WorldWideScience

Sample records for high cost premium

  1. Using the Black Scholes method for estimating high cost illness insurance premiums in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Chicaíza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article applied the Black-Scholes option valuation formula to calculating high-cost illness reinsurance premiums in the Colombian health system. The coverage pattern used in reinsuring high-cost illnesses was replicated by means of a European call option contract. The option’s relevant variables and parameters were adapted to an insurance market context. The premium estimated by the BlackScholes method fell within the range of premiums estimated by the actuarial method.

  2. Do "premium" joint implants add value?: analysis of high cost joint implants in a community registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioe, Terence J; Sharma, Amit; Tatman, Penny; Mehle, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous joint implant options of varying cost are available to the surgeon, but it is unclear whether more costly implants add value in terms of function or longevity. We evaluated registry survival of higher-cost "premium" knee and hip components compared to lower-priced standard components. Premium TKA components were defined as mobile-bearing designs, high-flexion designs, oxidized-zirconium designs, those including moderately crosslinked polyethylene inserts, or some combination. Premium THAs included ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and ceramic-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene designs. We compared 3462 standard TKAs to 2806 premium TKAs and 868 standard THAs to 1311 premium THAs using standard statistical methods. The cost of the premium implants was on average approximately $1000 higher than the standard implants. There was no difference in the cumulative revision rate at 7-8 years between premium and standard TKAs or THAs. In this time frame, premium implants did not demonstrate better survival than standard implants. Revision indications for TKA did not differ, and infection and instability remained contributors. Longer followup is necessary to demonstrate whether premium implants add value in younger patient groups. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Demystifying first-cost green building premiums in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Adele; Vittori, Gail; Guenther, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the extent of "first-cost green building construction premiums" in the healthcare sector based on data submitted by and interviews with 13 current LEED-certified and LEED-registered healthcare project teams, coupled with a literature survey of articles on the topics of actual and perceived first-cost premiums associated with green building strategies. This analysis covers both perceived and realized costs across a range of projects in this sector, leading to the following conclusions: Construction first-cost premiums may be lower than is generally perceived, and they appear to be independent of both building size and level of "green" achievement; projects are using financial incentives and philanthropy to drive higher levels of achievement; premiums are decreasing over time; and projects are benefiting from improvements in health and productivity which, although difficult to monetize, are universally valued.

  4. How the ACA's Health Insurance Expansions Have Affected Out-of-Pocket Cost-Sharing and Spending on Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Solís-Román, Claudia; Parikh, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    One important benefit gained by the millions of Americans with health insurance through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is protection from high out-of-pocket health spending. While Medicaid unambiguously reduces out-of-pocket premium and medical costs for low-income people, it is less certain that marketplace coverage and other types of insurance purchased to comply with the law's individual mandate also protect from high health spending. Goal: To compare out-of-pocket spending in 2014 to spending in 2013; assess how this spending changed in states where many people enrolled in the marketplaces relative to states where few people enrolled; and project the decline in the percentage of people paying high amounts out-of-pocket. Methods: Linear regression models were used to estimate whether people under age 65 spent above certain thresholds. Key findings and conclusions: The probability of incurring high out-of-pocket costs and premium expenses declined as marketplace enrollment increased. The percentage reductions were greatest among those with incomes between 250 percent and 399 percent of poverty, those who were eligible for premium subsidies, and those who previously were uninsured or had very limited nongroup coverage. These effects appear largely attributable to marketplace enrollment rather than to other ACA provisions or to economic trends.

  5. An Analysis of Cost Premiums and Losses Associated with USAF Military Construction (MILCON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    outside of MILCON procurement. Additionally, project signage requirements do not represent a MILCON cost premium. Although the USACE prescribes exact... signage specifications for the construction site, this cost is negligible for a MILCON project since private industry utilizes similar signs...8A/small-business policies Moderate 3.175 1 18 9 6 11 Specific Direct digital controls for all HVAC components Moderate 3.139 1 4 19 25 12 General

  6. Canadian practitioners' perception of research work investigating the cost premiums, long-term costs and health and productivity benefits of green buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, M.H.; Rankin, J.H.; Christian, A.J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Despite evidence suggesting conflicting views between practitioners and researchers when it comes to estimating the costs and financial benefits of green buildings, there exists no research work that has attempted to investigate practitioners' perception, and in particular Canadian practitioners', of the work conducted by researchers. To fill this gap in the literature, a web-based anonymous survey was administered to 1200 LEED accredited professionals in Canada to assess, among other things, practitioners' awareness, and confidence in research work assessing the cost premiums, long-term cost benefits, and health and productivity benefits of green buildings. The statistical analysis of the data using t-tests and mixed-model ANOVA tests showed that Canadian practitioners were still uncertain about results of the literature. Despite a slow change in attitudes the longer they worked in the field, practitioners continued to identify high cost premiums as the primary barrier to investing in green practices, and energy cost savings as the most important type of savings incurred in green buildings. The majority were uncertain about the size and impact of productivity and health benefits, and about how best to measure them. First-time adopters of LEED usually found the cost and complexity of the system prohibitive. Many believed that the decision to go green rested ultimately with the owner. That is why future research work needs to focus on improving knowledge transfer between practitioners and researchers and on improving the rigour and accuracy of the literature by using more empirical data, and getting practitioners to endorse research work in the field. (author) )

  7. Consumers Buy Lower-Cost Plans On Covered California, Suggesting Exposure To Premium Increases Is Less Than Commonly Reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Stromberg, Sam T; Green, Matthew; Whitmore, Heidi; Scheffler, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    With the notable exception of California, states have not made enrollment data for their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace plans publicly available. Researchers thus have tracked premium trends by calculating changes in the average price for plans offered (a straight average across plans) rather than for plans purchased (a weighted average). Using publicly available enrollment data for Covered California, we found that the average purchased price for all plans was 11.6 percent less than the average offered price in 2014, 13.2 percent less in 2015, and 15.2 percent less in 2016. Premium growth measured by plans purchased was roughly 2 percentage points less than when measured by plans offered in 2014-15 and 2015-16. We observed shifts in consumer choices toward less costly plans, both between and within tiers, and we estimate that a $100 increase in a plan's net annual premium reduces its probability of selection. These findings suggest that the Marketplaces are helping consumers moderate premium cost growth. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. PREMIUM PRICE PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA HUTAN PRODUKSI BERSERTIFIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Muhayah Noor Pitri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification is a key issue in relation to the forest products industry. It's also a new trend market of forest products. Forest certification is a guarantee that the products resulting from the forest management process in accordance with the standard of sustainable forest resources management. Certification will be increasing the cost of management as an impact of fulfilling requirement on the criteria of the certified forest. The fundamental question whether the award of certified products has been accompanied by an increase in premium price for forest estate or only becoming as the cost that reducing profit for the forest estate. The aims of this research are: 1 to know the difference between the sales price of certified and non-certified wood, 2 to know the premium price on certified forests, 3 to identify the factors that influence the amount of premium price of the certified forest. Data collection were used by searching the document and literature reference on forest certification. The results showed that the premium price received from the certified timber is higher than non-certified timber. Certified wood with high quality has a premium price that is greater than the low-quality wood. The percentage of premium price received varied forest estate. Premium price sometimes unsignificantly received by small-scale of timber estate. The revenue of premium price of certifies forest is influenced by the following factors: 1 The forest area to be certified, 2 Organizations that perform assessments, 3 Company / bodies / organizations that filed the certification, 4 he The country as a buyer of certified timber product 5 the facilitator in the market activities, 6 post-certification fee, and 7 the sales price.

  9. Insurance premium reductions. A motivating factor in long-term hypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M; Rafter, J; Gajewski, J

    1984-02-10

    Elevated blood pressure substantially increases mortality and requires, therefore, high premium payments for life insurance coverage. Most life insurance companies are willing to reduce the cost of yearly premiums when blood pressure is successfully treated and controlled for several years. Physicians should bring these facts to their patients' attention as a motivating factor to improve adherence to therapy.

  10. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  11. Comparing the assets of uninsured households to cost sharing under high-deductible health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Claxton, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Financial assets are relevant when one is assessing whether high-deductible plans, which require greater up-front cost sharing, are worthwhile for the uninsured. We show that uninsured households have less financial assets compared to the insured; at lower income levels, their net financial assets may even be negative. Although lower premiums may increase the ability of the uninsured to buy some coverage, high out-of-pocket liability may leave families exposed to costs that they cannot meet. Paying premiums for a policy that exposes the uninsured to unaffordable medical bills may be viewed as an uneconomical use of their limited assets.

  12. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  13. Downside Variance Risk Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.; Okou, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decomposition of the variance risk premium in terms of upside and downside variance risk premia. The difference between upside and downside variance risk premia is a measure of skewness risk premium. We establish that the downside variance risk premium is the main component of the variance risk premium, and that the skewness risk premium is a priced factor with significant prediction power for aggregate excess returns. Our empirical investigation highlights the positive and s...

  14. 5 CFR 870.405 - Direct premium payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Cost of Insurance § 870.405 Direct premium... or retirement system must submit all direct premium payments, along with its regular life insurance... some or all of the insurance or to make direct premium payments. An employee, annuitant,...

  15. 49 CFR 260.15 - Credit risk premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit risk premium. 260.15 Section 260.15... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.15 Credit risk premium. (a) Where available... pay to the Administrator a Credit Risk Premium adequate to cover that portion of the subsidy cost not...

  16. S-shape relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay premium prices for high quality cured pork products in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Torres, Alejandro; Muñoz-Gallego, Pablo A; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores 2 different probabilistic models explaining willingness to pay premium prices for high-quality cured products from the swine industry. Seven cured pork products (sausage, fuet, ham, loin, shoulder, salami and pepperoni) were studied in 9 food-stores in Valladolid, Spain. Consumers of the products were interviewed (686 completed surveys). It was found by using mixed effect statistical models that the relationship between willingness to pay a premium price and customer satisfaction had nonlinear behavior, following an S-shape with inverted slope which was the first empirical evidence of this type of behavior in meat products in real market conditions. It was also established that the interaction between satisfaction and current expenditure on the product was significant and indispensable for explaining consumers' willingness to pay premium price for cured pork products.

  17. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  18. Curb Your Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Grembi, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel institut......We study a policy aimed at increasing the level of information on medical malpractice costs and the risk exposure of local public healthcare providers. The policy is based on enhanced monitoring of medical malpractice claims by the level of government that rules providers in a multilevel...... Regions. Our results show that this information-enhancing policy reduces paid premiums by around 15%. This reduced-form effect might arise by higher bargaining power on the demand side or increased competition on the supply side of the insurance market. Validity tests show that our findings are not driven...

  19. Health Insurance Marketplaces: Premium Trends in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; Kemper, Leah M; McBride, Timothy D; Meuller, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    Since 2014, when the Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs) authorized by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) were implemented, considerable premium changes have been observed in the marketplaces across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This policy brief assesses the changes in average HIM plan premiums from 2014 to 2016, before accounting for subsidies, with an emphasis on the widening variation across rural and urban places. Since this brief focuses on premiums without accounting for subsidies, this is not intended to be an analysis of the "affordability" of ACA premiums, as that would require assessment of premiums, cost-sharing adjustments, and other factors.

  20. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  1. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  2. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., a reconciliation of premiums, benefits, and other costs will be performed as a limited cost... Contractor's bank for payment. (c) Nothing in this chapter will affect the ability of the Contractor to...

  3. The Pupil Premium: Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton Trust, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The pupil premium was introduced by the Coalition government in April 2011 to provide additional funding for disadvantaged pupils. The main difference between the premium and previous funding for disadvantaged pupils is that the premium is linked to individual pupils. On July 1, 2015, The Pupil Premium Summit organized by the Education Endowment…

  4. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  5. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical and empir......Contrary to the prevailing interpretation, this paper shows that the central models of trade with heterogeneous firms [Melitz (2003) and Bernard et al.(2003)] exhibit ambiguous predictions for the exporter productivity premium. This prospect arises due to differences between theoretical...... for empirical research on exporter performance including learning, and the role of non-parametric regressions (stochastic dominance, quantile regressions), fixed costs and productivity distributions....

  6. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  7. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...

  8. PREMIUMS CALCULATION FOR LIFE INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA PREDA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the techniques and the formulas used on international practice for establishing the premiums for a life policy. The formulas are generally based on a series of indicators named mortality indicators which mainly point out the insured survival probability, the death probability and life expectancy at certain age. I determined, using a case study, the unique net premium, the annual net premium for a survival insurance, whole life insurance and mixed life insurance.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  10. 38 CFR 6.2 - Premium rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 6.2 Premium rate. Effective January 1, 1983, United States Government Life Insurance policies, and total disability income provisions, on a premium paying status are paid-up and no premiums are required to maintain such policies and provisions in force. Policies...

  11. Risk Premium and Expectations in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castex

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes the risk of college participation into context when evaluating the return to college education. College dropout and a higher permanent income shock for those who graduate from college accounts for 51% of the excess return to college education. Using a simple risk premium approach, I reconcile the observed high average returns to schooling with relatively low attendance rates. A high dropout risk has two important effects on the estimated average returns to college education: ...

  12. 14 CFR 198.13 - Premium insurance-payment of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.13 Premium insurance—payment of premiums. The insured must pay the premium for insurance issued under this part within the stated period after receipt of... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premium insurance-payment of premiums....

  13. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  14. 78 FR 44056 - Premium Rates; Payment of Premiums; Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... benefits (UVBs)--the excess of its premium funding target over its assets. The premium funding target and... would small plans enjoy the convenience of a convergence between the premium and Form 5500 due...

  15. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  16. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  17. The share of people with high medical costs increased prior to implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of Americans with high medical cost burdens--those who spend more than 10 percent of their family income on out-of-pocket expenses for health care--increased to 19.2 percent in 2011, after having stabilized at 18.2 percent during the Great Recession of 2007-09. The increase was driven primarily by growth in premium expenses in 2009-11 for people with employer-sponsored coverage. Out-of-pocket spending on health services, especially for prescription drugs, continued to decrease between 2007-09 and 2011. Medical cost burdens were highest for income groups most likely to benefit from the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansions, including people with private insurance coverage. Those who purchased nongroup coverage before the implementation of the health insurance Marketplaces in 2014 spent an especially high proportion of their income on health care, and over half of these people will qualify for premium subsidies in the Marketplaces. Federal subsidies will substantially reduce medical cost burdens for many people who do not obtain health insurance through their employers.

  18. Foreign Exchange Risk Premium; Does Fiscal Policy Matter? Evidence From Italian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Giorgianni

    1997-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional view that foreign exchange risk premiums are small, not volatile, and unrelated to macroeconomic variables. For the Italian lira (1987-94), unconditional risk premiums—constructed using survey data to measure exchange rate expectations—are found to be sizable (relative to the dimension of the forward premium), highly volatile (relative to the variability of the forward bias), and predictable. Estimation of structural models of the risk premium suggests t...

  19. Homeownership in a high-cost region

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Schlorholtz

    2006-01-01

    A perfect storm is brewing in eastern Massachusetts: high home prices, rising interest rates, and a proliferation of high-cost mortgage products. More buyer education and better state regulation of lenders not covered by the Community Reinvestment Act are needed.

  20. MODEL PERAMALAN KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR JENIS PREMIUM DI INDONESIA DENGAN REGRESI LINIER BERGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farizal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption forecasting, especially premium, is an integral part of energy management. Premium is a type of energy that receives government subsidy. Unfortunately, premium forecastings being performed have considerable high error resulting difficulties on reaching planned subsidy target and exploding the amount. In this study forecasting was conducted using multilinear regression (MLR method with ten candidate predictor variables. The result shows that only four variables which are inflation, selling price disparity between pertamanx and premium, economic growth rate, and the number of car, dictate premium consumption. Analsys on the MLR model indicates that the model has a considerable low error with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 5.18%. The model has been used to predict 2013 primium consumption with 1.05% of error. The model predicted that 2013 premium consumption was 29.56 million kiloliter, while the reality was 29.26 million kiloliter.

  1. 38 CFR 7.4 - The premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The premium. 7.4 Section 7.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS... association. (a) The premium on a policy will be calculated on an annual basis, and if the annual premium...

  2. 纯烤烟(SVC)最新发展技术--第一部分%Recent Advances in the Technology of Straight Virginia Cigarettes (SVC) Development of Premium Cost-effective Lower-Tar SVC Products with Acceptable Smoking Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fawky Abdallah

    2004-01-01

    @@ Part 1. Basic Principles This is the first article in a series of three that is based on Dr. Abdallah's presentation at China Tobacco Society Convention, December 11-13, 2003, in Shanghai. The series discusses the contributions of manufacturing in general, and blending and processing in particular, to the development of premium costeffective lower-tar SVC products with acceptable smoking qualities.

  3. Easy Access to Premium Luxury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lexus Launches Summer Financing Program with Interest Rates as Low as 2.011percent Lexus China has launched its latest financing program with interest rates as low as 2.011 percent for three of its luxury small displacement models:RX270,IS250 and ES240.The program is an additional premium offer presented by Lexus to Chinese consumers

  4. In Second Year Of Marketplaces, New Entrants, ACA 'Co-Ops,' And Medicaid Plans Restrain Average Premium Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon R; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Stromberg, Sam T; Weinstein, Daniel S; Oran, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Premiums for health insurance plans offered through the federally facilitated and state-based Marketplaces remained steady or increased only modestly from 2014 to 2015. We used data from the Marketplaces, state insurance departments, and insurer websites to examine patterns of premium pricing and the factors behind these patterns. Our data came from 2,964 unique plans offered in 2014 and 4,153 unique plans offered in 2015 in forty-nine states and the District of Columbia. Using descriptive and multivariate analysis, we found that the addition of a carrier in a rating area lowered average premiums for the two lowest-cost silver plans and the lowest-cost bronze plan by 2.2 percent. When all plans in a rating area were included, an additional carrier was associated with an average decline in premiums of 1.4 percent. Plans in the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan Program and Medicaid managed care plans had lower premiums and average premium increases than national commercial and Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans. On average, premiums fell by an appreciably larger amount for catastrophic and bronze plans than for gold plans, and premiums for platinum plans increased. This trend of low premium increases overall is unlikely to continue, however, as insurers are faced with mounting medical claims.

  5. Low cost, high performance far infrared microbolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roer, Audun; Lapadatu, Adriana; Elfving, Anders; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Hohler, Erling

    2010-04-01

    Far infrared (FIR) is becoming more widely accepted within the automotive industry as a powerful sensor to detect Vulnerable Road Users like pedestrians and bicyclist as well as animals. The main focus of FIR system development lies in reducing the cost of their components, and this will involve optimizing all aspects of the system. Decreased pixel size, improved 3D process integration technologies and improved manufacturing yields will produce the necessary cost reduction on the sensor to enable high market penetration. The improved 3D process integration allows a higher fill factor and improved transmission/absorption properties. Together with the high Thermal Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) and low 1/f noise properties provided by monocrystalline silicon germanium SiGe thermistor material, they lead to bolometer performances beyond those of existing devices. The thermistor material is deposited and optimized on an IR wafer separated from the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) wafer. The IR wafer is transferred to the ROIC using CMOS compatible processes and materials, utilizing a low temperature wafer bonding process. Long term vacuum sealing obtained by wafer scale packaging enables further cost reductions and improved quality. The approach allows independent optimization of ROIC and thermistor material processing and is compatible with existing MEMS-foundries, allowing fast time to market.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  7. The conditional size premium and intertemporal risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2017-01-01

    The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders the uncondit......The size premium only appears in states with good expected stock returns as given by several state variables, such as the aggregate book-to-market. The annual premium is 15% when this variable is within the top 33% in historical terms and an insignificant 0.4% otherwise. This renders...... the unconditional tests about the size premium inaccurate: For example, the unconditional evidence in the literature supporting the intertemporal risk explanation of the size premium is absent in a conditional sense. Indeed, the conditional and unconditional intertemporal hedging properties of the small stocks...

