and expansion of the intumescent layer.

  16. Study on fire retardant mechanism of nano-LDHs in intumescent system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the fire-retardant mechanism of the nano-LDHs in the intumescent system by the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). Researches were also conducted to explore the function of the nano-LDHs in the composite fire-retardant agents in air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. The results indicated that the nano-LDHs species were responsible for the catalytic oxidation of the rich-carbon compound in oxygen atmosphere. In addition, the nano-LDHs species and their calcinated products at high temperature could increase the carbonaceous residue-shield of the carbon-rich materials, improve the quality and the graphitization degree of the formed char-layer, and accelerate the intumescence and expansion of the melting carbon-rich materials to a certain degree under the oxygen-free condition, leading to the carbonization and expansion of the intumescent layer.

  17. Pyrolytic characteristics of burning residue of fire-retardant wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangjie; LUO Wensheng; Furuno T; REN Qiang; MA Erni

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics of the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,a multifunctional fire-resistance test oven aimed at simulating the course of a fire was used to burn fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.Samples at different distances from the combustion surface were obtained and a thennogravimetric analysis (TG) was applied to test the pyrolytic process of the burning residue in an atmosphere of nitrogen.The results showed that:1) there was little difference between fireretardant wood and its residue in the initial temperature of thermal degradation.The initial temperature of thermal degradation of the combustion layer in untreated wood was higher than that in the no burning wood sample;2) the temperature of the flame retardant in fire-retardant wood was 200℃ in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG).The peak belonging to the flame retardant tended to dissipate during the time of burning;3) for the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,the peak belonging to hemicellulose near 230℃ in the DTG disappeared and there was a gentle shoulder from 210 to 240℃;4) the temperature of the main peaks of the fireretardant wood and its burning residue in DTG was 100℃ lower than that of the untreated wood and its burning residue.The rate of weight loss also decreased sharply;5) the residual weight of fire-retardant wood at 600~C clearly increased compared with that of untreated wood.Residual weight of the burning residue increased markedly as the heating temperature increased when burning;6) there was a considerable difference with respect to the thermal degradation temperature of the no burning sample and the burning residue between fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.

  18. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhao and Jan Gou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS. Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  19. Research progress in fire retardant coatings for steel structures%钢结构防火涂料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿金清; 肖新颜; 陈焕钦

    2001-01-01

    钢结构防火涂料是防火涂料中的重要品种,国内外正开展广泛研究和推广应用。本文综述了钢结构防火涂料的分类及特点,论述了膨胀型钢结构防火涂料的组成、作用及阻燃机理。展望了钢结构防火涂料的发展前景,即开发涂层超薄、装饰性强、施工方便、防火性能高、应用范围广的超薄型的室外钢结构防火涂料和研制环保型水性钢结构防火涂料,以及结合新的合成技术,研制多功能钢结构防火涂料。%The fire retardant coatings for steel structures is an important kind of the fire retardant coatings,so extensive investigation and application have been carried out all over the world.In this paper,the catalogue and characteristics of fire retardant coatings for steel structures were reviewed.The component,effect and flame retardant mechanism of dilatant fire retardant coatings for steel structures were described.Its prospective development was also pointed out.The super-thin exterior fire retardant coatings for steel structures featuring high thermal insulation against flame and good decorative property will be developed,and water-borne environmental friendly and multifunctional fire retardant coatings for steel structures will be investigated also.

  20. Determining the degree of fire retardancy of plywood with thermogravimetry, part I: Beech plywood

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    Gavrilović-Grmuša Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic motive of this work is the ever more pronounced need for fire-resistant plywood. In this work, beech veneers have been impregnated with solutions of chosen fire retardants, which are diammonium phosphate monoammonium phosphate, sodium acetate, water glass, sodium tetra borate and boric acid. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG methods are used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed on a Perkin-Elmer TGS-2 thermo gravimetric equipment. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardants monoammonium phosphate and sodium tetra borate, had the same results as TG/DTG analyses, which points out the validity of TG methods in predicting success of fire retardants in future products.

  1. Nanostructured Wood Hybrids for Fire-Retardancy Prepared by Clay Impregnation into the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Medina, Lilian; Li, Yuanyuan; Carosio, Federico; Hajian, Alireza; Berglund, Lars A

    2017-09-14

    Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire-retardancy treatments, which offer opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid with high flame-retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Flame-retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry, whereas thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities were assessed by thermogravimetry. The location of well-distributed clay nanoplatelets inside the cell walls was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. This unique nanostructure dramatically increased the thermal stability because of thermal insulation, oxygen depletion, and catalytic charring effects. A coherent organic/inorganic charred residue was formed during combustion, leading to a strongly reduced heat release rate peak and reduced smoke generation.

  2. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P S Ribeiro et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI, the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  3. Effect of clays on the fire-retardant properties of a polyethylenic copolymer containing intumescent formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Simone P S; Nascimento, Regina S V [Instituto de Quimica-DQO, UFRJ, CT Bloco A, 60 andar, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 21941-590 (Brazil); Estevao, Luciana R M [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e BiocombustIveis-ANP, SCM, Av. Rio Branco 65, 170 andar, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 20090-004 (Brazil)], E-mail: rsandra@iq.ufrj.br

    2008-04-15

    Organophilic clay particles were added to a standard intumescent formulation and, since the role of clay expansion or intercalation is still a matter of much controversy, several clays with varying degrees of interlayer distances were evaluated. The composites were obtained by blending the nanostructured clay and the intumescent system with a polyethylenic copolymer. The flame-retardant properties of the materials were evaluated by the limiting oxygen index (LOI), the UL-94 rating and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the addition of highly expanded clays to the ammonium polyphosphate and pentaerythritol formulation does not significantly increase the flame retardancy of the mixture, when measured by the LOI and UL-94. However, when clays with smaller basal distances were added to the intumescent formulation, a synergistic effect was observed. In contrast, the simple addition of clays to the copolymer, without the intumescent formulation, did not increase the fire retardance of the materials.

  4. Synthesis of Fluorocyclotriphosphazene Derivatives and Their Fire-Retardant Finishing on Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhanxiong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel fire-retardant agents, fluorocyclotriphosphazene derivatives with the substitution groups of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy groups were synthesized using hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl alcohol as starting materials. The synthesized fire-retardant agent was emulsified and applied on the cotton fabric finishing to reduce the flammability and afford water/oil repellency simultaneously. The optimum finishing process was achieved according to the test of cotton finishing with fluorocyclotriphosphazene. The treated cotton showed not only excellent fire-retardant performance, but also water and oil repellency with little change in strength and whiteness.

  5. Fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant performance of an intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengqiang WANG; Zhijun ZHANG; Qingwen WANG; Jiayin TANG

    2008-01-01

    An intumescent waterborne amino-resin fire-retardant coating for wood (C) was synthesized and its fire-retardant and smoke-suppressant properties were investigated. The main film-builder of C was urea-form-aldehyde resin blended with polyvinyl acetate resin. The intumescent fire-retardant system of C consisted of guany-lurea phosphate (GUP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). Specimens of plywood painted, respectively, with a commercial intumes-cent fire-retardant coating (A), a synthesized coating (C), and the main film-builder of coating C (B), as well as an unpainted plywood (S-JHB), were analyzed by cone calori-metry (CONE). The results show a marked decrease in the heat release rate (HRR) and the total heat release (THR), an increased mass of residual char (Mass), a marked post-ponement in time to ignition (TTI) and a reduced carbon monoxide production rate (P). The smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) of the ply-wood painted with coating C were observed with the CONE test. The overall fire-retardant and smoke-suppres-sant performance of the synthesized coating C was much better than that of the commercial coating A. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) results of coating C and its film-builder B indicated that the thermal degradation process of B was slowed down by the addition of the intumescent fire-retardant system; the increase in the amount of charring of coating C was considerable.

  6. Properties and Performance of Rubberwood Particleboard Treated With Bp® Fire Retardant

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    Izran K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood composites are available in many sizes and are frequently used as furniture and partitioning inputs. However they are naturally combustible and may limit its usage for other value-added products. Treating wood composites with fire retardant was one of the most effective ways to prevent such occurrence. In this study, Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis particleboards were incorporated with BP® fire retardant through hot and cold soaking processes. Four different concentrations of fire retardant were applied for the study i.e., 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/v. Treated and untreated particleboards were exposed to early burning performance test. Fire performance was assessed based on the amount of weight loss and width of burnt area formed on the boards after they were exposed to a fire source. The study shows that BP® had significantly affected the burnt area of the treated particleboards. Insignificant reductions of weight loss were recorded between 15-30% treatment concentrations. Early burning performance showed that increase of fire retardant concentration up to 25% (w/v reduced the weight loss. There was no further weight loss reduction recorded above that concentration. The burnt area decreased as the concentration level of BP® increased. The smallest burnt area was recorded for the boards treated with 30% BP®. The addition of fire retardant had interfered slightly with the physical and mechanical properties of the treated particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards were adversely affected compared to untreated boards with increasing concentration of BP®.

  7. THE COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD TREATED WITH FIRE RETARDANT MICROSPHERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichao Sun,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fire retardant particles (guanylurea phosphate and boric acid with a morphological characteristic of large crystal or fine microsphere, were respectively applied to wood fibers to make medium density fiberboard (MDF. The effects of particle size of the fire retardant on the combustion performance of the resulting MDF samples were determined using a thermogravimetric (TG analyzer and cone calorimeter (CONE. The scanning electron microscopy and laser particle size analysis showed that the microspheric particles of fire retardant had a mean size of approximately 20 µm, which was smaller than the crystal (260 um. Incorporation of the fire retardant either in the crystal or microsphere shape reduced the weight loss of the resulting MDF, as evidenced by the TG analysis and the CONE test; the release rate and total amount of both the heat and smoke were apparently inhibited as compared to the untreated MDF samples. Treatments caused an increase in both the ignition time and charring ratio of the MDF. Compared with the fire retardant crystals, the fine microspheric particles exhibited greater ability in inhibiting the release of heat and smoke through the combustion processes.

  8. Investigation on Resistance against White-rot and Brown-rot Fungi of some Fire Retardant Chemicals in Laminate Flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Özdemir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the effects of some fire retardants on decay resistance of the high density fiberboard (HDF panels covered with overlay, decorative and balance papers. Borax (BX, boric acid (BA, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and alpha-x (AX as fire retardant (FR chemicals were added as powder into the fibers made from 50% pine and 50% beech woods at 3%, 6% and 9% levels based on oven-dry fiber weight. HDF panels (400x400x6.5mm were produced. After, surfaces of the panels were coated with overlay, decorative and balance papers. The panels were exposed to white (Ceriporiopsis subvermisphora and brown (Coniophora puteana decay fungi. The decay resistance of panels was investigated. The results showed that the addition of FR chemicals increased resistance against white and brown rot fungi of the panels. Thus, it was ascertained that concentration and type of FR chemicals are effective on decay resistance of laminate flooring

  9. Performance of different fire retardant products applied on Norway spruce tested in a Cone calorimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kögl Josef

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available On the European market there are several fire retardant products available, which reach class B in the European classification system. The producers promise their fire retardants are effective in reducing different reaction to fire parameters of wood such as the time to ignition, the mass loss rate, the heat release rate, the total heat release, the charring rate and the flame spread. This paper discusses the performance of fire retardant products as pressure impregnated wood, non-intumescence surface coatings and intumescence coatings on Norway spruce (Picea abies. The investigations are performed by using a cone calo- rimeter test according to ISO 5660. The thermal exposures of the investigations are 50 kW/m2 and the standard IS0 834 test curve. As result information about the heat release rate, the mass loss rate and the total heat release for duration of 900 seconds will be presented in this paper.

  10. Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Kocjan, Andraž; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Carosio, Federico; Camino, Giovanni; Antonietti, Markus; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-03-01

    High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30 °C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials.

  11. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  12. 木材阻燃的回顾与展望%Review and Prospect of Wood Fire-retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 吴纯初; 顾练百

    2000-01-01

    综合论述了木材阻燃处理的国内外现状,并提出其今后发展趋势。%discussed systematically the yesterday and current situation of the wood fire-retardant processing in home and abroad. At the sametime, gave the prospect of the fire-retardant processing.

  13. DOPO-VTS-based coatings in the realm of fire retardants for cotton textile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Sørensen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    The work elucidates the feasibility of incorporation of phosphorus-silicon containing fire retardant (10-(2-trimethoxysilylethyl)- 9-hydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide [DOPO-VTS]) into nanosol coating solutions by cohydrolysis cocondensation reaction of DOPO-VTS with tetraethoxysilane...

  14. Properties of flat-pressed wood plastic composites containing fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan. T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs) incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs) [5 or 15% by weight (wt)] at 50 wt % of the wood flour (WF). The WPC panels were made from dry-blended WF, polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride grafted PP (2 wt %), and FR powder formulations using a...

  15. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gérard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered.

  16. Durability of fire retardant treated wood products at humid and exterior conditions. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, B.; Voss, A.; Hughes, A.; Hovde, P.J.; Grexa, O.

    2001-01-01

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the fire properties of wood products, but the durability, e.g. in exterior applications, has not been addressed fully. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience mainly from the USA with the aim of supporting further development in Europe. The r

  17. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  18. Fire-retardant and fire-barrier poly(vinyl acetate composites for sealant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire-retardant ceramifying poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc sealants have been prepared. The degradation of PVA was integrated with the action of the fire retardants to reduce flammable gases, produce carbonaceous char and convert the fillers into a self-supporting ceramic barrier. PVA is readily degraded by elimination of acetic acid, yielding a char that provides a transitory phase as the filler particles fuse into a ceramic mass. Acetic acid is eliminated at similar temperature to the release of water from magnesium hydroxide fire-retardant, thereby diluting flammable acetic acid. The residual oxide from the fire-retardant filler and structural filler are fused by a flux, zinc borate. The degradative and ceramifying processes were characterised using thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ceramic strength. Thermogravimetry of the composites was compared with additive mass loss curves calculated from the components. Deviations between the experimental and additive curves revealed interactions between the components in the composites. The modulus of the PVAc composites and the strength of their ceramic residues after combustion were determined.

  19. Impregnation of preservative and fire retardants into Japanese cedar lumber by passive impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper azole type B (CAz-B preservative and polyphosphatic carbamate (PPC fire retardants were impregnated in succession into green (97% MC and kiln-dried (18% MC Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. D.Don lumber by the passive impregnation method to prolong the period of lumber use by increasing its resistance to fire and biological degradation. Lumber was dried with a kiln or by air-drying. Total chemical retention, penetration, leaching, decay resistance (JIS K 1571, and fire retardancy (ISO 834-1 standard, 20 minutes tests were performed according to the mentioned standards. Preservative retention was higher in the green lumber (4.97 kg/m3 compared with the kiln-dried (4.88 kg/m3 lumber. However, fire retardant retention was similar for both lumber types (107 and 111 kg/m3. Leaching was higher in kiln-dried lumber (21.8% compared to air-dried lumber (14.4%, although there were no significant differences in the decay resistance test between these two lumber types. The fire performance of both lumber types was similar in the fire resistance test. Therefore, the passive impregnation method can be used effectively for impregnation of both preservatives and fire retardants into wood.

  20. Effects of a fire-retardant chemical to fathead minnows in experimental streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Each year millions of liters of fire-retardant chemicals are applied to wildfires across the nation. Recent laboratory studies with long-term fire-retardant chemicals indicate a significant photoenhanced toxicity of products containing sodium ferrocyanide corrosion inhibitors. Our objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of fire-retardant chemicals to fathead minnows during exposure in experimental outdoor streams. Methods. Stream tests were conducted to determine the potential toxicity of a pulse of exposure as might occur when fire retardant chemical is rinsed from the watershed by rainfall. Two artificial 55-meter experimental streams were dosed with different concentrations of Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, or uncontaminated for a control. Replicate groups of fathead minnows were added to screened containers (10 fish per container) and exposed to retardant chemicals in the recirculating flow of the stream for up to 6 hours. Results and Discussion. Under field conditions toxicity of GTS-R only occurred in the presence of sunlight. When GTS-R was tested on sunny days, 100% mortality occurred. However, when tested during heavily overcast conditions, no mortality occurred. Conclusions. Lethal concentrations of cyanide were measured when GTS-R with YPS exposures were conducted under sunny conditions, but not under cloudy conditions, indicating that a minimum UV level is necessary to induce toxicity as well as the release of cyanide from YPS. The toxicity observed with GTS-R was likely associated with lethal concentrations of cyanide. Rainwater runoff following applications of this fire-retardant at the recommended rate could result in lethal concentrations in small ponds and streams receiving limited water flow under sunny conditions. Recommendations and Outlook. In addition to avoiding application to aquatic habitats, it is important to consider characteristics of the treated site including soil binding affinity and erosive properties.

  1. Effect of Magnesium Borates on the Fire-Retarding Properties of Zinc Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borate (MB is a technical ceramic exhibiting high heat resistance, corrosion resistance, great mechanical strength, great insulation properties, lightweightness, high strength, and a high coefficient of elasticity. Zinc borate (ZB can be used as a multifunctional synergistic additive in addition to flame retardant additives in polymers. In this study, the raw materials of zinc oxide (ZnO, magnesium oxide (MgO, and boric acid (H3BO3 were used in the mole ratio of 1 : 1 : 9, which was obtained from preexperiments. Using the starting materials, hydrothermal synthesis was applied, and characterisation of the products was performed using X-Ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The forms of Zn3B6O12·3.5H2O, MgO(B2O33·7(H2O, and Mg2(B6O7(OH62·9(H2O were synthesised successfully. Moreover, the surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the B2O3 content was determined. In addition, the reaction yields were calculated. The results of the B2O3 content analysis were in compliance with the literature values. Examination of the SEM images indicated that the obtained nanoscale minerals had a reaction efficiency ranging between 63–74% for MB and 87–98% for ZB. Finally, the fire-retarding properties of the synthesised pure MBs, pure ZBs, and mixtures of MB and ZB were determined using differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC.

  2. Actuality and Developing Tendency of Fire Retardants%阻燃剂的现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦华军; 张立新

    2001-01-01

    Aim To introduce the mechanism and development trend of fire retardants simply. Methods The interrelated data home and abroad were summarized. Results The categories and conditions of fire retardants were summarized. Conclusion The research of fire retardants require to be heightened.%目的简单介绍阻燃剂的机理及发展趋势. 方法检索了国内外相关资料. 结果综述了阻燃剂的种类和状况. 结论阻燃剂的研究需进一步加强.

  3. Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Nonhalogenated Fire Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Sharfuddin Chestee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP composites were prepared using a single screw extrusion moulding. Jute fiber content in the composites is optimized with the extent of mechanical properties, and composites with 20% jute show higher mechanical properties. Dissimilar concentrations of several fire retardants (FRs, such as magnesium oxide (MO, aluminum oxide (AO, and phosphoric acid (PA, were used in the composites. The addition of MO, AO, and PA improved the fire retardancy properties (ignition time, flame height, and total firing time of the composites. Ignition time for 30% MO, flame height for 30% PA, and total firing time for 20% MO content composites showed good results which were 8 sec, 1 inch, and 268 sec, respectively. Mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus, and elongation at break, degradation properties (soil test, weathering test, and percentage of weight loss, and water uptake were studied.

  4. The Effect of Particle Size of Wollastonite Filler on Thermal Performance of Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent Fire retardant coatings (IFRC’s are one of the simplest ways to protect substrates exposed to fire. In this study, Wollastonite (W filler of two different particle sizes were used to determine the fire performance of intumescent fire retardant coating. The basic ingredients of the coating were ammonium poly-phosphate (APP as acid source, expandable graphite (EG as carbon source, melamine (MEL as blowing agent in epoxy binder, boric acid as additive and hardener as curing agent. A series of coating formulations were developed by using different weight percentages of both sized Wollastonite fillers. The coated steel substrate samples were tested for fire performance using Bunsen burner and char expansion was measured using furnace fire test. A Comparison of the coatings thermal performance was determined. Wollastonite containing filler particle size 10 μm showed better thermal performance than formulations containing filler’s particle size 44 μm.

  5. 阻燃型有机胶粘剂%Fire retardant organic adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子东; 李广宇; 于敏

    2001-01-01

    论述了有机胶粘剂的阻燃问题,以阻燃性树脂、橡胶、固化剂、增塑剂、稀释剂、偶联剂、溶剂等配制阻燃型有机胶粘剂,用于电子、电器、建筑、汽车、化工等行业的粘接与修复,可以防止火灾发生。%The reasearch on flame retardant of organic adhesive was described in this paper.The fire retardant organic adhesive is compounded with fire retardant resin,rubber,curing agent and plasticizer,diluent,filler,coupling agent and solvent.It can avoid fire loss and ensure the safety of life and property.

  6. DIMENSIONAL STABILITY PERFORMANCE OF FIRE RETARDANT TREATED VENEER-ORIENTED STRANDBOARD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Candan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated dimensional stability properties of oriented strandboard (OSB panels faced with fire retardant treated (FRT veneers. The beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky veneers were treated with monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, lime water (LW, and a borax/boric acid (BX/BA (1:1 mixture. Dimensional stability tests were performed according to ASTM D-1037. The results revealed that facing veneers impregnated with fire-retardant chemicals had significant effects on the linear expansion (LE properties. The lowest LE value was obtained from the panels faced with MAP treated veneers, while the highest LE value was found in the panels faced with BX/BA treated veneers. The FRT treated veneer facing technique also affected the thickness swelling (TS properties of the OSB panels. The panels faced with LW treated veneers had the highest TS, whereas the panels faced with MAP treated veneers had the lowest TS values.

  7. Low smoke, non-corrosive, fire retardant cable jackets based on HNBR and EVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisenheimer, H.

    1991-06-01

    This article examines the properties of the polymers HNBR and EVM which make them good candidates for use in meeting the low smoke, non-corrosive, low toxicity and fire retardant requirements for electric safety cable jackets and electric insulation. Topics of the article include density, weight, and viscosity of each polymer, mechanical proprieties of each polymer, and other results of laboratory testing of these polymers.

  8. Fire-retardant coatings based on organic bromine/phenoxy or brominated epoxy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.

    1989-06-01

    Thin phenoxy and brominated epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the bromine-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant bromine was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the brominated fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant bromine was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to yalella azteca (Saussure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Susan F.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Heisinger, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca Saussure (an amphipod) exposed in soft and hard waters to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R, Fire-Trol LCG-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two foam suppressants (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). The chemicals were slightly to moderately toxic to amphipods. The most toxic chemical to amphipods in soft and hard water was Phos-Chek WD-881 (96-h mean lethal concentration [LC50] equal to 10 mg/L and 22 mg/L, respectively), and the least toxic chemical to amphipods in soft water was Fire-Trol GTS-R (96-h LC50 equal to 127 mg/L) and in hard water was Fire-Trol LCG-R (96-h LC50 equal to 535 mg/L). Concentrations of ammonia in tests with the three fire retardants and both water types were greater than reported LC50 values and probably were the major toxic component. Estimated un-ionized ammonia concentrations near the LC50 were frequently less than the reported LC50 ammonia concentrations for amphipods. The three fire retardants were more toxic in soft water than in hard water even though ammonia and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were higher in hard water tests than in soft water tests. The accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect aquatic invertebrates, thereby disrupting ecosystem function.

  10. 无机磷系阻燃剂%Inorganic Phosphorus Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants include red phosphorus(microencapsulized red phosphorus),ammonium polyphosphate and phosphate(such as monoammonium phosphate,diammonium phosphate,triammonium phosphate).The properties,production process,production standard and uses of several inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants have been introduced.The production and retardancy application situation of inorganic phosphorus series fire retardants are summarized.%无机磷系阻燃剂包括红磷(微胶囊化红磷)、聚磷酸铵、磷酸盐(如磷酸氢二铵、磷酸二氢铵、磷酸铵等)。介绍了红磷、聚磷酸铵、磷酸盐等无机阻燃剂的性质、生产过程、产品标准和用途等。概括了无机磷系阻燃剂生产、性能和阻燃应用研究情况。

  11. FRW 阻燃剂处理饰面炭化杨木单板阻燃性能研究%Study on the Fire-Retarding Properties of FRW Fire-Retardant Carbonized Poplar Veneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    步琦璟; 刘迎涛; 成真; 霍莹; 王旭婷; 刘芯彤; 黄佳波

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen index chamber and CONE calorimeter were used to evaluate the fire-retarding properties of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers which were dipped with different consistence.The results showed that:the fire-retarding property of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers which were dipped with more than 8% consistence could reach the first class of JISD 1322 -77.The heat release rate (HRR),total heat release (THR),smoking ratio (SR)and total smoke production (TSP)of FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneers showed the decreasing tendency with the increase of the dipping consistence.The FRW fire-retardant carbonized poplar veneer owned the better fire-retarding and smoke suppression performance.%利用氧指数测定仪和锥形量热仪,研究不同质量分数 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍杨木素板和饰面炭化杨木单板的阻燃性能。结果表明,质量分数8%以上 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍处理的炭化杨木单板阻燃性可达到日本标准 JISD1322-77中规定的难燃一级品标准;随着 FRW 阻燃剂浸渍质量分数的增加,阻燃炭化杨木单板的热释放速率、总热释放量、烟比率和总烟释放量均呈降低趋势,说明阻燃炭化杨木单板具有较佳的阻燃和抑烟性能。

  12. The Influence of Dipping Technology on Fire Retardant Retention Quantity of FRW Fire-Retarding Veneer%浸渍工艺对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎涛; 乔磊; 李晓乐; 林会峰; 姜道鸿; 韩爽

    2012-01-01

    The new-type fire retardant FRW was selected to treat poplar and birch veneer, and the influence of the treatment technology conditions including the soaking time and solution concentration, veneer thickness and the timber of different tree species on the fire retardant retention quantity of the FRW fire-retarding veneer was studied. The results showed that along with the prolonging of soaking time duration and increasing of the solution concentration, the fire retardant retention quantity of the poplar and birch veneer both increased. There was difference in the fire retardant retention quantity between the tree species, the fire retardant retention quantity of poplar veneer was higher than that of the birch veneer. At the same time, with the increase of veneer thickness, the fire retardant retention quantity showed a downward trend in the overall.%选用新型木材阻燃剂FRW处理杨木和桦木单板,探讨浸渍工艺条件(浸渍时间和浸渍浓度)、单板厚度、树种等因素对FRW阻燃单板载药量的影响.结果表明:随着单板浸渍时间的增加和浸渍浓度的提高,杨木和桦木的单板载药量均呈上升趋势;树种不同,其载药量存在差异,杨木单板的载药量高于桦木单板;随着单板厚度的增加,单板载药量在整体上呈下降趋势.