  8. Why Do Firms Pay an Overtime Premium?

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Robert A.; Ma, Yue

    2000-01-01

    We develop a rationale for the payment by firms of a wage premium on marginal, or overtime, weekly hours. We examine wage-hours contracts within the framework of a two-period specific human capital model with asymmetric information. The wage premium serves to achieve contract efficiency. For those weekly hours for which a premium is paid, worker compensation exceeds the value of marginal product. There is an optimal automatic compensatory differential rule between straight-time wages and the ...

  9. The Envy Premium in Product Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Niels van de Ven; Marcel Zeelenberg; Rik Pieters

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that elicit their envy. The more people compared themselves to a superior other, the higher the envy premium was. Yet, the emotion envy and not the upward comparison drove the final effects. The envy premium only emerged for a desirable product that the superior other owned (iPhone) when people experienced benign envy. Benign envy is elicited when the other's superior position is deserved, and malicious envy when it is undeserved. When peopl...

  10. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... alternative premium funding target to calculate its variable rate premium (VRP). The regulations require that such an election be filed with PBGC before the VRP due date. A plan makes an election by ] checking box... funding target is not in effect, the plan must calculate its VRP using the standard premium funding target...

  11. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  12. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is po

  13. 42 CFR 406.32 - Monthly premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.32 Monthly premiums. (a... respect to individuals age 65 or over from the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund during the succeeding... payable to “CMS Medicare Insurance,” and shows his or her name and the claim number that appears on his or...

  14. The Forward Premium Puzzle only emerges gradually

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bernoth (Kerstin); J. von Hagen; C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe forward premium puzzle (FPP) is the negative correlation between the forward premium and the realized exchange rate return at maturities of a month and beyond. Some recent evidence shows that at maturities of multiple years and at the highest intra day frequency the correlation is

  15. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  16. On the characterization of convex premium principles

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cardin; Graziella Pacelli

    2006-01-01

    In actuarial literature the properties of risk measures or insurance premium principles have been extensively studied . We propose a characterization of a particular class of coherent risk measures defined in [1]. The considered premium principles are obtained by expansion of TVar measures, consequently they look like very interesting in insurance pricing where TVar measures is frequently used to value tail risks.

  17. What drives insurer participation and premiums in the Federally-Facilitated Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean Marie; Drake, Coleman; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Simon, Kosali

    2017-04-26

    We investigate determinants of market entry and premiums within the context of the Affordable Care Act's Marketplaces for individual insurance. Using Bresnahan and Reiss (1991) as the conceptual framework, we study how competition and firm heterogeneity relate to premiums in 36 states using Federally Facilitated or Supported Marketplaces in 2016. Our primary data source is the Qualified Health Plan Landscape File, augmented with market characteristics from the American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File as well as insurer-level information from federal Medical Loss Ratio annual reports. We first estimate a model of insurer entry and then investigate the relationship between a market's predicted number of entrants and insurer-level premiums. Our entry model results suggest that competition is increasing with the number of insurers, most notably as the market size increases from 3 to 4 entrants. Results from the premium regression suggest that each additional entrant is associated with approximately 4% lower premiums, controlling for other factors. An alternative explanation for the relationship between entrants and premiums is that more efficient insurers (who can price lower) are the ones that enter markets with many entrants, and this is reflected in lower premiums. An exploratory analysis of insurers' non-claims costs (a proxy for insurer efficiency) reveals that average costs among entrants are rising slightly with the number of insurers in the market. This pattern does not support the hypothesis that premiums decrease with more entrants because those entrants are more efficient, suggesting instead that the results are being driven mostly by price competition.

  18. Determinants of Medicare plan choices: are beneficiaries more influenced by premiums or benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Buntin, Melinda B

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of Medicare beneficiaries to premiums and benefits when selecting healthcare plans after the introduction of Part D. We matched respondents in the 2008 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey to the Medicare Advantage (MA) plans available to them using the Bid Pricing Tool and previously unavailable data on beneficiaries' plan choices. We estimated a 2-stage nested logit model of Medicare plan choice decision making, including the decision to choose traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare or an MA plan, and for those choosing MA, which specific plan they chose. Beneficiaries living in areas with higher average monthly rebates available from MA plans were more likely to choose MA rather than FFS. When choosing MA plans, beneficiaries are roughly 2 to 3 times more responsive to dollars spent to reduce cost sharing than reductions in their premium. We calculated an elasticity of plan choice with respect to the monthly MA premium of -0.20. Beneficiaries with lower incomes are more sensitive to plan premiums and cost sharing than higher-income beneficiaries. MA plans appear to have a limited incentive to aggressively price their products, and seem to compete primarily over reduced beneficiary cost sharing. Given the limitations of the current plan choice environment, policies designed to encourage the selection of lower-cost plans may require increasing premium differences between plans and providing the tools to enable beneficiaries to easily assess those differences.

  19. Differing Impacts Of Market Concentration On Affordable Care Act Marketplace Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Glied, Sherry A

    2016-05-01

    Recent increases in market concentration among health plans, hospitals, and medical groups raise questions about what impact such mergers are having on costs to consumers. We examined the impact of market concentration on the growth of health insurance premiums between 2014 and 2015 in two Affordable Care Act state-based Marketplaces: Covered California and NY State of Health. We measured health plan, hospital, and medical group market concentration using the well-known Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) and used a multivariate regression model to relate these measures to premium growth. Both states exhibited a positive association between hospital concentration and premium growth and a positive (but not statistically significant) association between medical group concentration and premium growth. Our results for health plan concentration differed between the two states: It was positively associated with premium growth in New York but negatively associated with premium growth in California. The health plan concentration finding in Covered California may be the result of its selectively contracting with health plans.

  20. Dynamic jump intensities and risk premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Ornthanalai, Chayawat; Jacobs, Kris

    2012-01-01

    We build a new class of discrete-time models that are relatively easy to estimate using returns and/or options. The distribution of returns is driven by two factors: dynamic volatility and dynamic jump intensity. Each factor has its own risk premium. The models significantly outperform standard...... models without jumps when estimated on S&P500 returns. We find very strong support for time-varying jump intensities. Compared to the risk premium on dynamic volatility, the risk premium on the dynamic jump intensity has a much larger impact on option prices. We confirm these findings using joint...... estimation on returns and large option samples....

  1. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment of..., and if such premium was not paid within 31 days after the due date, the insurance lapsed. (c) If...

  2. 42 CFR 403.254 - Calculation of premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Ratio Provisions § 403.254 Calculation of premiums. (a) General provisions. To calculate the amount of... loss ratio calculation period. (b) Specific provisions. (1) Earned premium for a given period means— (i) Written premiums for the period; plus— (ii) The total premium reserve at the beginning of the period;...

  3. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  4. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  5. Designing Psychological Treatments for Scalability: The PREMIUM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Vellakkal

    Full Text Available Lack of access to empirically-supported psychological treatments (EPT that are contextually appropriate and feasible to deliver by non-specialist health workers (referred to as 'counsellors' are major barrier for the treatment of mental health problems in resource poor countries. To address this barrier, the 'Program for Effective Mental Health Interventions in Under-resourced Health Systems' (PREMIUM designed a method for the development of EPT for severe depression and harmful drinking. This was implemented over three years in India. This study assessed the relative usefulness and costs of the five 'steps' (Systematic reviews, In-depth interviews, Key informant surveys, Workshops with international experts, and Workshops with local experts in the first phase of identifying the strategies and theoretical model of the treatment and two 'steps' (Case series with specialists, and Case series and pilot trial with counsellors in the second phase of enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of its delivery by counsellors in PREMIUM with the aim of arriving at a parsimonious set of steps for future investigators to use for developing scalable EPT.The study used two sources of data: the usefulness ratings by the investigators and the resource utilization. The usefulness of each of the seven steps was assessed through the ratings by the investigators involved in the development of each of the two EPT, viz. Healthy Activity Program for severe depression and Counselling for Alcohol Problems for harmful drinking. Quantitative responses were elicited to rate the utility (usefulness/influence, followed by open-ended questions for explaining the rankings. The resources used by PREMIUM were computed in terms of time (months and monetary costs.The theoretical core of the new treatments were consistent with those of EPT derived from global evidence, viz. Behavioural Activation and Motivational Enhancement for severe depression and harmful drinking respectively

  6. Employer Contribution and Premium Growth in Health Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Yiyan Liu; Ginger Zhe Jin

    2013-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium incr...

  7. Low cost, high tech seed cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    Clean seeds are a great asset in native plant restoration. However, seed cleaning equipment is often too costly for many small operations. This paper introduces how several tools and materials intended for other purposes can be used directly or made into simple machines to clean seeds.

  8. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  9. Case mix, quality and high-cost kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Dimick, J B; Fan, Z; Baser, O; Birkmeyer, J D

    2009-05-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney transplant patients, center-specific case mix, and center quality. Among 43 393 kidney transplants in Medicare recipients, 35.2% were categorized as high-cost patients. These payments represented 20% of total Medicare payments for kidney transplantation and exceeded $200 million over the study period. Case mix was associated with these payments and was an important factor underlying variation in hospital payments high-cost patients. Hospital quality was also a strong determinant of future Medicare payments for high-cost patients. Compared to high-quality centers, low-quality centers cost Medicare an additional $1185 per kidney transplant. Payments for high-cost patients represent a significant proportion of the total costs of kidney transplant surgical care. Quality improvement may be an important strategy for reducing the costs of kidney transplantation.

  10. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  11. Case Mix, Quality and High-Cost Kidney Transplant Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Englesbe, M. J.; Dimick, J. B.; Fan, Z; Baser, O.; Birkmeyer, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney t...

  12. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  13. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii.

  14. 78 FR 666 - Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK45; 1545-BL29 Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities Issued at a Premium; Bond Premium Carryforward AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  16. How a new 'public plan' could affect hospitals' finances and private insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.

  17. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  18. High-Efficiency Solar Cells on Low-Cost Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency solar cells made in thin epitaxial films grown on low-cost commercial silicon substrates. Cost of cells is much less than if high-quality single-crystal silicon were used for substrates and performance of cells is almost as good.

  19. What should be the basis for compulsory and optional health insurance premiums? Opinions of Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Perneger, Thomas V

    2014-02-04

    Little is known about doctors' opinions on how to finance health services. In Switzerland, mandatory basic health insurance currently uses regional flat fees that are unrelated to health and ability to pay, and optional complementary insurance uses risk-based premiums. Our objective was to assess Swiss physicians' opinions on what should determine health insurance premiums. We surveyed doctors in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, about the desirable funding mechanism for mandatory health insurance and complementary health insurance. The proposed determinants of insurance premiums were current health and past medical history, lifestyle, healthcare costs in the previous year, genetic susceptibility to disease, regional average healthcare costs, household income, and wealth and demographic characteristics. Among the 1,516 respondents, only a few (health insurance premium should depend on health risk (health status, previous costs, genetics, and age and sex). More than 30% of respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (34.6%), regional average health expenditures (31.2%), and household income and wealth (39.6%). For complementary health insurance, most respondents supported premiums based on lifestyle (74.6%) and on health risk (46.4%), but surprisingly also on household income and wealth (44.9%) and regional average health expenditures (39.4%). The characteristic most influencing the answers was the medical specialty. Doctors' opinions about healthcare financing mechanisms varied considerably, for both mandatory and complementary health insurance. Lifestyle was a surprisingly frequent choice, even though this criterion is not currently used in Switzerland. Ability to pay was not supported by the majority.

  20. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  1. Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271

  2. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This is the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III (this volume) describes the high sulfur coal plant. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in this volume. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas-desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  3. STRENGTH DESIGN OF PREMIUM THREADED CASING CONNECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Lianxin; Jin Ye; Zhang Yi

    2004-01-01

    Using premium casing connections instead of API ones is one of the most effective technique to prevent casing failure.The factors contribute to the strength of premium casing connections are studied with FEA and full-scale test.The criterions are presented that ensure the connection's strength higher than the pipe.At the same time, the method is given to decrease the peak stress of the connection so as to improve its anticorruption property.At last, full-scale tests are done to test the strength of the connections designed with the method described, the results show that the connection's strength is higher than the pipe.This indicated that the method described is effective in designing premium casing connection.

  4. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Fraga, Lynette; McCready, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  5. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  6. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-06-29

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (Pinnovation advances the field but support discussing the "unproven" nature of new implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. 76 FR 50931 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal.... SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit... individuals who enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and claim the premium...

  8. 42 CFR 408.68 - When premiums are considered paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When premiums are considered paid. 408.68 Section 408.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....68 When premiums are considered paid. (a) Payment by check. The premium is considered paid if...

  9. Clearwood quality and softwood lumber prices: what's the real premium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Waggener; Roger D. Fight

    1999-01-01

    Diminishing quantities of appearance grade lumber and rising price premiums for it have accompanied the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber. The price premiums for better grades are an incentive for producers to undertake investments to increase the yield of those higher valued products. Price premiums, however, are also an incentive for users to...

  10. 34 CFR 682.505 - Insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance premium. 682.505 Section 682.505 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Federal Guaranteed Student Loan...

  11. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kocenda, Evnen; Zemcik, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies stochastic discount factor methodology to modeling the foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia. We use weekly data on foreign and domestic currency deposits, which coexist in the Armenian banking system. This coexistence implies elimination of the cross-country risks and transact

  12. Response of Argonne Premium coals to heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, L.L.; Abhari, R.; Ledesma, R.; Tsafantakis, E. (City College, New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    The thermal responses of the Argonne Premium Coals and of the inorganic materials separated from the coals were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermogravimetry was used to quantify the mass loss induced due to heating. The energetics of several prepyrolytic processes in the coals were calculated. 24 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 12 CFR 329.103 - Premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPOSITS § 329.103 Premiums. This interpretive rule describes certain payments that are not deemed to be... the balance in a demand deposit account and the duration of the account balance shall not be considered the payment of interest on a demand deposit account and shall not be subject to the limitations...

  14. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  15. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  16. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  17. A Phenomenological Cost Model for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator-based high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.

  18. WHAT DRIVES HIGH COST OF FINANCE IN MOLDOVA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Stratan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Why there are high costs to finance in Republic of Moldova? Is it a problem for business environment?These are the questions discussed in this paper. Following the well know Growth Diagnostics approach byHausmann, Rodrik and Velasco, authors assess the barriers and impediments to access to finance in Republic ofMoldova. Guided by international and national statistics we found evidence of poor intermediation, poorinstitutions, high level of inflation, and high collateral as major causes of high cost of financial resources inRepublic of Moldova. At the end of the study authors give policy recommendations identifying other related fieldsto be addressed.

  19. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  1. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  2. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  3. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  4. Job-based health insurance: costs climb at a moderate pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; DiJulio, Bianca; Whitmore, Heidi; Pickreign, Jeremy; McHugh, Megan; Finder, Benjamin; Osei-Anto, Awo

    2009-01-01

    Each year the Kaiser/HRET Survey of Employer Health Benefits takes a snapshot of the state of employee benefits in the United States, based on interviews with public and private employers. Our findings for 2009 show that families continue to face higher premiums, up about 5 percent from last year, and that cost sharing in the form of deductibles and copayments for office visits is greater as well. Average annual premiums in 2009 were $4,824 for single coverage and $13,375 for family coverage. Enrollment in high-deductible health plans held steady. We offer new insights about health risk assessments and how firms responded to the economic downturn.

  5. 42 CFR 412.84 - Payment for extraordinarily high-cost cases (cost outliers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... outliers). 412.84 Section 412.84 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... Payments for Outlier Cases, Special Treatment Payment for New Technology, and Payment Adjustment for Certain Replaced Devices Payment for Outlier Cases § 412.84 Payment for extraordinarily high-cost cases...

  6. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  7. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  8. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  9. Risk premium and insalubrity; Periculosidade e insalubridade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portela, Josmael [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Figueira, Rosania Lucia [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil). Dept. Juridico

    2005-07-01

    The risk premium and insalubrity have been widely discussed in the legal universe/labor. The social and economic impacts interfere on the right of the professional exposed to ionizing radiation to have or not additional rights. Due to the large accidents, with world repercussion, which occurred in recent times, involving workers undergoing these radiation, these professionals are receiving special attention by the competent bodies on the right or not to risk premium and insalubrity. The professional who operates equipment that emit ionising radiation, or those working directly with radioisotopes are undoubtedly under imminent risk, even if they complied with all safety requirements, thus deserving a more careful analysis by our lawyers with respect to receive additional percentages. Recent decisions of higher Courts begin to consolidate a more just and logical reasoning on the subject.

  10. Early retirement and the influence on healthcare budgets and insurance premiums in a diabetes population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan WalzerAnalytica International, Untere Herrenstrasse 25, 79539 Loerrach, GermanyObjectives: To contribute to current discussions about budget impact modeling, two different approaches for the impact of a new pharmaceutical product were analyzed: firstly considering the impact on annual healthcare expenditures only, and secondly additional inclusion of lost insurance premiums due to possible early retirement in patients with chronic diseases.Methods: The dynamic model calculates the budget impact from two different perspectives: (a the impact on healthcare expenditures and (b on expenditures as well as on health insurance revenues due to premiums. The latter approach could especially be useful for patients with chronic diseases who have higher probabilities of early retirement. Early retirement rates and indirect costs were derived from published data. Healthcare premiums were calculated based on an average premium and a mean income. Epidemiological input data were obtained from the literature. Time horizon was 10 years.Results: Results in terms of reimbursement decisions of the budget impact analysis varied depending on the assumptions made for the insurance premiums, costs, and early retirement rate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in extreme cases the decision for accepting a new pharmaceutical product would probably be negative using approach (a, but positive using approach (b. Conclusions: Depending on the disease and population of interest in a budget impact analysis, not only the healthcare expenditures for a health insurance have to be considered but also the revenue side for an insurance due to retirement should be included.Keywords: decision analysis, budget impact, pharmacoeconomics, health economics, health insurance

  11. Progressive or regressive? A second look at the tax exemption for employer-sponsored health insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; Collins, Sara; Davis, Karen

    2009-05-01

    The major argument for capping the exemption of health insurance benefits from income tax is that doing so will generate significant revenue that can be used to finance an expansion of health coverage. This analysis finds that given the state of insurance markets and current variations in premiums, limiting the current exemption could adversely affect individuals who are already at high risk of losing their health coverage. Evidence suggests that capping the exemption for employment-based health insurance could disproportionately affect workers in small firms, older workers, and wage-earners in industries with high expected claims costs. To avoid putting many families at increased health and financial risk, and to avoid undermining employer-sponsored group coverage, any consideration of a cap would have to be combined with coverage for all, changes in insurance market rules, and shared responsibility for financing.

  12. Too high a price: out-of-pocket health care costs in the United States. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Care Affordability Tracking Survey. September-October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Whether they have health insurance through an employer or buy it on their own, Americans are paying more out-of-pocket for health care now than they did in the past decade. A Commonwealth Fund survey fielded in the fall of 2014 asked consumers about these costs. More than one of five 19-to-64-year-old adults who were insured all year spent 5 percent or more of their income on out-of-pocket costs, not including premiums, and 13 percent spent 10 percent or more. Adults with low incomes had the highest rates of steep out-of-pocket costs. About three of five privately insured adults with low incomes and half of those with moderate incomes reported that their deductibles are difficult to afford. Two of five adults with private insurance who had high deductibles relative to their income said they had delayed needed care because of the deductible.

  13. Rating a Wildfire Mitigation Strategy with an Insurance Premium: A Boreal Forest Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Rodriguez-Baca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis entails the systematic use of historical information to determine the frequency, magnitude and effects of unexpected events. Wildfire in boreal North America is a key driver of forest dynamics and may cause very significant economic losses. An actuarial approach to risk analysis based on cumulative probability distributions was developed to reduce the adverse effects of wildfire. To this effect, we developed spatially explicit landscape models to simulate the interactions between harvest, fire and forest succession over time in a boreal forest of eastern Canada. We estimated the amount of reduction of timber harvest necessary to build a buffer stock of sufficient size to cover fire losses and compared it to an insurance premium estimated in units of timber volume from the probability of occurrence and the amount of damage. Overall, the timber harvest reduction we applied was much more costly than the insurance premium even with a zero interest rate. This is due to the fact that the insurance premium is directly related to risk while the timber harvest reduction is not and, as a consequence, is much less efficient. These results, especially the comparison with a standard indicator such as an insurance premium, have useful implications at the time of choosing a mitigation strategy to protect timber supplies against risk without overly diminishing the provision of services from the forest. They are also promoting the use of insurance against disastrous events in forest management planning.

  14. The high cost of low-acuity ICU outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Deborah; Wojtal, Greg G; Breslow, Michael J; Holl, Randy; Huguez, Debra; Stone, David; Korpi, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Direct variable costs were determined on each hospital day for all patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay in four Phoenix-area hospital ICUs. Average daily direct variable cost in the four ICUs ranged from $1,436 to $1,759 and represented 69.4 percent and 45.7 percent of total hospital stay cost for medical and surgical patients, respectively. Daily ICU cost and length of stay (LOS) were higher in patients with higher ICU admission acuity of illness as measured by the APACHE risk prediction methodology; 16.2 percent of patients had an ICU stay in excess of six days, and these LOS outliers accounted for 56.7 percent of total ICU cost. While higher-acuity patients were more likely to be ICU LOS outliers, 11.1 percent of low-risk patients were outliers. The low-risk group included 69.4 percent of the ICU population and accounted for 47 percent of all LOS outliers. Low-risk LOS outliers accounted for 25.3 percent of ICU cost and incurred fivefold higher hospital stay costs and mortality rates. These data suggest that severity of illness is an important determinant of daily resource consumption and LOS, regardless of whether the patient arrives in the ICU with high acuity or develops complications that increase acuity. The finding that a substantial number of long-stay patients come into the ICU with low acuity and deteriorate after ICU admission is not widely recognized and represents an important opportunity to improve patient outcomes and lower costs. ICUs should consider adding low-risk LOS data to their quality and financial performance reports.

  15. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  16. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  17. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2005-03-01

    In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical) definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  18. Physical Premium Principle: A New Way for Insurance Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Darooneh

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In our previous work we suggested a way for computing the non-life insurance premium. The probable surplus of the insurer company assumed to be distributed according to the canonical ensemble theory. The Esscher premium principle appeared as its special case. The difference between our method and traditional principles for premium calculation was shown by simulation. Here we construct a theoretical foundation for the main assumption in our method, in this respect we present a new (physical definition for the economic equilibrium. This approach let us to apply the maximum entropy principle in the economic systems. We also extend our method to deal with the problem of premium calculation for correlated risk categories. Like the Buhlman economic premium principle our method considers the effect of the market on the premium but in a different way.

  19. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Karthikeyan; S Kawakami; K C Ravindran; S C Tonwar

    2005-08-01

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discriminators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  20. Return of premium term life: is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Roccy

    2004-01-01

    Physicians who feel they are wasting their money in paying premiums for a typical 30-year-level term life insurance policy may find help in a return-of-premium term life insurance policy. Premiums are higher, but all the money is refunded at the end of the term if the policyholder has not died. Estimates are that 93 percent of policyholders outlive the term of their life insurance.

  1. The liquidity premium in CDS transaction prices: Do frictions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gehde-Trapp, Monika; Gündüz, Yalin; Nasev, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Based on individual CDS transactions cleared by the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, we show that illiquidity strongly affects credit default swap premiums. We identify the following effects: First, transaction direction affects prices, as buy (sell) orders lead to premium increases (decreases). Second, larger transactions have a higher price impact. This finding stands in stark contrast to corporate bond markets. Third, traders charge higher premiums as a price for liquidity provisio...

  2. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager or Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), includes the full functionallity of a traditional star tracker plus autonomy, i.e. it is able to quickly and autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, and determine its attitude with high precision. The design also provides......, Computational speed and Fault detection and recovery substantially. The high performance and low cost design was realized by the use of advanced high level integrated chips, along with a design philosophy of maximum autonomy at all levels. This approach necessitated the use of a prototyping facility which could...... do extensive component testing and screening which addressed the issues of reliability, thermo-mechanical properties, and radiation sensitivity of the commercial IC's. The facility helped to control costs by generating early information on component survival in space. The development philosophy...

  3. Risk Measure and Premium Distribution on Catastrophe Reinsurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN LI; WANG DE-HUI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new risk measure which is based on the Orlicz premium principle to characterize catastrophe risk premium.The intention is to develop a formulation strategy for Catastrophe Fund.The logarithm equivalent form of reinsurance premium is regarded as the retention of reinsurer,and the differential earnings between the reinsurance premium and the reinsurer's retention is accumulated as a part of Catastrophe Fund.We demonstrate that the aforementioned risk measure has some good properties,which are further confirmed by numerical simulations in R environment.

  4. Employer contribution and premium growth in health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyan; Jin, Ginger Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We study whether employer premium contribution schemes could impact the pricing behavior of health plans and contribute to rising premiums. Using 1991-2011 data before and after a 1999 premium subsidy policy change in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), we find that the employer premium contribution scheme has a differential impact on health plan pricing based on two market incentives: 1) consumers are less price sensitive when they only need to pay part of the premium increase, and 2) each health plan has an incentive to increase the employer's premium contribution to that plan. Both incentives are found to contribute to premium growth. Counterfactual simulation shows that average premium would have been 10% less than observed and the federal government would have saved 15% per year on its premium contribution had the subsidy policy change not occurred in the FEHBP. We discuss the potential of similar incentives in other government-subsidized insurance systems such as the Medicare Part D and the Health Insurance Marketplace under the Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Access to high cost medicines in Australia: ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Christine Y; Macneill, Paul; Williams, Ken; Day, Ric

    2008-05-19

    Access to "high cost medicines" through Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is tightly regulated. It is inherently difficult to apply any criteria-based system of control in a way that provides a fair balance between efficient use of limited resources for community needs and equitable individual access to care. We suggest, in relation to very high cost medicines, that the present arrangements be re-considered in order to overcome potential inequities. The biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis are used as an example by which to discuss the ethical issues associated with the current scheme. Consideration of ethical aspects of the PBS and similar programs is important in order to achieve the fairest outcomes for individual patients, as well as for the community.

  6. Life Insurance Actuarial Model with Returnable Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanhuaiLang

    2004-01-01

    Insurance is the important aspect of finance. It has been fully developed in the western developed countries. With the fast development of market economy in our country,it is necessary to introduce the alien modern theories and techniques, and at the same time,adapt them to our concrete situation. The model of general life insurance product is to be established in this paper, including deferred life annuities, increasing whole life insurance and returnable premiums. Then through the regulation of various parameters, we can obtain various insurance products.

  7. Equity-premium puzzle: evidence from Brazilian data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Penha Cysne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses 1992:1-2004:2 quarterly data and two different methods (approximation under lognormality and calibration to evaluate the existence of an equity-premium puzzle in Brazil. In contrast with some previous works in the Brazilian literature, I conclude that the model used by Mehra and Prescott (1985, either with additive or recursive preferences, is not able to satisfactorily rationalize the equity premium observed in the Brazilian data. The second contribution of the paper is calling the attention to the fact that the utility function calculated under the discrete-state approximation may not exist if the data (as it is the case with Brazilian time series implies the existence of states in which high negative rates of consumption growth are attained with relatively high probability. This fact is particularly important when the researcher tries to work with high risk-aversion parameters in order to generate high risk premia.Este trabalho usa dados brasileiros do período 1992:1-2004:2 e dois diferentes métodos (aproximação sob a hipótese de lognormalidade e calibração para avaliar a existência de um "equity-premium puzzle" no Brasil. Em contraste com alguns trabalhos prévios da literatura nacional, conclui-se que o modelo usado por Mehra and Prescott (1985, seja com preferências aditivas ou recursivas, não é capaz de gerar o prêmio de risco observado na economia brasileira. A segunda contribuição do trabalho é chamar a atenção para o fato de que a função utilidade calculada sob a hipótese de aproximação discreta do espaço de estados pode não existir se os dados (como é o caso no Brasil implicarem a existência de estados nos quais taxas altamente negativas de crescimento do consumo são alcançadas com probabilidade demasiado elevadas. Este fato é particularmente importante quando se tenta utilizar parâmetros de aversão ao risco altos o suficiente para gerar o prêmio de risco inerente ao caso brasileiro.

  8. Norplant's high cost may prohibit use in Title 10 clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    The article discusses the prohibitive cost of Norplant for the Title 10 low-income population served in public family planning clinics in the U.S. It is argued that it's unfair for U.S. users to pay $350 to Wyeth- Ayerst when another pharmaceutical company provides developing countries with Norplant at a cost of $14 - 23. Although the public sector and private foundations funded the development, it was explained that the company needs to recoup the investment in training and education. Medicaid and third party payers such as insurance companies will reimburse for the higher price, but if the public sector price is lowered, then the company would not make a profit and everyone would have argued for the reimbursement at the lower cost. It was suggested that a boycott of American Home Products, Wyeth-Ayerst's parent company, be made. Public family planning providers who are particularly low in funding reflect that their budget of $30,000 would only provide 85 users, and identified in this circumstance by drug abusers and multiple pregnancy women, and the need for teenagers remains unfulfilled. Another remarked that the client population served is 4700 with $54,000 in funding, which is already accounted for. The general trend of comments was that for low income women the cost is to high.

  9. The value premium within and across GICS industry sectors in a pre-financial collapse sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Scislaw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A portfolio manager employing a top-down/bottom-up method who seeks to capture the value premium long promised in academic literature would want to first determine whether the premium exists across industries and not just observed in firm-specific book-to-market (BE/ME relationships. Next, the investor would want to know if BE/ME characteristics are stable across these defined homogeneous groups or whether there is considerable variation. Results show that certain industries appear to have a natural or structural tendency to reflect either a high or low BE/ME characteristic. Results also shows that growth-oriented industry BE/ME characteristics appear to be more stable than value-oriented industries over time. Moreover, stocks from growth-oriented industries tend to cluster at high rates in the lowest BE/ME quintile, while stocks from value-oriented industries appear more evenly distributed across middle BE/ME quintiles over time. Value stocks found in growth sectors outperform value stocks in value sectors, contrary to prior published results. The January premium exists both within and across Global Industry Classification Standard industry sectors, but the value premium is not subsumed by the January effect in either analysis.

  10. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  11. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  12. The High Value CVT Concept--Cost Effective and Powerful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Englisch,; A. Teubert; A. Gotz; E. Muller; E. Simon; B. Walter; A. Baumgartner

    2011-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive comparison of vehicle performance in economy,engine power,driving smoothness,and efficiency cost as well as pollutant emission etc,the paper discussed the high value CVT concept from an angle of the cost effective and powerful for vehicle.In the paper,it researched the related technical detail in CVT.By means of realizing the continuous change in transmission ratio,it could obtain the optimal matching between transmission system and engine operating mode,and enhance the characteristic of fuel oil in economy,and also improve the convenience in manipulation for driver and make passenger comfortable.For easy to understand the concept,the paper made the comparison analysis in many aspects such as performance,transmission specification,high value CVT hybrid,orifice torque sensor,hydraulic system,high value CVT em,new chain portfolio and assessment of the high value CVT on the NEDC.Finally it showed the potential advantages of CVT technology development,and proposed future developing trends to realize technical scheme of high value CVT.

  13. A meta-analysis of the equity premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Ewijk; H.L.F. de Groot; A.J. Santing

    2012-01-01

    The equity premium is a key parameter in asset allocation policies. There is a vigorous debate in the literature regarding the actual measurement of the equity premium, its size and the determinants of its variation. This study aims to take stock of this literature by means of a meta-analysis. We id

  14. 77 FR 41048 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit; Correction AGENCY..., 2012 (77 FR 30377). The final regulations relate to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of...

  15. 78 FR 7264 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL49 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal... regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and... coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges...

  16. 26 CFR 1.822-11 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.822-11 Section 1.822-11...

  17. 26 CFR 1.823-4 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-4 Section 1.823-4...

  18. 26 CFR 1.823-1 - Net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Mutual Insurance Companies (other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) § 1... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net premiums. 1.823-1 Section 1.823-1...

  19. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  20. The Risk Premium for Equity : Explanations and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    The equity premium puzzle shows that using standard parameters and setup, the Consumption-based Capital Asset Pricing Model's (CCAPM's) prediction of the premium associated with systematic risk is out by an order of magnitude.The object of this paper is to consider the implications of each of the

  1. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  2. Risk premiums in cap rates of investment property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Wouwe, van M.; Tansens, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Our research wants to establish links and patterns over time between the constituent components of the cap rates, and between real interest and risk premium in particular. We developed a statistical model to predict and explain the risk premium asked for by investors buying properties throughout Eur

  3. Premium auctions and risk preferences: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Hu, A.; Oechssler, J.

    2014-01-01

    In premium auctions, the highest losing bidder receives a reward from the seller. This paper studies the private value English premium auction (EPA) for different risk attitudes of bidders. We explicitly derive the symmetric equilibrium for bidders with CARA utilities and conduct an experimental stu

  4. The equity risk premium : emerging versus developed markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, R.M.; Grootveld, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an empirical view of the ex-post equity risk premium in a number of international markets with special attention to emerging ones. Our study yields interesting implications for finance. Firstly, we find that the equity risk premium in emerging markets is significantly higher than in

  5. 76 FR 79714 - Premium Changes Based On Recharacterization of Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... PBGC. For single- employer plans, premiums include an amount (the variable-rate premium, or VRP) based... reduces any VRP for the current year. If a contribution is characterized as being for the current year, it does not increase plan assets as of the beginning of the current year and thus does not affect VRP for...

  6. Premium Motorsi priimad päevad / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Automüüja Premium Motors on edu saavutanud luksusmaasturi Hummer ning teiste USA eksklusiivsete automarkide müügiõigusega. Tabel: Rentaabel äri. Vt. samas: Palun kaks roosat Hummerit; Premium Motors hakkab sügisel Hiina maastureid müüma.

  7. 45 CFR 152.21 - Premiums and cost-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State or States. The standard risk rate shall be established using reasonable actuarial techniques, that... use other methods of determining the standard rate, except with the approval of the Secretary....

  8. Optimal Premium Pricing for a Heterogeneous Portfolio of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A. Pantelous

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper revisits the classical problem of premium rating within a heterogeneous portfolio of insurance risks using a continuous stochastic control framework. The portfolio is divided into several classes where each class interacts with the others. The risks are modelled dynamically by the means of a Brownian motion. This dynamic approach is also transferred to the design of the premium process. The premium is not constant but equals the drift of the Brownian motion plus a controlled percentage of the respective volatility. The optimal controller for the premium is obtained using advanced optimization techniques, and it is finally shown that the respective pricing strategy follows a more balanced development compared with the traditional premium approaches.

  9. A cost of sexual attractiveness to high-fitness females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan A F Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive mate choice by females is an important component of sexual selection in many species. The evolutionary consequences of male mate preferences, however, have received relatively little study, especially in the context of sexual conflict, where males often harm their mates. Here, we describe a new and counterintuitive cost of sexual selection in species with both male mate preference and sexual conflict via antagonistic male persistence: male mate choice for high-fecundity females leads to a diminished rate of adaptive evolution by reducing the advantage to females of expressing beneficial genetic variation. We then use a Drosophila melanogaster model system to experimentally test the key prediction of this theoretical cost: that antagonistic male persistence is directed toward, and harms, intrinsically higher-fitness females more than it does intrinsically lower-fitness females. This asymmetry in male persistence causes the tails of the population's fitness distribution to regress towards the mean, thereby reducing the efficacy of natural selection. We conclude that adaptive male mate choice can lead to an important, yet unappreciated, cost of sex and sexual selection.

  10. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  11. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  12. Noise and Vibration Monitoring for Premium Efficiency IE 3 Three-Phase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISTOR, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the original SV-100 platform that enables low-cost and very high accuracy determinations of noise and vibration levels. The aim of the proposed platform is to achieve an effective integration of the two topics of this analysis: vibrations and noises. To the best of our knowledge, no low price, dedicated compact platform with embedded measuring instruments exists. For proving the practical utility of the proposed platform, two induction motors of 7.5 kW and 11 kW, respectively, in single-layer winding, at 1000 rpm, with IE3 premium efficiency were analyzed. This analysis is required because, according to IEC60034-30 standard, the IE3 efficiency standard has become mandatory for induction motors of rated power greater than 7.5 kW. Therefore, in order to improve the motor operating efficiency, the power losses caused by noises and vibrations have to be reduced. Several variants of supply were studied, i.e., by the three-phase 50 Hz network and by a three-phase inverter at 40, 50 and 60 Hz, respectively. The experimental determinations of noises are presented comparatively, by using a Bruel&Kjaer sonometer and by using the new platform SV-100. The results are compared with the IEC60034 standard.

  13. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  14. Setting of Agricultural Insurance Premium Rate and the Adjustment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-lin

    2012-01-01

    First,using the law of large numbers,I analyze the setting principle of agricultural insurance premium rate,and take the case of setting of adult sow premium rate for study,to draw the conclusion that with the continuous promotion of agricultural insurance,increase in the types of agricultural insurance and increase in the number of the insured,the premium rate should also be adjusted opportunely.Then,on the basis of Bayes’ theorem,I adjust and calibrate the claim frequency and the average claim,in order to correctly adjust agricultural insurance premium rate;take the case of forest insurance for premium rate adjustment analysis.In setting and adjustment of agricultural insurance premium rate,in order to make the expected results well close to the real results,it is necessary to apply the probability estimates in a large number of risk units;focus on the establishment of agricultural risk database,to timely adjust agricultural insurance premium rate.