  13. Reaction-to-fire performance of fire-retardant treated wooden facades in Japan with respect to accelerated weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Miki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood has been used for building facades to enhance the aesthetic design of buildings since the revision to the evaluation method associated with the amendment of the Building Standard Law of Japan in 2000. In response, wood that has been pressure-impregnated with fire retardants (fire-retardant treated wood is often used to ensure it is safe in the event of a fire. Currently, when fire-retardant-treated wood is tested for certification of reaction to fire performance, a cone calorimeter test is conducted in Japan. This test applies radiant heat to the surface of a square specimen, 100 mm each side, immediately after it has undergone fire-retardant treatment. However, when applying fire-retardant treatment to wood, aqueous chemical injection is the standard procedure. When wood is actually used to construct a building, there is a concern about environmental forces such as wind and rain that could cause the wood to deteriorate, and concerns about performance degradation associated with aging. One of the past studies in Japan [1] conducted a cone calorimeter test after an outdoor exposure test and accelerated weathering test, compared the post-test performance with the initial performance and confirmed the amount of remaining fire retardant in the treated wood had been reduced. However, no comparison of the fireproof performance of fire-retardant wood in actual use in a building facade had been conducted in Japan. There have been already valuable researches [e.g. 2, 3] on this issue internationally, but this paper is the first step in Japan and authors hope to focus on the wooden façade construction technique and the standard façade test in Japan.

  14. Outline of Preparation and Fire- retardant Properties Detection of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Fire- retardant Membranes%纳米纤维素阻燃膜的制备及阻燃性检测概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐睿; 王海英; 孙睿; 雷舒

    2012-01-01

    Methods of fire -retardant properties evaluation, fire -retardant cellulose fibers preparation, and nano- crystalline cellulose preparation were introduced, respectively. The national standards of fire - retardant properties evalua- tion for fire - retardant protective clothing and forest fire - proof clothing were compared. National standards GB/T5454 - 1997, textiles - burning properties test oxygen index method, was used in forest fire - proof clothing. Preparation method and application prospects of nanocrystalline cellulose fire - retardant membranes were explored.%分别介绍了阻燃性能指标评价、阻燃纤维素纤维的制备、纳米纤维素的制备等方法,比较了阻燃防护服和森林防火服的阻燃性能指标评价国家标准,森林防火服的阻燃性能指标评价还另外采用了GB/T5454—1997纺织品燃烧性能试验氧指数法国家标准,探讨了纳米纤维素复合阻燃膜的制备方法及其应用前景。

  15. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-06-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  16. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  17. Ecofriendly Fire Retardant and Rot Resistance Finishing of Jute Fabric Using Tin and Boron Based Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Bagchi, Arindam

    2017-02-01

    Treatment with sodium stannate followed by treatment with boric acid imparts jute fabric wash fast fire resistance property as indicated by its Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value and 45° inclined flammability test results. The treatment was carried out by impregnation of sodium stannate followed by impregnation with an aqueous solution of boric acid and drying. Application of sodium stannate (20%) and boric acid (20%) treatment on jute fabric showed balanced flame retardancy property (LOI value 34) with some loss in fabric tenacity (loss of tenacity is 14.5%). Treated fabric retained good fire retardant property after three consecutive washing. Treated fabric also possessed good rot resistance property as indicated by soil burial test and strength retention after 21 days soil burial was found to be 65%. It is found that of sodium stannate and boric acid combination by double bath process form a synergistic durable fire-retardant as well as rot resistant when impregnated on jute material, which is considerably greater than the use of either sodium stannate or boric acid alone. TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis are also reported to support the results and reaction mechanism.

  18. Modeling study on the combustion of intumescent fire-retardant polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer and burning behavior of the intumescent fire-retardant polypropylene were studied by the cone calorimeter at heat flux levels of 50 kW.m-2 to establish an essential physical model for the intumescence process in fire. A mathematical model for the burning process of fire-retardant intumescent polymer was put forward based on the assumption that an intumescent front existed between the char layer and virgin layer. The model emphasizes the thermodynamic aspect of the intumescence process and a corresponding submodel is presented. Meanwhile the thicknesses and mass loss rates of the intumescent polypropylene during burning were measured for the validation of the modeling results. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity of polymer material were also measured as input parameters of the model. The validation results showed that the intumescent thicknesses and mass loss rates predicted by the model were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was also used to predict the temperature distribution across the sample thickness during burning. The study shows that the present model can appropriately describe the intumescent behavior of the polymer and numerically predict its mass loss rates and temperature distribution in fire.

  19. EFFECT OF FIRE RETARDANTS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS AND WETTABILITY OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PANELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and wettability of flat-pressed wood plastic composites (WPCs incorporated with various fire retardants (FRs (5, 10, or 15% by weight (wt at 50 wt-% content of the wood flour (WF were investigated. The most common FRs, zinc borate (ZB, magnesium hydroxide (MH, and ammonium polyphosphate (APP, were used in the experiments. The WPC panels were made from dry-blended wood flour (WF, fire retardant (FR powder, and polypropylene (PP powder with maleic anhydride-grafted PP (2 wt-% formulations using a conventional flat-pressing process under laboratory conditions. The contact angle measurements were obtained by using a goniometer connected with a digital camera and computer system. Three roughness measurements, average roughness (Ra, mean peak-to-valley height (Rz, and maximum roughness (Ry, were taken from the WPC panel surface using a fine stylus tracing technique. It was found that the surface smoothness of the WPC panels decreased with increasing content of the FR powder while the wettability increased. The control WPC panel without the FR had the smoothest surface, followed by the WPC panels containing the MH, ZB, and APP, respectively.

  20. Effect of Kaolin Clay and Alumina on Thermal Performance and Char Morphology of Intumescent fire retardant coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz Hammad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC have been developed by using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, kaolin clay and alumina as fillers bound together with epoxy resin and cured with the help of curing agent. Five different formulations were developed with and without using fillers. Cured samples were burned in furnace at 500°C for 2h for char expansion. Bunsen burner test was performed for 1h using UL-94 vertical burning test to investigate the thermal performance of IFRC. The resultant char obtained after burning of coated samples were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscopy for char morphology. Char composition was analyzed by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that formulation with 0.5 weight % of kaolin clay and 0.5 weight % of alumina provide best thermal performance, uniform and multi-porous char structure with high anti-oxidation property.

  1. Fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation of an epoxy based nano intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, P. S. M. Megat; Zia-ul-Mustafa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is a passive fire protection system which swells upon heating to form expanded multi-cellular char layer that protects the substrate from fire. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder and cured together using curing agent. IFRC was then reinforced with nano magnesium oxide and nano alumina as inorganic fillers to study their effect towards fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation. Small scale fire test was conducted to investigate the thermal insulation of coating whereas fire performance was calculated using thermal margin value. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of char obtained after fire test. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that the performance of the coating was enhanced by reinforcement with nano size fillers as compared to non-filler based coating. Comparing both nano size magnesium oxide and nano size alumina; nano size alumina gave better fire performance with improved microstructure of char and high residual weight.

  2. Fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation of an epoxy based nano intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hammad; Ahmad, Faiz; Yusoff, P. S. M. Megat; Zia-ul-Mustafa, M.

    2015-07-01

    Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is a passive fire protection system which swells upon heating to form expanded multi-cellular char layer that protects the substrate from fire. In this research work, IFRC's were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder and cured together using curing agent. IFRC was then reinforced with nano magnesium oxide and nano alumina as inorganic fillers to study their effect towards fire performance, microstructure and thermal degradation. Small scale fire test was conducted to investigate the thermal insulation of coating whereas fire performance was calculated using thermal margin value. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of char obtained after fire test. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to investigate the residual weight of coating. Results showed that the performance of the coating was enhanced by reinforcement with nano size fillers as compared to non-filler based coating. Comparing both nano size magnesium oxide and nano size alumina; nano size alumina gave better fire performance with improved microstructure of char and high residual weight.

  3. Effect of fillers and fire retardant compounds on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene based insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kakade

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane compositions have been formulated using hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene as polymeric binder and carbon black as a major filler. Various binder-to-filler ratios of the formulations were evaluated to get calendered sheets. The formulations have been characterised for pot-life and rollability and the calendered sheets for mechanical and thermal properties, bUm rate, glass transition temperature, shore hardness and density . The different fillers tried were varieties of carbon black as a major filler; metal oxides, silicates and organic compounds; and fire retardants, such as zinc borate, sodium metaborate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and antimony trioxide. The structure and morphology of the fillers have been correlated with the properties. The optimised composition has been evaluated in an end-burning motor, as an insulator for case-bonded application, using a typical composite propellant. The results of interface bonding between the propellant and the insulator have also been presented.

  4. Durability of the reaction to fire performance for fire retardant treated (FRT wood products in exterior applications – a ten years report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several long term experimental studies on the maintained reaction to fire performance of fire retardant treated (FRT wood products over time are presented. They are performed according to a European system based on earlier Nordic and North American systems and include accelerated ageing according to different procedures and natural weathering up to ten years. Main conclusions are: The hygroscopic properties are unchanged compared to untreated wood for most FRT wood products used commercially. The reaction to fire properties of FRT wood may be maintained after accelerated and natural ageing if the retention levels are high enough, but several FRT wood products loose most of their improved reaction to fire properties during weathering. Paint systems contribute considerably to maintain of the fire performance at exterior application and are usually needed to maintain the fire performance after weathering.

  5. 我国阻燃剂生产现状与发展趋势%Production Situation and Development Trend of Domestic Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁诚

    2001-01-01

    介绍了我国阻燃剂的生产现状及其在品种和产品质量等方面与国外存在的较大差距,论述了我国阻燃剂的研究开发方向及其发展趋势,并提出合理化建议。%The production situation of domestic fire retardants and theconsiderable gaps between domestic and foreign fire retardants in the way of kind, quality etc. were reviewed. The development trend of domestic fire retardants was discussed and reasonable suggestions were proposed.

  6. Utilization of Magnesium Hydroxide Produced by Magnesia Hydration as Fire Retardant for Nylon 6-6,6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Sônia D.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the use of magnesium hydroxide, produced by magnesia hydration, as a fire retardant in polymers. The hydration was carried out in an autoclave, at temperature of 130°C for 1 hour, and the product was further submitted to cominution in a jet mill. The solids were characterized with regard to their chemical composition, particle size distribution, surface area and morphology. The performance evaluation of the hydroxide as a flame retardant for a copolymer of nylon 6-6,6 was carried out according to the UL94 specifications for vertical burning tests. V-0 flammability rating at 1.6 mm (60% magnesium hydroxide-filled nylon composite and at 3.2 mm (40% magnesium hydroxide filled nylon composite were achieved. Mechanical properties were maintained at the desired values. These results indicate that the hydroxide obtained from magnesia hydration can be successfully employed as a fire retardant for nylon 6-6,6.

  7. Fire Retardant Technology and Evaluation Method for Wood-based Panels%人造板阻燃技术与评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉泉; 彭力争; 张根成; 吴建国; 张建

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduced three fire retardant treatments for wood-based panels and the common fire retardants;briefed the standards for fire retardant wood and wood-based panel products and the evaluation and test methods for fire retardant materials;and discussed the existing issues of the standard for fire-resistant panels.%介绍了3种人造板的阻燃处理方法及常用阻燃剂,概述了阻燃人造板标准、阻燃性能评价和检测方法,分析了目前阻燃人造板研发生产在国内外标准方面存在的问题。

  8. A Fire-Retardant Composite Made from Domestic Waste and PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Surtiyeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a composite from domestic waste with the strength of wood building materials. We used original domestic waste with only a simple pretreatment to reduce the processing cost. The wastes were composed of organic components (generally originating from foods, paper, plastics, and clothes; the average fraction of each type of waste mirrored the corresponding fractions of wastes in the city of Bandung, Indonesia. An initial survey of ten landfills scattered through Bandung was conducted to determine the average fraction of each component in the waste. The composite was made using a hot press. A large number of synthesis parameters were tested to determine the optimum ones. The measured mechanical strength of the produced composite approached the mechanical properties of wood building materials. A fire-retardant powder was added to retard fire so that the composite could be useful for the construction of residential homes of lower-income people who often have problems with fire. Fire tests showed that the composites were more resistant to fire than widely used wood building materials.

  9. WETTABILITY OF FIRE RETARDANT TREATED LAMINATED VENEER LUMBER (LVL MANUFACTURED FROM VENEERS DRIED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Candan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Wettability of the fire retardant treated (FRT laminated veneer lumber (LVL manufactured from wood veneers dried at different temperatures was investigated. Commercially manufactured veneer of beech wood (Fagus orientalis L. was treated with borax-boric acid (BX/BA, 1:1 by weight, monoammonium phosphate (MAP, and diammonium phosphate (DAP using a full-cell pressure process. The veneers were then dried at different temperatures (120, 140, 160, and 180°C, and experimental LVLs were made from these veneer sheets. The wettability of LVL was characterized by contact angle analysis. The lowest contact angle was obtained from LVL made from BX/BA-treated veneers, while the highest value was found for the control LVL. The CA values of these samples at each re-drying level were lower than LVLs made from untreated veneers. Re-drying of the treated veneers decreased the CA values of the LVL, while it was found higher for the LVL made from untreated veneer.

  10. Study on fire-retardant of bamboo footboard of scaffold used in building construction%建筑用竹制脚踏板的防火阻燃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠平; 朱鹏; 刘章蕊; 周波

    2012-01-01

    以自制硅溶胶和铝溶胶为阻燃体系,研究阻燃浸注处理压力、处理时间、阻燃成分含量及样品不同处理方式等对建筑用竹制脚踏板防火阻燃性能的影响.试验结果表明:硅溶胶比铝溶胶更易渗入到竹片内部;在真空条件下以硅溶胶对竹片进行阻燃浸注处理时,浸注时间越长、阻燃体系中阻燃组分含量越高,所得样品的载药率和氧指数越高;样品的不同阻燃处理方式对其载药率和氧指数有较大影响.%Utilize the self-making silica sol and aluminum sol, the effects of fire-retardant impregnating pressure, impregnating time, the content of fire-retardant component and the different treatment styles on the fire-retardant property of bamboo footboard used in building construction have been studied. The experimental results show that: compare with the aluminum sol, silica sol is more easily to be impregnated into the bamboo; fire-retardant treatment of bamboo footboard under vacuum, longer time of the fire-retardant treatment and higher content of fire-retardant component in fire-retarding system are favorable to improve the drug-loading rate and oxygen index of the samples; in addition, different fire-retardant treatment styles have great effect on the drug-loading rate and the oxygen index of the samples.

  11. Fire retardancy of emulsion polymerized poly (methyl methacrylate)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Guipeng [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Lu, Hongdian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China); Zhou, You; Hao, Jianwei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wilkie, Charles A., E-mail: charles.wilkie@marquette.edu [Department of Chemistry and Fire Retardant Research Facility, Marquette University, PO Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepare PMMA and PS containing ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization by XRD and TEM shows that some of the ceria is well-dispersed in the polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of ceria to both polymers leads to reduced thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In PMMA, the fire retardancy is enhanced but there is little effect in PS. - Abstract: In situ emulsion polymerization was employed to obtain poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/cerium(IV) dioxide and polystyrene (PS)/cerium(IV) dioxide nanocomposites at two different cerium(IV) dioxide loadings (2.3 wt% and 4.6 wt%). Transmission electron microscope results indicated uniform dispersion of cerium (IV) dioxide in the polymer matrix. Both PMMA and PS nanocomposites exhibit lower thermal stability than the pristine polymers. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC) and cone calorimetry are used to evaluate the fire retardancy of the polymer nanocomposites. PMMA/cerium(IV) dioxide showed significant heat release rate (HRR) reduction at low loadings (<5 wt%), while PS/cerium(IV) dioxide exhibits less HRR reduction at the same loadings. An explanation of the role of cerium (IV) dioxide in fire retardancy of polymer/ceria nanocomposites based on XPS results is suggested.

  12. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2016-06-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  13. Development of Self Fire Retardant Melamine-Animal Glue Formaldehyde (MGF) Resin for the Manufacture of BWR Ply Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Dubey, Rajib Kumar; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Mishra, Anjan; Shahoo, Shadhu Charan; Kalawate, Aparna

    2017-10-01

    Wood is one of the most sustainable, naturally growing materials that consist mainly of combustible organic carbon compounds. Since plywood are widely used nowadays especially in buildings, furniture and cabinets. Too often the fire behavior of ply-board may be viewed as a drawback. Amino-plastic based thermosetting resin adhesives are the important and most widely used in the plywood panel industries. The fire retardant property of wood panel products by adding animal glue as an additive in the form of MGF resin and used as substitute of melamine for manufacture of plywood. Environment concerns and higher cost of petroleum based resins have resulted in the development of technologies to replace melamine partially by biomaterials for the manufacturing of resin adhesive. Natural bio-based materials such as tannin, CNSL (cardanol), lignin, soya etc. are used as partial substitution of melamine. This article presents the development of melamine-animal glue formaldehyde resin as plywood binder. About 30 % melamine was substituted by animal glue and optimized. The different physico-mechanical and fire retardant property properties tested as per IS: 1734-1983 and IS: 5509-2000 respectively are quite satisfactory. The production of adhesive from melamine with compatible natural proteinous material is cost effective, eco-friendly and enhance the fire retardant property.

  14. 溴碳树脂在防火涂料中的应用与发展%Application and Development of Bromine Carbon Resin Fire-retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴纯.; 杨保平; 崔锦峰; 郭军红; 李军

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the fire-retardant coatings research and utilization from the aspect of binder resins, introduces the application of bromine carbon resin in steel structure fire-retardant coatings, finishing fire-retardant coatings, fire- retardant anticorrosive floor coatings and water-borne environment-friendly fire-retardant coatings in details, and basing the actual situation of our country, gives the use prospect of the bromine carbon resin.%综述了近年来从基体树脂入手,在防火涂料的研究与应用中的成果,详细介绍了溴碳树脂在钢结构建筑防火涂料、饰面型防火涂料、防火防腐地坪涂料及水性环保型防火涂料中的应用情况,并结合我国的实际情况对溴碳树脂的应用前景进行了展望。

  15. Mechanism and Development of Decorating Fire-retardant Coatings%饰面型防火涂料阻燃防火机理及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹碧军

    2012-01-01

    The paper discussed the flame retardant mechanisms of decorating fire-retardant coatings and narrated the current status of decorating fire-retardant coatings in China.Combined with the safety and environmental protection of toxicity and volatile organic compounds in the practical application,it forecasted the development trend of decorating fire-retardant coatings in our country.%探讨了饰面型防火涂料的阻燃及防火机理,阐述了我国饰面型防火涂料的研究进展。结合饰面型防火涂料在实际使用过程中烟气毒性、挥发性有机化合物的安全环保问题,对我国饰面型防火涂料的发展趋势进行了展望。

  16. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  17. 膨胀型阻燃剂的研究现状%Current Research Situation of Intumescent Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁基照; 冯金清

    2011-01-01

    The classification, history and recent development of intumescent fire-retardant were reviewed. The performances, advantages and disadvantages, and current research situation of mixed-type intumesceent flame retardant as well as single-component intumesceent flame retardant was introduced. The effects of several flame retardant synergist, such as montmorillonite, silica, zeolite, and metal compounds etc, on intumescent flame retardant system were introduced. Besides, three treatment techniques of intumescent fire-retardant, such as the nanominiaturization, surface modification and microencapsulation, were also briefly introduced.%概述了膨胀型阻燃剂的分类、发展历史和近况.介绍了混合型膨胀阻燃剂和单组分膨胀阻燃剂的性能、优缺点及研究现状.罗列了蒙脱土、二氧化硅、沸石以及金属化合物等多种膨胀协同阻燃助剂在膨胀阻燃体系中的作用.简单介绍了纳米化、表面改性以及微胶囊化三种膨胀型阻燃剂的处理技术.

  18. Mechanical properties and fire retardancy of bidirectional reinforced composite based on biodegradable starch resin and basalt fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by extensive use of polymeric materials arise mainly due to lack of landfill space and depletion of finite natural resources of fossil raw materials, such as petroleum or natural gas. The substitution of synthetic petroleum-based resins with natural biodegradable resins appears to be one appropriate measure to remedy the above-mentioned situation. This study presents the development of a composite that uses environmentally degradable starch-based resin as matrix and basalt fibre plain fabric as reinforcement. Prepreg sheets were manufactured by means of a modified doctor blade system and a hot power press. The sheets were used to manufacture bidirectional-reinforced specimens with fibre volume contents ranging from 33 to 61%. Specimens were tested for tensile and flexural strength, and exhibited values of up to 373 and 122 MPa, respectively. Through application of silane coupling agents to the reinforcement fibres, the flexural composite properties were subsequently improved by as much as 38%. Finally, in order to enhance the fire retardancy and hence the applicability of the composite, fire retardants were applied to the resin, and their effectiveness was tested by means of flame rating (according to UL 94 and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively.

  19. 我国阻燃人造板研究与开发的几个问题%Some Issues in Research and Exploitation of Fire Retardant Reconstituted Panels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光沛; 程强; 刘毅

    2001-01-01

    A discussion is made on the necessity and urgency of developingof fire retardant reconstituted panels,the common fire retardants and fire retardant treatment technology used for reconstituted anels,as well as their present status and development direction in China. An analysis is given of existing problems in research of fire-retardant panel and a new KM fire retardant is briefly recommmended.%论述了我国阻燃人造板研究的必要性和紧迫性,及人造板常用阻燃剂、阻燃处理工艺研究开发的现状和方向;分析了我国在阻燃人造板研究与开发中存在的问题,并介绍了新型KM系列阻燃剂的研究与开发近况。

  20. Development of Fire-Retardant Elastic Acrylic Finishing Coating%阻燃型弹性丙烯酸饰面涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁鑫; 郭岳峰

    2012-01-01

    The fire - retardant elastic acrylic finishing coating applied on polyurethane foam was prepared with UV curable elastomeric acrylic emulsion as binder and modified ammonium polyphosphate ( APP) as fire retardant. Orthogonal test was used to optimize the coating formulation,the best content of fire retardant was 35%. Effection of UV and sun lights on coating tensile property were studied,and found that exoposure to UV 4 h and sun light 7 d,the tensile strength reached the highest; coating fire - retardant property was ev-alated by use of oxygen index and mass loss.%采用紫外光固化的弹性丙烯酸树脂为基料,改性聚磷酸铵为阻燃剂,制备了聚氨酯泡沫用阻燃型弹性丙烯酸饰面涂料,通过正交试验对涂料配方进行了优化,确定了阻燃剂最佳含量为35%.考察了紫外光和太阳光对涂层拉伸强度的影响,紫外光4h,太阳光7d,涂层拉伸性能达到最佳;采用氧指数及质量损失评估了涂层的阻燃性能.

  1. 成膜物质对水性防火涂料膨胀阻燃性能的影响%Effects of Binder Resins on Expansion and Flame-Retardant Performances of Waterborne Fire-Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范方强; 夏正斌; 李清英; 李忠; 陈焕钦

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, the waterborne ultra-thin fire-retardant coatings for steel structures were prepared respectively with the silicone-acrylic, acrylic, styrene-acrylic and VAc-VeoVa latexes as the binder. Then, the effects of the binders on the fire-retardant performance of the coatings were discussed in terms of the thermal stability and the high-temperature rheology. The combustion test results of analoging large panels show that the expansion ratio, 17.4 times that of the fire-retardant coatings from the VAc-VeoVa latex, is the largest, and its fire-retardant performance is the best with a steel backside temperature of 304℃ after a 30-min combustion. It is seen from TGA curves that the VAc-VeoVa polymer is of good thermal stability and its average thermal degradation rate is the lowest , and that those characteristics of the VAc-VeoVa polymer provide enough time for its reaction with ammonium polyphosphate, thus generating a dense char layer which can remarkably improve the fire-retardant performance of the coating. Moreover, the results of the dynamic rheological test demonstrate that, for the acrylic and styrene-acrylic molten polymers, the storage modulus (G’) are higher than the loss modulus (G") , which means that the elastic flow is predominant in these melts, and their complex viscosities are more than 1 000 Pa · s, while for the VAc-VeoVa molten polymer, G" is higher than G', which means that the viscous flow is predominant in this melt, and its complex viscosity is 33Pa·s, and that, for the VAc-VeoVa melt, a Newtonian fluid property is displayed at the low frequency stage, and the complex viscosity slightly decreases at the end of the high frequency stage. The above-mentioned results show that the viscous fluid with good thermal stability and low complex viscosity can be used as the binder of fire-retardant coatings, which is helpful in the expansion and fire retardancy of the coatings.%以硅丙、纯丙、苯丙、醋叔聚合物乳液为

  2. 利用CONE研究阻燃胶合板的动态燃烧行为%Dynamic Combustion Behaviors of Plywood Treated with Fire Retardant Using CONE Calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奉强; 宋永明; 孙理超; 冯建稳; 谢延军; 王清文

    2012-01-01

    Fire safety of interior wooden structures is closely associated with the flammability of indoor wooden structures. The effect of the treatment with phosphoric-nitrogen-boric(P-N-B) components based fire retardant FRW on the dynamic combustion behaviors of the plywood was investigated using a CONE calorimeter at a heat fluxes of 25, 50 and 75 kW/m2 respectively. The results show that the peak value of heat release rate(pkHRR), quantity of smoke release, and fire growth index(FGI) of untreated plywood are quite high, suggesting a high fire risk. The treatment of plywood with a P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW results in a greater char yield and less release of heat and smoke compared to those of untreated controls: Increasing fire intensity during test only slightly influenced the yield of carbon monoxide. Consequently, it demonstrates that the treatment with P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW can significantly restrain the combustion and reduce the yield of heat and smoke.%利用锥形量热仪CONE调查了磷-氮-硼系阻燃剂FRW处理胶合板在不同热辐射通量条件下的动态燃烧行为.结果显示:随热辐射通量提高,未阻燃胶合板的热释放速率峰值、烟气释放量和火势增长指数上升明显,火灾危险性高;阻燃胶合板的成炭率较高、热释放和烟释放较低;在燃烧过程中CO产率受热辐射通量增大的影响较小;FRW能显著抑制胶合板的可燃性,从而降低胶合板在使用过程中的火灾安全风险.