  15. The costs and cost-efficiency of providing food through schools in areas of high food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Al-Shaiba, Najeeb; Espejo, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The provision of food in and through schools has been used to support the education, health, and nutrition of school-aged children. The monitoring of financial inputs into school health and nutrition programs is critical for a number of reasons, including accountability, transparency, and equity. Furthermore, there is a gap in the evidence on the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of providing food through schools, particularly in areas of high food insecurity. To estimate the programmatic costs and cost-efficiency associated with providing food through schools in food-insecure, developing-country contexts, by analyzing global project data from the World Food Programme (WFP). Project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The average yearly expenditure per child, standardized over a 200-day on-site feeding period and an average ration, excluding school-level costs, was US$21.59. The costs varied substantially according to choice of food modality, with fortified biscuits providing the least costly option of about US$11 per year and take-home rations providing the most expensive option at approximately US$52 per year. Comparisons across the different food modalities suggested that fortified biscuits provide the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery (particularly vitamin A and iodine), whereas on-site meals appear to be more efficient in terms of calories delivered. Transportation and logistics costs were the main drivers for the high costs. The choice of program objectives will to a large degree dictate the food modality

  16. Price premium of organic salmon in Danish retail sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    of exclusively using organic fry for production. If the profitability of the primary organic aquaculture producers should be maintained, then farmers must be able to correspondingly receive higher prices, transmitted through the value chain from the retail market. This study identifies the price premium...... for organic salmon in Danish retail sale using consumer panel scanner data from households by applying a random effect hedonic price model that permits unobserved household heterogeneity. A price premium of 20% was identified for organic salmon. The magnitude of this premium is comparable to organic labeled...

  17. 42 CFR 408.210 - Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. 408... Insurance Premium Surcharge Agreements § 408.210 Termination of SMI premium surcharge agreement. (a... before it can request to enter into another SMI premium surcharge agreement....

  18. High-temperature superconducting transformer performance, cost, and market evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, J.A.; Dagle, J.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Huber, H.D.; Smith, S.A.; Currie, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Merrick, S.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Recent laboratory breakthroughs in high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have stimulated both the scientific community and general public with questions regarding how these materials can be used in practical applications. While there are obvious benefits from using HTS materials (most notably the potential for reduced energy losses in the conductors), a number of issues (such as overall system energy losses, cost, and reliability) may limit applications of HTS equipment, even if the well known materials problems are solved. This study examined the future application potential of HTS materials to power transformers. This study effort was part of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) research program, Superconductivity Technology for Electric Power Systems (STEPS). The study took a systems perspective to gain insights to help guide DOE in managing research designed to realize the vision of HTS applications. Specific objectives of the study were as follows: to develop an understanding of the fundamental HTS transformer design issues that can provide guidance for developing practical devices of interest to the electric utility industry; to identify electric utility requirements for HTS transformers and to evaluate the potential for developing a commercial market; to evaluate the market potential and national benefits for HTS transformers that could be achieved by a successful HTS development program; to develop an integrated systems analysis framework, which can be used to support R&D planning by DOE, by identifying how various HTS materials characteristics impact the performance, cost, and national benefits of the HTS application.

  19. Mine Cost Can Hardly Be Lowered Due To High Percentage Of Inflexible Costs For Lead & Zinc Mine Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    At the 2016(11th)Shanghai Lead&Zinc Summit,Lian Chuanshuang from Tibet Huayu Mining explained the current operation condition of domestic mine enterprises.At the Summit,he pointed out that currently mine cost could hardly be reduced,the main reason is too high percentage of inflexible cost.

  20. Selling Into the Sun: Price Premium Analysis of a Multi-State Dataset of Solar Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomatis, Sandra [Adomatis Appraisal Services, Punta Gorda, FL (United States); Jackson, Thomas [Texas A & M Univ. and Real Property Analytics Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Graff-Zivin, Joshua [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capturing the value that solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may add to home sales transactions is increasingly important. Our study enhances the PV-home-valuation literature by more than doubling the number of PV home sales analyzed (22,822 homes in total, 3,951 of which are PV) and examining transactions in eight states that span the years 2002–2013. We find that home buyers are consistently willing to pay PV home premiums across various states, housing and PV markets, and home types; average premiums across the full sample equate to approximately $4/W or $15,000 for an average-sized 3.6-kW PV system. Only a small and non-statistically significant difference exists between PV premiums for new and existing homes, though some evidence exists of new home PV system discounting. A PV green cachet might exist, i.e., home buyers might pay a certain amount for any size of PV system and some increment more depending on system size. The market appears to depreciate the value of PV systems in their first 10 years at a rate exceeding the rate of PV efficiency losses and the rate of straightline depreciation over the asset’s useful life. Net cost estimates—which account for government and utility PV incentives—may be the best proxy for market premiums, but income-based estimates may perform equally well if they accurately account for the complicated retail rate structures that exist in some states. Although this study focuses only on host-owned PV systems, future analysis should focus on homes with third-party-owned PV systems.

  1. Surgical site infections : how high are the costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broex, E. C. J.; van Asselt, A. D. I.; Bruggeman, C. A.; van Tiel, F. H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increased interest in prevention of nosocomial. infections and in the potential, savings in healthcare costs. The aim of this review of recent studies on surgical site infections (SSIs) was to compare methods of cost research and magnitudes of costs due to SSI. The studies reviewed diffe

  2. Surgical site infections : how high are the costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broex, E. C. J.; van Asselt, A. D. I.; Bruggeman, C. A.; van Tiel, F. H.

    There is an increased interest in prevention of nosocomial. infections and in the potential, savings in healthcare costs. The aim of this review of recent studies on surgical site infections (SSIs) was to compare methods of cost research and magnitudes of costs due to SSI. The studies reviewed

  3. Bridging the Silos of Service Delivery for High-Need, High-Cost Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Melissa; Wolff, Jennifer L; Ballreich, Jeromie; DuGoff, Eva; Davis, Karen; Anderson, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Health care reform efforts that emphasize value have increased awareness of the importance of nonmedical factors in achieving better care, better health, and lower costs in the care of high-need, high-cost individuals. Programs that care for socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-need, high-cost individuals have achieved promising results in part by bridging traditional service delivery silos. This study examined 5 innovative community-oriented programs that are successfully coordinating medical and nonmedical services to identify factors that stimulate and sustain community-level collaboration and coordinated care across silos of health care, public health, and social services delivery. The authors constructed a conceptual framework depicting community health systems that highlights 4 foundational factors that facilitate community-oriented collaboration: flexible financing, shared leadership, shared data, and a strong shared vision of commitment toward delivery of person-centered care.

  4. High resolution, low cost solar cell contact development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.

    1981-01-01

    The MIDFILM cell fabrication and encapsulation processes were demonstrated as a means of applying low-cost solar cell collector metallization. The average cell efficiency of 12.0 percent (AM1, 28 C) was achieved with fritted silver metallization with a demonstration run of 500 starting wafers. A 98 percent mechanical yield and 80 percent electrical yield were achieved through the MIDFILM process. High series resistance was responsible for over 90 percent of the electrical failures and was the major factor causing the low average cell efficiency. Environmental evaluations suggest that the MIDFILM cells do not degrade. A slight degradation in power was experienced in the MIDFILM minimodules when the AMP Solarlok connector delaminated during the environmental testing.

  5. Offshore compression system design for low cost high and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Carlos J. Rocha de O.; Carrijo Neto, Antonio Dias; Cordeiro, Alexandre Franca [Chemtech Engineering Services and Software Ltd., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Special Projects Div.], Emails: antonio.carrijo@chemtech.com.br, carlos.rocha@chemtech.com.br, alexandre.cordeiro@chemtech.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the offshore oil fields, the oil streams coming from the wells usually have significant amounts of gas. This gas is separated at low pressure and has to be compressed to the export pipeline pressure, usually at high pressure to reduce the needed diameter of the pipelines. In the past, this gases where flared, but nowadays there are a increasing pressure for the energy efficiency improvement of the oil rigs and the use of this gaseous fraction. The most expensive equipment of this kind of plant are the compression and power generation systems, being the second a strong function of the first, because the most power consuming equipment are the compressors. For this reason, the optimization of the compression system in terms of efficiency and cost are determinant to the plant profit. The availability of the plants also have a strong influence in the plant profit, specially in gas fields where the products have a relatively low aggregated value, compared to oil. Due this, the third design variable of the compression system becomes the reliability. As high the reliability, larger will be the plant production. The main ways to improve the reliability of compression system are the use of multiple compression trains in parallel, in a 2x50% or 3x50% configuration, with one in stand-by. Such configurations are possible and have some advantages and disadvantages, but the main side effect is the increase of the cost. This is the offshore common practice, but that does not always significantly improve the plant availability, depending of the previous process system. A series arrangement and a critical evaluation of the overall system in some cases can provide a cheaper system with equal or better performance. This paper shows a case study of the procedure to evaluate a compression system design to improve the reliability but without extreme cost increase, balancing the number of equipment, the series or parallel arrangement, and the driver selection. Two cases studies will be

  6. High performance of low cost soft magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Josefina M Silveyra; Emília Illeková; Marco Coïsson; Federica Celegato; Franco Vinai; Paola Tiberto; Javier A Moya; Victoria J Cremaschi

    2011-12-01

    The consistent interest in supporting research and development of magnetic materials during the last century is revealed in their steadily increasing market. In this work, the soft magnetic nanocrystalline FINEMET alloy was prepared with commercial purity raw materials and compared for the first time with the generally studied high purity one. The exhaustive characterization covers several diverse techniques: X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and magnetic properties. In addition, a brief economic analysis is presented. For the alloys annealed at 813 K, the value of the grain size was 16 nm with 19.5% of Si, the coercivity was 0.30 A m-1 while the saturation was 1.2 T. These results prove that structural, magnetic and thermal properties of this material are very close to the expensive high purity FINEMET alloy, while a cost reduction of almost 98% seems highly attractive for laboratories and industry. The analysis should be useful not only for the production of FINEMETs, but for other type of systems with similar constitutive elements as well, including soft and hard magnetic materials.

  7. Low cost, high temperature membranes for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    This report details the results of a project to develop novel, low-cost high temperature membranes specifically for automotive fuel cell use. The specific aim of the project was to determine whether a polyaromatic hydrocarbon membrane could be developed that would give a performance (0.68V at 500 mAcm{sub -2}) competitive with an established perfluoronated sulfonic acid (PSA) membrane in a fuel cell at 120{sup o}C and relative humidity of less than 50%. The novel approach used in this project was to increase the concentration of sulphonic groups to a useful level without dissolution by controlling the molecular structure of the membrane through the design of the monomer repeat unit. The physicochemical properties of 70 polymers synthesised in order to determine the effects of controlled sequence distribution were identified using an array of analytical techniques. Appropriate membranes were selected for fuel cell testing and fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies. Most of the homopolymers tested were able to withstand low humidity environments without immediate catastrophic failure and some showed promise from accelerated durability results. The properties of a simple starting polymer structure were found to be enhanced by doping with sulphonated copper phthalocyanine, resulting in high temperature capacity from a potential cheap, simple and scaleable process. The accelerated and long-term durability of such a doped polymer membrane showed that polyaromatics could easily outperform fluoropolymers under high temperature (120{sup o}C) operating conditions.

  8. 5 CFR 890.1306 - Government premium contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1306 Section 890.1306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1306 Government premium contributions. The Secretary...

  9. The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Premium Changes on ALL Kids, Alabamas CHIP Program Unlike many other CHIP programs, ALL Kids is a standalone program that provides year long...

  10. Premium variation in the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, B; Pauly, M V

    2001-03-01

    Recent proposals to decrease the number of uninsured in the U.S. indicate that the individual health insurance market's role may increase. Amid fears of possible risk-segmentation in individual insurance, there exists limited information of the functioning of such markets. This paper examines the relationship between expected medical expense and actual paid premiums for households with individual insurance in the 1996-1997 Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. We find that premiums vary less than proportionately with expected expense and vary only with certain risk characteristics. We also explore how the relationship between risk and premiums is affected by local regulations and market characteristics. We find that premiums vary significantly less strongly with risk for persons insured by HMOs and in markets dominated by managed care insurers.

  11. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  12. Fixed-premium deposit insurance and international credit crunches

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Mark M.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces a monopolistically competitive model of foreign lending in which both explicit and implicit fixed-premium deposit insurance increase the degree to which bank participation in relending to problem debtors falls below its globally optimal level. This provides a channel for fixed-premium deposit insurance to inhibit credit extension in bad states, resulting in an increase in the expected default percentage and an increase in the expected burden on the deposit insurance in...

  13. Rising College Premiums in Mexico: How Important Is Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Aashish; Acuna, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The literature on wage inequality in liberalizing developing economies has largely attributed rising skill premiums to trade-induced increases in the demand for skilled labor within "sectors" (industries, occupations, or industry-occupation pairs). Although there is strong evidence from many countries of trade-induced increases in skill demand within manufacturing, we show that in Mexico, the most studied country in this literature, economy-wide increases in college premium can be explained w...

  14. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  15. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  16. The Forward Premium Anomaly in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nessrine Hamzaoui Aloui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the forward premium anomaly by using two different approaches: the long memory process and Multivariate GARCH. Initially, through the ARFIMA model, we study the properties of the forward premium on foreign exchange markets, including the presence of any long memory. Since the univariate study framework obscures the effect of conditional covariances in the measurement of risk, the transition to a more parsimonious multivariate framework is required. Therefore, we estimate, in a second time, the DCC-MVGARCH model to capture the dynamic links between forward premium series and the spot exchange return. The estimation results argue in favor of a forward premium that exhibits a phenomenon of long memory. In addition, they reveal the existence of a significant correlation sensitivity to shocks following a process of mean reversion and the detection of a strong correlation between these forward premiums and low correlation between the forward premium and the spot exchange return.

  17. Low cost and high performance screen laminate regenerator matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin-Nun, Uri; Manitakos, Dan [FLIR Systems, North Billerica, MA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A laminate screen matrix regenerator with 47 elements has been designed, analyzed, fabricated and tested. The laminate was fabricated from stainless steel screen sheets that were stacked on top of each other at certain angular orientation and then bonded at high temperature and pressure environment utilizing a sintering process. This laminate is a porous structure media with highly repeatable properties that can be controlled by varying mesh size, weave type, wire size and laminate sheet to sheet orientation. The flow direction in relation to the weave plan can be varied by cutting a cylindrical or rectangular laminate element along or across the weave. The regenerator flow resistance, thermal conductance losses, dead volume, surface area and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed. Regenerator cost and performance comparison data between the conventional widely used method of stacked screens and the new stacked laminate matrix regenerator is discussed. Also, a square stainless steel screen laminate was manufactured in a way which permits gas to flow along the screen wire instead of across it. (Author)

  18. Low cost and high performance screen laminate regenerator matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Nun, Uri; Manitakos, Dan

    2004-06-01

    A laminate screen matrix regenerator with 47 elements has been designed, analyzed, fabricated and tested. The laminate was fabricated from stainless steel screen sheets that were stacked on top of each other at certain angular orientation and then bonded at high temperature and pressure environment utilizing a sintering process. This laminate is a porous structure media with highly repeatable properties that can be controlled by varying mesh size, weave type, wire size and laminate sheet to sheet orientation. The flow direction in relation to the weave plan can be varied by cutting a cylindrical or rectangular laminate element along or across the weave. The regenerator flow resistance, thermal conductance losses, dead volume, surface area and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed. Regenerator cost and performance comparison data between the conventional widely used method of stacked screens and the new stacked laminate matrix regenerator is discussed. Also, a square stainless steel screen laminate was manufactured in a way which permits gas to flow along the screen wire instead of across it.

  19. The Wage Premium and Market Structure: The Case of South Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Meng-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We seek to understand why the difference between wages earned by skilled and unskilled labor, the so-called “wage premium”, varies across developing countries, using South Korea and Taiwan as empirical case studies. South Korea and Taiwan are both small developing countries with export-led economies that enjoy relatively high incomes compared to their Asian counterparts (excluding Japan). Between 1990 and 2000, Taiwan experienced a decrease in the wage premium, while South Korea remained the ...

  20. The effect of firearm deaths on life expectancy and insurance premiums in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent gains, the U.S. remains behind most other affluent countries in life expectancy. Even within the U.S., the gap between the life expectancies of Caucasians and African-Americans remains significant. At the same time, firearm deaths in the U.S. far exceed peer nations, and disproportionately affect African-American males. In this Issue Brief, Dr. Lemaire explores whether deaths from firearms explain some of these international and racial disparities in life expectancy. He uses actuarial techniques to calculate the "cost" of firearm deaths in the U.S., both in terms of reduced life expectancy and increased life insurance premiums.

  1. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection and Application Guide – A Handbook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert A. McCoy and John G. Douglass

    2014-02-01

    This handbook informs new motor purchase decisions by identifying energy and cost savings that can come from replacing motors with premium efficiency units. The handbook provides an overview of current motor use in the industrial sector, including the development of motor efficiency standards, currently available and emerging advanced efficiency motor technologies, and guidance on how to evaluate motor efficiency opportunities. It also several tips on getting the most out of industrial motors, such as how to avoid adverse motor interactions with electronic adjustable speed drives and how to ensure efficiency gains are not lost to undervoltage operation or excessive voltage unbalance.

  2. How to avoid the high costs of physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J E; Boyle, R L

    1992-01-01

    Physician recruitment is a complex, time consuming and competitive activity that is costly in terms of incurred expenses, administrative and physician time and lost revenue. Judith Berger and Robert Boyle, FACMGA, describe how to develop a well-designed retention and recruitment plan to avoid such costs.

  3. 25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... service performed by another organization (excluding overtime, shift, or holiday premiums and fringe.... Costs of premiums on bonds covering employees who handle grantee funds are allowable. 6. Budgeting... stockrooms should be charged at cost under any recognized method of pricing consistently applied. Incoming...

  4. A puzzle of excessive equity risk premium and the case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kliber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical review of the literature related to the empirical problem of excessive risk premium. The risk premium (the diff erence between the return on equiti es and risk-free rate observed in fi nancial markets cannot be reconciled with theoreti cal models of fi nancial markets – it is too high (“excessive”. We present the original model from the seminal work of Mehra and Prescott (1985, where this problem has been signaled. The article gives an overview of the main trends in the literature concerning this problem, of the proposed soluti ons and of the extension to the model. Finally, we consider the problem in the Polish context, estimating the original Mehra-Prescott model using data from the Polish financial market.

  5. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini [Institute for Education and Research in Management and Planning, Tehran (Iran); Maryam Kazemi Manesh [University of Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  6. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

  7. Why projects often fail even with high cost contingencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2002-02-28

    In this note we assume that the individual risks have been adequately quantified and the total project cost contingency adequately computed to ensure an agreed-to probability or confidence level that the total project cost estimate will not be exceeded. But even projects that implement such a process are likely to result in significant cost overruns and/or project failure if the project manager allocates the contingencies to the individual subsystems. The intuitive and mathematically valid solution is to maintain a project-wide contingency and to distribute it to the individual risks on an as-needed basis. Such an approach ensures cost-efficient risk management, and projects that implement it are more likely to succeed and to cost less. We illustrate these ideas using a simplified project with two independent risks. The formulation can readily be extended to multiple risks.