  3. 纯丙乳胶防火涂料稳定性影响因素的研究%Study on Influence of Storage Stability of Pure Acrylic Latex Fire Retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金; 吴润泽; 王桂银

    2011-01-01

    以纯丙乳液为主要成膜物质制备了防火性能优异,贮存稳定的防火涂料;探讨了分散剂、增稠剂、成膜助剂对乳胶防火涂料体系稳定性的影响。%A fire retardant coatings with excellent fire retardant performance and good storage stability was prepared by pure acrylic emulsion as the main filming material, the influence of dispersant, thickener, coalescent to the stability of fire retardant coatings system were discussed.

  4. Effect of Addition of Boric Acid and Borax on Fire-Retardant and Mechanical Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Saw Dust Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenat A. Nagieb

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the flame retardant urea formaldehyde (UF board made from saw dust fibers were investigated. Flame retardant chemicals that were evaluated include boric acid (BA and borax (BX which were incorporated with saw dust fibers to manufacture experimental panels. Three concentration levels, (0.5, 1, and 5% of fire retardants and 10% urea formaldehyde resin based on oven dry fiber weight were used to manufacture experimental panels. Physical and mechanical properties including water absorption, modulus of rupture (MOR, and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined. The results showed that water absorption and bending strength decreased as the flame retardant increased. The highest concentration of (BA + BX enhanced the fire retardant more than the lower ones. Scanning electron microscope and FTIR of composite panels were studied.

  5. An Overview of Wood Fire-Retardant in the United States%美国阻燃处理木材的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪磊; 陈志林; 蔡智勇

    2011-01-01

    This article reviewed the current status of wood fire retardants, and their corresponding manufacturing specifications and standards in the US. The author also introduced five major fireretardant manufacturers in the US and their flame retardant formulations and market. It was expected that this paper would provide useful suggestions to the domestic fire-retardant industry.%总结美国阻燃处理木材的规范与标准,介绍美国主要阻燃处理木材生产商的阻燃木材产品,分析主要阻燃剂的配方及合成工艺、处理木材的工艺与技术特点,为国内阻燃处理木材行业的技术发展提出建议.

  6. An Analysis of the Defects of Steel Structured Fire Retardant Coating%试论钢结构防火涂料的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王路杰

    2015-01-01

    the fire resistance of steel structured coating is poor,one fire breaks out,the steel structure would collapse, which,as a result,would result serious economic loss and casualties.This paper analyzed the classifications and fire protec-tion mechanism of steel structured fire retardant coatings and expounded the problems in the application of steel struc-tured fire retardant coatings .%钢结构的抗火性能较差,一旦发生火灾,会造成整个钢结构的坍塌,从而造成严重的经济损失和人员伤亡,文章分析了钢结构防火涂料的分类和防火机理,同时分析了当前钢结构防火材料应用中存在的问题。

  7. 国内阻燃剂协同作用的研究进展%The Latest Achievements about the Synergistic Effect of Fire Retardant in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽芳; 郝建淦

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the latest achievements about the synergistic effect of fire retardant in china and pointed out about the development tendency of fire retardans in future.%对国内类阻燃剂协同作用研究的最新成果进行了介绍,并提出了对阻燃剂未来发展趋向的预测.

  8. Effects of Different Fire Retardant Treatment on Properties of Poplar Plywood%不同阻燃剂对速生杨木胶合板性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 周云明; 孙晓博; 柴永家; 王翔; 王传贵

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the poplar veneer, and impregnated them with self-made fire retardant and FRW fire retardant, to discuss the influence of different fire retardant, impregnation time, impregnation concentration, hot-pressing temperature on the fire retardant retention quantity, the bonding strength and the fire-retardant properties. The results showed that fire retardant retention quantity, oxygen index and bonding strength were 1.4322%-13.4726%, 36.6%-89.9% and 0.131-0.798 MPa with self-made fire retardant treatment while the fire retardant retention quantity, oxygen index and bonding strength were 1.5449%-14.7724%, 45.3%-70.5%and 0.233-0.698 MPa with FRW fire retardant treatment. Through the self-made and FRW fire retardant treatments, the fire retardant properties of poplar plywood were significantly improved, the oxygen index had reached and was much higher than the flame retardant grade request in JISD1322-77, but its bonding strength significantly decreased.%选用自配阻燃剂和FRW阻燃剂处理杨木单板,探讨不同种类阻燃剂、浸渍时间、浸渍浓度、热压温度对胶合板载药量、胶合强度以及阻燃性能的影响。结果表明:选用自配阻燃剂时,载药量1.4322%~13.4726%,氧指数36.6%~89.9%,胶合强度0.131~0.798 MPa;选用FRW阻燃剂时,杨木阻燃胶合板的载药量1.5449%~14.7724%,氧指数45.3%~70.5%,胶合强度0.233~0.698 MPa。经过自配和FRW阻燃剂处理后,杨木胶合板的阻燃性能均得到明显改善,其中氧指数远大于日本JISD1322-77中的难燃一级品的要求,但是其胶合性能显著下降。

  9. Study on fire-retardant nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides synthesized by microwave-crystallization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zejiang; XU Chenghua; QIU Fali; MEI Xiujuan; LAN Bin; ZHANG Shuosheng

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides with the particle size being 10-40 nm were firstly prepared by the technology of the microwave-crystallization and the variable-speed addition of the alkali. The obtained samples were characterized by TEM and XRD. The roles of the microwave and addition rate of the alkali were also discussed in the present work. The thermal decomposition activation energy of the nano-LDHs was calculated according to their TG, DTG and DSC curves by the Ozawa method. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of the nano-LDHs had four steps. Thereby the decomposition model of the nano-LDHs was supposed according to the analysis of their thermal decomposition. After PS, ABS, HDPE and PVC were filled with the nano-LDHs, their LOI values could be increased up to 28, 27, 26 and 33, respectively. When the fire-retardant coating contained 1.9% of the nano-LDHs that was 0.27 times the dosage of the conventional TiO2, its fire endurance time reached 32.75min that was 7.05 min longer than that of the best coating containing TiO2 according to the model big-panel combustion test method.

  10. Effect of basalt fibres reinforcement and aluminum trihydrate on the thermal properties of intumescent fire retardant coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Amir, Norlaili Binti; Ahmad, Faiz; Syahirah Rodzhan, N.

    2017-08-01

    This research is carried out in order to study the synergistic effect of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres on the properties of fire resistant intumescent coatings. Intumescent fire retardant coatings were developed using different flame retardants such as ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine and boric acid. These flame retardants were bound together with the help of epoxy binder along with curing agent. Furthermore, individual and combinations of aluminium trihydrate and basalt fibres was incorporated in the formulations to analyse mechanical and chemical properties of the coatings. Char expansion was observed using furnace test, thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine residual weight, X-Ray Diffraction was performed to investigate compounds present in the char, shear test was conducted to determine char strength and scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to observe morphology of the burnt char. From the microscopic investigation it was concluded that the dense structure of the char increased the char integrity by adding basalt and aluminium trihydrate as fillers. X-Ray Diffraction results shows the presence boron phosphate, and boric acid which enhanced the thermal performance of the coating up to 800°C. From the Thermogravimetric analysis it was concluded that the residual weight of the char was increased up to 34.9 % for IC-B2A4 which enhanced thermal performance of intumescent coating.

  11. Cellulosic building insulation versus mineral wool, fiberglass or perlite: installer's exposure by inhalation of fibers, dust, endotoxin and fire-retardant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, N O; Schneider, T; Jørgensen, O; Valdbjørn Rasmussen, T; Skibstrup Eriksen, S

    2003-11-01

    A task-specific exposure matrix was designed for workers installing building insulation materials. A priori, a matrix element was defined by type of task (installer or helper), type of work area (attic spaces or wall cavities) and type of insulation material (slabs from mineral wool, fiberglass or flax; loose-fill cellulosic material or perlite). In the laboratory a mock-up (full scale) of a one-family house was used for simulated installation of insulation materials (four replicates per matrix element). Personal exposure to dust and fibers was measured. The dust was analyzed for content of endotoxin and some trace elements (boron and aluminum) from fire-retardant or mold-resistant additives. Fibers were characterized as WHO fibers or non-WHO fibers. In support of the exposure matrix, the dustiness of all the materials was measured in a rotating drum tester. For installers in attic spaces, risk of exposure was low for inhalation of dust and WHO fibers from slab materials of mineral wool or fiberglass. Slab materials from flax may cause high risk of exposure to endotoxin. The risk of exposure by inhalation of dust from loose-fill materials was high for installers in attic spaces and for some of the materials risk of exposure was high for boron and aluminum. Exposure by inhalation of cellulosic WHO fibers was high but little is known about the health effects and a risk assessment is not possible. For the insulation of walls, the risk of installers' exposure by inhalation of dust and fibers was low for the slab materials, while a high risk was observed for loose-fill materials. The exposure to WHO fibers was positively correlated to the dust exposure. A dust level of 6.1 mg/m3 was shown to be useful as a proxy for screening exposure to WHO fibers in excess of 10(6) fibers/m3. In the rotating drum, slabs of insulation material from mineral wool or fiberglass were tested as not dusty. Cellulosic loose-fill materials were tested as very dusty, and perlite proved to be

  12. 纳米阻燃剂对饰面型防火涂料性能影响研究%Effect of Nano Flame Retardant on the Performance of Decorated Fire-retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方璐; 张佳璐; 王美琴; 张华文

    2015-01-01

    Decorated fire-retardant coating is an important method to avoid building fire accidents.Now the research finded that nanometre fire-retardant could solve the problems existing in the application of decorated fire-retardant coating and improved the performance.In order to research the effect of nano flame retardant on the performance of decorated fire-retardant coating, based on the nanometer aluminum hydroxide flame retardant.The method of tunnel ignition was adopted to test the fire performance of ordinary decorating fire-retardant coatings and the fire performance of the decorating fire-retardant coatings adding nanometer aluminum hydroxide. Comparative analysis of experimental results was used to obtained the inference rule of nanometer aluminum hydroxide flame retardant and to have a more intuitive understanding of the inference of nano flame retardant.Fire retardant coatings for nano future trends were forecasted.%饰面型防火涂料是建筑物防火的一种重要方法。现研究发现纳米阻燃剂可改善饰面型防火涂料存在问题,提高防火性能。为研究纳米阻燃剂对饰面型防火涂料的性能影响,本文以纳米氢氧化铝阻燃剂为例,通过隧道燃烧法测量火焰传播比值来对普通饰面型防火涂料和纳米改性涂料的耐火性能进行分析,得出纳米氢氧化铝的影响规律,对纳米阻燃剂的作用有一个更直观的认识,并对纳米防火涂料的未来发展进行展望。

  13. A Study on Developing Fire Retardant HIPS Nano-composites%发展阻燃型HIPS纳米复合材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤飞; 石王莹; 胡源

    2005-01-01

    本文运用一步熔融共混法制备了含有十溴联苯醚(DBDPO)或十溴二苯乙烷(DBDPE)和C16改性蒙脱土(MMT)的高抗冲聚苯乙烯(HIPS)复合材料,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)、UL 94垂直燃烧和锥型量热等试验手段对其燃烧性能和相态进行了表征.结果标明,DBDPO/E存在时仍可获得具有插层结构的HIPS纳米复合材料.由于十溴和蒙脱土两种体系间的良好协同效应,这些材料的阻燃性提高、燃烧后的热释放速率下降.文中对其潜在机理进行了探讨.这种协同效应可用于指导发展环保性和阻燃性兼顾的HIPS纳米复合材料.%High impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites containing both Decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) or 1,2- bis (pentabromophenyl) ethane (DBDPE)-antimony (Sb2 O3 ) and Montmorillonite (MMT)- Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C16BrN) flame retarding packages were prepared by one-step melt blending in one-pot. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Underwriters Laboratory Vertical Burning Test (UL 94 V) and cone calorimeter tests have been conducted to characterize the morphology and combustion properties of the flame retardant composites. Results show that HIPS-based nanocomposites with intercalation structure in the presence of conventional DBDPO or DBDPE can be obtained, and much improved fire retardancy displayed by the notable reduction in heat release rates is achieved due to the good synergistic effect between MMT-C16BrN and DBDPO or DBDPE-antimony. Possible explanations regarding the synergism were proposed. This effect provides evidence for the reduction use of halogen-contained flame-retardants in one composite system for the purpose of lowering the production cost and lessening unwanted environment effects and is very meaningful for the development of green ecological polymer-based flame retardant composites.

  14. Feedback processes in cellulose thermal decomposition. Implications for fire-retarding strategies and treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Brindley, J

    2002-01-01

    A simple dynamical system that models the competitive thermokinetics and chemistry of cellulose decomposition is examined, with reference to evidence from experimental studies indicating that char formation is a low activation energy exothermal process and volatilization is a high activation energy endothermal process. The thermohydrolysis chemistry at the core of the primary competition is described. Essentially, the competition is between two nucleophiles, a molecule of water and an -OH group on C_6 of an end glucosyl cation, to form either a reducing chain fragment with the propensity to undergo the bond-forming reactions that ultimately form char or a levoglucosan-end-fragment that depolymerizes to volatile products. The results of this analysis suggest that promotion of char formation under thermal stress can actually increase the production of flammable volatiles. Thus we would like to convey an important safety message in this paper: in some situations where heat and mass transfer is restricted in cell...

  15. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad, E-mail: engr.hammad.aziz03@gmail.com; Omar, Nor Sharifah [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  16. Thermal performance of glass fiber reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz; Ullah, Sami; Aziz, Hammad; Omar, Nor Sharifah

    2015-07-01

    The results of influence of glass fiber addition into the basic intumescent coating formulation towards the enhancement of its thermal insulation properties are presented. The intumescent coatings were formulated from expandable graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, melamine, boric acid, bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188, polyamide amine H-2310 hardener and fiberglass (FG) of length 3.0 mm. Eight intumescent formulations were developed and the samples were tested for their fire performance by burning them at 450°C, 650°C and 850°C in the furnace for two hours. The effects of each fire test at different temperatures; low and high temperature were evaluated. Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Diffraction technique and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis were conducted on the samples to study the morphology, the chemical components of char and the residual weight of the coatings. The formulation, FG08 containing 7.0 wt% glass fiber provided better results with enhanced thermal insulation properties of the coatings.

  17. The combustion and physical properties of biockboard fire retardant system%阻燃细木工板体系的燃烧和理化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付萍

    2012-01-01

    选取不同类型的阻燃体系制备阻燃细木工板,通过建材难燃性实验炉、建材烟密度仪、建材毒性试验装置等燃烧性能检测装置及万能力学试验机等理化性能检测装置进行测试,筛选出适用于细木工板的阻燃体系.试验表明,水基型阻燃剂FR-W能够对细木工板起到较好的阻燃效果,达到阻燃B1级要求,但由于木材本身特性,产烟毒性只能达到ZA3级;在保证低甲醛含量的前提下,水基型阻燃剂的加入会对细木工板的浸渍剥离性能产生负面影响.%The flame retardant blockboard was prepared by the selected different kinds of fire retardant and examined by building materials fire resistant furnace, building materials smoke densitometer, building materials toxicity testing device and the universal mechanical testing machine. The results indicated that the blockboard with FR-W as fire retardant system could reach to B1 level, but owning to its own characteristics, the smoke toxicity could only reach the ZA3 level; under the premise of low formaldehyde content, the use of water-based fire retardant played an adversely effect to the blockboard of it's dipping &. Peeling-off performance.

  18. Application of thermal analysis methods on the study of PE thermal degradation and the influence of Mg (OH) sub 2 as fire retardant

    CERN Document Server

    Zarringhalam-Moghaddam, A

    2002-01-01

    Fire retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE was studied utilizing DTA, TGA and DSC methods. Reductions on reaction peak area and mass loss rate with the addition of Mg(OH) sub 2 were observed as indication of retardation effects of Mg(OH) sub 2 on PE. Cone calorimeter tests were performed on samples to verify the thermo analytical results. It was concluded that when Mg(OH) sub 2 is present it effectively modified the degradation behavior of PE and the thermal analyses are useful and rapid methods to study the retardation effects.

  19. Design of Fire Retardant Layer with Thermionic Coat Mixture%加入换热离子涂层的防火阻燃层设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雷

    2014-01-01

    Model and flame retardant layer preparation method of fireproof coating pyrolysis reaction dynamics analysis is researched, a scheme of fire retardant coatings layer was prepared by adding in thermionic coating is proposed, coating for thermionic flame retardant and preparation of the fire retardant coatings layer preparation is obtained, fireproof coating per-formance is tested, heat adsorption isotherms is analyzed, the fire the preparation of coating of polymerization process is ob-tained. The experimental results show that the fire retardant coatings layer pyrolysis can get more residue carbon material, so that the fireproof coatings durable resistance to burn, fire prevention performance of heat insulation, improve the weather-ability and pyrolysis reaction activation energy, flame retardant layer and other components to achieve the best cooperation, a complete, organic fire system is formed. Fire retardant coatings layer has excellent physical and chemical properties and fireproof performance, it ensures fire safety.%研究防火涂料热解反应动力学分析模型和阻燃层制备方法,提出一种加入换热离子涂层的防火涂料阻燃层制备方案。进行换热离子涂层阻燃剂的制备和防火涂料阻燃层制备,测定防火涂料性能,分析热量吸附等温线,得到防火涂料制备聚合反应流程。实验结果表明,设计的防火涂料阻燃层热解残余物炭物质较多,从而使该防火涂料经久耐烧,具有高效隔热防火性能,提高其耐火性和热解反应的活化能力。阻燃层与其它各组分防火涂层达到最佳的协合,形成一个完整、有机的防火体系。研究得出的防火涂料阻燃层具有优良的阻燃性能和防火性能,保证了消防安全。

  20. The pilot of one fire retardant liquid's application on varnish contiguous wooden houses%某阻燃液对木质结构房屋应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑锦; 傅勤勇; 孟繁茂

    2012-01-01

    One fire retardant liquid was taken as flame retardant treatment in one varnish contiguous wooden houses (village). The preparation method and the fire retardant mechanism of fire retardant liquid were introduced; the national administration' s test results of this liquid were given and the method and procedure of this fire retardant liquid in Shilong village in Kaili City were introduced. The samples took from the villages which were taken flame retardant treatment by this fire retardant liquid were tested in the fire product quality supervision and inspection station in Guizhou province, and the result is that the samples' combustion performance reached the level B1.%采用某阻燃液对连片木质结构房屋(村寨)进行阻燃处理.介绍该阻燃液及阻燃清漆的制备方法、阻燃机理,国家检验机构的检验结果以及该阻燃液应用于凯里市寨石龙寨的实施方法及工序.从试点村寨抽取经该阻燃液阻燃处理的木质板材等样品,经贵州省消防产品质量监督检验站检测,其燃烧性能均达到B1级.

  1. 华硅6CF阻燃耐候密封胶的研发及应用%Development and application of Huagui 6CF fire retardant and weather resisting sealant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭传发; 刘扬秀

    2016-01-01

    用自制铂-硼-硅阻燃剂与107硅橡胶、201硅油等反应制得了6CF阻燃硅酮耐候密封胶,并对其性能进行了研究。结果表明,当加入10份阻燃剂时,6CF阻燃耐候硅酮密封胶既具有FV-0级的阻燃性能又不会对物理力学性能、贮存期产生影响。并将6CF阻燃耐候硅酮密封胶成功应用于上海中心工程中。%The 6CF fire retardant and weather resisting sealant was prepared by reacting of the home-made boron-platinum-silicon fire retardant, 107 silicone rubber and 201 silicone oil, etc. The performance of the sealant was studied. The results showed that when the content of the fire retardant was 10 phrs, the 6CF fire retardant sealant not only gave a FV-0 grade flame retardancy, but also did not produce adverse effects on its mechanical properties and storage period. The 6CF fire retardant sealant was successfully used in the engineering of Shanghai Tower.

  2. 复合抗静电阻燃ABS 、聚丙烯、聚乙烯的研制%Preparation of anti-static and fire retardant technology forABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申; 杨书申; 汪敏

    2001-01-01

    讨论了塑料的抗静电阻燃机理.详细介绍了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的研制工艺及配方;给出了复合抗静电阻燃ABS塑料、聚丙烯、聚乙烯材料的抗静电、阻燃性能测试数据.结果表明:所研制的聚乙烯、聚丙烯、ABS塑料具有优良的抗静电阻燃效果.%The fire retardant and anti-static mechanism of plastic isdiscussed in this paper.The manufacturing technology and construction of the anti-siatic and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were provided on detail.The anti-static and fire retardant test data of the anti-static and fire retardant ABS plastic,polypropylene and polyethylene were given.The result shows that the anti-static and fire retardant property of these material was good.

  3. Fire retardant paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Parihar

    1954-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism involved in the flame-proofing of cellulose is explained on modern electronic concepts. Some recent developments on intumescent paint and mastic compositions with the scope of their further improvement are discussed.  

  4. 无机阻燃改性沥青结构表征及阻燃机理研究%Structural expressions and retarding mechanism of inorganic modified fire-retardant asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝辉; 董彪; 高志伟; 刘志胜; 贺海

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of heavy smoke,toxic,high cost of some flame retardants,two new inorgan-ic flame retardants were developed,and the fire-retardant modified asphalts were prepared;in order to study the internal structure and the flame-retardant mechanism of our new developed flame-retardant asphalt,the combi-nation between flame retardant particles and asphalt were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)test and the effect of the flame retardants on the functional groups was studied by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) test.The effect of inorganic fire-retardants on the nature of asphalt was analyzed by using TG experiment.The research results showed that the flame retardant effect of the modified asphalt was well;the inorganic fire-re-tardant modifiers can be evenly distributed in asphalt and there was no phenomenon of reunion.FT-IR test shows that there was no covalent generating when the two flame retardants are added into the asphalt.The ther-mal weightlessness of inorganic modified fire-retardant asphalt was greater than that of base asphalt.%针对目前某些阻燃剂发烟量大、有毒和成本较高问题,研发了两种新型无机阻燃剂,并制备了无机阻燃改性沥青;借助扫描电镜(SEM)实验和红外光谱(FT-IR)实验,探究了两种阻燃剂与沥青的结合状况以及二者对沥青官能团的影响;通过热重(TG)实验,分析了两种阻燃剂对沥青燃烧过程中热失重变化的影响,探究了两种阻燃改性沥青的作用机理。结果表明,两种新型无机阻燃沥青性能良好;无机阻燃剂颗粒可均匀地分布在沥青中,没有团聚现象,两种阻燃剂各颗粒与沥青具有良好的粘结性;两种新型阻燃剂加入到沥青中,未与沥青形成新的共价键;燃烧过程中无机阻燃改性沥青的热失重大于基础沥青,无机阻燃沥青主要凭借阻燃剂的结合水分挥发以及金属化合物烧结覆盖作用发挥阻燃作用。

  5. 纳米无机阻燃剂及其阻燃机理研究进展%Research Advances in Inorganic Fire-Retardant and Their Flame Retardant Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 梅文杰; 熊玉竹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了纳米三氧化二锑(Sb2O3)、纳米氢氧化铝[Al(OH)3]、纳米氢氧化镁[Mg(OH)2]和聚合物/纳米复合材料的阻燃性能及其机理,总结了国内外纳米阻燃体系的发展,提出阻燃纳米复合材料方面的研究方向与建议.%Fire-retardant properties of the fire-retardant nanomaterials such as timo-nytrioxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and polymer nanocomposites are reviewed. Their fire-retardant mechanism is summarized,and the challenges and problems on the research of the polymer nanocomposites are put forward.

  6. Molding Technology and Fire-retardant Properties of LDPE/LLDPE/APP/ Sb2O3 Systems%LDPE/LLDPE/APP/Sb203阻燃体系的成型工艺和阻燃性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺超; 方帅; 许春花; 蒙亚州; 张琪; 郭玉花; 黄震

    2012-01-01

    以低密度聚乙烯和线性低密度聚乙烯为基础物质,添加阻燃剂聚磷酸铵和三氧化二锑,构成阻燃体系,研究了阻燃体系的成型加工工艺参数和阻燃性能。研究表明:随着阻燃剂添加量的增大,主螺杆转速需要逐步降低,牵引速度随之下降,主螺杆转速的较小变化,可引起机头压力的急剧增加,物料的实际挤出温度相应提高;当阻燃荆总添加量达到40%时,达到FV-O阻燃等级。%Low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene were used as basic materials, ammonium polyphosphate and diantimony trioxide were added into them as fire-retardant agent content to prepare fire-retardant sys- tem. The molding technological parameters and fire-retardant performance of the fire-retardant systems were tested. The results showed that with increase of fire-retardant agent content, the rotational speed of main screws needed de- creases gradually and the pulling speed decreases accordingly; small change of the rotational speed of main screw cau- ses the pressure of die increases sharply, and the real extrusion temperature increases accordingly; when the fire-re- tardant addition dosage is 40% the fire-retardant level can reach FV-O.

  7. 基于涂层结构的阻燃纤维织物设计与性能测试%Design and P erformance Test of Fire Retardant Curtain Fabric Based on Coating Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆浩杰; 陈洋洋; 徐彩娣

    2015-01-01

    以上浆的方式对长丝进行聚氯乙烯( PVC)涂层处理,可制得一种环境友好型新型阻燃纤维。以这种新型阻燃纤维为原料,设计开发单层、双层、三层组织结构的阻燃窗帘织物并对其进行阻燃性能的测试,实验结果表明,采用这种阻燃纤维织成的窗帘织物具有良好的阻燃性能;双层结构的阻燃性能优于单层和三层结构的。%This paper uses a kind of environmentally-friendly fire retardant fiber made by sizing and coating pol-yvinyl chloride ( PVC) . This paper designs and develops the fire retardant curtain fabric respectively with single-, double-, three-layer structures, together with a fire retardant performance test provided. The experimental results show that this kind of curtain fabric made of coating fire retardant fibers embraces good flame retardant properties;the flame retardant performance of the double-layers fabric excels that of the single-layer or three-layer structures.

  8. Acute toxicity of three fire-retardant and two fire-suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; McDonald, Susan F.; Summers, Cliff H.; Linder, G.; Krest, S.; Sparling, D.; Little, E.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted with five early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to determine the acute toxicities of five fire-fighting chemical formulations in standardized soft and hard water. Eyed egg, embryo–larvae, swim-up fry, and 60- and 90-d posthatch juveniles were exposed to three fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCG-R, Fire-Trol GTS-R, and Phos-Chek D75-F) and two fire-suppressant foams (Phos-Chek WD-881 and Silv-Ex). Swim-up fry were generally the most sensitive life stage, whereas the eyed-egg was the least sensitive. Toxicity of fire-fighting formulations was greater in hard water than in soft water for all life stages tested with Fire-Trol GTS-R and Silv-Ex and for 90-d-old juveniles tested with Fire-Trol LCG-R. The fire-suppressant foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. The 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) were ranked from the most toxic to the least toxic formulation as follows (ranges are the lowest and highest 96-h LC50 calculated for each formulation): Phos-Chek WD-881 (11–44 mg/L), Silv-Ex (11–78 mg/L), Phos-Chek D75-F (218–>3,600 mg/L), Fire-Trol GTS-R (207–>6,000 mg/L), and Fire-Trol LCG-R (872–>10,000 mg/L). Toxicity values suggest that accidental entry of fire-fighting chemicals into aquatic environments could adversely affect fish populations.

  9. 阻燃粘胶纤维/腈氯纶混纺织物的制备及性能研究%Preparation and characterization of fire retarded viscose fiber/modacrylic fiber blended fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 徐先林; 任元林

    2012-01-01

    A kind of fire retarded woven fabric is prepared with the raw materials of modacrylic fiber and flame resistant viscose fiber with different blending ratios. The fire retardant property and mechanical performance of the fire retarded woven fabric are tested by vertical flammability test, limiting oxygen index (L.01) and universal strength tester. The results show that with the increasing of fire retarded viscose fiber content in the blended fabric, the afterglow time and aflerflame time all shorten, the damage length increases greatly, the LOI values, the longitudinal and horizontal breaking strength and elongation of the blended fabric all decrease, which indicates that the influence of content of the modacrylic fiber on the property of the blended fabric is greater than that of fire retarded viscose fiber.%以阻燃粘胶纤维和腈氯纶为原料,按照不同的混纺比制备了阻燃机织物.采用垂直燃烧法、极限氧指数(LOI)法和强力仪对织物的阻燃性能和力学性能进行测试分析.结果表明:随混纺织物中阻燃粘胶纤维含量的增加,织物的续燃时间和阴燃时间均缩短,而损毁长度大大增加,织物的LOI值下降,织物的经纬向断裂强度及断裂伸长率均下降,说明混纺织物中阻燃腈氯纶含量对混纺织物性能的贡献要大于阻燃粘胶纤维.

  10. 磷氮硼复合阻燃剂处理桉树胶合板的性能评价%Properties of Eucalyptus Plywood Treated with Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Boron Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志林; 胡拉

    2013-01-01

    Three formulations of FR-2 (phosphorus-nitrogen-boron) fire retardants were prepared according to the AWPA P50-2010 standard.The three retardants were then used to treat Eucalyptus veneers for plywood.The effects of the fire retardant treatment on fire performance,bonding strength,and hygroscopicity of the plywood samples were evaluated.The results indicated that both fire retardancy and reduced smoke from the plywood were significantly improved after the fire-retardant treatment.Bonding strength and hygroscopic behavior of the samples after the treatment remained the same.We also found that PNIB-1 fire retardant,composed of Monoammonium phosphate,Diammonium phosphate and Boric acid was the most suitable for Eucalyptus plywood among the three retardants.%依据美国标准AWPA P50-2010配制三种FR-2型阻燃剂,用于桉树单板的浸渍处理,制备阻燃胶合板.试验结果表明:三种阻燃剂处理的胶合板,均表现出较好的阻燃和抑烟效果,Ⅱ类胶合强度及吸湿性差异不显著.综合考虑各项性能,由磷酸二氢铵、磷酸氢二铵及硼酸配制的阻燃剂,较适用于桉树胶合板的阻燃处理.

  11. Preparation of one-component halogen-free fire-retardant polyurthane sealant%无卤阻燃单组分聚氨酯密封胶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕锋; 韩胜利; 唐礼道; 赵洪涛

    2011-01-01

    The effects of DPK and ATH on fire-retardant performance and storage stability of the one-component halogen-free fire-retardant polyurthane sealants were studied.The investigation shows that the best fire-retardant performance is achieved when the ratio of the fire-retardant plasticizer DPK to binder is near 0.8 and the ATH content is 35%.The product sealant exhibits improved fire retardance and storage stability performance:flammability classe S4;smokedevelopment class SR2;fractional Effective Dose FED(tzui = 15min)=0.137 < 1 according to rail vehicle material fire protection test standard DIN 5510-2.The storage life of the sealant is over 6 months.%研究了磷酸二苯甲苯酯( DPK)和氢氧化铝(ATH),时单组分聚氨酯密封胶阻燃性能和稳定性的影响,介绍了阻燃性能的测试方法 结果表明,DPK与并氰酸酯预聚物质量比为0.8:1、ATH质量分数为35%时,密封胶的阻燃性最好,贮存期最长.按照德国轨道车辆防火测试标准(DIN 5510-2)测试:阻燃级别为S4级;烟的发展等级为SR2;毒性FED(tZUI=15min)=0.137<1.密封胶的贮存期能达到半年以上.

  12. 钢结构建筑防火涂料施工及其参数优化%Construction of Steel Building Fire Retardant Coating and Its Parameter Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑾

    2015-01-01

    In this stage, the main fire retardant way of the steel building is fire retardant coating, but in the construction process, due to the unclear technology and improper construction, the actual fire retardant effect of fire retardant coating is uneven. Therefore, this paper explores the main problems in the construction process of fire retardant coating of steel building and the specific parameters required, and proposes the optimization measures. The author hopes this paper can provide necessary theoretical basis and practical guidance for the future construction and process-related system.%现阶段,针对钢结构建筑防火的方式多以防火涂料为主,而在施工的过程中由于工艺的不明确、施工的不规范等问题造成了其在实际的防火效果中表现的参差不齐。因此,本文以钢结构建筑防火涂料施工为切入点,探究其中存在的主要问题与具体的参数要求,并结合施工现状提出可行的优化对策。希望通过本文的有你就能够为今后的相关施工以及工艺体系建设提供必要的理论基础与实践指导。

  13. Study of intumescent fire retardant varnish based on amino resin etherified by pentaerythritol%季戊四醇醚化氨基树脂为基材的膨胀型防火清漆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志领; 李晓英; 丁春月

    2013-01-01

    采用季戊四醇代替部分正丁醇做醚化剂制得氨基树脂,与酸式磷酸酯树脂固化剂(PRA)复配,制得一种双组分水性膨胀型防火清漆.采用大板燃烧法和热分析法考察了漆膜的阻燃性能和阻燃机理.分析结果表明:适量的引入季戊四醇可使漆膜的膨胀度和剩炭率提高,炭层的致密度和高温抗氧化性得到改善,且热降解产物燃烧放热量减少,从而提高了漆膜阻挡火焰侵蚀底材的能力.季戊四醇的引入也提高了氨基树脂储存稳定性,但不利于漆膜的耐水性.%A two-pack intumescent fire retardant varnish was composed of the phosphate resin acid (PRA) and melamine urea formaldehyde resin (MUF) in which n-butyl alcohol that was used as etherif-ying agent was replaced by pentaerythritol partly.The flame retardancy and flame retardant mechanism of painted film were investigated from big panel method and thermal analysis.The results showed that the char yield and dilatation of painted film were enhanced; compactness and high temperature anti-oxidation of char layer were improved; and the combustion heats of the thermodegradation products were decreased.It showed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of pentaerythritol were advantage for flame retardancy of painted film.Meanwhile, the introduction of pentaerythritol improved the storability of MUF, but it was disadvantageous for the water.

  14. 热重分析仪在评定饰面型防火涂料防火性能中的应用%The Application of Thermogravimetric Analyzer in the Evaluation of Fire Resistance of Decorative Fire Retardant Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马腾洲; 陈俊水; 赵雨薇

    2015-01-01

    采用热重分析仪研究了不同类型饰面防火涂料的防火性能.试验结果表明:该方法同国标检测方法结果一致,是评定饰面型防火涂料防火性能的快速初筛方法.%The fire resistance of different types of decorative fire retardant coatings was studied by the TGA. The results showed that the test resutl from this method was consistent with that from national standard. It was a quick screening method for evaluating the fire resistance of decorative fire retardant coatings.

  15. Impact of a long-term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Ca, Mg, and K from a Mediterranean forest loamy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Koufopoulou, Sofia; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2016-03-01

    The present laboratory study was conducted in pot soil taken from forest. The leaching of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) (plant macronutrients) due to the application of a nitrogen phosphate-based long-term fire retardant (LTFR) (Fire Trol 931) was investigated. The concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine tree alone and in combination with fire. Magnesium is a minor component of Fire Trol 931. The leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from treated soils with the retardant pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Mg(2+) was found to be of small percentage of the initially applied Mg quantities. Fire Trol 931 application resulted in the leaching of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) from a typical Mediterranean forest soil in pots, following the application of simulated annual precipitation probably due to ammonium (one of the major retardant components) soil deposition that mobilizes base cations from the soil. It seems that LTFR application may result in chemical leaching from the soil to the drainage water.

  16. The Effect of Fire Retardants on the Flammability, Mechanical Properties, and Wettability of Co-Extruded PP-Based Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Turku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fire retardants (FRs such as aluminum trihydroxide (ATH, zinc borate (ZB, melamine, graphite, and titanium oxide (TiO2 were loaded into the shell layer of a co-extruded polypropylene (PP-based wood-plastic composite (WPC. The incorporated retardants reduced the peak of the heat release rate by 8 to 22%, depending on the type of FR. Other studied parameters, such as ignition time and mass loss rate, were improved after the FR loading. The total heat release decreased slightly (except for the graphite-WPC. The effective heat of combustion was independent of the presence of the FR or, in the case of graphite, slightly increased. Carbon monoxide production increased (ZB, graphite or was not changed significantly (ATH, melamine, and TiO2. It was also observed that the tensile strength improved after the FR loading; however, the tensile modulus decreased, except for the graphite-WPC. The impact strength improved or was independent of the FR loading, as in the case of the sample with ATH. The wettability of the composites decreased with filler loading, except for ZB, which showed the highest water absorption value among the studied composites.

  17. 填料对膨胀型钢结构防火涂料防火性能的影响%Filler Influences on the Fire Retardance of Intumescent Coatings for Steel structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To treat Fe2O3 surface with coupling agent, the modified performance is tested through infrared spectrum analysis and dispersion test etc.. Comparison tests are made towards Fe2O3 modification and consumption with the fire retardance influences to achieve the best coatings performance. The results show the modification towards Fe2O3 will improve its dispersion and cohesion performances, simultaneously, the fire retardance capability is greatly improved especially when the consumption is 6% the fire retardance is best.%采用偶联剂对Fe2O3进行表面改性处理,改性后的Fe2O3作为无机填料加入防火涂料较未改性前防火性能有显著提高,通过红外光谱分析。分散性试验等证明其改性效果,并对Fe2O3的改性及用量情况对防火性能的影响程度进行对比分析试验,得到防火涂料的最佳工艺条件

  18. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns.

  19. The Development of Sustainable Fire Retardant Materials%可持续性阻燃材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Richard Hull

    2016-01-01

    在过去的40年,难燃的合成聚合物对“无卤阻燃”的要求已经从抑燃变为降低烟和毒性。在未来十年,对具有可持续性的阻燃材料将有一定需求。满足可持续发展的要求是一项复杂的挑战,涉及到全面了解产品的生命周期,尤其要注重原材料的选择和报废处理。本文将介绍卤系阻燃剂不曾考量到的问题,并对防火材料的可持续发展要求和产品生命周期的关键领域进行讨论,最后,将介绍一些最近的可持续发展防火材料的实例。%Over the last 40 years the demands for less flammable synthetic polymers have changed from ignition suppres⁃sion to lower smoke and toxicity, to “halogen⁃free”� Over the next decade sustainable fire retarded materials will be re⁃quired� Meeting all the requirements for sustainability is a complex challenge, requiring a full understanding of the product�s life cycle, with particular emphasis on raw materials selection and end⁃of⁃life processing� A brief description of the unex⁃pected problems of halogenated flame retardants is presented� This is followed by a discussion on the sustainability require⁃ments of fire safe materials, and the critical areas of the product�s life cycle� Finally, some recent examples of sustainable developments of fire safe materials are presented.

  20. 弹药木包装箱阻燃处理的研究%Study on Fire Retarding Treatment of Ammunition Wood Packaging Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑芬; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了目前弹药木包装箱由于材料和结构的特点,在部队仓储、运输等勤务处理和战时使用中存在的燃爆隐患。通过对国内木材阻燃情况的调研,并结合弹药木包装箱特点,利用开发的新型阻燃剂,通过对木材表面刷阻燃剂与不刷阻燃剂2种不同工艺状态下,燃烧时间、质量损失率2项指标的对比试验,表明经过阻燃处理的弹药木包装箱,其阻燃防火性能效果明显,可借鉴参考,指导生产。%The hidden dangers exist in current ammunition wood packaging box were introduced, which were burning and explosion, during army service such as storage, transportation and usage in war because of its materials and structures" characters. By means of survey and study into domestic wood fire-prevention condition and considering the character of ammunition wood packing box, a comparative test was carried out to find the difference in burning time and the rate of mass loss between the two kinds of wood materials, one's surface painted with the newly-developed fire retardant and the other without. The result showed that the ammunition wood packaging box treated by fire-prevention has excellent fire-prevention effect. The purpose was .to provide reference for production.

  1. Use of Modified Ammonium Polyphosphate in Indoor Water-borne Ultra-thin Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structure%改性聚磷酸铵在室内水性超薄型钢结构防火涂料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁鑫; 郭岳峰

    2012-01-01

    With styrene-acrylic emulsion as film former, superfine ammonium polyphosphate(APP), pentacrythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL) as fire retardants we have prepared water-borne fire-retardant coatings. Based on single-factor experiment. the influence of different dispersing agent and fire retardants on water-resistance of the fire retardant coatings is studied. The physicochemical and fire retardant properties are tested according to the standard GB14907-2002. The data of physicochemical properties reaches or exceeds the requirements of national standards; water resistance time is 48 h and the fire resistant time is 80 min .%以苯丙乳液为成膜物质,加入改性超细聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)和三聚氰胺(MEL),制备了超薄钢结构防火涂料。采用单因素水平试验,考察了不同分散剂及阻燃剂对钢结构防火涂料防水性能的影响,依据GB14907-2002测试了涂料的理化性能和防火性能。涂料的各项理化性能指标均已达到或超过国家标准,耐水时间48 h,耐火时间达到80 min。

  2. PE基木塑复合材料的阻燃研究%Study on the Fire-Retardant Properties of PE/Wood Powder Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会平; 何慧; 赵小科; 贾德民

    2012-01-01

    Fire retardant ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and FR synergist zinc borate(ZB) and kieselguhr were applied to prepare flame retarding wood-plastic composites. The burning behavior was studied through horizontal-vertical burning and limiting oxygen index (LOI). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to measure the thermal stability and the mechanical properties of the composites were tested statically. The results showed that APP enhanced the thermal stability of the composites significantly. When the APP content was 20 phr, the UL94 was V-0 rating, while the mechanical properties didn't change obviously. The synergistic effect of ZB and kieselguhr was not sharp, which indicated that the flame retardancy laws of them in wood-plastic composites were different from that in plastic. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the carbon layer of specimen of 2 phr kieselguhr was continuously denser and insulated heat and oxgen effectively.%采用无卤阻燃剂聚磷酸铵(APP)以及阻燃协效剂硼酸锌(zB)、硅藻土,制备具有良好阻燃性能的木塑复合材料。结果表明:APP在改善木塑复合材料阻燃性能的同时,可提高材料的热稳定性,当其用量为20份时,复合材料垂直燃烧达到UL94V-0级,此时,体系的力学性能变化不大;ZB、硅藻土对木塑复合材料的协效阻燃规律不同于对塑料的阻燃规律,添加2份硅藻土的阻燃体系形成的炭层最致密,可有效地隔热隔氧。

  3. 现代钢结构消防工程中防火涂料的应用%The Application of Fire Retardant Coating in Modern Steel Structure Fire Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平

    2014-01-01

    In the modern steel structure fire protection eng-ineering, the application of fire retardant coating is very important, which largely determines its construction quality and building structure. This article mainly analyzes the exis-ting problems in the application of modern steel structure fire retardant coating and put forward the corresponding measures, in order to promote the safety coefficient of architectural str-ucture.%现代钢结构消防工程中,防火涂料的应用极为重要,它在很大程度上决定了其施工质量和建筑结构。本文主要对现代钢结构防火涂料应用中存在的问题进行了分析,并就此提出了相应的应用措施。旨在推广防火涂料的应用,并提升建筑结构的安全系数。

  4. 氮磷硼阻燃剂处理杨木的工艺及阻燃性能评价%Fire Resistance of Poplar Samples Treated with Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Boron Fire Retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘景; 吴赵旭; 王风玫; 母军

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop the optimized fire retarding treatment process,the authors used nitrogen-phosphorus-boron fire retardant to treat poplar with different impregnation methods.Fire resistances of samples were evaluated through the limiting oxygen index (LOI),drug loading,impregnation depth,heat release rate,and total heat release.Results showed that the optimized process was microwave heating samples for 2 minutes,impregnating the samples under ultrasonic waves for 30 minutes under a temperature of 40 ℃.Under the same treatment,fire resistance of sapwood samples was slightly better than that of heartwood samples.%为了探索杨木阻燃处理工艺对其阻燃效果的影响,采用氮磷硼系阻燃剂,进行了4种杨木浸渍处理工艺试验,并检测其氧指数、载药量、浸渍深度、释热速率和释热总量等指标.结果表明:采用微波和超声波联合浸渍工艺处理杨木的阻燃性能较优;就木材自身而言,边材的阻燃性能略优于心材.

  5. Research on the Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of the Extruded Polystyrene and Fire Retardant Extruded Polystyrene in Air Environment%非阻燃型和阻燃型XPS在空气中的热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍孝永; 陈春晓; 徐强; 绪广东

    2013-01-01

    The thermal degradation properties of two extruded polystyrene temperature holding materials were investigated using TG-DSC-MS-IR simultaneous analysis method. The research showed that the additive in the fire retardant XPS can extend the time in reaching the maximum heat release rate, reduce the variety and amounts of the products, and improve the activation energy of the reaction. Though residual fire retardant materials reacted and gave off heat after 491 ℃.%运用热重-差热-红外-质谱(TG-DSC-IR-MS)联用技术对非阻燃型和阻燃型挤出聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料(XPS)保温材料在空气中的热解特性进行研究.结果表明,阻燃添加剂延长了阻燃型XPS到达最大热释放速率所需要的时间,减少了热解产物的种类和数量,以及提高了反应的活化能;而且,材料中残留的阻燃剂在491℃以后会继续热解并放出热量.

  6. Preparation and Application of a P-containing Polyglycerol Ester Fire-retardant Plasticizer%含磷型聚合甘油脂肪酸酯阻燃增塑剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国东; 胡云; 周永红; 刘朋; 马艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the flame retardancy of oil plasticizer and develop high value-added products using crude glycerin from by-product of diesel oil as starting materials, a novel P-containing soybean-oil-based fire-retardant plasticizer ( DOPO-EAPFAE) was synthesized using crude glycerin,oleic acid and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide ( DOPO) as raw material through polymerization,esterification,epoxidation and ring opening reaction. The structure was verified by Fourier transform infrared ( FT-IR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric behavior and flame retardant properties were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis,oxygen index test and vertical burning test. When the amount 60% of phthalic acid dioctyl ester ( DOP) was replaced by DOPO-EAPFAE in PVC blends,PVC blends still has good mechanical properties. The limiting oxygen index ( LOI) of the blends increased from 21. 3 to 28. 7,and flame retardant level reached V0 grade. This indicated that the product can effectively improve the flame retardancy of PVC blends. The plasticity and flammability of DOPO-EAPFAE was better than tris(chlorisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP). Comparing to small molecular flame retardant tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate( TCPP) ,flame retardant of DOPO-EAPFAE was not only superior to TCPP,but also exhibited better thermal stability.%为了提高油脂增塑剂的阻燃性,开发以生物柴油副产粗甘油为直接原料的高附加值产品,以粗甘油、油酸和9,10-二氢-9-氧杂-10-磷杂菲-10-氧化物(DOPO)为主原料,经聚合、酯化、环氧化和开环反应,合成含磷型大分子阻燃增塑剂DOPO-环氧乙酰化聚合甘油脂肪酸酯( DOPO-EAPFAE),并通过红外谱图( FT-IR)和核磁共振(1H NMR)确认了其结构。研究了DOPO-EAPFAE用量对聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系力学性能的影响;通过对PVC样条的热重分析( TG)、极限氧指数( LOI)测定和垂直燃烧测试等,分析了PVC制品的

  7. Preparation and performance of antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating for steel structure%抗静电超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延茂; 倪春华; 郭叶书; 姚社春; 李胜帅

    2012-01-01

    The steel structure can be protected by ultra-thin fire retardant coating (UFRC),due to the fire insulation of the protection layer formed during the combustion. In this article, the antistatic ultra-thin fire retardant coating (AUFRC) for steel structure was prepared with acrylic resin and amino resin as resin matrix, ammonium polyphosphate (APP),pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL) as flame retardant (IFR) system and aluminium hydroxide (AH) as synergists. The AUFRC and its ignitionresidue were tested by FTIR and XRD. The flame retardant mechanism was studied. The results show that the AUFRC exhibits good fire retarding properties and excellent antistatic performance,when prepared with 80 portions resin matrix (acrylic resin:amino resin=1:2,wt:wt), 25 portions APP, 10 portions MEL and 5 portions AH.%超薄(CB)型钢结构膨胀防火涂料(UFRC)在燃烧过程中可形成耐火隔热保护层,提高钢结构耐火极限。选用氨基树脂、改性丙烯酸树脂为基体树脂,以多聚磷酸铵(APP)、季戊四醇(PER)、三聚氰胺(MEL)为膨胀阻燃体系,以氢氧化铝(AH)为协效剂,制备了抗静电膨胀型防火涂料(AUFRC)。用红外(FTIR)、XRD等方法对防火涂料及其燃烧残渣进行了分析,初步探讨了阻燃机理。当基体树脂(wt(氨基树脂)∶wt(丙烯酸树脂)=1∶2)为80份,APP为25份,PER为15份,MEL为10份,AH为5份时,制备的防火涂料阻燃、抗静电等综合性能最佳。

  8. Recent Developments in Fire Retardation and Fire Protection of Fibre-Reinforced Composites%阻燃及防火纤维增强复合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拜耳金德 K 卡多拉; 约翰 R 艾伯顿

    2016-01-01

    Fibre⁃reinforced composite materials in which a polymer matrix, either a thermosetting polymer or a thermo⁃plastic, is reinforced with random or woven fibres to improve flexural and tensile strength, are finding increasing use as light⁃weight, structural materials in applications ranging from domestic to transport. Most of these applications require the materials to be fire retardant, but flammability is an important issue with many thermosetting matrix resins and thermoplas⁃tic matrix materials, and some reinforcing fibre. The fire retardance of fibre⁃reinforced composite laminates may be signifi⁃cantly improved via a number of strategies, such as incorporating fire retardants in the matrix resin, both with and without the addition of a further char⁃forming component and/or char promoting additive. A more elegant solution is provided by applying a fire⁃retardant surface coating to the composite or a surface fire⁃protective layer. This article reviews recent work on fire retardation and fire protection of fibre⁃reinforced composites carried out in the laboratories of the Fire Materials Group at University of Bolton. This work has concentrated mainly on the effects of fire⁃retardant additives and coatings on the fire performance of unsaturated polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resin composites reinforced with glass fibres.%聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料,热固性聚合物或热塑性聚合物基体,可通过随机或者编织的纤维来提高其弯曲和抗拉强度,此类复合材料作为轻量级、结构材料正越来越多地被应用于民用和交通运输等领域,该应用领域绝大部分要求材料应该具有防火性能。但大多数热固性聚合物、热塑性聚合物及一些增强纤维存在耐燃性差的问题。聚合物基的纤维增强复合材料的防火性能可以通过一系列方法进行提高,比如向聚合物基体添加含有促成炭组分等各类阻燃剂,但是最简洁有效的

  9. 锥形量热仪在饰面型防火涂料防火性能研究中的应用%Application of Cone Calorimeter in the Study of Combustion Properties on Finishing Fire Retardant Paint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小波; 王继刚; 刘白玲

    2011-01-01

    用锥形量热仪的方法研究了不同阻燃剂含量的饰面型防火涂料点燃时间、热释放速率、有效释放热及总烟气释放量等项目,结果表明:随着阻燃剂含量的增加,热释放速率、有效释放热等参数随之降低;此外,在市面上选取3种饰面型防火涂料,用大板法和锥形量热仪法进行了研究,结果表明:随着耐火极限的延长,有效释放热、热释放速率等参数数值明显减小,同理论分析一致.%Various, finishing fire retardant coatings with different content of flame retardant agent were examined with cone calorimeter according to the standard of ISO 5660:1-2002. The results indicated that the flame retardant agent could play an important role in delaying TTI and TSP, the items such as HRR, THR, EHC also decreased with the increase of the content of flame retardant agent. In addition, three kinds of finishing fire retardant coatings with obvious difference in duration of fire resistance were tested by cone calorimeter and big panel method according to GB 12441-2005. The results showed that the thickness and density of carbon layer increased with the increase of duration of fire resistance, but the parameters such as HRR, EHC decreased with the increase of duration of fire resistance, which agreed well with the theoretical analysis.