  8. Measurement of luminescence decays: High performance at low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkes, Mark; Sulkes, Zoe

    2011-11-01

    The availability of inexpensive ultra bright LEDs spanning the visible and near-ultraviolet combined with the availability of inexpensive electronics equipment makes it possible to construct a high performance luminescence lifetime apparatus (˜5 ns instrumental response or better) at low cost. A central need for time domain measurement systems is the ability to obtain short (˜1 ns or less) excitation light pulses from the LEDs. It is possible to build the necessary LED driver using a simple avalanche transistor circuit. We describe first a circuit to test for small signal NPN transistors that can avalanche. We then describe a final optimized avalanche mode circuit that we developed on a prototyping board by measuring driven light pulse duration as a function of the circuit on the board and passive component values. We demonstrate that the combination of the LED pulser and a 1P28 photomultiplier tube used in decay waveform acquisition has a time response that allows for detection and lifetime determination of luminescence decays down to ˜5 ns. The time response and data quality afforded with the same components in time-correlated single photon counting are even better. For time-correlated single photon counting an even simpler NAND-gate based LED driver circuit is also applicable. We also demonstrate the possible utility of a simple frequency domain method for luminescence lifetime determinations.

  9. Care Coordination Challenges Among High-Needs, High-Costs Older Adults in a Medigap Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Timothy S.; Bhattarai, Gandhi R.; Hawkins, Kevin; Cheng, Yan; Ruiz, Joann; Barnowski, Cynthia A.; Spivack, Barney; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Many adults 65 years or older have high health care needs and costs. Here, we describe their care coordination challenges. Primary Practice Setting: Individuals with an AARP Medicare Supplement Insurance plan insured by UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company (for New York residents, UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company of New York). Methodology and Sample: The three groups included the highest needs, highest costs (the “highest group”), the high needs, high costs (the “high group”), and the “all other group.” Eligibility was determined by applying an internally developed algorithm based upon a number of criteria, including hierarchical condition category score, the Optum ImpactPro prospective risk score, as well as diagnoses of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or diabetes. Results: The highest group comprised 2%, although consumed 12% of health care expenditures. The high group comprised 20% and consumed 46% of expenditures, whereas the all other group comprised 78% and consumed 42% of expenditures. On average, the highest group had $102,798 in yearly health care expenditures, compared with $34,610 and $7,634 for the high and all other groups, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of the highest group saw 16 or more different providers annually, compared with 21% and 2% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Finally, 28% of the highest group had prescriptions from at least seven different providers, compared with 20% and 5% of the high and all other groups, respectively. Implications for Case Management Practice: Individuals with high health care needs and costs have visits to numerous health care providers and receive multiple prescriptions for pharmacotherapy. As a result, these individuals can become overwhelmed trying to manage and coordinate their health care needs. Care coordination programs may help these individuals coordinate their care. PMID:27301064

  10. 7 CFR 1786.207 - Prepayment premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discounted at a rate equal to the then current cost of funds to the Department of the Treasury for... interest rate on the loan were equal to the then current cost of funds to the Department of the...

  11. The Equity Premium Puzzle: Analysis in Brazil after the Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates whether there is evidence of an Equity Premium Puzzle (EPP in Brazil, applying two different methodologies. The EPP was identified by Mehra and Prescott (1985 since the Consumption Capital Asset Pricing Model (CCAPM, when calibrated with reasonable preference parameters, could not explain high historical average risk premiums in the United States. In our first approach, we consider Mehra’s (2003 model and calibrate the coefficient of risk aversion, using 1995:2-2012:1 quarterly data. The Ibovespa index was used as a measure of the market return, whereas the risk-free rate was proxied by the Selic interbank rate and by the savings account rate. In our second approach, we propose a new method to test the puzzle. We jointly estimate, via generalized method of moments, the parameters of interest using a moment condition that has not been previously explored, as far as we are aware of. The two approaches produced a high risk aversion coefficient, however the second approach indicated that we cannot reject the hypothesis of the risk aversion coefficient being statistically equal to zero. A possible explanation for this result might be that in Brazil the equity premium is not statistically different from zero. Therefore there is no evidence of EPP in Brazil for the studied period.

  12. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  13. 基于随机控制的非寿险保费定价策略%Stochastic control in formulating non-life insurance premium strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂胜; 陈秉正

    2011-01-01

    该文探讨在完全竞争的保险市场条件下如何制定最佳非寿险保费策略,以促进非寿险保险公司的发展。主要运用随机最优控制理论,分别在采取期望最终财富和采取期望效用两种模式下,分析了在相对保费率设定和相机抉择设定下的非寿险保费定价策略,得到了一致的最优保费定价策略;并将该最优保费定价策略应用于简单目标函数分析。结果表明:最优保费定价策略是一致的;最优保费定价策略是要么制定一个很高的保费率,要么制定一个低于某一常数的相对保费率;最优保费率取决于平均损失率和市场平均保费等因素。%An optimal non-life insurance premium strategy in perfectly competitive insurance markets was developed for relative premium rate and trade-off specifications using stochastic control theory for two modes of the expected utility and expected final wealth.The consistent optimal premium strategy is applied to an empirical analysis of a simple objective function.The optimal premium strategy is shown to be consistent with the optimal premium strategy of whether to have a high premium rate or a relative premium rate less than a constant depends on the average loss rate and average market premium.

  14. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to...

  15. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  16. A Low Cost High Specific Stiffness Mirror Substrate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  17. Farmgate private standards and price premium: evidence from the GlobalGAP scheme in Kenya's French beans marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, I.M.; Loy, J.P.; Herzfeld, T.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of private quality and assurance schemes in international trade is defining market access in high value chains. The prime concern for small-scale producers is whether price premiums are realizable due to compliance. Using French beans marketing, the authors find that GlobalGAP cert

  18. Estimate of Market Risk Premium by Considering the Market Leverage in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Shammakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the method of calculating the market risk premium with respect to the market leverage was presented and it was studied which method has the accuracy of better estimate in Tehran Stock Exchange. This study seeks to provide and introduce more appropriate and accurate measures in order to measure market risk premium in order to better predict the expected return on the investment in the Tehran Stock Exchange. Returns expected by investors of the stocks of companies with high leverage are more than any other stocks with low leverage. Creditors have a higher priority against the company’s assets and cash money which contributes to an increase in the investors’ risk and therefore it would increase the expected returns and efficiency. Three types of definition and subsequently three CAPM models of Ibbotson, Lally and Siegel were introduced to calculate and evaluate market risk premium, and its accuracy in forecasting investors’ expected returns was tested. In this regard, based on simple random sampling and based on Cochran formula data collected from 69 firms listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2014 with panel data model, three-month returns of the sample companies were calculated and used as the basis for the test. The results show that Lally model (leverage effect of the market compared with Ibbotson and Siegel models explained the strong stock market returns.

  19. Modeling and Analyzing Taxi Congestion Premium in Congested Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a significant problem in many major cities. Getting stuck in traffic, the mileage per unit time that a taxicab travels will decline significantly. Congestion premium (or so-called low-speed fare has become an increasingly important income source for taxi drivers. However, the impact of congestion premium on the taxicab market is not widely understood yet. In particular, modeling and analyzing of the taxi fare structure with congestion premium are extremely limited. In this paper, we developed a taxi price equilibrium model, in which the adjustment mechanism of congestion premium on optimizing the taxi driver’s income, balancing the supply and demand, and eventually improving the level of service in the whole taxicab market was investigated. In the final part, we provided a case study to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model. The results indicated that the current taxi fare scheme in Beijing is suboptimal, since the gain from the raise of congestion premium cannot compensate for the loss from the demand reduction. Conversely, the optimal fare scheme suggested by our model can effectively reduce the excessive demand and reach the supply-demand equilibrium, while keeping the stability of the driver’s income to the maximum extent.

  20. High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kyle H; Ricklefs, Robert E; Gaston, Anthony J; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R; Davoren, Gail K

    2013-06-01

    Flight is a key adaptive trait. Despite its advantages, flight has been lost in several groups of birds, notably among seabirds, where flightlessness has evolved independently in at least five lineages. One hypothesis for the loss of flight among seabirds is that animals moving between different media face tradeoffs between maximizing function in one medium relative to the other. In particular, biomechanical models of energy costs during flying and diving suggest that a wing designed for optimal diving performance should lead to enormous energy costs when flying in air. Costs of flying and diving have been measured in free-living animals that use their wings to fly or to propel their dives, but not both. Animals that both fly and dive might approach the functional boundary between flight and nonflight. We show that flight costs for thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), which are wing-propelled divers, and pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) (foot-propelled divers), are the highest recorded for vertebrates. Dive costs are high for cormorants and low for murres, but the latter are still higher than for flightless wing-propelled diving birds (penguins). For murres, flight costs were higher than predicted from biomechanical modeling, and the oxygen consumption rate during dives decreased with depth at a faster rate than estimated biomechanical costs. These results strongly support the hypothesis that function constrains form in diving birds, and that optimizing wing shape and form for wing-propelled diving leads to such high flight costs that flying ceases to be an option in larger wing-propelled diving seabirds, including penguins.

  1. Life Cycle Cost Model for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    circuitry of the finished product level. ASD/ACCC has access to PRICE M on UNINET (30). 4. PRICE H (Programmed Review of Information for Costing and...AWAL/AAAS- 2) has successfully used PRICE H to analyze hardware acquisition costs. ASD/ACCC has access to PRICE H on UNINET ,-I" (13:1).• 5. PRICE L...ASD/ACCC has access to this model on UNINET (17:21). VHSIC Program Description As discussed earlier, LCC modeling includes all phases of a system’s

  2. Technical Evaluation Report 52: Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: High cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urel Sawyers

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This report compares two integrated course delivery packages: Centra 6 and WebEx. Both applications feature asynchronous and synchronous audio communications for online education and training. They are relatively costly products, and provide useful comparisons with the two less expensive products to be evaluated in the following report #53. The criteria used in the current evaluation include capacity, interactivity features, integration with learning management systems, technical specifications, and cost. The report ends with a short analysis of the currently emerging audio-conferencing software, Google Talk.

  3. The high cost of free tuberculosis services: patient and household costs associated with tuberculosis care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Alobu, Isaac; Lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (± 11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (≤ 35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor.

  4. The High Cost of Harsh Discipline and Its Disparate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.; Losen, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    School suspension rates have been rising since the early 1970s, especially for children of color. One body of research has demonstrated that suspension from school is harmful to students, as it increases the risk of retention and school dropout. Another has demonstrated that school dropouts impose huge social costs on their states and localities,…

  5. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    do extensive component testing and screening which addressed the issues of reliability, thermo-mechanical properties, and radiation sensitivity of the commercial IC's. The facility helped to control costs by generating early information on component survival in space. The development philosophy...... and system flexibility are addressed.KEY WORDS: Micro satellite, stellar compass, star tracker, attitude determination....

  6. Selection and the marriage premium for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey S; Price, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.

  7. SKEWNESS OF RETURN DISTRIBUTION AND COEFFICIENT OF RISK PREMIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenghua WEN; Xiaoguang YANG

    2009-01-01

    The skewness of the return distribution is one of the important features of the security price. In this paper, the authors try to explore the relationship between the skewness and the coefficient of risk premium. The coefficient of the risk premium is estimated by a GARCH-M model, and the robust measurement of skewness is calculated by Groeneveld-Meeden method. The empirical evidences for the composite indexes from 33 securities markets in the world indicate that the risk compensation requirement in the market where the return distribution is positively skewed is virtually zero, and the risk compensation requirement is positive in a significant level in the market where the return distribution is negative skewed. Moreover, the skewness is negatively correlated with the coefficient of the risk premium.

  8. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  9. Experience Studies on Determining Life Premium Insurance Ratings: Practical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CRISTEA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to present the modelling tehcniques used on international practice in the evaluation of right life premiums based. The knowledge and models obtained have a common element of mortality risk indicators but these are varied in different parts of the world. The common elements of these studies and models are generally based on a series of indicators which mainly point out their probability of survival and they are named the mortality indicators. These indicators represent the basis for the calculation of the premiums quotes and for the elaboration by the insurers of premium tables. The benefit for the policyholder is to obtain insurance at a fair and competitive price and for the insurer, to maintain the experience of its portfolio in line with mortality assumptions.

  10. Quantile regression modeling for Malaysian automobile insurance premium data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzi, Mohd Fadzli Mohd; Ismail, Noriszura; Jemain, Abd Aziz

    2015-09-01

    Quantile regression is a robust regression to outliers compared to mean regression models. Traditional mean regression models like Generalized Linear Model (GLM) are not able to capture the entire distribution of premium data. In this paper we demonstrate how a quantile regression approach can be used to model net premium data to study the effects of change in the estimates of regression parameters (rating classes) on the magnitude of response variable (pure premium). We then compare the results of quantile regression model with Gamma regression model. The results from quantile regression show that some rating classes increase as quantile increases and some decrease with decreasing quantile. Further, we found that the confidence interval of median regression (τ = O.5) is always smaller than Gamma regression in all risk factors.

  11. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 277 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Administration of the Food Stamp Program by State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or holiday premiums, and fringe benefits) may be allowed in lieu of actual allowable indirect cost... functions related to the Program is allowable. (5) Bonding. Costs of premiums on bonds covering employees... cost under any recognized method of pricing consistently applied. Incoming transportation charges are a...

  12. Second Thoughts on the Exporter Productivity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    and empirical representations of firm productivity. Instead of marginal productivity we examine in both models the theoretical equivalent of empirically observable productivity (value-added per employee). Given the presence of fixed export costs or heterogeneous mark-ups and trade costs, the observable...

  13. Young moped riders : reducing high risks and high insurance premiums.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the reported fall in fatal accidents for moped riders in The Netherlands, and also describes developments with respect to the ownership and use of mopeds. An analysis considers the safety problems of moped riders and suggests how insurance companies might help overcome the safety

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Practice: Interventions to Improve High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…

  15. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  16. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community...

  17. [Financial and economic principles of assessing enterprises' insurance premium for mandatory social worker's compensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosiants, E V; Bal'nova, L G

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyzed present enterprises' insurance premiums, pointed out the associated drawbacks, defined main financial and economic principles underlying determination of enterprise's insurance premium (principle of sufficiency, principle of justice, principle of collective responsibility and principle of stimulation).

  18. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  19. The variation of acute treatment costs of trauma in high-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willenberg Lynsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to assist health service planning, understanding factors that influence higher trauma treatment costs is essential. The majority of trauma costing research reports the cost of trauma from the perspective of the receiving hospital. There has been no comprehensive synthesis and little assessment of the drivers of cost variation, such as country, trauma, subgroups and methods. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of research reporting the trauma treatment costs and factors associated with higher treatment costs in high income countries. Methods A systematic search for articles relating to the cost of acute trauma care was performed and included studies reporting injury severity scores (ISS, per patient cost/charge estimates; and costing methods. Cost and charge values were indexed to 2011 cost equivalents and converted to US dollars using purchasing power parities. Results A total of twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Eighty-one percent of these studies were conducted in high income countries including USA, Australia, Europe and UK. Studies either reported a cost (74.1% or charge estimate (25.9% for the acute treatment of trauma. Across studies, the median per patient cost of acute trauma treatment was $22,448 (IQR: $11,819-$33,701. However, there was variability in costing methods used with 18% of studies providing comprehensive cost methods. Sixty-three percent of studies reported cost or charge items incorporated in their cost analysis and 52% reported items excluded in their analysis. In all publications reviewed, predictors of cost included Injury Severity Score (ISS, surgical intervention, hospital and intensive care, length of stay, polytrauma and age. Conclusion The acute treatment cost of trauma is higher than other disease groups. Research has been largely conducted in high income countries and variability exists in reporting costing methods as well as the actual costs. Patient populations studied

  20. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Woodhouse, Michael; Lee, Hohyun; Smestad, Greg P.

    2016-03-31

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.59/W(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today's capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the most promising paths for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via substrate reuse and improved manufacturing yields.

  1. Many Mobile Health Apps Target High-Need, High-Cost Populations, But Gaps Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karandeep; Drouin, Kaitlin; Newmark, Lisa P; Lee, JaeHo; Faxvaag, Arild; Rozenblum, Ronen; Pabo, Erika A; Landman, Adam; Klinger, Elissa; Bates, David W

    2016-12-01

    With rising smartphone ownership, mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to support high-need, high-cost populations in managing their health. While the number of available mHealth apps has grown substantially, no clear strategy has emerged on how providers should evaluate and recommend such apps to patients. Key stakeholders, including medical professional societies, insurers, and policy makers, have largely avoided formally recommending apps, which forces patients to obtain recommendations from other sources. To help stakeholders overcome barriers to reviewing and recommending apps, we evaluated 137 patient-facing mHealth apps-those intended for use by patients to manage their health-that were highly rated by consumers and recommended by experts and that targeted high-need, high-cost populations. We found that there is a wide variety of apps in the marketplace but that few apps address the needs of the patients who could benefit the most. We also found that consumers' ratings were poor indications of apps' clinical utility or usability and that most apps did not respond appropriately when a user entered potentially dangerous health information. Going forward, data privacy and security will continue to be major concerns in the dissemination of mHealth apps. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. On the Determinants of Equity International Risk Premium: Are Emerging Zones Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Guesmi; Ilyes Abid; Mohamed Hedi Arouri; Frédéric Teulon

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the financial literature by investigating the formation of the international stock risk premium in emerging market zones. Our results from the estimation of a dynamic augmented capital asset pricing model show that the currency risk premium is the most important component of the total premium followed by the global market premium. As for the regional risk, our findings show that it is significantly priced for all studied emerging regions but its contribution to the...

  3. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... extra compensation provided by such premium rate will be treated as an overtime premium if the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.264-2 - Single premium life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single premium life insurance, endowment, or..., directly or indirectly, to purchase or to continue in effect a single premium life insurance or endowment... payee of such annuity contract. A contract is considered a single premium life insurance, endowment,...

  5. 38 CFR 8.5 - Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. 8.5 Section 8.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.5 Authorization for deduction of premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. Deductions from...

  6. 38 CFR 8.4 - Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premiums § 8.4 Deduction of insurance premiums from compensation, retirement pay, or pension. The insured under a National Service life insurance policy which is not lapsed may authorize the monthly deduction of premiums from...

  7. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  8. 5 CFR 892.102 - What is premium conversion and how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is premium conversion and how does it work? 892.102 Section 892.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED... PREMIUMS Administration and General Provisions § 892.102 What is premium conversion and how does it...

  9. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of collec

  10. 46 CFR 308.547 - Application for return premium, Form MA-317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-317. 308.547... for return premium, Form MA-317. An application for the return of premium must be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on Form MA-317, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  11. 46 CFR 308.527 - Application for return premium, Form MA-307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-307. 308.527... for return premium, Form MA-307. An application for the return of premium, which may be obtained from... MA-307....

  12. 42 CFR 406.33 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... increase: Enrollment. 406.33 Section 406.33 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.33 Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Enrollment... premium increase are the months from the end of the initial enrollment period through the end of the...

  13. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  14. 26 CFR 1.803-6 - Amortization of premium and accrual of discount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-6 Amortization of premium... company. A life insurance company which adjusts amortization of premium or accrual of discount with... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of premium and accrual of...

  15. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums for Calendar Year 2014. SUMMARY: This notice provides the updated TRICARE Young Adult program premiums...

  16. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  17. The impact of instant reward programs and bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Alec; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Non, Marielle C.

    This study examines the impact of an instant reward program (IRP) with bonus premiums on consumer purchase behavior. An IRP is a rapidly growing form of short-term program that rewards consumers instantly with small premiums per fixed spending, where these premiums are part of a larger set of

  18. A guide to understanding the variation in premiums in rural health insurance marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Key Findings. (1) State-level decisions in implementing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) have led to significant state variation in the design of Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) rating areas. In some designs, rural counties are grouped together, while in others, rural and urban counties have been deliberately mixed. (2) Urban counties have, on average, approximately one more firm participating in the marketplaces, representing about 11 more plan offerings, than rural counties have. (3) The highest-valued "platinum" plan types are less likely to be available in rural areas. Thus, the overall mix of plan types should be factored into the reporting of average premiums. (4) Levels of competition are likely to have a greater impact on the decisions of firms considering whether to operate in higher-cost areas or not, as those firms must determine how they can pass such costs on to consumers, conditional on the market share they are likely to control.