  10. The Compilation of Anhui Provincial Standards "Construction Acceptance Standard for Tunnel Fire Retardant Coatings"%安徽省地方标准《隧道防火涂料施工验收标准》的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆阿涛

    2012-01-01

    The compilation background,main contents,compilaton principles and innovation content of Anhui Provincial Standards"Construction Acceptance Standard for Tunnel Fire Retardant Coatings"were introduced.%介绍了安徽省地方标准《隧道防火涂料施工验收标准》的编制背景、主要内容、编制原则、创新性内容等。

  11. Discussion on the Preparation and Flame-retardant Mechanism of Ultra-thin Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structure%超薄型钢结构防火涂料的研制及其阻燃机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔定伟; 张鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    Using bromine carbon styrene-acrylic emulsion as binder and additives includi ng ammonium polyphosphate, melamine and pentaerythritol, we have prepared ultra-thin fire-retardant coatings for steel structure, solving the problem of short fire- retardant efficiency. This paper discusses the flame retarding mechanism of the binder; showing that every technical indicator of the coatings can meet or exceed the requirement of the standard "Fire-retardant Coatings for Steel Structures - General Technical Conditions".%以溴碳苯丙乳液勾基料,配以聚磷酸铵、三聚氰胺、季戊四醇等助剂,配制了超薄型钢结构防火涂料;解决了现有钢结构防火涂料阻燃时效短的弊端,并对基料的阻燃机理进行了简单的探讨。自制超薄型钢结构防火涂料的各项技术指标均达到或超过了《钢结构防火涂料通用技术条件》中规定的指标。

  12. Effect of Fire Retardant Coating on the Insulation Failure of XLPE Insulated Cable in Fire Condition%防火涂料对交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆受热时绝缘失效的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霁

    2011-01-01

    The insulation failure time and temperature of XLPE insulated cable coated with various thickness of fire retardant coating or wrapped by the metal tube with various thickness of fire retardant coating were studied by using infrared radiation heating furnace and insulation resistance measurement system, and based on simulated ISO 834 standard fire condition. The results show that the insulation failure time is proportional to the coating thickness under the two protective ways. The protective effect on the cable wrapped by the metal tube with fire retardant coating is more remarkable.%利用红外辐射加热炉及绝缘电阻测量系统,模拟ISO 834火灾条件,研究了交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆在涂敷不同厚度防火涂料和穿上涂有不同厚度钢结构防火涂料金属管两种保护方式下,绝缘电阻的失效时间及温度.结果表明:在两种保护方式下,交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆的绝缘失效时间与涂层厚度成正比;与直接涂敷电缆防火涂料相比,穿上涂有防火涂料的金属管对交联聚乙烯绝缘电缆的保护效果更明显.

  13. Fire Retardancy and Thermal Conductivity Properties of PP/GNPs Nano-Platelets Composites%聚丙烯/石墨烯片纳米复合材料阻燃及导热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦刘洋; 刘定福; 梁基照

    2016-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) composites were prepared via melt blending. The effects of different GNPs mass fractions on the fire retardancy and thermal conductivity of the composites were discussed. The results show that the oxygen index increase,while the horizontal burning rate decrease,but the smoke density fluctuates but increases overall with the increase of the filler content. As far as specific surface area of GNPs is concerned,the smaller has greater effect on slowing the horizontal burning rate. Samples with different thickness have great influence on the horizontal burning rate. With the increase of filler mass fraction,the specific heat capacity of the composites decrease slightly,and the thermal diffusion coefficient increase obviously. As for specific surface area of GNPs,the larger has more significant influence on the heat dissipation capacity of the sample.%采用熔融共混法制备了聚丙烯(PP)/石墨烯片(GNPs)纳米复合材料。讨论了添加不同质量分数的GNPs对PP/GNPs纳米复合材料的阻燃性能以及导热性能的影响。结果表明,随着GNPs用量的增加,PP/GNPs纳米复合材料的极限氧指数升高,水平燃烧速率下降,烟密度等级虽有波动但总体呈升高趋势;与比表面积大的GNPs相比,比表面积小的对减缓水平燃烧速率作用较好;不同厚度的试样对水平燃烧速率的影响差异很大;随着GNPs质量分数的增加,复合材料的比热容有所降低,热扩散系数明显增加;与比表面积小的GNPs相比,比表面积大的对复合材料散热能力影响更显著。

  14. Investigation on Fire Retardant and Heat Insulation Performance of Sawdust/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA Composite%木屑/Mg(OH)2/PMMA复合材料阻燃隔热性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁新强; 张伟; 艾桃桃

    2013-01-01

    PMMA composite materials with the sawdust and Mg(OH) 2 as fillers were not only with low cost,but also with flame retardant and heat insulation and can be widely used in the construction,decoration industry.PMMA composite materials were prepared with sawdust (80 ~ 120mesh) as functional filler,Mg (OH) 2 as fire retardant,waste PMMA powder (200 ~ 400 mesh) as substrate,MMA as the monomer and solvent,BPO as initiator and gradient temperature bulk polymerization process.Its microstructure was tested by the JCM-5000 desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM).The combustion performance and heat insulation performance were studied.The study found that the flame retardant level of sawdust/Mg (OH) 2/PMMA composite was HB when addition amount of Mg (OH)2 was 35 phr.The heat insulation effect of sawdust/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA composite was very good when addition amount of sawdust was 40 phr and the heat insulation temperature difference was about 36 ℃.%利用木屑和Mg(OH)2制备聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)复合材料,不仅成本低,而且具有阻燃隔热功能,可广泛应用在建筑、家装行业.以80~ 120目木屑为功能填料、Mg(OH)2为阻燃剂、200~400目废透明有机玻璃粉末为基体,MMA为聚合单体兼溶剂、BPO为引发剂,由梯度温度本体聚合工艺制备复合材料,采用扫描电子显微镜测试其微观形貌,研究了复合材料的燃烧性能和隔热性能.研究发现,木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA复合材料中Mg(OH)2加入量为35 phr时,阻燃级别为HB级.木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA复合材料的隔热效果好,木屑/Mg(OH) 2/PMMA中Mg(OH)2的加入量为35 phr,木屑的加入量为40 phr时,隔热温差约为36℃.

  15. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  16. 表面设置防火涂料的压型钢板混凝土组合楼板耐火性能有限元分析%The Finite Element Analysis of the Pressed Steel Concrete Composite Floor Slab Fire Performance by Setting the Fire Retardant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段静; 麦志亨; 欧俊宏

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at the completed fire test of pr-essed steel concrete composite floor slab and uses the finite element analysis software ABQUAS to discuss the new set fire retardant coating thickness under the ISO834 standard heating environment, and analyzes the internal temperature field distri-bution influence of pressed steel concrete composite floor slab.%本文针对已完成明火试验的压型钢板混凝土组合楼板,利用ABQUAS 有限元分析软件,探讨了ISO834标准升温环境下新型防火涂料设置厚度,对压型钢板混凝土组合楼板的内部温度场分布的影响做了分析。

  17. 芳基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备技术%Preparation Technology of Polymer Fire Retardant Materials Under Action of Aromatic Boric Acid Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭瑶

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of polymer materials with high polymer materials under the action of boric acid polymerization was proposed. First memory aryl boric acid polymer molecular characteristics analysis, polymer of fire resistance and flame retardant characteristics analysis, experiment, hafnium chloride (I. g, 4.0 mmol) and APTES (AR) AIDRICH- thiol acrylate (1.32 g, 8.0 mmol) was dissolved in DMF, aryl boric acid polymer nanometer TiO2 powder (30%) with Tween-208- crown 6 content increased with increasing. Under temperature programmed synthesized screw [4,4]-1,6- Ren dimethyl- 3- phenyl propylene, high pressure dense phase processing, in the hyperbaric chamber with 10 DEG C- min-1 speed heated from room temperature to 240 DEG C, join for thermionic coating and improve the fireproof material of thermal stability, chemical stability and mechanical stability in the expansion and contraction of the state, the completion of aryl boric acid polymerization under the action of macromolecule fire-proof material preparation. The experimental results show that the method has good thermal stability, high heat absorption peak and flame retardant layer with high thermal stability, high temperature resistance and fire resistance.%提出采用基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备技术.首先根据芳基硼酸聚合物的分子特性分析,进行聚合物的防火性和阻燃性特征分析,实验中,将氯化铪(1.281 g,4.0 mmol)和APTES(AR AIDRICH)3-巯丙(1.32 g,8.0 mmol)溶于DMF中,芳基硼酸聚合物TiO2纳米粉体(30%))随着Tween-208-冠-6含量的增加而增加.在程序控温下,合成了螺[4,4]-1,6-壬二甲基-3-苯基丙烯,进行高压密相处理,在高压舱中以10℃·min-1的速度从室温加热到240℃,加入换热离子涂层,在热胀冷缩状态下提高防火材料的热稳定性、化学稳定性和力学稳定性,完成芳基硼酸聚合作用下高分子防火材料制备.实验结果表明,采用该方法制

  18. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data are...

  19. Fire Retardant Coatings for Military Equipment - A Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Intumescent Reaction Mechanisms, (1985), J. Fire Sci. 3, (3), 161. 52. Interam. 3M Co. St Paul , Minn. cited in Product Engineering, Feb. 1976. p 37...53. Sawko , P.M. & Riccitiello, S.R. (1977). Intumescent Coatings Based on 4,4’- Dinitrosulfanilide, J. Coat. Tech. 49, No 624, 49. 54. Cook, J. (1987...Fohlen, G.M., Sawko , P.M. and Griffin Jr., R.N. (1968). The Use of a Salt of p-Nitroaniline as a Component for Intumescent Coatings, SAMPE J. 4, 5. 56

  20. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Textile Fiber Products Indentification Act, 15 U.S.C. section 70, et seq., and the rules and... otherwise market or handle any carpet or rug or small carpet or rug, including samples, swatches, or...

  1. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each label and/or invoice relating thereto pursuant to the requirements of the Textile Fiber Products... Flammable Fabrics Act shall manufacture, import, distribute, or otherwise market or handle any carpet or rug...

  2. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... proposed action. DATES: Comments concerning the scope of the analysis must be received by October 12, 2010... or to preserve natural resources and critical habitat for threatened and endangered species. Fire... District of Montana issued a decision in Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics v. United...

  3. Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Branda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR, Total Heat Release (THR, Total Smoke Release (TSR and Specific Extinction Area (SEA (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44% as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites.

  4. Fire retardancy and environmental assessment of rubbery blends of recycled polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame retarded thermoplastic polymer compounds were prepared containing recycled rubber tyres, low density polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and an intumescent additive system consisting of waste polyurethane foam and ammonium polyphosphate. The effect of the additives on the combustion properties was characterised by Limiting Oxygen Index, UL 94 and mass loss calorimetric measurements. The environmental impact was estimated by determining the gas components of CO2 and CO evolving from the compounds during the burning process using a gas analyser system constructed by coupling an FTIR unit to a mass loss calorimeter. The new material forms a thermoplastic rubber of excellent processability making it suitable for application in construction industry.

  5. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  6. 新型阻燃环氧树脂%New Type Fire Retarding Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪令顺

    2003-01-01

    文章叙述的是将双环笼状磷酸酯PEPA用于阻燃双酚A缩水甘油醚型环氧树脂(DGEBA),得到分子骨架中含有双环笼状磷酸酯结构单元的无卤膨胀型阻燃体系.实验表明,此膨胀阻燃体系热稳定性和膨胀成炭性能良好,对于环氧树脂的燃烧和火焰的蔓延能有效地抑制,且PEPA对于DGEBA具有固化、阻燃和抑烟三重作用.

  7. The structure-activity relationship of fire retardant phosphorus compounds in wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, R.S.A.; Es, van D.S.; Bezemer, R.C.; Kranenbarg, A.

    2006-01-01

    Sawdust of Scots Pine sapwood was chemically modified with various alkyl- and phenylchlorophosphorus compounds. The formation of covalent bonds was confirmed with solid state CP-MAS 13C NMR. According to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), all phosphorus compounds decreased the temperature for the max

  8. Calculation of Limits of Fire Resistance for Structures with Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtcov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to fireproof processing of steel structures. The main task is to consider different types of sections of rod elements and to choose the most effective section for a steel column from the point of view of fire protection. For the solution of this task the steel columns with various cross sections working in identical entry conditions were considered. All necessary calculations for all types of sections were carried out. Results of calculations were presented in the summary table according to which the comparative analysis was made. At the end of work the conclusion that the compound section from four equal corners is the most effective from the point of view of fire protection.

  9. Cone calorimeter study of polyethylene flame retarded with expandable graphite and intumescent fire-retardant additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, HR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available of expandable graphite, also differing with respect to their onset temperatures for exfoliation. Hot-pressed sheet specimens were subjected to evaluation in a cone calorimeter. Although the best char yields were obtained with formulations containing the higher...

  10. EFFECT OF VARIOUS FIRE RETARDANTS ON BRINELL HARDNESS OF SOME WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Kurt

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the impact of impregnation materials on the Brinell hardness of varnished wood materials. For this purpose, test specimens prepared from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, which met the requirements of ASTM D 358, were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-07 with borax, boric acid, zinc chloride, and di-ammonium phosphate by a vacuum technique. After impregnation, the surfaces were coated by cellulosic, synthetic, and polyurethane varnishes in accordance with ASTM D 3023. The Brinell hardness of the specimens after the varnishing process was determined in accordance with ASTM D 4366. According to the result of the tests, the highest Brinell hardness (135.40 kpm/m² was determined in oriental beech samples, cut tangentially, impregnated with di- ammonium phosphate, and varnished with polyurethane. The lowest Brinell hardness (23.20 kpm/m² was determined in Scotch pine control samples, cut radially and synthetically varnished.

  11. A New Epoxy Bis-Phosphonate Crosslinker for Durable Fire Retardancy on Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new epoxy bis-phosphonate crosslinker for cotton [2-(dimethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)-oxiranylmethyl]-phosphonic acid dimethyl ester was prepared in two steps from 3-chloro-2-chloromethylpropene in 55% yield. The new monomer was characterized by proton and carbon NMR and GC-mass spectrometry. This cro...

  12. Soybean oil based copolymers containing silicon, boron or phosphorus: polymerization, characterization and fire retardance properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán Benito, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Introducction The sustainable development concept came out of the United Nations Commision on Environment and Development in 1987 (Bruntland Commission) and it is defined as "the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". From this point, both the society and the industry have considered what a sustainable development really means and the best ways to start to achieve it from their own standpoints. The princ...

  13. Non-Flammable Crew Clothing Utilizing Phosphorus-Based Fire Retardant Polymers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For maintaining U.S. leadership role in space exploration, there is an urgent need to develop non-flammable shirts, shorts, sweaters, and jackets without...

  14. Nonflammable Crew Clothing Utilizing Phosphorus-Based Fire-Retardant Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For maintaining U.S. leadership in space exploration, there is an urgent need to develop nonflammable crew clothing with the requirements of comfort, ease of...

  15. STUDY ON FIRE-RETARDATION MECHANISM OF FIRE RETARDANT FRW BY THERMOANALYSIS%用热分析法研究木材阻燃剂FRW的阻燃机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清文; 李坚

    2004-01-01

    采用热重(TG)、微商热重(DTG)和差热(DTA)分析法,对木材阻燃剂FRW及其主要组分硼酸和磷酸脒基脲(GUP)、硼酸处理紫椴木材(BZ)、GUP处理紫椴木材(GZ)、FRW处理紫椴木材(FZ)以及未处理紫椴木材(UZ)进行了系统的热解行为研究.TG和DTG分析结果表明,当FRW受热达到分解温度时,其组分的热分解是独立的:硼酸在95和160℃依次分解为偏硼酸和三氧化二硼,GUP在180、285和385℃依次分解为聚磷酸胍(GPP)、聚磷酸铵(APP)和多聚磷酸(PPA).用阻燃剂FRW及其组分处理的木材,其热解均不同于传统的木材热解模式,其中,BZ在较低的温度下(约165℃)即发生明显的失重,说明硼酸的阻燃机理除了传统理论认为的物理覆盖作用以外尚存在化学催化作用(催化脱水);GUP处理使紫椴木材的最大失重速率出现的温度从375℃(UZ)降到314℃(GZ),同时失重率也显著降低,而成炭率升高;FZ的失重率低于其他处理材.此外,与各种药剂TG曲线之间的相互关系不同,FZ曲线不等于BZ曲线与GZ曲线的简单加和,这3条曲线相互交叉,预示着GUP与硼酸之间存在阻燃协同作用.DTA分析支持了上述结果.此外,BZ的DTA曲线在约425℃产生一个放热峰,说明硼酸的分解产物可能在高温下催化木材热解产物的芳构化.

  16. Study on the combustion behavior of high impact polystyrene nanocomposites produced by different extrusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The combustion behavior of a blend made of high impact polystyrene (HIPS with sodium montmorillonite (MMT-Na+ and triphenyl phosphite (TPP, as a halogen-free flame retardant, is analyzed in detail in this work. The blend is processed through various extrusion methods aimed to improve clay dispersion. The UL94 method in vertical position, oxygen index and cone calorimetric measurements assess HIPS blend behavior in combustion. TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray measurements, together with mechanical and rheological tests evaluate the thermal degradation, morphology, intercalation and degree of dispersion of particles. The use of a static-mixing die placed at the extreme of a single screw extruder improves clay platelets distribution and reduces the peak heat release rate better than employing a twin screw extrusion process. In addition, mechanical and rheological properties are affected substantially by changing the extrusion process. A correlation between clay dispersion and HIPS fire retardant properties is found, as the peak heat release rate decreases with good clay dispersion in cone calorimetric tests.

  17. The effect of 150μm expandable graphite on char expansion of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sami, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com; Shariff, A. M., E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my; Bustam, M. A., E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my [Research Center for Carbon Dioxide Capture, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Techologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia); Ahmad, Faiz, E-mail: faizahmadster@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Techologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Intumescent is defined as the swelling of certain substances to insulate the underlying substrate when they are heated. In this research work the effect of 150μm expandable graphite (EG) was studied on char expansion, char morphology and char composition of intumescent coating formulations (ICFs). To study the expansion and thermal properties of the coating, nine different formulations were prepared. The coatings were tested at 500 °C for one hour and physically were found very stable and well bound with the steel substrate. The morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The char composition was analysed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. EG above than 10.8wt% expands the char abruptly with uniform network structure and affect the outer surface of the char.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF FIRE RETARDANT PLASTIC PELLETS AND HOT MELT ADHESIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small to medium sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the...

  19. Fire-Retardant Polyurethane Foam (PUF)%阻燃聚氨酯泡沫塑料(PUF)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧育湘; 王传广; 徐永江; 高富业

    1996-01-01

    全面汇集和介绍可用于阻燃PUF的27种反应型及添加型阻燃剂的性能及优缺点,讨论了以新型卤代二磷酸酯阻燃剂阻燃的软质聚氨酯泡沫塑料的配方及阻燃性能和机械性能.

  20. Ultralight, highly thermally insulating and fire resistant aerogel by encapsulating cellulose nanofibers with two-dimensional MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Mukhopadhyay, Alolika; Jiao, Yucong; Yong, Qiang; Chen, Liao; Xing, Yingjie; Hamel, Jonathan; Zhu, Hongli

    2017-08-17

    Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds. Thus, in this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were nano-wrapped with ultrathin 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets via chemical crosslinking, to produce an aerogel. Thermal and combustion characterization revealed highly desirable properties (thermal conductivity k = 28.09 mW m(-1) K(-1), insulation R value = 5.2, limit oxygen index (LOI) = 34.7%, total heat release = 0.4 MJ m(-2)). Vertical burning tests also demonstrated excellent fire retardant and self-extinguishing capabilities. Raman spectra further revealed that MoS2 remained unscathed after 30 seconds of burning in a 1300 °C butane flame. Considering the inherently low density of this material, there is significant opportunity for its usage in a number of insulating applications demanding specific fire resistance properties.

  1. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  2. Studies on Flame Retardants on Malaysian Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwaleed Awad Khidir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study to the effect of the utilization of urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant on Malaysian coir fiber was evaluated. Flammability and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA tests were used to evaluate the fire retardancy. Weight loss and percentage of mass residue were used as a measure from the results of flammability and TGA, respectively. The results revealed the effectiveness of using urea and diammonium phosphate as fire retardant for Malaysian coir fiber. However, for the samples treated with retardant high concentration the weight loss is not significant with the time of dipping treatment. This indicates that the just dip application for the fire retardant of higher concentration is sufficient.

  3. Development of Fire Retardant Nitrocellulose Varnish Modified by Urea-Formadehyde%脲醛树脂改性硝基阻燃清漆的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国文; 吴鸣虎; 孙绍发; 黄文平

    2007-01-01

    合成了脲醛树脂 (UF) 和含磷聚氨酯 (PPU) 阻燃剂;探讨了溶剂对涂膜表面性能的影响,并对涂膜硬度、附着力进行了分析测试,对市售阻燃剂和自制阻燃剂的阻燃效果作了对比实验.研究结果表明:脲醛加入量约40%、丁醇用量为8%时涂膜的综合性能较好;在市售阻燃剂中,以磷酸三(β-氯乙基) 酯 (TCEP) 和无机阻燃剂的复合阻燃剂 (9.0%) 阻燃效果最好,但仍不如含PPU阻燃剂的效果好.

  4. 新型磷系阻燃剂阻燃环氧树脂的应用研究%Studies on Novel Phosphorus Fire Retardant Retarded EP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林刚; 杨守生; 黄晓东; 张燕; 董希琳

    2008-01-01

    以新戊二醇、三氯氧磷、1,2,3-三羟基苯为原料合成新型磷系阻燃剂1,2,3-三(5,5-二甲基-1,3-二氧杂己内磷酰氧基)苯(FR),将FR与环氧树脂(EP)熔融混合制备阻燃EP/FR复合材料.采用极限氧指数测试、垂直燃烧实验、热重分析、锥形量热分析、扫描电镜研究了FR对EP的阻燃作用和阻燃机理.结果表明,添加20%FR的EP/FR复合材料的极限氧指数达到27.8%,垂汽燃烧通过UL94 V-0级,热释放速率平均值和生烟量平均值比未阻燃EP分别降低了77.0%和82.8%,扫描电镜分析表明,EP/FR体系燃烧后能形成连续、致密、封闭的焦化炭层.

  5. EPS彩钢夹芯板阻燃关键技术研究%Key Technology Research on EPS Color Steel Sandwich Panel Fire-retardant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛朝君; 卢国建; 葛欣国; 刘松林; 张帆; 林施颖; 刘俊; 易昇; 张少娟

    2012-01-01

    测试了泡沫板、黑白胶及涂覆有黑白胶泡沫板的燃烧性能,发现将B级黑白胶涂覆于B级泡沫板上后,泡沫板的燃烧性能只能达到E级;由B级EPS泡沫板、B级黑白胶和A级彩钢板复合的彩钢夹芯板,燃烧性能并不能达到B级,且陈化对彩钢夹芯板的燃烧性能无明显影响.解释了A钢+B泡+B胶≠B扳的原因,系统地开展了内部结构和连接方式对彩钢夹芯板燃烧性能的影响研究,研制出一种性能稳定的B级EPS彩钢夹芯扳.

  6. 四溴双酚A的合成及其复合阻燃效应%The Synthesis and Composite Fire Retardance of Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莹; 孙汉洲; 谢斌; 胡云楚

    2005-01-01

    研究了以双酚A(BPA)为原料、NaBr-KBrO3作溴化剂合成四溴双酚A(TBA)的工艺条件,并研究了TBA及其与三聚氰胺、磷酰胺-Mg(OH)2复合对PE的阻燃性能.结果表明:TBA的最佳合成工艺为n(BPA)∶n(NaBr)∶n(KBrO3) = 3∶8.8∶4.4,室温反应5.5 h,回流反应2 h,得到淡黄色TBA,产率99.08%,熔点170~174℃;阻燃剂对PE的合适添加量分别为ω(TBA)=15%、ω(TBA-三聚氰胺)=15%、ω[TBA-磷酰胺-Mg(OH)2]=15%.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Thermal Radiation Feedback on the Room Burning Behaviour of Horizontal Blocks of Polyurethane Foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Bwalya, A.C.

    -fire-retarded polyurethane foam measuring 1200 x 600 x 200 mm and weighing approximately 4.8 kg. The room tests were conducted in a small compartment measuring 2400 mm wide x 2800 mm deep x 2400 mm high with a rectangular vent (opening under a calorimeter hood) measuring 740 mm wide x 1500 mm high (a ventilation limit...

  8. Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental substances that were commonly used as fire retardants in a wide number of commercial products. Their low reactivity, high hydrophobicity and bioaccumulative properties cause their ubiquity in the air, water, food and lead to extensi...

  9. Polymeric materials for unusual service conditions; Proceedings of the Conference, Moffett Field, Calif., November 29-December 1, 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M. A. (Editor); Parker, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Polymers for aircraft and spacecraft structures are considered, giving attention to novel foams and porous structures, aircraft nacelle composite structure technology, properties and processing of polyimidazoquinazoline composites, and the processing of organic matrices into structural composites. Other subjects discussed are related to high temperature resins and composites, elastomers for high temperature applications, fire retardant materials, polymers for critical pollution control, and polymers for critical medical use. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  10. 氧浓度对阻燃木材发烟性能的影响%Effects of oxygen concentration on the smoking property of fire-retardant treated wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清文; 张志军; 陈琳; 王奉强

    2006-01-01

    采用可控气氛锥形量热仪,在辐射功率为50 kW·m-2,氧浓度为15%~21%的条件下,对磷酸二氢铵(MAP)阻燃紫椴木材及其素材的燃烧发烟性能进行对比研究.通过对烟释放速率(RSR)、总烟释放量(TSR)、比消光面积(SEA)以及一氧化碳(CO)生成速率(PCO)和CO产率(YCO)等相关动态烟参数的综合分析,总结不同氧浓度下,MAP阻燃紫椴木材及其素材燃烧时的浓烟和有毒气体CO的释放规律.结果表明:对于所有试样,有焰燃烧阶段的浓烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)要远大于红热燃烧阶段.当氧浓度在16%左右时,MAP阻燃木材和素材的烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)相当.在相同的氧浓度下,当氧浓度在16%以上时,MAP阻燃木材燃烧过程中的浓烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)小于素材;而当氧浓度在16%以下时,MAP阻燃木材燃烧过程中的浓烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)反而高于素材.在试验氧浓度范围内,MAP阻燃木材的CO释放(PCO和YCO)要高于素材.随着氧浓度的增加,MAP阻燃木材燃烧过程中的烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)和CO释放(PCO和YCO)均降低;素材燃烧过程中的烟释放(RSR、TSR和SEA)和CO生成速率(PCO)均增加,但CO产率(YCO)降低,前者主要是由于素材燃烧过快而使体系缺氧造成的,而后者主要是由于在单位木材质量损失下热解产物更充分燃烧.总之,随着空气中氧浓度的降低,MAP阻燃木材燃烧时的烟(包括CO)释放均呈增加趋势.

  11. Study on combustibility of different wood and efficiency of fire-retardant treatment%不同木材燃烧性及阻燃处理的效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪锦

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively prevent and control the fire caused by wood materials, it is necessary for us to analyze and study different kinds of woods' burning performance. By using cone calorimeter, various woods' burning performance were tested, the effective heat of combustion in the combustion process, heat release rate and total heat released and other related data were obtained, thus the studies of wood combustion degradation and flame retardant were carried out.%为有效预防和控制木质材料引起的火灾,需对不同木材的燃烧性能加以研究分析.本研究主要利用锥形量热仪对各种木材燃烧性能进行测试,得出了燃烧过程中的有效燃烧热量、热释放速率和总释放的热量等相关有效数据,并以此来进行木材燃烧的降解和阻燃.

  12. 气相SiO2与稻壳SiO2阻燃协效作用研究%Synergistic Effect of Rice Husk Silica and Gas Phase Silica on Fire Retardant System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红; 刘学清; 张远方; 杨志兰

    2015-01-01

    将稻壳SiO2或气相SiO2与含膦阻燃剂甲基环己基次膦酸铝[Al (MHP)]复配,进一步应用到环氧树脂(EP)中.利用UL94垂直燃烧和氧指数(LOI)测试及热重分析,着重研究了SiO2的用量及类型对Al(MHP)/EP复合体系的阻燃协效作用.结果表明,当Al(MHP)和SiO2总质量分数保持20%,添加稻壳SiO2的复合材料具有较好的阻燃性能.而且,两种SiO2的加入对材料的起始热分解温度影响不大,但能降低复合材料的热分解速率并促进成炭.

  13. KY-Fw木材阻燃剂对木材吸湿性和尺寸稳定性的影响%Effects of KY-Fw wood fire-retardant on wood hygroscopicity and dimensional stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂道伍; 徐斌; 邵卓平

    2006-01-01

    以杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)和泡桐(Paulownia forlunei)为试材,通过KY-Fw阻燃剂处理木材与未处理木材的对比研究,比较分析KY-Fw阻燃剂对木材的吸湿性和尺寸稳定性的影响.结果表明,KY-Fw阻燃剂对木材的吸湿性有一定的影响,但影响不大;阻燃木材的尺寸稳定性略有提高.

  14. Influences of flame retardant and smoke suppression agents on burning characteristics of intumescent fire-retardant coating%阻燃抑烟剂对膨胀型防火涂层燃烧特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪璨; 李少香; 刘凯; 仲伟明; 王勇

    2015-01-01

    采用三氧化钼、钼酸铵、三氧化二锑、可膨胀石墨和硼酸锌作阻燃抑烟剂,分别按3种比例(5%、10%和15%)与膨胀阻燃体系(IFR)复配,制得水性膨胀型防火涂料.通过锥形量热仪研究了阻燃抑烟剂种类和用量对涂层燃烧性能的影响,并考察了其与IFR的协同性.结果表明,涂层生烟主要发生在着火之前,即烟气主要是裂解产物.三氧化钼或钼酸铵配合IFR会延迟点燃时间,与IFR质量比大于1∶1时可降低烟释放速率峰值(PSPR).三氧化二锑或硼酸锌都不能降低热释放速率峰值(PHRR),且引入三氧化二锑还会明显增加PSPR.可膨胀石墨与IFR配比大于2∶3时,降低PHRR和PSPR的效果最好.这5种阻燃抑烟剂都能延迟热释放峰值时间和生烟速率峰值时间,其中硼酸锌的作用最明显.

  15. 聚氨酯泡沫塑料无卤阻燃技术的研究进展%Research progress of halogen-free fire-retardant polyurethane foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 王列平; 宁斌科; 薛超; 苏天铎

    2012-01-01

    The necessity and importance of halogen-free flame retardants for polyurethane foam(PUF) were presented.And the flame-retardant mechanism of PUF composites was introduced.Both the reactive and additive halogen-free flame retardants for polyurethane foams were summarized.Additive flame retardants included organic and inorganic additive.Additionally,expandable graphite(EG) as an intumescent flame retardant in polyurethane foams was reviewed.Finally,the development trend of the halogen-free flame retardants for PUF was prospected.%简要介绍了研究无卤阻燃技术对聚氨酯泡沫塑料(PUF)阻燃的必要性和重要性,并对不同类型阻燃剂对PUF的阻燃剂机理做了介绍。较全面地综述了反应型和添加型无卤阻燃剂对PUF阻燃的研究进展。其包括添加型阻燃剂中的有机添加型和无机添加型阻燃剂。另外,在无机膨胀型阻燃剂中,特别介绍无卤可膨胀石墨(EG)对PUF阻燃的研究进展。最后指出功能化的核壳结构无卤复合阻燃剂将是聚氨酯泡沫塑料无卤阻燃技术研究和发展的必然趋势。

  16. Functionalized layered double hydroxide-based epoxy nanocomposites with improved flame retardancy and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Naderi Kalali; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) based on a multi-modifier system composed of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin sodium (sCD), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and taurine (T) have been designed and fabricated in this paper, aiming at developing high performance fire retardant epoxy nanocomposites. In this multi-modifier system, sCD was utilized to improve the char yield, DBS was used to enlarge the inter-layer distance of LDH and T was used to enhance the interaction betw...

  17. Preparation and Properties of Graphene Straw Retardant Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared by spin-coating the evaporation process graphene oxide having a shell core structure GO/straw flame retardant composite materials, through the oxygen index apparatus and SEM measured the relationship between the flame retardant properties and the morphological structure of the flame retardant composite material, the experiment preparation process is simple, environmentally friendly non-toxic, and the resulting GO/straw flame retardant composite material having a high fire retardant properties.

  18. Silane crosslinking of polyethylene: the effects of EVA, ATH and Sb2O3 on properties of the production in continuous grafting of LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal, mechanical and fire retardant properties of silane-crosslinked low-density polyethylene (XLPE containing ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA copolymer, alumina trihydrate (ATH and antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 have been studied. Samples were prepared in a single-screw extruder and the silane type was vinyltrimethoxy silane (VTMOS. Incorporation of ATH and Sb2O3 into polyethylene at sufficiently high loading introduces good fire retardancy expressed by limiting oxygen index (LOI. However, some tensile properties decreased. These limitations could be overcome by silane crosslinking. By incorporation of EVA into XLPE gel content increased and curing time decreased. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC analysis indicated the existence of two distinct melting endothermic peaks corresponding to two different crystalline phases. Results from mechanical properties showed that mechanical properties of XLPE/EVA blends improve by increasing EVA content up to 15 wt%.

  19. The effect of electron-beam irradiation and halogen-free flame retardants on properties of poly butylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2015-03-01

    Engineering plastics like Poly (butylene terephthalate) due to their desirable properties have various industrial applications. Neat PBT is highly combustible, so it is necessary to improve significantly its fire retardancy to meet the fire safety requirements. The combustion performance of PBT can be improved by addition of appropriate flame retardant additives. In this study we have investigated the effect of halogen free flame retardants, i.e. melamine and aluminum phosphate, and instantaneously electron beam radiation-induced crosslinking in the presence of Triallyl cyanurate on various properties of PBT. The results of gel content showed that a dose range of 200-400 kGy leads to high cross linked structure in this polymer. Also mechanical experiments showed that its structure became rigid and fragile due to irradiation. Radiation crosslinking of this polymer made its dielectric loss coefficient ten times lower than non-irradiated polymer, but had no effect on its dielectric constant. Moreover the addition of the fire retardant additives as impurity decreased the dielectric loss coefficient. TGA analysis in nitrogen exhibited that irradiation increases char formation and use of the fire retardant additives leads to reduction of onset temperature and formation of higher char quantity than pure PBT. According to the results of UL-94, irradiated samples burned with lower speed and less dripping in vertical and horizontal positions than pure polymer. Finally irradiation of the polymers containing fire retardant additives with a dose of 400 kGy led to self-extinguishing and non-dripping and reach to V-0 level in the UL-94 V.

  20. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  1. A New Kind of Fireproof, Flexible, Inorganic, Nanocomposite Paper and Its Application to the Protection Layer in Flame-Retardant Fiber-Optic Cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Ying-Jie

    2017-04-03

    An innovative method for making a new kind of highly flexible, fireproof, inorganic, nanocomposite paper made from glass fibers (GFs) coated with network-structured hydroxyapatite ultralong nanowires (NS-HANWs) is reported. The NS-HANW/GF paper is fireproof, high-temperature resistant, highly flexible, highly exquisite, and smooth, which is comparable to high-quality advanced coated paper. The most incredible characteristic of the NS-HANW/GF paper is its incombustibility. The as-prepared NS-HANW/GF paper, with the addition of optimized inorganic additives, has high mechanical properties (tensile strength ≈16 MPa) and the tensile strength is nearly 15 times that of GF paper. In addition, the NS-HANW/GF paper exhibits a high biocompatibility, owing to the coating effect of NS-HANWs on GFs. Thermal analysis indicates that the NS-HANW/GF paper has high thermal stability at high temperatures up to 1000 °C. Competitive to conventional insulation materials, the NS-HANW/GF paper exhibits a low thermal conductivity and excellent heat insulation performance. Experiments show that the NS-HANW/GF paper is promising for application in the protection layer of fire-retardant fiber-optic cable. The NS-HANW/GF paper can also be used as printing, copying, or writing paper; nonflammable China paper; fire-retardant wallpaper; specialty fireproof paper; and so on. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. RESEARCH OF EFFECTIVENESS OF „PLAMOSTOP“ FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik MITRENGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with testing of a water-miscible intumescent fire retardant. Experiments are conducted by thermal analysis (TG / DTG, DSC, cone calorimeter and non-standardized methods for monitoring weight loss when exposed to flame burning. Based on the experiment results and other information the most appropriate methods for testing fire retardants are reviewed. All methods by which experiments have been carried out are described. Our own method for testing fire retardants was created. It is also evaluated the effectiveness of a representative fire retardant of wood by all mentioned methods. The result of the experiment is to evaluate the suitability of each method for testing of fire retardants and evaluation fire retardant “Plamostop”.

  3. High arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pes cavus; High foot arch ... High foot arches are much less common than flat feet. They are more likely to be caused ... difficult to fit into shoes. People who have high arches most often need foot support. A high ...

  4. 无卤阻燃乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物泡沫复合材料的制备及性能表征%Preparation and property characterization of halogen-free fire retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer foam composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志杰; 郑玉婴; 张延兵; 刘先斌; 尚鹏博; 樊志敏

    2015-01-01

    为使得乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物(EVA)泡沫复合材料具有阻燃功能,分别添加膨胀石墨-聚磷酸铵(EG-APP)和膨胀石墨-聚磷酸铵-热塑性淀粉(EG-APP-TPS)两种不同复配阻燃剂,通过熔融共混和硫化发泡制备了无卤阻燃EVA泡沫复合材料.采用极限氧指数(LOI)、垂直燃烧(UL-94)、热分析质谱联用(TG-MASS)及扫描电镜(SEM)测试等对EG-APP/EVA及EG-APP-TPS/EVA泡沫复合材料进行表征.结果表明:EC-APP复配阻燃剂添加量为30wt%、EG与APP质量比为1∶4时,EG-APP /EVA泡沫复合材料的LOI达28.1%,UL-94为V-1级;而当EG-APP-TPS复配阻燃剂添加量同为30wt%,EG、APP与TPS质量比为1∶4∶1时,EG-APP-TPS/EVA泡沫复合材料的LOI可达29.3%,UL-94为V-0级.TG-MASS和SEM分析表明:EG、APP和TPS在气相和固相中均具有显著的协同阻燃作用.

  5. 纳米SiO2包覆硼酸锌及其原位聚合PET的阻燃性能%Nano silica encapsulated zinc borate and the fire-retardant property of PET synthesized by in-situ polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚州; 段小超; 杨通辉; 俞彬; 俞昊

    2015-01-01

    在乙醇/水体系中,采用溶胶-凝胶法在硼酸锌(ZB)表面包覆纳米SiO2对其进行改性,利用扫描电镜(SEM)和透射电镜(TEM)研究了H2O/TEOS的摩尔比对SiO2粒子大小及包覆效果的影响.然后利用原位共聚法制备出阻燃聚酯,研究了包覆后的硼酸锌对聚酯缩聚过程及阻燃性能的影响.结果表明:当体系原料H2O/NH3/TEOS的摩尔比为7.1∶3.3∶1时,SiO2可以在硼酸锌表面形成致密的保护层,成功抑制了Zn离子对聚酯缩聚过程的催化效应.将包覆后的硼酸锌与阻燃剂2-羧乙基苯基次膦酸的乙二醇酯化液(CEPPA-EG)一起加入到聚酯聚合中,能发挥很好的协同作用,聚酯的阻燃性能得到明显提高,极限氧指数(LOI)值由22提高到35,UL-94等级由V-2级提高到V-0级,炭层石墨化程度明显增高.

  6. Research of the Flammability of Epoxy Composite Fire-Retardant by Nanometer Based on the Method of CONE%基于CONE试验法的米阻燃环氧树脂复合材料燃烧性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠军; 卢林刚

    2011-01-01

    设计合成的新型无卤磷系阻燃剂双酚A-双(5,5-二澳甲基-1,3-二氧杂己内磷酸酯)(FR)与聚磷酸铵(APP)配比为2:1时,添加不同量的有机改性蒙脱土,通过熔融混合法制备出纳米阻燃环氧树脂(EP)复合材料,利用锥形量热仪(CONE)测试其释热速率(HRR)、释热总量(THR)、质量损失速率(MLR)、生烟量(TSP)、有毒气体释放量等多种燃烧性能参数;实验结果表明,当复合材料中阻燃体系配比为13.3%FR:6.7%APP:3%OMMT时,纳米阻燃EP与纯EP相比HRR,THR,MLR,SEA等参数下降程度最大,纳米阻燃复合材料具有优良的成碳率、良好的阻燃效果和抑烟性能.

  7. Large-scale, thick, self-assembled, nacre-mimetic brick-walls as fire barrier coatings on textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Paramita; Thomas, Helga; Moeller, Martin; Walther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highly loaded polymer/clay nanocomposites with layered structures are emerging as robust fire retardant surface coatings. However, time-intensive sequential deposition processes, e.g. layer-by-layer strategies, hinders obtaining large coating thicknesses and complicates an implementation into existing technologies. Here, we demonstrate a single-step, water-borne approach to prepare thick, self-assembling, hybrid fire barrier coatings of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/montmorillonite (MTM) with well-defined, bioinspired brick-wall nanostructure, and showcase their application on textile. The coating thickness on the textile is tailored using different concentrations of CMC/MTM (1–5 wt%) in the coating bath. While lower concentrations impart conformal coatings of fibers, thicker continuous coatings are obtained on the textile surface from highest concentration. Comprehensive fire barrier and fire retardancy tests elucidate the increasing fire barrier and retardancy properties with increasing coating thickness. The materials are free of halogen and heavy metal atoms, and are sourced from sustainable and partly even renewable building blocks. We further introduce an amphiphobic surface modification on the coating to impart oil and water repellency, as well as self-cleaning features. Hence, our study presents a generic, environmentally friendly, scalable, and one-pot coating approach that can be introduced into existing technologies to prepare bioinspired, thick, fire barrier nanocomposite coatings on diverse surfaces.

  8. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  9. High Surplus Means High Profits?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In recent years,China has been in the limelight worldwide due to its constant high trade surplus.Its trade surplus hit US$ 24.974 billion in August, a record high and an increase of US$ 624 million versus the previous month, according to the latest data from China Customs.

  10. High Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Manterola, Javier; Fernández Casado, S.A., Carlos

    1987-01-01

    "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

  11. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment, or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant... and lukewarm water (approximately 105 °F.). Immerse face down and gently knead back of rug to remove... in a pan and kneading the back of rug. Rinse thoroughly in lukewarm water. Line or floor dry....

  12. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carpet or rug has had a fire-retardant treatment, or is made of fibers which have had a fire-retardant... and lukewarm water (approximately 105 °F.) . Immerse face down and gently knead back of rug to remove... in a pan and kneading the back of rug. Rinse thoroughly in lukewarm water. Line or floor dry....

  13. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  14. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...... in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés...

  15. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    in close proximity to the park bridge and new projects being added to fit the context. The outcome is a conglomeration of non-contemporary urban activities along the High Line, where mechanical workshops, small wholesale stores. etc. mix with new exclusive residential buildings, eminent cafés......At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many...... factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world...

  16. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  17. High efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, G.

    1984-05-18

    The surgeon wants to have phlebograms with good contrast, which should show only the deep venous system and leaks to the superficial system, that means, the insufficient communicating veins and the inflow of the big and small saphenous vein into the deep vein must be visible. The most frequent causes for X-ray-prints of bad quality are: a too high position of the stowing, too high puncture at the back of the foot, bad focussing without showing the ankle joint or the popliteal region and too narrow sections of the X-ray-films as well as too late exposures with fullfilling of the total superficial venous system and extreme superposition on the film.

  18. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  19. High Tech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manterola, Javier

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available "High Tech" is an architectural movement that emphasizes the technological dimension of the building as expression means. Its research includes the diverse structures composing the building: resistance, closing, services, distribution and communications. Its results are unequal since not all the buildings rising from this movement are high technology and already are other buildings not enrolled in this movement. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Norman Foster are its main representatives.

    "High Tech" es un movimiento arquitectónico que enfatiza la dimensión tecnológica del edificio como medio de expresión. Su investigación se fija en las diversas estructuras que configuran el edificio, la resistente, la de cerramiento, la de servicios, la de distribución y comunicaciones. Sus resultados son desiguales pues no todos los edificios que surgen de este movimiento son alta tecnología y muchos otros no inscritos en dicho movimiento sí lo son. Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers y Norman Foster son sus representantes más destacados.

  20. Micrometer-Thick Graphene Oxide-Layered Double Hydroxide Nacre-Inspired Coatings and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, You-Xian; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-02-10

    Robust, functional, and flame retardant coatings are attractive in various fields such as building construction, food packaging, electronics encapsulation, and so on. Here, strong, colorful, and fire-retardant micrometer-thick hybrid coatings are reported, which can be constructed via an enhanced layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets. The fabricated GO-LDH hybrid coatings show uniform nacre-like layered structures that endow them good mechanic properties with Young's modulus of ≈ 18 GPa and hardness of ≈ 0.68 GPa. In addition, the GO-LDH hybrid coatings exhibit nacre-like iridescence and attractive flame retardancy as well due to their well-defined 2D microstructures. This kind of nacre-inspired GO-LDH hybrid thick coatings will be applied in various fields in future due to their high strength and multifunctionalities.

  1. Electrochemical performance of nonflammable polymeric gel electrolyte containing triethylphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Fujita, Takayoshi; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Nonflammable polymeric gel electrolyte has been prepared by immobilizing 1 M LiBF{sub 4}/EC + DEC + TEP (55:25:20, v/v/v, EC: ethylene carbonate, DEC: diethyl carbonate and TEP: triethylphosphate) solution in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVdF-HFP) where TEP acts as a fire-retardant solvent in the gel electrolyte. The polymeric gel electrolyte has a high value of ionic conductivity of 1.76 mS cm{sup -1} at 28 C. Thermal safety calorimetry (TSC) experiments show good thermal stability of the gel electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge cycling tests were performed on LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/gel electrolyte and graphite/gel electrolyte half cells. The gel electrolyte works well for graphite/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cell although some improvement in the cycleability of the graphite electrode is still needed. (author)

  2. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  3. Synthesis of Caged Bicyclic Phosphate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiao-min; OU Yu-xiang; LUO Rui-bin; WANG Yong; LIAN Dan-jun; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    Seven caged bicyclic phosphate compounds were synthesized by using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethy1-2,6,7-trioxa-1-pho-sphabicyclo[2.2.2] octane (PEPA) as starting material. Within them were three PEPA derivatives containing single caged bicyclic phosphate structure(1a,2a,3a), another three PEPA deviratives containing two caged bicyclic phosphate structures(1b,2b,3b) and one devirative(1c) containing three caged bicyclic phosphate structures. Structures of the products were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and TG analysis. The reaction conditions were also discussed. Thermal analysis showed they had high thermal stability and excellent char-forming ability. Besides, these compounds had pentaerythritol bone and flame retardant elements of phosphorus, bromine or nitrogen simultaneously in their molecules, endowed them with good fire retardancy, and made them can be used as intumescent flame retardant.

  4. Electrospun MgO/Nylon 6 Hybrid Nanofib ers for Protective Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nattanmai Raman Dhineshbabu; Gopalu Karunakaran; Rangaraj Suriyaprabha; Palanisamy Manivasakan; Venkatachalam Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    Magnesia (MgO) nanoparticles were produced from magnesite ore (MgCO3) using ball mill. The crystalline size, morphology and specific SSA were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, respectively. MgO nanoparticle-incorporated nylon 6 solutions were electrospun to produce nanofiber mats. Surface morphology and internal structure of the pre-pared hybrid nanofiber mats were examined by scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The fire retardancy and antibacterial activity (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) of coated fabrics made from MgO/nylon 6 hybrid nanofiber are better than those from nylon 6 nanofiber.

  5. An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifah A. Salmeia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC, molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS, are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency.

  6. Key Role of Reinforcing Structures in the Flame Retardant Performance of Self-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bocz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardant synergism between highly stretched polymer fibres and intumescent flame retardant systems was investigated in self-reinforced polypropylene composites. It was found that the structure of reinforcement, such as degree of molecular orientation, fibre alignment and weave type, has a particular effect on the fire performance of the intumescent system. As little as 7.2 wt % additive content, one third of the amount needed in non-reinforced polypropylene matrix, was sufficient to reach a UL-94 V-0 rating. The best result was found in self-reinforced polypropylene composites reinforced with unidirectional fibres. In addition to the fire retardant performance, the mechanical properties were also evaluated. The maximum was found at optimal consolidation temperature, while the flame retardant additive in the matrix did not influence the mechanical performance up to the investigated 13 wt % concentration.

  7. Ishikawajima-Harima Engineering Review, Vol. 33, No. 6, November 1993. Special issue: Applications development of polymer matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    ;Contents: Technical Problems and Future Possibility of Polymer Matrix Composites as Structural Materials; Polymer Matrix Composites at IHI, Present and Future; Development and Application of Graphite Epoxy Strut to Space Vehicle Structures; Development of CFRP Pressurant Tank for Satellite Propulsion System; Development of FRP Parts in Civil Aero-Engine; CFRP Cross Bar Developed for Large Transfer Press Used for Car Bodies; Development of CFRP Diaphragm for Hydaulic Speaker; Sports Fishing Vessel Made of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Using Fire Retardant Resins; Scrap FRP Pulverizing and Recycling Technology; Development of High Power Electron Beam Gun with LaB6 Cathode; Development of SDC Honeycomb Vacuum Vessel; Application of Welding Robot System to Ship Hull Assembly; Manufacturing Process of 70 MWe Class IHI-PFBC Boiler.

  8. Use of pultruded reinforced plastics in energy generation and energy related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.

    Applications of pultrusion-formed fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) in the wind, oil, and coal derived energy industries are reviewed. FRP is noted to be a viable alternative to wood, aluminum, and steel for reasons of availability, price, and weight. Attention is given to the development of FRP wind turbine blades for the DOE 8 kW low cost, high reliability wind turbine program. The blades feature a NACA 23112 profile with a 15 in. chord on the system which was tested at Rocky Flats, CO. Fabricating the blades involved a plus and minus 45 deg roving orientation, a heavy fiber-glass nose piece to assure blade strength, and a separately manufactured foam core. Additional uses for FRP products have been found in the structural members of coal stack scrubbers using a vinyl ester resin in a fire retardant formulation, and as low cost, light weight sucker rods for deep well oil drilling.

  9. A flexible Li polymer primary cell with a novel gel electrolyte based on poly(acrylonitrile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Ko-ichi; Sekai, Koji

    The performance of a Li polymer primary cell with fire-retardant poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN)-based gel electrolytes is reported. By optimizing electrodes, electrolytes, the packaging material, and the structural design of the polymer cell, we succeeded in developing a "film-like" Li polymer primary cell with sufficient performance for practical use. The cell is flexible and less than 0.5 mm thick, which makes it suitable for a power source for some smart devices, such as an IC card. Fast cation conduction in the gel electrolyte minimizes the drop of the discharge capacity even at -20 °C. The high chemical stability of the gel electrolytes and the new packaging material allow the self-discharge rate to be limited to under 4.3%, which is equivalent to that of conventional coin-shaped or cylindrical Li-MnO 2 cells.