  19. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  20. 29 CFR 778.201 - Overtime premiums-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.201 Overtime premiums—general..., the extra compensation provided by the premium rates need not be included in the employee's...

  1. 77 FR 41270 - Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BJ82 Health Insurance Premium Tax Credit Correction In rule document 2012-12421 appearing on pages 30377-30400 in the issue of Wednesday, May 23, 2012...

  2. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  3. 26 CFR 1.848-2 - Determination of net premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equals the amount which bears the same ratio to the capitalization shortfall as the required...) Retired lives reserves. Premiums received by an insurance company under a retired lives reserve... approximated by using the interpolated terminal reserve of the original contract as of the date of the...

  4. Just My Imagination: Beauty premium and the evolved mental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Imagination, an important feature of the human mind, may be at the root of the beauty premium. The evolved human capacity for simulating the real world, developed as an adaptation to a complex social environment, may offer the key to understanding this and many other aspects of human behavior.

  5. 'Benefits cycle' replacing premium cycle as consumerism takes hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The traditional premium cycle of ups and downs in rates is giving way to a new phenomenon--driven by the advent of consumerism in health care--termed the "benefits cycle" by one consultant. Rather than shifts in rates, he argues, the future will see shifts in benefits packages.

  6. A theoretical and practical perspective on the equity risk premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, Roelof

    2008-01-01

    In historical perspective, equity returns have been higher than interest rates but have also varied a good deal more. However, the average excess return has been larger than what could be expected based on classical equilibrium theory: the equity risk premium (ERP) puzzle. This paper has two objecti

  7. Premium small car demand,not rising in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A growing number of worldwide car makers are focusing on making premium or luxury small cars. These cars ensure sales income, stabilize their market share and they are a good reflection of a civic-oriented society. But why these kinds of cars are unable to create market demand in China where resources supply is tougher than in most countries.

  8. Portfolio size as funktion of the premium: modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Christensen, Bent Jesper; Taksar, Michael I

    An insurance company has a large number N of potential customers characterized by i.i.d. r.v.'s A1,…,AN giving the arrival rates of claims. Customers are risk averse, and a customer accepts an offered premium p according to his A-value. The modeling further involves a discount rate d>r of customers...

  9. Prediction of Risk Premium Based on Quantile Regression%基于分位回归的风险保费预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮; 孟生旺

    2016-01-01

    风险保费预测是非寿险费率厘定的重要组成部分。在传统的分位回归厘定风险保费中,通常假设分位数水平是事先给定的,缺乏一定的客观性。为此,提出了一种应用分位回归厘定风险保费的新方法。基于破产概率确定保单组合的总风险保费,建立个体保单的分位回归模型,并与总风险保费建立等式关系,通过数值方法求解出分位数水平,实现对个体保单风险保费的预测。通过一组实际数据分析表明,该方法具有良好的预测效果。%Prediction of risk premiums is an important part in the non-life insurance premium ratemaking.During the determining the risk premium in the traditional quantile regression,quantile level is generally given in advance,which is lack of obj ectivity.Therefore,we propose a new method for determining the risk premium by applying of quantile regression.Firstly,determining the total risk premiums based on the probability of bankruptcy;secondly,to establish quantile regression model in individual policies,and establish relationships with total risk premium;finally,to solve for quantile level by numerical methods,obtain the individual risk premiums.Basing on a set of actual data,the results demonstrates that the method has high forecasting accuracy.

  10. The market premium of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012. Does it really contribute to both market and system integration of renewables?; Die Marktpraemie im EEG 2012. Ein sinnvoller Beitrag zur Markt- und Systemintegration erneuerbarer Energien?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Purkus, Alexandra [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (Germany). Dept. Bioenergie

    2013-03-15

    With the share of renewable energies within the electricity sector rising, improving their market integration (i.e. inclusion in the steering and remuneration processes of the electricity market) and system integration (i.e. enhanced responsibility for grid stability) is of increasing importance. To transform the energy system efficiently while ensuring security of supply, it is necessary to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with short- and long-term market signals. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012 introduced the market premium to provide market experience to renewable plant operators and incentives for demand-oriented electricity production. Shortly after its introduction, the instrument is already being criticised as ineffective and expensive. Building on early experiences, this article examines whether the market premium in its current design improves market and/or system integration, and if it seems suitable in principle to contribute to these aims (effectiveness). Also, potential efficiency gains and additional costs of ''administering integration'' are discussed (efficiency). While market integration in a strict sense (i.e. exposing renewables to price risks) is not the purpose of the market premium, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, windfall profits are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented electricity production are established, but they prove insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. A continuation of the instrument in its current form therefore does not seem recommendable. To conclude, potential alternative solutions are presented.

  11. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys.

  12. Trends in the Use of Premium and Discount Cigarette Brands: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analyzed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Results Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Conclusions Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favor the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population. PMID:24092600

  13. Trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands: findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analysed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favour the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population.

  14. 42 CFR 412.86 - Payment for extraordinarily high-cost day outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for extraordinarily high-cost day outliers... Outlier Cases, Special Treatment Payment for New Technology, and Payment Adjustment for Certain Replaced Devices Payment for Outlier Cases § 412.86 Payment for extraordinarily high-cost day outliers. For...

  15. Oregon's High School Dropouts: Examining the Economic and Social Costs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Foundation for Educational Choice recently commissioned a new study to examine the economic and social costs of Oregon's high school dropouts. Emily House, the study's author, analyzed how dropouts in the state dramatically impact state finances through reduced tax revenues, increased Medicaid costs, and high incarceration rates. House's study…

  16. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  17. Low Cost High Performance Nanostructured Spectrally Selective Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sungho [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-04-05

    Sunlight absorbing coating is a key enabling technology to achieve high-temperature high-efficiency concentrating solar power operation. A high-performance solar absorbing material must simultaneously meet all the following three stringent requirements: high thermal efficiency (usually measured by figure of merit), high-temperature durability, and oxidation resistance. The objective of this research is to employ a highly scalable process to fabricate and coat black oxide nanoparticles onto solar absorber surface to achieve ultra-high thermal efficiency. Black oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a facile process and coated onto absorber metal surface. The material composition, size distribution and morphology of the nanoparticle are guided by numeric modeling. Optical and thermal properties have been both modeled and measured. High temperature durability has been achieved by using nanocomposites and high temperature annealing. Mechanical durability on thermal cycling have also been investigated and optimized. This technology is promising for commercial applications in next-generation high-temperature concentration solar power (CSP) plants.

  18. Cost evaluation of a DSN high level real-time language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the implementation of a DSN High Level Real Time Language will reduce real time software expenditures is explored. The High Level Real Time Language is found to be both affordable and cost-effective.

  19. THE STUDY OF INSURANCE PREMIUM RATE GIS MAPPING CONSIDERING THE STORM AND FLOOD HAZARD RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood ins...

  20. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1998-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with realtime information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate flight

  1. Low cost, formable, high T(sub c) superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic superconductivity part such as a wire is produced through the partial oxidation of a specially formulated copper alloy in the core. The alloys contain low level quantities of rare earth and alkaline earth dopant elements. Upon oxidation at high temperature, superconducting oxide phases are formed as a thin film.

  2. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with real-time information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate lligh

  3. Calculus in High School--At What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, D. H.; Wheatley, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Evidence on the decline in preparation of entering calculus students and the relationship to high school preparation is presented, focusing on the trend toward the de-emphasis of trigonometry and analytic geometry in favor of calculus. Data on students' perception of the adequacy of their preparation are also presented. (Author/MN)

  4. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart

    2013-07-02

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  5. Low-Cost, High-Performance Analog Optical Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    5. BBR monolithic or integrated hybrid (long term solution, higher-risk, high-payoff implementation) Theoretical analysis of BBR We...85 BBR – integrated hybrid ................................................................................................... 90 BBR...for the DBR laser. ................................................ 12 Figure 11. Adiabatic chirp of the master-slave DBR laser (with left plot) and

  6. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with real-time information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate lligh

  7. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1998-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with realtime information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate flight

  8. How to Fight the High Cost of Curricular Glut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum management is at the source of issues consuming academics, including high tuition, low adjunct pay, shared governance, graduate education, academic calendars, and budgetary models. The issue has the most impact at Ph.D.-granting public universities, but any institution can benefit from analyzing the source of poorly managed pedagogy,…

  9. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with real-time information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate

  10. 中小板与创业板首次公开募股首日溢价的比较分析%Comparative analysis of IPO initial premiums between SME and GEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 费为银

    2012-01-01

    对中小板与创业板IPO首日溢价进行了比较,对影响溢价的因素分别进行检验,得出共同因素为换手率,表明二级市场上投机气氛依然较浓.中签率、发行成本、股权集中度和国有股背景对中小板新股溢价的影响较为显著,而创业板则为发行价格和市场气氛.此外,是否有国有股背景对新股发行状况也有一定影响.%This paper compares IPO initial premiums for the small and medium enterprises(SME) board and the growth enterprises market(GEM) board,by testing the factors that influence stock initial premiums,the turnover rate is identified as the common significant factor,which shows that there exists high speculative atmosphere in the secondary market.Next,the demand-to-offer ratio,the cost of raising funds,the concentrative degree of equity and the state-owned background equity are more significant in the SME board,while the issue price and the market sentiment are more significant in the GEM board.Moreover,some significant influences are derived from the state-owned background equity while issuing new stocks.

  11. High energy density capacitors for low cost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyore, Omokhodion David

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, hexafluoropropylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene are the most widely investigated ferroelectric polymers, due to their relatively high electromechanical properties and potential to achieve high energy density. [Bauer, 2010; Zhou et al., 2009] The research community has focused primarily on melt pressed or extruded films of PVDF-based polymers to obtain the highest performance with energy density up to 25 Jcm-3. [Zhou et al., 2009] Solution processing offers an inexpensive, low temperature alternative, which is also easily integrated with flexible electronics. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of solution-based polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene metal-insulator-metal capacitors on flexible substrates using a photolithographic process. Capacitors were optimized for maximum energy density, high dielectric strength and low leakage current density. It is demonstrated that with the right choice of solvent, electrodes, spin-casting and annealing conditions, high energy density thin film capacitors can be fabricated repeatably and reproducibly. The high electric field dielectric constants were measured and the reliabilities of the polymer capacitors were also evaluated via time-zero breakdown and time-dependent breakdown techniques. Chapter 1 develops the motivation for this work and provides a theoretical overview of dielectric materials, polarization, leakage current and dielectric breakdown. Chapter 2 is a literature review of polymer-based high energy density dielectrics and covers ferroelectric polymers, highlighting PVDF and some of its derivatives. Chapter 3 summarizes some preliminary experimental work and presents materials and electrical characterization that support the rationale for materials selection and process development. Chapter 4 discusses the fabrication of solution-processed PVDF-HFP and modification of its properties by photo-crosslinking. It is followed by a

  12. Data of cost-optimality and technical solutions for high energy performance buildings in warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacà, Ilaria; D'Agostino, Delia; Maria Congedo, Paolo; Baglivo, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    The data reported in this article refers to input and output information related to the research articles entitled Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area by Zacà et al. (Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area, in press.) and related to the research article Cost-optimal analysis and technical comparison between standard and high efficient mono residential buildings in a warm climate by Baglivo et al. (Energy, 2015, 10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.062, in press).

  13. The Cost of Workplace Flexibility for High-Powered Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia D. Goldin; Katz, Lawrence F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors study the pecuniary penalties for family-related amenities in the workplace (e.g., job interruptions, short hours, part-time work, and flexibility during the workday), how women have responded to them, and how the penalties have changed over time. The pecuniary penalties to behaviors that are beneficial to family appear to have decreased in many professions. Self-employment has declined in many of the high-end professions (e.g., pharmacy, optometry, dentistry, law, medicine, and v...

  14. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  15. CREAT A CONSORTIUM AND DEVELOP PREMIUM CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Andresen

    2003-08-01

    The Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and matching funds from industry and academic institutions continued to excel in developing innovative technologies to use coal and coal-derived feedstocks to produce premium carbon product. During Budget Period 5, eleven projects were supported and sub-contracted were awarded to seven organizations. The CPCPC held two meetings and one tutorial at various locations during the year. Budget Period 5 was a time of growth for CPCPC in terms of number of proposals and funding requested from members, projects funded and participation during meetings. Although the membership was stable during the first part of Budget Period 5 an increase in new members was registered during the last months of the performance period.

  16. Fuzzy-probabilistic multi agent system for breast cancer risk assessment and insurance premium assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatari, Farzaneh; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Sabahi, Ahmad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an agent-based system for distributed risk assessment of breast cancer development employing fuzzy and probabilistic computing. The proposed fuzzy multi agent system consists of multiple fuzzy agents that benefit from fuzzy set theory to demonstrate their soft information (linguistic information). Fuzzy risk assessment is quantified by two linguistic variables of high and low. Through fuzzy computations, the multi agent system computes the fuzzy probabilities of breast cancer development based on various risk factors. By such ranking of high risk and low risk fuzzy probabilities, the multi agent system (MAS) decides whether the risk of breast cancer development is high or low. This information is then fed into an insurance premium adjuster in order to provide preventive decision making as well as to make appropriate adjustment of insurance premium and risk. This final step of insurance analysis also provides a numeric measure to demonstrate the utility of the approach. Furthermore, actual data are gathered from two hospitals in Mashhad during 1 year. The results are then compared with a fuzzy distributed approach.

  17. Controlling Capital Costs in High Performance Office Buildings: A Review of Best Practices for Overcoming Cost Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a set of 15 best practices for owners, designers, and construction teams of office buildings to reach high performance goals for energy efficiency, while maintaining a competitive budget. They are based on the recent experiences of the owner and design/build team for the Research Support Facility (RSF) on National Renewable Energy Facility's campus in Golden, CO, which show that achieving this outcome requires each key integrated team member to understand their opportunities to control capital costs.

  18. High performance/low cost accelerator control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyary, S.; Glatz, J.; Lancaster, H.; Selph, F.; Fahmie, M.; Ritchie, A.; Timossi, C.; Hinkson, C.; Benjegerdes, R.

    1980-10-01

    Implementation of a high performance computer control system tailored to the requirements of the Super HILAC accelerator is described. This system uses a distributed structure with fiber optic data links; multiple CPUs operate in parallel at each node. A large number of the latest 16 bit microcomputer boards are used to get a significant processor bandwidth. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs together with touch screens allow a flexible and efficient operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system allows display and labeling of real time signals as well as general plotting functions. Both the accelerator parameters and the graphics system can be driven from BASIC interactive programs in addition to the precanned user routines.

  19. On asset pricing and the equity premium puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Presented here are consumption and production related asset pricing models which seek to explain stock market behaviour through the stock premium over risk-free bonds and to do so using parameter values consistent with theory. Our results show that there are models capable of explaining stock market behaviour. For the consumption-based model, we avoid many of the suggestions to artificiall...

  20. The Value Premium on the Danish Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Ole

    2005-01-01

    A number of influential studies have documented a strong value premium for US stocks over the period 1963 to 1990 (Fama and French (1992), Lakonishok et al. (1994)). Stocks with low price-earnings multiples, price-book values and other measures of value are reported to have given a higher mean re......,98)) or mispricing as emphasized by the Behavioral Finance School (Chan et al. (2000), Lakonishok et al. (1994) and La Porta et al. (1997))....

  1. Stock Market Integration: Are Risk Premiums of International Assets Equal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdhianto Setiawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies previous research on capital market integration and applies a simple international capital asset pricing model by considering the incompleteness in market integration and heteroscedasticity of the market returns. When we disregarded those two factors, we found that stock markets were integrated and the law of one price on risk premiums prevails. However, when the factors were considered, the markets were just partially integrated.

  2. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  3. Global Variance Risk Premium and Forex Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Aloosh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    In a long-run risk model with stochastic volatility and frictionless markets, I express expected forex returns as a function of consumption growth variances and stock variance risk premiums (VRPs)—the difference between the risk-neutral and statistical expectations of market return variation. This provides a motivation for using the forward-looking information available in stock market volatility indices to predict forex returns. Empirically, I find that stock VRPs predict forex returns at a ...

  4. Farmgate Private Standards and Price Premium: Evidence From the GlobalGAP Scheme in Kenya's French Beans Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Isaac Maina; Loy, Jens-Peter; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of private quality and assurance schemes in international trade is defining market access in high value chains. The prime concern for small-scale producers is whether price premiums are realizable due to compliance. Using French beans marketing, the authors find that GlobalGAP certification, produce traceability, number of suppliers, competition for supplies, direct procurement, a good road network, and supply contracts have positive farmgate price effects for smallholders. ...

  5. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  6. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Cost, High-Performance Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultramet designed and fabricated a lightweight, high-temperature combustion chamber for use with cryogenic LOX/CH4 propellants that can deliver a specific impulse of approx.355 seconds. This increase over the current 320-second baseline of nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine (NTO/MMH) will result in a propellant mass decrease of 55 lb for a typical lunar mission. The material system was based on Ultramet's proven oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture, which has been hot-fire tested with stoichiometric oxygen/hydrogen for hours. Instead of rhenium, however, the structural material was a niobium or tantalum alloy that has excellent yield strength at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Phase I demonstrated alloys with yield strength-to-weight ratios more than three times that of rhenium, which will significantly reduce chamber weight. The starting materials were also two orders of magnitude less expensive than rhenium and were less expensive than the C103 niobium alloy commonly used in low-performance engines. Phase II focused on the design, fabrication, and hot-fire testing of a 12-lbf thrust class chamber with LOX/CH4, and a 100-lbf chamber for LOX/CH4. A 5-lbf chamber for NTO/MMH also was designed and fabricated.

  8. Compact, Low-Cost, Frequency-Locked Semiconductor Laser for Injection Seeding High Power Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project will develop a compact, low-cost, wavelength locked seed laser for injection locking high powered...

  9. Low-Cost and High-Performance Propulsion for Small Satellite Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While small satellites continue to show immense promise for high-capability and low-cost missions, they remain limited by post-deployment propulsion for a variety of...

  10. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  11. 78 FR 16808 - Connect America Fund; High-Cost Universal Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... establish any comparator groups.'' They argue that the benchmark ``formulas impose limitations on companies... modify the high cost loop support (HCLS) benchmarks. DATES: Effective March 19, 2013. FOR FURTHER... networks while requiring accountability from companies receiving support and ensuring fairness...

  12. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  13. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at NASA and...

  14. [Evolution of reimbursement of high-cost anticancer drugs: Financial impact within a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Amandine; Fargier, Emilie; Cerruti, Ariane; Dubromel, Amélie; Vantard, Nicolas; Ranchon, Florence; Schwiertz, Vérane; Salles, Gilles; Souquet, Pierre-Jean; Thomas, Luc; Bérard, Frédéric; Nancey, Stéphane; Freyer, Gilles; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique; Rioufol, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    In the context of health expenses control, reimbursement of high-cost medicines with a 'minor' or 'nonexistent' improvement in actual health benefit evaluated by the Haute Autorité de santé is revised by the decree of March 24, 2016 related to the procedure and terms of registration of high-cost pharmaceutical drugs. This study aims to set up the economic impact of this measure. A six months retrospective study was conducted within a French university hospital from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. For each injectable high-cost anticancer drug prescribed to a patient with cancer, the therapeutic indication, its status in relation to the marketing authorization and the associated improvement in actual health benefit were examined. The total costs of these treatments, the cost per type of indication and, in the case of marketing authorization indications, the cost per improvement in actual health benefit were evaluated considering that all drugs affected by the decree would be struck off. Over six months, 4416 high-cost injectable anticancer drugs were prescribed for a total cost of 4.2 million euros. The costs of drugs with a minor or nonexistent improvement in actual benefit and which comparator is not onerous amount 557,564 euros. The reform of modalities of inscription on the list of onerous drugs represents a significant additional cost for health institutions (1.1 million euros for our hospital) and raises the question of the accessibility to these treatments for cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Disruptive Models in Primary Care: Caring for High-Needs, High-Cost Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Michael; Asch, Steven M

    2017-04-01

    Starfield and colleagues have suggested four overarching attributes of good primary care: "first-contact access for each need; long-term person- (not disease) focused care; comprehensive care for most health needs; and coordinated care when it must be sought elsewhere." As this series on reinventing primary care highlights, there is a compelling need for new care delivery models that would advance these objectives. This need is particularly urgent for high-needs, high-cost (HNHC) populations. By definition, HNHC patients require extensive attention and consume a disproportionate share of resources, and as a result they strain traditional office-based primary care practices. In this essay, we offer a clinical vignette highlighting the challenges of caring for HNHC populations. We then describe two categories of primary care-based approaches for managing HNHC populations: complex case management, and specialized clinics focused on HNHC patients. Although complex case management programs can be incorporated into or superimposed on the traditional primary care system, such efforts often fail to engage primary care clinicians and HNHC patients, and proven benefits have been modest to date. In contrast, specialized clinics for HNHC populations are more disruptive, as care for HNHC patients must be transferred to a multidisciplinary team that can offer enhanced care coordination and other support. Such specialized clinics may produce more substantial benefits, though rigorous evaluation of these programs is needed. We conclude by suggesting policy reforms to improve care for HNHC populations.

  16. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  17. Economic costs of HIV infection: an employer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G G; Yin, D D; Lyu, R; Chaikledkaew, U; Louie, S

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has proven highly effective in treating patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the high cost of the advanced antiretroviral therapy has led to increased financial constraints on both patients and payers. From business firms'perspective, especially those with operations in developing countries, it is crucial to determine the long-term economic cost implications of alternative employment and benefit policies for HIV-infected workers or those at high risk for the disease. A simulation model is developed to predict the comprehensive lifetime economic costs of HIV-infected workers to an employer. This model employs age,CD4(+) cell counts,and plasma HIV-1 RNA level as major predictors of the disease progression and patient survival in the determination of various cost functions. Major cost components considered include direct expenses on health insurance premium,life insurance premium, short-term disability benefits, long-term disability benefits, hiring/training expenses, and indirect costs resulting from reduced or lost productivity at work. An individual model and a group model are derived to estimate the costs of an individual and a group of HIV-infected patients, respectively. Over a 10-year period, following the nonadvanced antiretroviral treatment regimen, the group model predicts that the total lifetime cost of an HIV-infected worker can be as high as U.S. 90,000 dollars to his/her employer, of which 60,000 dollars would be various explicit costs and 30,000 dollars lost work productivity. Sensitivity analysis further demonstrated that changes in the initial level of age,CD4(+) cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load,CD4(+) cell decline rate, and the costs of medical care influence the dynamics of the cost functions. HIV infection can result in sizable economic costs to an employer over the lifetime course of an infected employee if not treated with the advanced antiretroviral therapy. These cost estimates provide a

  18. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  19. Considerations on a Cost Model for High-Field Dipole Arc Magnets for FCC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078700; Durante, Maria; Lorin, Clement; Martinez, Teresa; Ruuskanen, Janne; Salmi, Tiina; Sorbi, Massimo; Tommasini, Davide; Toral, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the European Circular Collider (EuroCirCol), a conceptual design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider [1]–[3], a cost model for the high-field dipole arc magnets is being developed. The aim of the cost model in the initial design phase is to provide the basis for sound strategic decisions towards cost effective designs, in particular: (A) the technological choice of superconducting material and its cost, (B) the target performance of Nb3Sn superconductor, (C) the choice of operating temperature (D) the relevant design margins and their importance for cost, (E) the nature and extent of grading, and (F) the aperture’s influence on cost. Within the EuroCirCol study three design options for the high field dipole arc magnets are under study: cos − θ [4], block [5], and common-coil [6]. Here, in the advanced design phase, a cost model helps to (1) identify the cost drivers and feed-back this informati...

  20. Enhancing Cost Realism through Risk-Driven Contracting: Designing Incentive Fees Based on Probabilistic Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    it would award a CPFF contract to what it knew to be the lowest cost contractor to avoid the risk premium of incentive contracts ( Samuelson , 1986... Samuelson , W. (1986). Bidding for contracts. Management Science, 32(12), 1533–1550. Scherer, F. M. (1964). The theory of contractual incentives for cost

  1. Estimating the country risk premium in emerging markets: the case of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Naumoski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the cost of capital is difficult in developed markets and even more difficult in emerging markets. Investments in the emerging markets are more risky than in the developed markets but return is also higher. The key question here is whether the return on investments in emerging markets should be rewarded by compensation in excess of that provided by an equivalent investment in a developed market. Contemporary literature provides alternative ways for calculating the cost of capital invested in emerging markets. In general, it can be concluded that it is widely accepted that country risk matters when investing in emerging markets and it is a key component in the estimation of the cost of capital for those investments. Country risk is non-diversifiable, which will be argued in this paper first, after which an alternative approach will be provided for quantification of country risk in the risk premium measure, which is integral component in the models for estimating the cost of capital.

  2. Register-based indicators for potentially inappropriate medication in high-cost patients with excessive polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Leena K; Verho, Jouko

    2015-06-01

    Excessive polypharmacy is often associated with inappropriate drug use. Because drug expenditures are heavily skewed and a considerable share of patients in the top 5% of the cost distribution have excessive polypharmacy, the appropriateness of their drug use should be reviewed. The aim of this study was to review the quality of drug use in patients with extremely high costs and excessive polypharmacy and to compare them with all drug users. This is a nationwide register study. The subjects of this study were all drug users in Finland over 15 years of age, n = 3,303,813. The measures used were annual total costs, average costs, and number of patients. The background characteristics used included gender, age, morbidity, number of prescribers, active substances, and indicators of potentially inappropriate drug use, for example, Beers criteria. The patients with high costs and excessive polypharmacy accounted for 22% of the total pharmaceutical expenditures but only 3% of drug users. One-third of them were elderly, compared with 11.3% of all drug users (p polypharmacy patients used more potentially inappropriate (28.0% vs 19.9%, p polypharmacy with inappropriate medication use should be prevented using all the methods. The patients with excessive polypharmacy and high-drug costs provide a most interesting group for containing pharmaceutical costs via medication reviews. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  4. Study on the fuel cycle cost of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, Masanobu; Katanishi, Shoji; Nakata, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Oda, Takefumi; Izumiya, Toru [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    In the basic design of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300), reduction of the fuel cycle cost has a large benefit of improving overall plant economy. Then, fuel cycle cost was evaluated for GTHTR300. First, of fuel fabrication for high-temperature gas cooled reactor, since there was no actual experience with a commercial scale, a preliminary design for a fuel fabrication plant with annual processing of 7.7 ton-U sufficient four GTHTR300 was performed, and fuel fabrication cost was evaluated. Second, fuel cycle cost was evaluated based on the equilibrium cycle of GTHTR300. The factors which were considered in this cost evaluation include uranium price, conversion, enrichment, fabrication, storage of spent fuel, reprocessing, and waste disposal. The fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated at about 1.07 yen/kWh. If the back-end cost of reprocessing and waste disposal is included and assumed to be nearly equivalent to LWR, the fuel cycle cost of GTHTR300 was estimated to be about 1.31 yen/kWh. Furthermore, the effects on fuel fabrication cost by such of fuel specification parameters as enrichment, the number of fuel types, and the layer thickness were considered. Even if the enrichment varies from 10 to 20%, the number of fuel types change from 1 to 4, the 1st layer thickness of fuel changes by 30 {mu}m, or the 2nd layer to the 4th layer thickness of fuel changes by 10 {mu}m, the impact on fuel fabrication cost was evaluated to be negligible. (author)

  5. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  6. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, >...

  7. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    by INCOSE. 1) to 3) have been studied using action research on a case project. The case company´s success in their endeavor contributes to people currently living without decent housing getting insulated low-cost houses based on the latest technology. The fact that those low-cost houses are solid gives......Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products....... Consequently one Danish company took the decision to produce sustainable low-cost houses and to sell them to development countries that have township housing programs. Why does this company believe in still making profit in the low-cost housing segment abroad, when there is almost no profit in the high...

  8. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric [Cree, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  9. Higher Education System, Skill Premium and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorel, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Our paper contributes to explore differences in high-education systems, and to highlight the role of competition among tertiary education providers and more generally of tertiary education systems viewed from a general equilibrium perspective to explain changes in returns to skill, wage inequalities and output. An objective function is introduced…

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF LINE EXTENSION STRATEGIES BY PREMIUM BRANDS ON BRAND EQUITY: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Lukas SEIZER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Premium markets are expected to outperform other markets throughout the near future. Thus these markets are of high importance for marketers, who already face challenges to manage premium brands due to the hazard of a possible dilution of user’s sense of exclusivity and pride. Premium brand managers must know when it is best to take a pass on short-term growth opportunities that could tarnish the brand's long-term health. Line extensions embody one of the most frequently used vehicles for growth to meet global consumer needs. Though they have advantages, also risks are associated with them. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to identify the influence of line extensions on brand equity in culturally different spheres. The study focuses on premium brands from the automotive industry and asks if and in how far different – vertical (different price & quality level and horizontal (same price & quality level – line extension strategies influence brand equity differently among cultures. A one group pre-test post-test research design is used to measure brand equity before and after an existing brand’s (hypothetical extension. A structured online survey with page logic collected primary data from four hundred students in Germany and Thailand recruited by a matched sampling technique. Culture has to be added to brand equity models as results show distinctive changes of brand equity for both Germany and Thailand. While after vertical downscale extensions, brand equity increases in Germany, it decreases in Thailand. Hence, the research results in managerial recommendations which assess if product policy strategies should be thought ‘regionally’ or ‘globally’.

  11. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  12. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A; Lavender, Curt

    2016-04-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti-1Al-8V-5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications.

  13. Capital cost: low- and high-sulfur coal plants, 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) high- and low-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equimpment list, and site description are contained in Volume II. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal.

  14. Low-cost high-quality crystalline germanium based flexible devices

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2014-06-16

    High performance flexible electronics promise innovative future technology for various interactive applications for the pursuit of low-cost, light-weight, and multi-functional devices. Thus, here we show a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication of flexible metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with high-κ/metal gate stack, using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) cost-effective technique to obtain a high-quality Ge channel. We report outstanding bending radius ~1.25 mm and semi-transparency of 30%.

  15. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  16. Low–Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fiber for High-Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akato, Kokouvi M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tran, Chau D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Paul, Ryan M. [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Dai, Xuliang [GrafTech International Holdings, Inc., Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. The focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria, as highlighted in Table 1. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples were below 500 ppm. Processing asreceived lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial lignin, prior to purification, had greater than 4X the ash level needed for this project, and prior to this work there was not a clear path of how to achieve the purity target. The lab scale development of LBCF was performed with a specific functional application in mind, specifically for high temperature rigid insulation. GTI is currently a consumer of foreignsourced pitch and rayon based carbon fibers for use in its high temperature insulation products, and the motivation was that LBCF had potential to decrease costs and increase product competitiveness in the marketplace through lowered raw material costs, lowered energy costs, and decreased environmental footprint. At the end of this project, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) remained at 5 for LBCF in high temperature insulation.

  17. Low-Cost Bio-Based Carbon Fibers for High Temperature Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Ryan Michael [GrafTech International, Brooklyn Heights, OH (United States); Naskar, Amit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-03

    GrafTech International Holdings Inc. (GTI), under Award No. DE-EE0005779, worked with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under CRADA No. NFE-15-05807 to develop lignin-based carbon fiber (LBCF) technology and to demonstrate LBCF performance in high-temperature products and applications. This work was unique and different from other reported LBCF work in that this study was application-focused and scalability-focused. Accordingly, the executed work was based on meeting criteria based on technology development, cost, and application suitability. High-temperature carbon fiber based insulation is used in energy intensive industries, such as metal heat treating and ceramic and semiconductor material production. Insulation plays a critical role in achieving high thermal and process efficiency, which is directly related to energy usage, cost, and product competitiveness. Current high temperature insulation is made with petroleum based carbon fibers, and one goal of this protect was to develop and demonstrate an alternative lignin (biomass) based carbon fiber that would achieve lower cost, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption and result in insulation that met or exceeded the thermal efficiency of current commercial insulation. In addition, other products were targeted to be evaluated with LBCF. As the project was designed to proceed in stages, the initial focus of this work was to demonstrate lab-scale LBCF from at least 4 different lignin precursor feedstock sources that could meet the estimated production cost of $5.00/pound and have ash level of less than 500 ppm in the carbonized insulation-grade fiber. Accordingly, a preliminary cost model was developed based on publicly available information. The team demonstrated that 4 lignin samples met the cost criteria. In addition, the ash level for the 4 carbonized lignin samples was below 500 ppm. Processing as-received lignin to produce a high purity lignin fiber was a significant accomplishment in that most industrial

  18. Let's Do It Again: Bagging Equity Premium Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...... return problem. In an empirical application using the data set of Campbell, J., and S. Thompson (2008): “Predicting the Equity Premium Out of Sample: Can Anything Beat the Historical Average?”, Review of Financial Studies 21, 1511-1531, we show that we can improve the forecast performance further...

  19. Ion exchange properties of Wyodak premium coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-08-23

    Low rank coals (lignite and subbituminous) contain exchangeable cations. A sample of {minus}20+200 mesh Argonne Premium Wyodak coal was washed with nitric acid in a burette fitted with a coarse glass frit at the base of the graduations to remove the exchangeable cations from the system. The eluent was passed to a flow-through pH electrode and a titration curve was obtained on a computer file. A series of electrodes (pH, calcium, sodium and potassium) were used in separate experiments to follow the elution from the coal. Some implications for coal structure are also indicated.

  20. The equity premium puzzle and emotional asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Gürtler, Marc; Hartmann, Nora

    2004-01-01

    "Since the equity premium as well as the risk-free rate puzzle question the concepts central to financial and economic modeling, we apply behavioral decision theory to asset pricing in view of solving these puzzles. U.S. stock market data for the period 1960-2003 and German stock market data for the period 1977-2003 show that emotional investors who act in accordance to Bell's (1985) disappointment theory -a special case of prospect theory- and additionally administer mental accounts demand a...

  1. Second Generation Novel High Temperature Commercial Receiver & Low Cost High Performance Mirror Collector for Parabolic Solar Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Norwich Technologies (NT) is developing a disruptively superior solar field for trough concentrating solar power (CSP). Troughs are the leading CSP technology (85% of installed capacity), being highly deployable and similar to photovoltaic (PV) systems for siting. NT has developed the SunTrap receiver, a disruptive alternative to vacuum-tube concentrating solar power (CSP) receivers, a market currently dominated by the Schott PTR-70. The SunTrap receiver will (1) operate at higher temperature (T) by using an insulated, recessed radiation-collection system to overcome the energy losses that plague vacuum-tube receivers at high T, (2) decrease acquisition costs via simpler structure, and (3) dramatically increase reliability by eliminating vacuum. It offers comparable optical efficiency with thermal loss reduction from ≥ 26% (at presently standard T) to ≥ 55% (at high T), lower acquisition costs, and near-zero O&M costs.

  2. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [For low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 V olume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  3. What has led the automotive industry to offshore engineering services to low cost countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, Steve; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review of this ......This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review...... of this area and present a case study of a global multinational premium automotive organization with headquarters in Germany. The findings showed that an outsourced offshore delivery center is multi-dimensional and difficult to manage when faced with such complexity.The case company decided to outsource again...... to a specialized third party, also with headquarters in Germany, to minimize complexity. This paper adds to theoretical knowledge in the field by expanding on existing research in diversified areas and gives practitioners insights into why the premium automotive organization outsourced offshore, what the drivers...

  4. Assessing Risk in Costing High-energy Accelerators: from Existing Projects to the Future Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are large projects funded by public money, developed over the years and constructed via major industrial contracts both in advanced technology and in more conventional domains such as civil engineering and infrastructure, for which they often constitute one-of markets. Assessing their cost, as well as the risk and uncertainty associated with this assessment is therefore an essential part of project preparation and a justified requirement by the funding agencies. Stemming from the experience with large circular colliders at CERN, LEP and LHC, as well as with the Main Injector, the Tevatron Collider Experiments and Accelerator Upgrades, and the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab, we discuss sources of cost variance and derive cost risk assessment methods applicable to the future linear collider, through its two technical approaches for ILC and CLIC. We also address disparities in cost risk assessment imposed by regional differences in regulations, procedures and practices.

  5. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses of a long-term, high-intensity exercise program compared with conventional physical therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, W.B. van den; Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Breedveld, F.C.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost utility and cost effectiveness of long-term, high-intensity exercise classes compared with usual care in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: RA patients (n = 300) were randomly assigned to either exercise classes or UC; followup lasted for 2 years. Outcome me

  6. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses of a long-term, high-intensity exercise program compared with conventional physical therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, W.B. van den; Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Breedveld, F.C.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost utility and cost effectiveness of long-term, high-intensity exercise classes compared with usual care in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: RA patients (n = 300) were randomly assigned to either exercise classes or UC; followup lasted for 2 years. Outcome me

  7. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    OpenAIRE

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti–1Al–8V–5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical na...

  8. A cost analysis of a pancreatic cancer screening protocol in high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenderman, Elizabeth; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the United States. A screening protocol is needed to catch early-stage, resectable disease. This study suggests a protocol for high-risk individuals and assesses the cost in the context of the Affordable Care Act. Medicare and national average pricing were used for cost analysis of a protocol using magnetic resonance imaging/MRCP biannually in high-risk groups. Costs per year of life added" based on Medicare and national average costs, respectively, are as follows: $638.62 and $2,542.37 for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, $945.33 and $3,763.44 for hereditary pancreatitis, $1,141.77 and $4,545.45 for familial pancreatic cancer and "p16-Leiden" mutations, and $356.42 and $1,418.92 for new-onset diabetes over age 50 with weight loss or smoking. A screening program using magnetic resonance imaging/MRCP is affordable in high-risk populations. The United States Preventive Services Task Force must re-evaluate its pancreatic cancer screening guidelines to make screening more cost-effective for the individual. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Refining Our Understanding of Value-Based Insurance Design and High Cost Sharing on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Bachman, Sara S; Tan, Hui Ren

    2017-05-01

    There is significant concern about the financial burdens of new insurance plan designs on families, particularly families with children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). With value-based insurance design (VBID) plans growing in popularity, this study examined the implications of selected VBID cost-sharing features on children. We studied children's health care spending patterns in 2 data sets that include high deductible and narrow network plans among others. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2007 to 2013 on 22 392 children were used to study out-of-pocket (OOP) costs according to CYSHCN, family income, and spending. MarketScan large employer insurance claims data from 2007 to 2014 (N = 4 263 452) were used to test for differences in mean total payments and OOP costs across various health plans. Across the data sets, we found that existing health plans place significant financial burdens on families, particularly lower income households and families with CYSHCN; individuals among the top 10% of OOP spending averaged more than $2000 per child. Although high deductible and consumer-driven plans impose substantial OOP costs on children, they do not significantly reduce spending, whereas health maintenance organizations that use network restrictions and tighter management do. Our results do not support the conclusion that high cost-sharing features that are common in VBID plans will significantly reduce health care spending on children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. 5 CFR 550.107 - Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual limitation otherwise applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.107 Premium payments capped on a biweekly basis when an annual...