  10. Halogen-free Flame Retardant Laminate Preparation Method Study%无卤阻燃覆铜板制备方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑灿城; 赵兴茂; 邓华丽

    2012-01-01

    以邻甲酚和甲醛缩合,得到高邻位线性的酚醛树脂,此酚醛树脂再与环氧氯丙烷(ECH)进行环氧化反应,合成得到了高性能酚醛环氧树脂,在此基础上加入DOPO提高其阻燃性,再用双酚A酚醛树脂对其进行固化,得到覆铜板用的胶液。通过环氧值,阻燃性,红外光谱测试,探讨了最佳实验条件为:含磷环氧树脂的合成温度在120℃左右,反应时间为4 h,最佳含磷量为2%。用盐酸丙酮法(标准HG2-741-72)测定所得树脂的环氧值达到0.497。%O-cresol and formaldehyde for condensation,a high-O-linear phenolic resins.The phenolic resin with epichlorohydrin(ECH) epoxy reaction,synthesized high-performance epoxy phenolic.On this basis DOPO to improve its fire-retardant and use of bisphenol A phenolic resin during curing,CCL was the glue.Through the epoxy value,fire retardant,IR,it was discussed the best experimental conditions were as follows : The phosphorus-containing epoxy resin synthesis temperature of 120 ℃ and the reaction time of 4 h,the best phosphorus content of 2 %.Acetone hydrochloride(standard Made-741-72) of the epoxy resin derived from the value reached 0.497.

  11. Ammonium polyphosphate improving physicochemical properties of rice straw-high density polyethylene composites%聚磷酸铵改善稻秸-高密度聚乙烯复合材料的理化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明珠; 梅长彤; 李国臣; 杜俊

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, plant fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites have been widely used as interior automotive panels, garbage pails, crates, and garden equipment due to their excellent durability, dimensional stability, high rigidity, and relatively low density. However, its poor fire resistance often limits its expansion into the residential construction industry and development of applications for the furniture industry. In order to improve the flame retardancy of the reinforced composites, fire retardant agents, such as halogen/nitrogen-containing substances, metal hydroxides, and phosphorus/silicon compounds, have been introduced. While there are environmental impact concerns, the most commonly used flame retardant additive is ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Recently, the synergistic effect between nano-SiO2 and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in polymer and composites has been extensively investigated, and study has showed that the novel nano-SiO2/APP flame retardant could promote char formation, and improve the thermal stability of the char layer formed during combustion. China has been an important agricultural nation with 300 million tons of rice production annually. Using rice straw as a substitute feedstock material of wood fiber could be helpful for conserving valuable wood resources, protecting the environmental and contributing to sustainable development. Rice straw consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, silicon and pectin. Silicon, which is widely distributed in the surface of rice straw through biomineralization, could be also used as a synergistic agent of APP. In this paper, rice straw-high density polyethylene composites (RPC) with ammonium polyphosphate (APP, 0, 8%, 10%, and 12%) were prepared to investigate the effects on the thermal properties, flame retardancy, and mechanical properties of RPC using thermogravimetric analysis (TG), cone calorimentry analysis (Cone) and mechanical measurements. The mechanism of flame retardancy are also

  12. High Combustion Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility in Morgantown, WV, researchers can investigate new high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen turbine combustion...

  13. Construction of organic–inorganic hybrid nano-coatings containing α-zirconium phosphate with high efficiency for reducing fire hazards of flexible polyurethane foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan, Haifeng; Yuan, Bihe [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Hong, Ningning; Zhan, Jing; Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Song, Lei, E-mail: leisong@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Nano-architecture on the flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) was built by layer by layer (LbL) self-assembling of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) and two biopolymers. Through electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between α-ZrP, chitosan and alginate, the nano-coatings were successfully deposited on the substrate. The LbL self-assembly coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This loaded nano-coating endowed FPUF with excellent flame retardancy. Compared with pure FPUF, the reduction in the peak heat release rate of the modified foam with 12.3 wt% weight gain was achieved 71%, and the melt-dripping during combustion disappeared. Meanwhile, the thermal degradation of coated FPUF under nitrogen atmosphere was obviously retarded compared with pure FPUF. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the treated FPUFs were investigated. After loaded with 12.3 wt% nano-coating, the tensile and tear strength were enhanced by 13% and 54%, respectively. These investigations indicated that the study has great potential to add new dimensions in the fire retardancy modification of FPUF. - Highlights: • The nano-coatings containing α-ZrP and two biopolymers were successfully loaded on the FPUF by LbL self-assembly method. • The hybrid nano-coatings exhibited marked reduction in the peak heat release rate of the foam. • The coating resulted in enhanced tensile and tear strength of the foam.

  14. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  15. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  16. FIRE RESISTANCE OF DOUGLAS FIR [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] WOOD TREATED WITH SOME CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemal YALINKILIÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  17. Applying of copper(ІІ carbonate as a decrease mode of a fire hazard of epoxy-amine composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Іванівна Лавренюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Being based on data about electronic and crystal structure of copper salts, their using perspective for fire retardants of epoxy-amine composites have been foreseen. Epoxy-amine composites modified by copper compounds, in particular, by copper(ІІ carbonate have been elaborated. Influence of fire retardant onto processes of thermal-oxidative decomposition of epoxy-amine composites and their fire hazard has been studied

  18. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  19. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  1. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  2. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  3. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  4. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  5. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  6. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Christopher R.

    2017-03-21

    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  7. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  8. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  10. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  11. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  13. High pressure technology 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, J.A.; Picqueuer, L.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This volume is divided into four sessions: fracture mechanics applications to high pressure vessels; high pressure code issues; high pressure design, analysis, and safety concerns; and military and other high pressure applications. Separate abstracts were prepared for eleven papers of this conference.

  14. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA

    2016-01-01

    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  15. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  16. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  17. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO Volunteer ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  3. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and ...

  5. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  8. High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications High-Risk Pregnancy: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A high-risk pregnancy refers to anything that puts the ...

  9. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  10. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  11. Highly Ionized Envelopes of High Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Zekis, Erin E

    2009-01-01

    We present recent results on highly ionized gas in Galactic High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs), originally surveyed in OVI (Sembach et al. 2003). In a new FUSE/HST survey of SiII/III/IV (Shull et al. 2009) toward 37 AGN, we detected SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) absorption with a sky coverage fraction 81 +/- 5% (61 HVCs along 30 of 37 high-latitude sight lines). The SiIII (lambda 1206.500 A) line is typically 4-5 times stronger than OVI (lambda 1031.926 A). The mean HVC column density of perhaps 10^19 cm^-2 of low-metallicity (0.1 - 0.2 Z_sun) ionized gas in the low halo. Recent determinations of HVC distances allow us to estimate a total reservoir of ~10^8 M_sun. Estimates of infall velocities indicate an infall rate of around 1 M_sun yr^-1, comparable to the replenishment rate for star formation in the disk. HVCs appear to be sheathed by intermediate-temperature gas (10^4.0 - 10^4.5 K) detectable in SiIII and SiIV, as well as hotter gas seen in OVI and other high ions. To prepare for HST observations of 10 HVC-selecte...

  12. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  13. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: ...

  15. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  16. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  17. High Sensitivity, High Frequency and High Time Resolution Decimetric Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Rosa, R. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha desarrollado el primer espectroscopio decimetrico latino americano operando en una banda de 100 MHz con alta resoluci6n de fre- cuencia (100 KHz) y tiempo (10 ms), alrededor de cualquier centro de frecuencia en el intervalo de 2000-200 MHz. El prop6sito de esta nota es describir investigaciones solares y no solares que se planean, progra ma de investigaci6n y la situaci6n actual de desarrollo de este espectroscopio. ABSTRACT. First Latin American Decimetric Spectroscope operating over a band of 100 MHz with high resolution in frequency (100 KHz) and time (10 ms), around any center frequency in the range of 2000-200 MHz is being developed. The purpose of this note is to describe planned solar, and non-solar, research programmes and present status of development of this spectroscope. Keq wo : INSTRUMENTS - SPECTROSCOPY

  18. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  19. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  20. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Aviation Blvd Bldg 271 Los Angeles Air Force Base (LAAFB) El Segundo, CA 90245-2808 michael.guetlein@us.af.mil Phone: 310-653-3018 Fax: 310-653-4414 DSN...mission areas: Missile Warning , Missile Defense, Technical Intelligence and Battlespace Awareness. The constellation architecture for SBIRS High...Integrated Tactical Warning /Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) mission in November 2008 and technical intelligence mission in August 2009. The SBIRS GEO 1

  1. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  2. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  3. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  4. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  5. High enthalpy gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, Ethirajan

    2014-01-01

    This is an introductory level textbook which explains the elements of high temperature and high-speed gas dynamics. written in a clear and easy to follow style, the author covers all the latest developments in the field including basic thermodynamic principles, compressible flow regimes and waves propagation in one volume covers theoretical modeling of High Enthalpy Flows, with particular focus on problems in internal and external gas-dynamic flows, of interest in the fields of rockets propulsion and hypersonic aerodynamics High enthalpy gas dynamics is a compulsory course for aerospace engine

  6. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  7. High assurance services computing

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Covers service-oriented technologies in different domains including high assurance systemsAssists software engineers from industry and government laboratories who develop mission-critical software, and simultaneously provides academia with a practitioner's outlook on the problems of high-assurance software development

  8. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Kiev, 1993. 7. High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan Inernational, Tokyo...the Corrosion of Iron and Steels,” High Nitrogen Steels, edited by M. Kikuchi and Y. Mishima , Vol. 36, No. 7, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  10. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  11. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  12. Highly interactive distributed visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, M.; Belleman, R.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on our iGrid2005 demonstration, called the "Dead Cat Demo"; an example of a highly interactive augmented reality application consisting of software services distributed over a wide-area, high-speed network. We describe our design decisions, analyse the implications of the design on applica

  13. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  15. High and Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources and money. Creating a high-performance school requires an integrated design approach. Key systems--including lighting, HVAC, electrical and plumbing--must be considered from the beginning of the design process. According to William H.…

  16. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  17. High School Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  18. Proxmox high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Simon MC

    2014-01-01

    If you want to know the secrets of virtualization and how to implement high availability on your services, this is the book for you. For those of you who are already using Proxmox, this book offers you the chance to build a high availability cluster with a distributed filesystem to further protect your system from failure.

  19. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  20. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  1. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  2. High Antibiotic Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, Sara; José Rabanaque, María; Feja, Cristina;

    2014-01-01

    with highest consumption) were responsible for 21% of the total DDD consumed and received ≥6 packages per year. Elderly adults (≥60 years) and small children (0-9 years) were those exposed to the highest volume of antibiotics and with the most frequent exposure, respectively. Heavy users received a high...... proportion of antibiotics not recommended as first choice in primary health care. In conclusion, heavy antibiotic users consisted mainly of children and old adults. Inappropriate overuse of antibiotics (high quantity, high frequency, and inappropriate antibiotic choice) leads to a substantial risk...

  3. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  4. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  5. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  6. High-Definition Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Andersen, Kristian G; Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J

    2017-08-24

    The foundation for a new era of data-driven medicine has been set by recent technological advances that enable the assessment and management of human health at an unprecedented level of resolution-what we refer to as high-definition medicine. Our ability to assess human health in high definition is enabled, in part, by advances in DNA sequencing, physiological and environmental monitoring, advanced imaging, and behavioral tracking. Our ability to understand and act upon these observations at equally high precision is driven by advances in genome editing, cellular reprogramming, tissue engineering, and information technologies, especially artificial intelligence. In this review, we will examine the core disciplines that enable high-definition medicine and project how these technologies will alter the future of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  8. High cholesterol - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dressings Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat and added sugar Use skim milk or low- ... with other risk factors. Have family history of cardiovascular disease. Have one or more risk factors for ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  12. High-Tech Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eşsiz

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in building and construction area, bring with the new construction systems and the new products. The aim of this study is to define the High Tech concept, and set the common and basic characteristics of High Tech applications. During 1970’s High Tech was born and developed in Britain. Especially British Architects Richard Rogers, Michael Hopkins, Norman Foster, Nicholas Grimshaw and Ian Ritchie are the leaders of this style. Their architecture show the machine aesthetic and use of industrial revoluation materials such as glass and steel. The reasons for wide usage of this technology in building constructions are; the ease of renewing the structural and installation systems by the changing technology and giving monumentality to the prestige buildings. High Tech building which we have many examples of give their occupants a lot of opportunities and also they can adapt itself to the time.

  13. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  14. Poole High Street study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2007-01-01

    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  15. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  16. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  18. High Plains Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — These digital maps contain information on the altitude of the base, the extent, and the 1991 potentiometric surface (i.e. altitude of the water table) of the High...

  19. High-mix insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use.

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. Microwave Radiometer - high frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  3. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  4. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  5. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  6. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  7. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  8. Adaptation to High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude native...

  9. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  10. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  11. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  12. High energy astrophysical neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, H.

    2002-01-01

    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  13. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    such enzyme inhibition would favor the creation of a metabolic acidosis to offset the hypoxic respiratory alkalosis of high altitude hyperventilation...that some of their symptoms might be due to the early respiratory alkalosis seen upon arrival at high altitude. Unfortunately 23 out of the 30 subjects...i I Hamilton-16 was negative in all cases and normal respiratory excursions were seen. CSF chemistries and cell counts were normal. Houston and

  14. High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  15. High throughput drug profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Entzeroth, Michael; Chapelain, Béatrice; Guilbert, Jacques; Hamon, Valérie

    2000-01-01

    High throughput screening has significantly contributed to advances in drug discovery. The great increase in the number of samples screened has been accompanied by increases in costs and in the data required for the investigated compounds. High throughput profiling addresses the issues of compound selectivity and specificity. It combines conventional screening with data mining technologies to give a full set of data, enabling development candidates to be more fully compared.

  16. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  17. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  18. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  19. Adaptation to High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Nayar

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is inconsequential for physiologically fit persons below an effective altitude of 2640 metres. At higher altitudes, the adaptation is brought about by four main factors, viz., hyperventilation, increased diffusion of oxygen across alveolar membrane, erythrocythemia and maintenance of body hydration. Carbon dioxide sensitivity is markedly elevated at high altitude, both in sojourners and acclimatized low-landers. The greater pulmonary diffusing capacity observed in high altitude natives is well documented. RBC count, haemoglobin and haematocrit increase whereas arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation percentage decreases at high altitude. Diuretics (Furosemide have no role in adaptation to high altitude and adequate body hydration must be maintained.The ultimate adaptive mechanisms occur at tissue level which facilitate the diffusion of oxygen from blood to tissue and its utilization. The work capacity decreases at high altitude and a relationship between load carried and speed of marching has been determined at various altitudes. Although altitude has an adverse effect on process of cold acclimatization, yet it is possible to induce cold acclimatization by exposing subjects to a temperature of 0° to -5°C for a period of three hours daily for three weeks. The caloric requirements increase at high altitudes and are 4,286 K Cal and 4,380 K Cal at 13000 feet (3950 m and 17000 feet (5170 m, respectively.

  20. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  1. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  2. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  3. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  5. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  6. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  7. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  8. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limita...

  9. High-tech entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, Michel; Harris, Simon; Mønsted, Mette

    ; entrepreneurial finance; marketing technological innovations; and high-tech incubation management. Including case studies to give practical insights into genuine business examples, this comprehensive book has a distinctly 'real-world' focus throughout.Edited by a multi-national team, this comprehensive book......High-tech businesses form a crucial part of entrepreneurial activity - in some ways representing very typical examples of entrepreneurship, yet in some ways representing quite different challenges. The uncertainty in innovation and advanced technology makes it difficult to use conventional economic...... planning models, and also means that the management skills used in this area must be more responsive to issues of risk, uncertainty and evaluation than in conventional business opportunities. Whilst entrepreneurial courses do reflect the importance of high-tech businesses, they often lack the resources...

  10. High-conflict divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J R

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Interparental conflict after divorce (defined as verbal and physical aggression, overt hostility, and distrust) and the primary parent's emotional distress are jointly predictive of more problematic parent-child relationships and greater child emotional and behavioral maladjustment. As a group, children of high-conflict divorce as defined above, especially boys, are two to four times more likely to be clinically disturbed in emotions and behavior compared with national norms. Court-ordered joint physical custody and frequent visitation arrangements in high-conflict divorce tend to be associated with poorer child outcomes, especially for girls. Types of intervention programs and social policy appropriate for these kinds of families are presented.

  11. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  12. Citing for High Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaolin; McFarland, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    The question of citation behavior has always intrigued scientists from various disciplines. While general citation patterns have been widely studied in the literature we develop the notion of citation projection graphs by investigating the citations among the publications that a given paper cites. We investigate how patterns of citations vary between various scientific disciplines and how such patterns reflect the scientific impact of the paper. We find that idiosyncratic citation patterns are characteristic for low impact papers; while narrow, discipline-focused citation patterns are common for medium impact papers. Our results show that crossing-community, or bridging citation patters are high risk and high reward since such patterns are characteristic for both low and high impact papers. Last, we observe that recently citation networks are trending toward more bridging and interdisciplinary forms.

  13. High availability IT services

    CERN Document Server

    Critchley, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book starts with the basic premise that a service is comprised of the 3Ps-products, processes, and people. Moreover, these entities and their sub-entities interlink to support the services that end users require to run and support a business. This widens the scope of any availability design far beyond hardware and software. It also increases the potential for service failure for reasons beyond just hardware and software; the concept of logical outages. High Availability IT Services details the considerations for designing and running highly available ""services"" and not just the systems

  14. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  15. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  16. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  17. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  18. JUNOS High Availability

    CERN Document Server

    Sonderegger, James; Milne, Kieran; Palislamovic, Senad

    2009-01-01

    Whether your network is a complex carrier or just a few machines supporting a small enterprise, JUNOS High Availability will help you build reliable and resilient networks that include Juniper Networks devices. With this book's valuable advice on software upgrades, scalability, remote network monitoring and management, high-availability protocols such as VRRP, and more, you'll have your network uptime at the five, six, or even seven nines -- or 99.99999% of the time. Rather than focus on "greenfield" designs, the authors explain how to intelligently modify multi-vendor networks. You'll learn

  19. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... to render traditional clustering algorithms ineffective. The curse of dimensionality, among other effects, means that with increasing number of dimensions, a loss of meaningful differentiation between similar and dissimilar objects is observed. As high-dimensional objects appear almost alike, new approaches...

  20. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  1. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  2. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  3. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  4. High Performance Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-29

    Our efforts in this project were focused on three different materials, namely; interstitial Sm-Fe carbides and nitrides, high energy product Nd2Fe14B ...magnets with MgO addition, and nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B /alpha-Fe consisting of a fine mixture of hard and soft phases. In the Sm-Fe carbides and

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  6. High-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H

    1997-01-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  7. Energy at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N E; Stacey, M J; Woods, D R

    2011-03-01

    For the military doctor, an understanding of the metabolic effects of high altitude (HA) exposure is highly relevant. This review examines the acute metabolic challenge and subsequent changes in nutritional homeostasis that occur when troops deploy rapidly to HA. Key factors that impact on metabolism include the hypoxic-hypobaric environment, physical exercise and diet. Expected metabolic changes include augmentation of basal metabolic rate (BMR), decreased availability of oxygen in peripheral metabolic tissues, reduction in VO2 max, increased glucose dependency and lactate accumulation during exercise. The metabolic demands of exercise at HA are crucial. Equivalent activity requires greater effort and more energy than it does at sea level. Soldiers working at HA show high energy expenditure and this may exceed energy intake significantly. Energy intake at HA is affected adversely by reduced availability, reduced appetite and changes in endocrine parameters. Energy imbalance and loss of body water result in weight loss, which is extremely common at HA. Loss of fat predominates over loss of fat-free mass. This state resembles starvation and the preferential primary fuel source shifts from carbohydrate towards fat, reducing performance efficiency. However, these adverse effects can be mitigated by increasing energy intake in association with a high carbohydrate ration. Commanders must ensure that individuals are motivated, educated, strongly encouraged and empowered to meet their energy needs in order to maximise mission-effectiveness.

  8. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  10. Nongrading the High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of nongraded high schools, from Preston Search's pioneering efforts in Pueblo, Colorado, to early 1900s Dalton and Winnetka Plans and midcentury continuous-progress plans. Competency, not age, already determines participation in band, orchestra, choir, and athletics. Curricula should be based on the structure, methodology, and…

  11. High availability using virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Calzolari, Federico

    2009-01-01

    High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

  12. Highly oxidized superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  14. Carthage High School Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Samantha, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This is the third issue of the magazine to focus on baseball in Panola County (Texas). The issue salutes the Carthage High School baseball program during two periods of its history. The first period was the early 1940's under Coach E. B. Morrison, whose teams were State Finalists in 1941 and 1942. The second period covered is the era of Coach…

  15. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "no added salt." Look for the sodium content in milligrams and the Percent Daily Value. Aim for foods that are less than 5 percent of the Daily Value of sodium. Foods with 20 percent or more Daily Value of sodium are considered high. To learn more about reading nutrition labels, see ...

  16. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  17. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  18. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  19. Highly Expressive Hakka Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    SOUTHERN Jiangxi Province was the birthplace of the Hakka ethnic group and has since been the native home and main transfer hub for the spread of the nationality. The highly expressive art of the Hakkas, including folk songs in Xingguo, colored lantern performances in Shicheng, ancient

  20. High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  1. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  2. Maintaining High Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  3. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  4. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  5. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholde

  6. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  7. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  8. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  9. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  10. High-resolution headlamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  11. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety

  12. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  14. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  15. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  16. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  17. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  18. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  19. High Speed Video Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janess, Don C.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes a means of inserting alphanumeric characters and graphics into a high speed video signal and locking that signal to an IRIG B time code. A model V-91 IRIG processor, developed by Instrumentation Technology Systems under contract to Instrumentation Marketing Corporation has been designed to operate in conjunction with the NAC model FHS-200 High Speed Video Camera which operates at 200 fields per second. The system provides for synchronizing the vertical and horizontal drive signals such that the vertical sync precisely coincides with five millisecond transitions in the IRIG time code. Additionally, the unit allows for the insertion of an IRIG time message as well as other data and symbols.

  20. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  1. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  2. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  3. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  4. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  6. High Performance Biocomputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ab initio calculation of a small protein has been reported (1PNH, a scorpion toxin with 31 residues and 500 atoms; [3]). Hybrid classical and first...challenge can be characterized as highly computationally-savvy and fully capable of effectively exploiting state-of-the-art capability. However, there...enilarrassingly parallel comlrltations, where little or no comnmiinication is required), capacity computing is an effective approac-h. A recent extension of

  7. High Power Switching Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

  8. High Performance RAIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHughes; CharlesMilligan; 等

    2001-01-01

    The ability to move 10s of TeraBytes in reasonable amounts of time are critical to many of the High Energy Physics applications.This paper examines the issues of high performance,high reliability tape storage systems,and presents the results of a 2-year ASCI Path Forward program to be able to reliably move 1GB/s to an archive that can last 20 years.This paper will cover the requirements.approach,hardware,application software,interface descriptions,performance,measured reliability and predicted reliability.This paper will also touch on future directions for this research.The current research allows systems to sustain 80MB/s of uncompressable data per Fibre Channel interface which is striped out to 8 or more drives.This looks to the application as a single tape drive from both mout and data transfer perspectives .Striping 12 RAIT systems together will provide nearly 1GB/s to tape.The reliability is provided by a method of adding parity tapes to the data stripes.For example,adding 2 parity tapes to an 8-stripe group will allow any 2 of the 10 tapes to be lost or damaged without loss of information.The reliability of RAIT with 8 stripes and 2 parities exceeds that of mirrored tapes while RAIT uses 10 tapes instead of the 16 tapes that a mirror would require.The results of this paper is to be abloe to understand the applicability of RAIT and to be able to understand when it may be useful in High Energy Physics applications.

  9. High Speed Compressor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    are listed below, and some of these are discussed at length later. o Heat capacity issues in low temperature regenerators o Pressure drop losses...carried out on a relatively old design of compressor, initially developed for use with a Stirling cycle domestic freezer12, and subsequently used in a...2003), pp 247-253. 3 Wang, X, Dai, W., et al, “Performance of a Stirling -Type Pulse Tube Cooler for High Efficiency Operation at 100Hz

  10. High Resolution Acoustical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    1028 (September 1982). 26 G. Arfken , Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic Press, New York, 1971), 2nd printing, pp.662-666. 27 W. R. Hahn...difference in the approach used by the two methods , as noted in the previous paragraph, forming a direct mathematical com- parison may be impossible...examines high resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the fressure waves. Several;- new methods

  11. High resolution differential thermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotra Z. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Main schematic solutions of differential thermometers with measurement resolution about 0.001°C are considered. Differential temperature primary transducer realized on a transistor differential circuit in microampere mode. Analytic calculation and schematic mathematic simulation of primary transducer are fulfilled. Signal transducer is realized on a high precision Zero-Drift Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail operation amplifier AD8552 and 24-Bit S-D microconverter ADuC834.

  12. Highly efficient sorghum transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoquan; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient microprojectile transformation system for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has been developed by using immature embryos (IEs) of inbred line Tx430. Co-bombardment was performed with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, both under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 (ubi1) promoter. After optimization of both tissue culture media and parameters of microprojectile transformation, 25 independent transgenic events were obtain...

  13. Highly Concurrent Scalar Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    rearrangement arise from data dependencies between instructions, hence it is critical that artificial - dependencies are eliminated whenever possible...An important class of artificial depen- *. dencies arise due to register reuse. In the following example, no parallelism can be • . exploited in the...specific procedure call site. The use of inteligent procedure expansion techniques is expected to be crucial to the achievement of high performance

  14. Strangeness at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We use up to fourth order cumulants of net strangeness fluctuations and their correlations with net baryon number fluctuations to extract information on the strange meson and baryon contribution to the low temperature hadron resonance gas, the dissolution of strange hadronic states in the crossover region of the QCD transition and the quasi-particle nature of strange quark contributions to the high temperature quark-gluon plasma phase.

  15. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  16. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  17. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  18. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  19. High redshift blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing to us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ~GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ~MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ~4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve i...

  20. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  1. High Altitude Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lt. Col. G K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc.), cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc.) nail changes (koilonychias), airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma) are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place. PMID:28216727

  2. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  3. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozovic, Ivan [Mount Sinai, NY; Logvenov, Gennady [Port Jefferson Station, NY; Gozar, Adrian Mihai [Port Jefferson, NY

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  4. High speed preprocessing system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sankar Kishore

    2000-10-01

    In systems employing tracking, the area of interest is recognized using a high resolution camera and is handed overto the low resolution receiver. The images seen by the low resolution receiver and by the operator through the high resolution camera are different in spatial resolution. In order to establish the correlation between these two images, the high-resolution camera image needsto be preprocessed and made similar to the low-resolution receiver image. This paper discusses the implementation of a suitable preprocessing technique, emphasis being given to develop a system both in hardware and software to reduce processing time. By applying different software/hardware techniques, the execution time has been brought down from a few seconds to a few milliseconds for a typical set of conditions. The hardware is designed around i486 processors and software is developed in PL/M. The system is tested to match the images obtained by two different sensors of the same scene. The hardware and software have been evaluated with different sets of images.

  5. High power coaxial ubitron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  6. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

  7. High-frequency ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  8. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  9. High-fluoride groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  10. High Test Peroxide High Sealing Conical Seal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Test Peroxide (HTP) Highly Compatible High Sealing Conical Seals are necessary for ground test operations and space based applications. Current conical seals...

  11. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  12. High performance steam development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  13. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  14. High speed flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Stephen V.

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  15. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  16. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  17. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  18. High Power Dye Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-30

    art capabilities for developmental models of hydrogen thyratrons and solid state thyristors. Table II-l is a list of switches that have been... thyratron Table II-l Switch Ignitron GE, GL - 37207 Hydrogen Thyratron High Power Switches Peak Cur. (kA) RMS Cm. (A) 300 120 Max. Rep Rate...for 2 usec Pulse Cli„) 8 1. EG&G HY-5 2. EW. GHT9 3. EG&G Develop- mental model Thyristors 5 7.5 15 125 335 350 300 1000 300 RCA

  19. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  20. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  1. High risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that roughly 20% of pregnancies fall into the high risk category, which in turn are responsible for over 80% of perinatal adverse outcome. Modern obstetrics has been very successful in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. It has focused mainly on fetal and neonatal aspects, and on identifying the subgroup of pregnant women that need greater surveillance and care because of clearly identifiable risk factors. The article describes the preconceptional advice, its components and recommendations for its implementation, as well as its role in maternal and perinatal risk assessment. These interventions attempt to reduce the rates of maternal and perinatal mortality.

  2. High frequency electromagnetic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Ueng, T.; Latorre, R.

    1989-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site to evaluate high frequency electromagnetic tomography as a candidate for in situ monitoring of hydrology in the near field of a heater placed in densely welded tuff. Tomographs of 200 MHz electromagnetic permittivity were made for several planes between boreholes. Data were taken before the heater was turned on, during heating and during cooldown of the rockmass. This data is interpreted to yield maps of changes in water content of the rockmass as a function of time. This interpretation is based on laboratory measurement of electromagnetic permittivity as a function of water content for densely welded tuff. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. High Contrast CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    r AD’ A076 235 WATKINS—JOHNSON Co SCOTYS VAL LEY CA F/S 9/5 N HIGH CONTRAST CRT.CU) AUG 79 6 A HOLNQUIST DAABO7—77—C—263 9 UNCLASSIFIED DEL.ET—TR—77...Air Force Systems Command A t t n : l) l . CA 2w) U I f iee ’ of \\ iva l Re ’~.ea r ch Andr ews AFI4 ( • ~~ii 4.~7 001 Washington , l ) .C. 20331

  4. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  5. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  6. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  7. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  8. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  9. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  10. High-nitrogen explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAz

  11. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  12. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  13. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  14. Highly curved microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  15. High speed multiphoton imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxiao; Brustle, Anne; Gautam, Vini; Cockburn, Ian; Gillespie, Cathy; Gaus, Katharina; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in-vivo. Real time processes revealed through live imaging provided many opportunities to capture cellular activities in living animals. The typical parameters that determine the performance of multiphoton microscopy are speed, field of view, 3D imaging and imaging depth; many of these are important to achieving data from in-vivo. Here, we provide a full exposition of the flexible polygon mirror based high speed laser scanning multiphoton imaging system, PCI-6110 card (National Instruments) and high speed analog frame grabber card (Matrox Solios eA/XA), which allows for rapid adjustments between frame rates i.e. 5 Hz to 50 Hz with 512 × 512 pixels. Furthermore, a motion correction algorithm is also used to mitigate motion artifacts. A customized control software called Pscan 1.0 is developed for the system. This is then followed by calibration of the imaging performance of the system and a series of quantitative in-vitro and in-vivo imaging in neuronal tissues and mice.

  16. High speed optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  17. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  19. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  20. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  1. Very high energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Luciano; Spiering, Christian

    2000-03-01

    A sky survey with neutrinos may considerably extend our understanding of cosmic phenomena. Due to the low interaction cross section of neutrinos with matter and due to the high cosmic ray background the detector must be very large (of the order of 1 km 3) and must be shielded. These new devices consist of a network of photo-tubes which are deployed in the depth of the ocean, of a lake or of the ice of South Pole. The detection of the Cherenkov light emitted by muons produced in muon neutrino interactions with the matter surrounding the detector will allow the reconstruction of the neutrino direction with an angular resolution of the order or lower than one degree. Several projects are underway. Their status will be reviewed in this paper.

  2. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  3. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  4. High Density QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G

    2001-01-01

    The dynamics of high partonic density QCD is presented considering, in the double logarithm approximation, the parton recombination mechanism built in the AGL formalism, developed including unitarity corrections for the nucleon as well for nucleus. It is shown that these corrections are under theoretical control. The resulting non linear evolution equation is solved in the asymptotic regime, and a comprehensive phenomenology concerning Deep Inelastic Scattering like $F_2$, $F_L$, $F_2^c$. $\\partial F_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, $\\partial F^A_2/ \\partial \\ln Q^2$, etc, is presented. The connection of our formalism with the DGLAP and BFKL dynamics, and with other perturbative (K) and non-perturbative (MV-JKLW) approaches is analised in detail. The phenomena of saturation due to shadowing corrections and the relevance of this effect in ion physics and heavy quark production is emphasized. The implications to e-RHIC, HERA-A, and LHC physics and some open questions are mentioned.

  5. Streamflows at record highs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streamflow was reported well above average in more than half the country during May, with flows at or near record levels for the month in 22 states, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior.USGS hydrologists said that above average flow was reported at 98 of the 173 USGS key index gauging stations used in their monthly check on surface- and ground-water conditions. High flows were most prevalent in the Mississippi River basin states and in the east, with the exception of Maine, South Carolina, and Georgia. Below-average streamflow occurred in the Pacific northwest and in small scattered areas in Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Minnesota.

  6. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  7. High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillatory (HFO ventilation using low tidal volume and peak airway pressures is extremely efficient at eliminating carbon dioxide and raising pH in the newborn infant with acute respiratory failure. Improvement in oxygenation requires a strategy of sustained or repetitive inflations to 25 to 30 cm H2O in order to place the lung on the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curve. This strategy has also been shown to decrease the amount of secondary lung injury in animal models. Experience of the use of HFO ventilation as a rescue therapy as well as several published controlled trials have shown improved outcomes and a decrease in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation when it has been used in newborns.

  8. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  9. Fabrication of High T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperley, Miles Hyam

    1992-01-01

    Metal-clad high-T_{rm c} superconductor wires have been fabricated by conventional hot extrusion and wire drawing techniques. The fabrication processes which were used influenced the microstructure which, in turn, governed the superconducting properties of metal-clad Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) and Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) superconductors. The ability to form these materials into long thin wires and the electrical properties of the wires were assessed. Extruded metal-clad wire was fabricated by coextruding a Cu billet containing a Ag-clad superconductor core at 920^circC and 800 ^circC for YBCO and BPSCCO materials, respectively. The deformation behaviour of the composite billets was investigated by extruding through dies with semicone angle alpha = 30 ^circ and using a range of core diameters and reduction ratios. For combinations of initial core diameter and reduction ratio, domains of deformation behaviour were established including sound flow, nonuniform flow, core fracture and sleeve fracture. Hot extruded YBCO and BPSCCO superconductor had densities estimated to be between 95% and 98% of the theoretical values. The material contained transverse cracks except for a sample of YBCO which had an addition of 10 wt% Ag. The microstructure of the YBCO material consisted of YBa _2Cu_3O{_{7-x}}, while the BPSCCO material contained an intimate mixture of the high-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_2Cu _3O{_ {10-x}} (110 K) and low-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_1Cu _2O{_ {8-x}} (80 K) phases with Ca _2CuO_3 and Sr-Ca -Cu-O impurity particles. X-ray polefigure goniometry of extruded BPSCCO superconductor revealed that the material was relatively untextured. As-extruded YBCO and BPSCCO were semiconducting. Oxygen treated YBCO had a lower normal-state resistivity than the as-extruded material, and a superconducting transition above 77 K was not achieved. Heat treatment of extruded BPSCCO regenerated superconductivity above 77 K, with the transition behaviour dependent on the proportion of high

  10. High tech cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Mary G

    2006-12-01

    The use of technology has enhanced the convenience, flexibility, and efficiency of both preparatory and continuing education. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty, including plagiarism, has shown a positive correlation with the increased use of technology in education. A review of the literature related to unintended outcomes of the use of technology in nursing education and continuing education was conducted to determine the ethical implications for the nursing profession. Although nursing research dealing with academic and professional misconduct is sparse, evidence suggests that academic dishonesty is a predictor of workplace dishonesty. Given this correlation between unethical classroom behavior and unethical clinical behavior, efforts to staunch academic dishonesty may help allay professional misconduct. A combination of high tech and low tech methods may be used to minimize unethical behaviors among students and practicing professional nurses in order to maintain the integrity of the profession.

  11. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  12. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  13. Chromium at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    Chromium has long served as the archetype of spin density wave magnetism. Recently, Jaramillo and collaborators have shown that Cr also serves as an archetype of magnetic quantum criticality. Using a combination of x-ray diffraction and electrical transport measurements at high pressures and cryogenic temperatures in a diamond anvil cell, they have demonstrated that the N'eel transition (TN) can be continuously suppressed to zero, with no sign of a concurrent structural transition. The order parameter undergoes a broad regime of exponential suppression, consistent with the weak coupling paradigm, before deviating from a BCS-like ground state within a narrow but accessible quantum critical regime. The quantum criticality is characterized by mean field scaling of TN and non mean field scaling of the transport coefficients, which points to a fluctuation-induced reconstruction of the critical Fermi surface. A comparison between pressure and chemical doping as means to suppress TN sheds light on different routes to the quantum critical point and the relevance of Fermi surface nesting and disorder at this quantum phase transition. The work by Jaramillo et al. is broadly relevant to the study of magnetic quantum criticality in a physically pure and theoretically tractable system that balances elements of weak and strong coupling. [4pt] [1] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. Wang & T. F. Rosenbaum. Signatures of quantum criticality in pure Cr at high pressure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 13631 (2010). [0pt] [2] R. Jaramillo, Y. Feng, J. C. Lang, Z. Islam, G. Srajer, P. B. Littlewood, D. B. McWhan & T. F. Rosenbaum. Breakdown of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer ground state at a quantum phase transition. Nature 459, 405 (2009).

  14. Highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil

    2011-07-11

    The homoleptic, square-planar organoplatinum(II) compound [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) undergoes oxidative addition of CF(3) I under mild conditions to give rise to the octahedral organoplatinum(IV) complex [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)I] (2). This highly trifluoromethylated species reacts with Ag(+) salts of weakly coordinating anions in Me(2)CO under a wet-air stream to afford the aquo derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (OH(2))] (4) in around 75% yield. When the reaction of 2 with the same Ag(+) salts is carried out in MeCN, the solvento compound [NBu(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(NCMe)] (5) is obtained in around 80% yield. The aquo ligand in 4 as well as the MeCN ligand in 5 are labile and can be cleanly replaced by neutral and anionic ligands to furnish a series of pentakis(trifluoromethyl)platinate(IV) compounds with formulae [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (L)] (L=CO (6), pyridine (py; 7), tetrahydrothiophene (tht; 8)) and [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)X] (X=Cl (9), Br (10)). The unusual carbonyl-platinum(IV) derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (CO)] (6) is thermally stable and has a ν(CO) of 2194 cm(-1). The crystal structures of 2⋅CH(2)Cl(2), 5, [PPh(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(CO)] (6'), and 7 have been established by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 2 has shown itself to be a convenient entry to the chemistry of highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 2 and 4-10 are the organoelement compounds with the highest CF(3) content to have been isolated and adequately characterized to date.

  15. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  16. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  17. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  18. High-redshift cosmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: vitaglia@sissa.it, E-mail: xia@sissa.it, E-mail: liberati@sissa.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INFN sez. Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    We constrain the parameters describing the kinematical state of the universe using a cosmographic approach, which is fundamental in that it requires a very minimal set of assumptions (namely to specify a metric) and does not rely on the dynamical equations for gravity. On the data side, we consider the most recent compilations of Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts catalogues. This allows to further extend the cosmographic fit up to z = 6.6, i.e. up to redshift for which one could start to resolve the low z degeneracy among competing cosmological models. In order to reliably control the cosmographic approach at high redshifts, we adopt the expansion in the improved parameter y = z/(1+z). This series has the great advantage to hold also for z > 1 and hence it is the appropriate tool for handling data including non-nearby distance indicators. We find that Gamma Ray Bursts, probing higher redshifts than Supernovae, have constraining power and do require (and statistically allow) a cosmographic expansion at higher order than Supernovae alone. Exploiting the set of data from Union and GRBs catalogues, we show (for the first time in a purely cosmographic approach parametrized by deceleration q{sub 0}, jerk j{sub 0}, snap s{sub 0}) a definitively negative deceleration parameter q{sub 0} up to the 3σ confidence level. We present also forecasts for realistic data sets that are likely to be obtained in the next few years.

  19. High-Redshift Cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Liberati, Stefano; Viel, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    We constrain the parameters describing the kinematical state of the universe using a cosmographic approach, which is fundamental in that it requires a very minimal set of assumptions (namely to specify a metric) and does not rely on the dynamical equations for gravity. On the data side, we consider the most recent compilations of Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts catalogs. This allows to further extend the cosmographic fit up to $z=6.6$, i.e. up to redshift for which one could start to resolve the low $z$ degeneracy among competing cosmological models. In order to reliably control the cosmographic approach at high redshifts, we adopt the expansion in the improved parameter $y=z/(1+z)$ (as proposed in Class. Quant. Grav., 24 (2007) 5985). This series has the great advantage to hold also for $z>1$ and hence it is the appropriate tool for handling data including non-nearby distance indicators. We find that Gamma Ray Bursts, probing higher redshifts than Supernovae, have constraining power and do require (and stati...

  20. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  1. Melamine Polyimide Composite Fire Resistant Intumescent Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Components of intumescent coatings acid source, carbon source and blowing agent like melamine linked together by a binder provide cumulative fire retardant properties. When temperature of the coating surface reaches a critical temperature under the heat of flame, the surface begins to melt and is converted into highly viscous liquid. Simultaneously, reactions are initiated that result in the release of inert gases with low thermal conductivity. These gases are trapped inside the viscous fluid forming insulating char. The special composite of melamine polyimide, a C source and melamine a blowing agent showed high performance heat resistance in the present study. Polyimides have excellent heat and chemical resistance, excellent adhesion to a number of substrates and superior mechanical properties, such as high flexural modulus and compressive strength. Polyimides are also known to possess outstanding dimensional stability under loads, which allows their use in high temperature environments. Effect of the monomer on chemical reactivity between the binder and the intumescent additives has been studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and FTIR analysis. Thermal insulation studies by various intumescent composite coatings, applied on aluminium plates provided useful time temperature profiles.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.442-446, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4871

  2. Melamine Polyimide Composite Fire Resistant Intumescent Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Components of intumescent coatings acid source, carbon source and blowing agent like melamine linked together by a binder provide cumulative fire retardant properties. When temperature of the coating surface reaches a critical temperature under the heat of flame, the surface begins to melt and is converted into highly viscous liquid. Simultaneously, reactions are initiated that result in the release of inert gases with low thermal conductivity. These gases are trapped inside the viscous fluid forming insulating char. The special composite of melamine polyimide, a C source and melamine a blowing agent showed high performance heat resistance in the present study. Polyimides have excellent heat and chemical resistance, excellent adhesion to a number of substrates and superior mechanical properties, such as high flexural modulus and compressive strength. Polyimides are also known to possess outstanding dimensional stability under loads, which allows their use in high temperature environments. Effect of the monomer on chemical reactivity between the binder and the intumescent additives has been studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and FTIR analysis. Thermal insulation studies by various intumescent composite coatings, applied on aluminium plates provided useful time temperature profiles.

  3. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  4. High-intensityfocusedultrasoundtreatmentfor patientswithunresectablepancreaticcancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Zhou Li; Shai-Hong Zhu; Wei He; Li-Yong Zhu; Sheng-Ping Liu; Yan Liu; Guo-Hui Wang; Fei Ye

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive method of solid tissue ablation therapy. However, only a few studies have reported the effect of HIFU for unresectable pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical beneifts, survival time and complications associated with the use of HIFU ablation in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Twenty-ifve patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in our study. All patients received HIFU therapy for tumors at least once. The therapeutic effects of HIFU was evaluated in terms of Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scores, pain relief, serum CA19-9, and imaging by B-US and CT before and after the therapy. We also recorded median overall survival time and complications caused by the treatment. RESULTS: In the 25 patients, KPS scores were above 60, and increased KPS was observed in 23 patients after treatment. Pain relief occurred in 23 patients. Serum CA19-9 levels were signiifcantly reduced one month after HIFU treatment and became negative in 5 patients. B-US revealed enhanced tumor echogenicity in 13 patients and decreased tumor blood supply in 9. Tumor necrosis was conifrmed by CT in 8 patients one month after HIFU treatment. The median overall survival time was 10 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 42%. No severe complications were observed after HIFU treatment. CONCLUSION: HIFU can effectively relieve pain, increase KPS, decrease tumor growth and prolong the survival time of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  5. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  6. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  7. Highly Accurate Sensor for High-Purity Oxygen Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) and the University of Wisconsin (UW) propose to develop a highly-accurate sensor for high-purity oxygen determination....

  8. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  9. Allina Health System's approach to high tech and high touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T A

    1997-01-01

    All health care providers, regardless of their integration status, must meet customer expectations to maintain market share and viability. The balance between high tech and high touch customer interactions is not a fad or trend. For integrated health systems with the full continuum of medical care, additional challenges are presented by the organization's competing health care delivery and financing components. Allina Health System describes its integrated health system approach to satisfying customer high tech and high touch needs.

  10. Wet-spinning of continuous montmorillonite-graphene fibers for fire-resistant lightweight conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bo; Peng, Li; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2015-05-26

    All-inorganic fibers composed of neat 2D crystals possessing fascinating performance (e.g., alternately stacking layers, high mechanical strength, favorable electrical conductivity, and fire-resistance) are discussed in detail. We developed a wet-spinning assmebly strategy to achieve continuous all-inorganic fibers of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoplatelets by incorporation of a graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystal (LC) template at a rate of 9 cm/s, and the templating role of GO LC is confirmed by in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy and polarized optical microscopy inspections. After protofibers underwent thermal reduction, the obtained binary complex fibers composed of neat 2D crystals integrate the outstanding fire-retardance of MMT nanoplatelets and the excellent conductivity of graphene nanosheets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope observations reveal the microstructures of fibers with compactly stacking layers. MMT-graphene fibers show increaing tensile strengths (88-270 MPa) and electrical conductivities (130-10500 S/m) with increasing graphene fraction. MMT-graphene (10/90) fibers are used as fire-resistant (bearing temperature in air: 600-700 °C), lightweight (ρ spinning strategy may also inspire the continuous assembly of other layered crystals into high-performance composite fibers.

  11. Planning High-Risk High-Reward Activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casault, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This body of work addresses a gap in financial and economic theories related to assets that are typically associated with high uncertainty. Specifically, this thesis provides some foundational work towards a new way to quantify and explain how high-risk high-reward activities, such as exploration,

  12. High Expectations, High Support: Essential Elements of Engagement. 2008 Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Survey of Student Engagement, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the 2008 Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). This year, CCSSE zeroes in on high expectations and high support as it presents the results of its 2008 survey. Both are critical to student success: Students do best when expectations are high "and" they receive support that helps them…

  13. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  14. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  15. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  16. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  17. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  18. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  19. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  20. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the ...

  1. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  3. High Efficency Lightweight Radiators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XC Associates proposes to build on prior work to develop and characterize a very high efficiency, lightweight radiator constructed from high thermal conductivity...

  4. Isolating highly connected induced subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penev, Irena; Thomasse, Stephan; Trotignon, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    the existence of a highly connected subgraph. We give several variants of our result, and for each of these variants, we give asymptotics for the bounds. We also compute optimal values for the case when k = 2. Alon, Kleitman, Saks, Seymour, and Thomassen proved that in a graph of high chromatic number......, there exists an induced subgraph of high connectivity and high chromatic number. We give a new proof of this theorem with a better bound....

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  8. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  10. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. Fire-Resistant Hydrogel-Fabric Laminates: A Simple Concept That May Save Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeperuma, Widusha R K; Rothemund, Philipp; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J

    2016-01-27

    There is a large demand for fabrics that can survive high-temperature fires for an extended period of time, and protect the skin from burn injuries. Even though fire-resistant polymer fabrics are commercially available, many of these fabrics are expensive, decompose rapidly, and/or become very hot when exposed to high temperatures. We have developed a new class of fire-retarding materials by laminating a hydrogel and a fabric. The hydrogel contains around 90% water, which has a large heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization. When the laminate is exposed to fire, a large amount of energy is absorbed as water heats up and evaporates. The temperature of the hydrogel cannot exceed 100 °C until it is fully dehydrated. The fabric has a low thermal conductivity and maintains the temperature gradient between the hydrogel and the skin. The laminates are fabricated using a recently developed tough hydrogel to ensure integrity of the laminate during processing and use. A thermal model predicts the performance of the laminates and shows that they have excellent heat resistance in good agreement with experiments, making them viable candidates in life saving applications such as fire-resistant blankets or apparel.

  12. Surface thermodynamic parameters of modified wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrovskaya Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy characteristics of modified wood are studied in the paper. Application of this approach during the study of wooden materials allows forecasting the efficiency of modifiers for surface layer of wood. Phosphites, the efficient fire-retarders, were applied as modifiers. Using the example of a number of ethers with various alkoxy substituents of phosphorus atom, we have made an attempt to associate surface thermodynamic properties of modified wood and formation of properties for fire-, bio- and smoke protection. The dependence of change of energy characteristics and surface structure of wood on the nature of modifiers is determined. To study energy characteristics of wood, modified by various compounds, the following characteristics were used: σ surface tension and ΔG free enthalpy gradient. Easy Drop setting and the corresponding software were used to determine these values. According to the obtained data, the conclusion is made about the influence of modifiers on energy characteristics of wood. The high degree of modification (% P causes bigger change of Gibbs energy, which determines formation of high-level fire-, bio- and smoke protection. Diethyl phosphite is the most efficient modifier. Formation of fire-protective properties stipulates long-term operation of wood and wood-based materials.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Ni-plated Glass Beads/PVC Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; WANG Sijie; ZHAO Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ni-plated glass beads (GB) was obtained by electroless plating, based on PVC adhesive, Ni-plated GB/PVC composite was prepared. Temperature insulation, fire retardation and microwave absorption properties were tested, the results showed that the nickel coating was compact and continuous, Ni-plated GB/PVC composite is a kind of excellent temperature insulated, fire retardate and light-weight material, and especially for microwave absorption well;Reflectivity was lower than -2 dB in the frequency range of 11-17 GHz.

  14. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  15. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  16. Entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D. S.; Wang, K.; Zhang, W.; Shi, S.; Dong, M. X.; Yu, Y. C.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Shi, B. S.; Guo, G. C.

    2016-11-01

    Establishing a quantum interface between different physical systems is of special importance for developing the practical versatile quantum networks. Entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves is essential for building up Rydberg-based quantum information engineering, which is also helpful to study the dynamics behavior of entanglement under external perturbations. Here, we report on the successful storage of a single photon as a high-lying atomic spin wave in a quantum regime. By storing a K-vector entanglement between a single photon and low-lying spin wave, we experimentally realize the entanglement between low- and high-lying atomic spin waves in two separated atomic systems. This makes our experiment a primary demonstration of Rydberg quantum memory of entanglement, representing a primary step toward the construction of a hybrid quantum interface.

  17. High Cycle-life Shape Memory Polymer at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deyan; Xiao, Xinli

    2016-09-01

    High cycle-life is important for shape memory materials exposed to numerous cycles, and here we report shape memory polyimide that maintained both high shape fixity (Rf) and shape recovery (Rr) during the more than 1000 bending cycles tested. Its critical stress is 2.78 MPa at 250 °C, and the shape recovery process can produce stored energy of 0.218 J g-1 at the efficiency of 31.3%. Its high Rf is determined by the large difference in storage modulus at rubbery and glassy states, while the high Rr mainly originates from its permanent phase composed of strong π-π interactions and massive chain entanglements. Both difference in storage modulus and overall permanent phase were preserved during the bending deformation cycles, and thus high Rf and Rr were observed in every cycle and the high cycle-life will expand application areas of SMPs enormously.

  18. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  19. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  20. High rate, high reliability Li/SO2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireau, R.

    1982-03-01

    The use of the lithium/sulfur dioxide system for aerospace applications is discussed. The high rate density in the system is compared to some primary systems: mercury zinc, silver zinc, and magnesium oxide. Estimates are provided of the storage life and shelf life of typical lithium sulfur batteries. The design of lithium cells is presented and criteria are given for improving the output of cells in order to achieve high rate and high reliability.