  11. Optimal dynamic premium control in non-life insurance. Maximizing dividend pay-outs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of finding optimal dynamic premium policies in non-life insurance. The reserve of a company is modeled using the classical Cramér-Lundberg model with premium rates calculated via the expected value principle. The company controls dynamically the relative safety...

  12. 42 CFR 408.112 - Refund of excess premiums after the enrollee dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... after the enrollee dies. If CMS has received premiums for months after the enrollee's death, CMS refunds... made under paragraph (a) of this section, CMS refunds the premiums to the enrollee's survivors in the... security or railroad retirement benefits on the basis of the same earnings record as the...

  13. Effects of tort reforms and other factors on medical malpractice insurance premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, S; Bovbjerg, R R; Sloan, F

    1990-01-01

    We use state-level data on physician malpractice premiums, claims, and awards, provided by insurance companies for the years 1974 to 1986, to evaluate the effectiveness of the various tort reforms that have been legislated during the 1970s and 1980s. In addition to the tort reforms, our analysis of premiums considers insurers' anticipated losses, returns on investments, the type of insurer, and premium regulation. Our results suggest that the only reforms that significantly lower premiums are those that either impose a cap on the amount of physician liability or reduce the amount of time a plaintiff has to initiate a claim. We also find that premiums are lower when states regulate rates by requiring prior approval of premiums. In addition, it appears that the observed cyclicality in premiums is due, in part, to fluctuations in the real interest rates available to insurers as returns on investments. Unfortunately, we did not find as strong a link between the determinants of premiums, claims, and awards as might be expected.

  14. 78 FR 79619 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...-9957-CN; 9964-CN] RIN 0938-AR82; RIN 0938-AR74 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program... Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and Market Standards... and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization Programs, and...

  15. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  16. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  17. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  18. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  19. 77 FR 21580 - Changes in Certain Multifamily Housing and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Premiums for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Premiums for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing... of the mortgage insurance premiums (MIPs) for certain Federal Housing Administration (FHA... return to the market by ensuring FHA is not under-pricing its risk. In addition to announcing MIPs for FY...

  20. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.

    1992-01-03

    The goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to produce clean, desulfurized, premium-quality chars from the Illinois basin coals. This goal is achieved by utilizing the effective capabilty of smectites in combination with methane to manipulate the char yields. The major objectives are: to determine the optimum water- ground particle size for the maximum reduction of pyrite and minerals by the selective-bitumen agglomeration process; to evaluate the type of smectite and its interlamellar cation which enhances the premium-quality char yields; to find the mode of dispersion of smectites in clean coal which retards the agglomeration of char during mild gasification; to probe the conditions that maximize the desulfurized clean-char yields under a combination of methane+oxygen or helium+oxygen; to characterize and accomplish a material balance of chars, liquids, and gases produced during mild gasification; to identify the conditions which reject dehydrated smectites from char by the gravitational separation technique; and to determine the optimum seeding of chars with polymerized maltene for flammability and transportation.

  1. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  2. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-06-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  3. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  4. High-Cost Patients Had Substantial Rates Of Leaving Medicare Advantage And Joining Traditional Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Momotazur; Keohane, Laura; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Medicare Advantage payment regulations include risk-adjusted capitated reimbursement, which was implemented to discourage favorable risk selection and encourage the retention of members who incur high costs. However, the extent to which risk-adjusted capitation has succeeded is not clear, especially for members using high-cost services not previously considered in assessments of risk selection. We examined the rates at which participants who used three high-cost services switched between Medicare Advantage and traditional Medicare. We found that the switching rate from 2010 to 2011 away from Medicare Advantage and to traditional Medicare exceeded the switching rate in the opposite direction for participants who used long-term nursing home care (17 percent versus 3 percent), short-term nursing home care (9 percent versus 4 percent), and home health care (8 percent versus 3 percent). These results were magnified among people who were enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid. Our findings raise questions about the role of Medicare Advantage plans in serving high-cost patients with complex care needs, who account for a disproportionately high amount of total health care spending.

  5. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  6. Costs of high-field superconducting strands for particle accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Cooley, L D; Scanlan, R M; 10.1088/0953-2048/18/4/R01

    2005-01-01

    The costs of superconducting magnet strands are compared by calculating a 'production scaling factor' P that relates purchase data to the cost of raw materials. Using a consistent method, we normalize for different conductor geometries and strand diameters to arrive at cost indices in $ kg/sup -1/, $ m/sup -1/, and $ kA/sup -1/ m/sup -1/. Analyses of Nb47Ti conductors taken from the past 25 years of high-field magnet projects reveal that the price of raw materials and, to a lesser extent, finished strands, have tracked the price of niobium pentoxide. Performance gains during the 1980s produced $ kA /sup -1/ m/sup -1/ indices that fell with time ahead of strand cost in $ m/sup -1/, a situation that may reflect the present status of Nb /sub 3/Sn magnet conductors. Analyses of present materials show that P decreases systematically with billet mass. While production strands in 200-500 kg billets have costs ~3 times the cost of raw materials, the 20-50 kg billet size for internal-tin Nb/sub 3/Sn composites drives ...

  7. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  8. How do high cost-sharing policies for physician care affect inpatient care use and costs among people with chronic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Haichang

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rising health care costs continue to be a significant concern in the United States. High cost-sharing strategies thus have been widely used to address rising health care costs. Since high cost-sharing policies can reduce needed care as well as unneeded care use, it raises the concern whether these policies for physician care are a good strategy for controlling costs among chronically ill patients, especially whether utilization and costs in inpatient care will increase in response. This study examined whether high cost sharing in physician care affects inpatient care utilization and costs differently between individuals with and without chronic conditions. Findings from this study will contribute to the insurance benefit design that can control care utilization and save costs of chronically ill individuals. Prior studies suffered from gaps that limit both internal validity and external validity of their findings. This study has its unique contributions by filling these gaps jointly. The study used data from the 2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample, with a cross-sectional study design. Instrumental variable technique was used to address the endogeneity between health care utilization and cost-sharing levels. We used negative binomial regression to analyze the count data and generalized linear models for costs data. To account for national survey sampling design, weight and variance were adjusted. The study compared the effects of high cost-sharing policies on inpatient care utilization and costs between individuals with and without chronic conditions to answer the research question. The final study sample consisted of 4523 individuals; among them, 752 had hospitalizations. The multivariate analysis demonstrated consistent patterns. Compared with low cost-sharing policies, high cost-sharing policies for physician care were not associated with a greater increase in inpatient care utilization (P = .86 for chronically ill

  9. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  10. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wierup

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.

  11. Optimal premium policy of an insurance firm with stochastic interest rates%随机利率下保险公司最优保费策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥波; 张立东; 杜子平

    2013-01-01

    研究了随机利率下保险公司所面临的最优化问题.决策者可以通过调节保费费率来控制其现金余额过程.在给出预定目标水平的前提下,通过最小化现金余额过程中的总偏差,得到了最优保费策略及最优成本函数.%The optimization problem was studied which an insurance firm faced under the stochastic interest rates. The decision-makers can control its cash-balance dynamics by adjusting the underlying premium rate. The firm' s objective is to minimize the total deviation of its cash-balance process. Thus the optimal premium policy and the optimal cost function were obtained.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Yang; Wen-Qiang Wei; Jin Niu; Zhi-Cai Liu; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To estimate the cost-benefit of endoscopic screening strategies of esophageal cancer (EC) in high-risk areas of China.METHODS:Markov model-based analyses were conducted to compare the net present values (NPVs) and the benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of 12 EC endoscopic screening strategies.Strategies varied according to the targeted screening age,screening frequencies,and follow-up intervals.Model parameters were collected from population-based studies in China,published literatures,and surveillance data.RESULTS:Compared with non-screening outcomes,all strategies with hypothetical 100 000 subjects saved life years.Among five dominant strategies determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness analysis,screening once at age 50 years incurred the lowest NPV (international dollar-I$55 million) and BCR (2.52).Screening six times between 40-70 years at a 5-year interval [i.e.,six times(40)f-strategy] yielded the highest NPV (I$99 million) and BCR (3.06).Compared with six times(40)fstrategy,screening thrice between 40-70 years at a 10-year interval resulted in relatively lower NPV,but the same BCR.CONCLUSION:EC endoscopic screening is cost-beneficial in high-risk areas of China.Policy-makers should consider the cost-benefit,population acceptance,and local economic status when choosing suitable screening strategies.

  13. PENGARUH KEBIJAKAN HARGA BBM, JUMLAH SEPEDA MOTOR, PENDAPATAN PERKAPITA TERHADAP KONSUMSI PREMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi BBM di Indonesia semakin meningkat karena meningkatnya pendapatan masyarakat, jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kebijakan harga BBM, kendaraan bermotor (motor, pendapatan perkapita terhadap konsumsi BBM (Premium. Objek penelitian ini adalah konsumsi BBM di Republik Indonesia kurun waktu 1985-2014. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Analisis data menggunakan analisis Regresi Linier Berganda dengan metode Ordinary Least Square (OLS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kebijakan harga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap konsumsi premium, pendapatan per kapita  berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, jumlah sepeda motor berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium, serta harga BBM, pendapatan perkapita, dan jumlah sepeda motor secara serentak berpengaruh positif terhadap konsumsi premium. Fuel consumption in Indonesia is increasing due to rising incomes, the number of motor vehicles in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fuel price policy, motor vehicles (motorcycles, per capita income on the consumption of fuel (Premium. The object of this study is the fuel consumption in the Republic of Indonesia period 1985-2014. The design of this research study with a quantitative approach. Analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Ordinary Least Square method (OLS. Based on the results of this study concluded that the pricing policies have a significant effect on the consumption of premium, per capita income has positive influence on consumption of premium, the number of motorcycles positive effect on premium consumption, as well as fuel prices, per capita income, and the number of motorcycles simultaneously positive effect on consumption of premium.

  14. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  15. The Cost of Empathy: Parent-Adolescent Conflict Predicts Emotion Dysregulation for Highly Empathic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether…

  16. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - High costs of health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/podcast/transcript022717.html To Your Health: NLM update Transcript High costs of health care : 02/27/2017 To use the sharing ... is what's new this week in To Your Health - a consumer health oriented podcast from NLM - that ...

  17. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  18. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and... § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a) Effective July 23, 1953, all or any part of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan...

  19. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  20. Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (Orimulsion): untapping an unlimited premium fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, D.R.; Euler Jimenez G.; Javier Izaguirre M.; Jose Salazar P.; Carrizo, R.; Alcantara, J.

    1987-01-01

    Venezuela has extensive recoverable reserves of extra heavy crudes and natural bitumens located in the Orinoco Oil Belt. INTEVEP, S.A. and LAGOVEN, S.A. have developed the Orinoco bitumen in water emulsion (ORIMULSION) for the production, handling and transportation of those hydrocarbons. This emulsion is considered a premium fuel due to its performance in conventional liquid firing systems. Pilot scale combustion tests, conducted during 1986, at INTEVEP Combustion Research Facility (ICRF) and Nagasaki Technical Institute (NTI-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries), Japan, have demonstrated the technical feasibility of burning this natural fuel steam-assisted, obtaining high combustion efficiency values (99.90%), which resemble those of a No.6 fuel-oil. This allows forecasting a promising future for ORIMULSION as a new fuel for thermal power stations.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Radiation and Chemotherapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yushen; Maruyama, Satoshi; Kim, Haju; Pollom, Erqi L; Kumar, Kiran A; Chin, Alexander L; Harris, Jeremy P; Chang, Daniel T; Pitt, Allison; Bendavid, Eran; Owens, Douglas K; Durkee, Ben Y; Soltys, Scott G

    2017-06-28

    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk (≥ 40 years old or sub-totally resected) low-grade glioma (LGG) results in an absolute median survival benefit of over 5 years. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this treatment strategy. A decision tree with an integrated three-state Markov model was created to follow patients with high risk LGG after surgery treated with RT vs. RT+PCV. Patients existed in one of 3 health states: stable, progressive, and dead. Survival and freedom from progression were modeled to reflect the results of RTOG 9802 using time-dependent transition probabilities. Health utility values and costs of care were derived from the literature and national registry databases. Analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis explored uncertainty in model parameters. Modeled outcomes demonstrated agreement with clinical data in expected benefit of addition of PCV to RT. The addition of PCV to RT yielded an incremental benefit of 4.77 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (9.94 for RT+PCV vs. 5.17 for RT alone) at an incremental cost of $48,635 ($188,234 for RT+PCV vs. $139,598 for RT alone), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $10,186 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrates that within modeled distributions of parameters, RT+PCV has 99.96% probability of being cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. The addition of PCV to RT is a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with high-risk LGG.

  2. High-school seniors' college enrollment goals: Costs and benefits of ambitious expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Brandilynn J; Heckhausen, Jutta; Lessard, Jared; Greenberger, Ellen; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-12-01

    High school students with high long-term educational expectations attain higher levels of education than those with lower expectations. Less studied is the role of students' short-term college enrollment expectations for the year after high school graduation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the costs and benefits of ambitious short-term expectations and the impact of falling short of these expectations on mental health, motivation, and educational outcomes. Over 1000 youth with expectations to attend college were surveyed during their senior year of high school, one year later, and four years later. Participants who did not achieve their short-term expectations had lower educational attainment four years later but were not less satisfied with their educational progress. The negative consequences of falling short of one's expectations were restricted to individuals with less ambitious short-term expectations. Thus, the benefits of ambitious short-term expectations for youth may outweigh the costs.

  3. WAHRSIS: A Low-cost, High-resolution Whole Sky Imager With Near-Infrared Capabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cloud imaging using ground-based whole sky imagers is essential for a fine-grained understanding of the effects of cloud formations, which can be useful in many applications. Some such imagers are available commercially, but their cost is relatively high, and their flexibility is limited. Therefore, we built a new daytime Whole Sky Imager (WSI) called Wide Angle High-Resolution Sky Imaging System. The strengths of our new design are its simplicity, low manufacturing cost and high resolution. Our imager captures the entire hemisphere in a single high-resolution picture via a digital camera using a fish-eye lens. The camera was modified to capture light across the visible as well as the near-infrared spectral ranges. This paper describes the design of the device as well as the geometric and radiometric calibration of the imaging system.

  4. Availability and cost estimate of a high naphthene, modified aviation turbine fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Information from an Air Force study was used to determine the potential availability and cost of a modified conventional fuel with a naphthene content which could have a thermal stability near that of JP-7 for high-speed civil transports. Results showed sufficient capacity for a fuel made of a blend of 50 percent naphthenic straight run kerosene and 50 percent hydrocracked product, assuming a near-term requirement of 210,000 BBL per day. Fuel cost would be as low as 62.5 to 64.5 cents per gallon, assuming 20 dollars per barrel for crude.

  5. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , losses, and congestion costs) is proposed comprising the use of a large set of DER, namely distributed generation (DG), demand response (DR) of direct load control type, energy storage systems (ESS), and electric vehicles with capability of discharging energy to the network, which is known as vehicle......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used...

  6. Highly Conformal Ni Micromesh as a Current Collecting Front Electrode for Reduced Cost Si Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nikita; Rao, K D Mallikharjuna; Gupta, Ritu; Krebs, Frederik C; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2017-02-17

    Despite relatively high manufacturing cost, crystalline-Si solar cell continues to hold promising future due to its high energy conversion efficiency and long life. As regards cost, one pertinent issue is the top electrode metallization of textured cell surface, which typically involves screen printing of silver paste. The associated disadvantages call for alternative methods that can lower the cost without compromising the solar cell efficiency. In the present work, a highly interconnected one dimensional (1D) metal wire network has been employed as front electrode on conventional Si wafers. Here for the first time, we report an innovative solution based crackle templating method for conformal metal wire network patterning over large textured surfaces. Laser beam induced current mapping showed uniform photocurrent collection by the electrodes without any shadow losses. With electroless deposition of Ni wire network on corrugated solar cell, a short circuit current of 33.28 mA/cm2 was obtained in comparison to 20.53 mA/cm2 without the network electrode. On comparing the efficiency with the conventional cells with screen printed electrodes, a 20% increment in efficiency has been observed. Importantly, the estimated manufacturing cost is three orders lower.

  7. Evidence against the energetic cost hypothesis for the short introns in highly expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Deng-Ke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, highly expressed genes have shorter introns than weakly expressed genes. A popular explanation for this is selection for transcription efficiency, which includes two sub-hypotheses: to minimize the energetic cost or to minimize the time cost. Results In an individual human, different organs may differ up to hundreds of times in cell number (for example, a liver versus a hypothalamus. Considered at the individual level, a gene specifically expressed in a large organ is actually transcribed tens or hundreds of times more than a gene with a similar expression level (a measure of mRNA abundance per cell specifically expressed in a small organ. According to the energetic cost hypothesis, the former should have shorter introns than the latter. However, in humans and mice we have not found significant differences in intron length between large-tissue/organ-specific genes and small-tissue/organ-specific genes with similar expression levels. Qualitative estimation shows that the deleterious effect (that is, the energetic burden of long introns in highly expressed genes is too negligible to be efficiently selected against in mammals. Conclusion The short introns in highly expressed genes should not be attributed to energy constraint. We evaluated evidence for the time cost hypothesis and other alternatives.

  8. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  9. Avionics and Power Management for Low-Cost High-Altitude Balloon Science Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey; Roberts, Anthony; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) have become popular as educational and scientific platforms for planetary research. This document outlines key components for missions where low cost and rapid development are desired. As an alternative to ground-based vacuum and thermal testing, these systems can be flight tested at comparable costs. Communication, solar, space, and atmospheric sensing experiments often require environments where ground level testing can be challenging or impossible in certain cases. When performing HAB research the ability to monitor the status of the platform and gather data is key for both scientific and recoverability aspects of the mission. A few turnkey platform solutions are outlined that leverage rapidly evolving open-source engineering ecosystems. Rather than building custom components from scratch, these recommendations attempt to maximize simplicity and cost of HAB platforms to make launches more accessible to everyone.

  10. High flexibility and low cost digital implementation for modern PWM strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods ...... with hardware PWM unit. The experimental results show that this new technique is suitable to replace traditional implementation methods with minimum computational overhead, with the benefit of high flexibility, lower cost and faster code development.......In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods...

  11. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  13. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  14. 75 FR 25113 - High-Cost Universal Service Support, Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service, Lifeline and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... those of rural carriers, PRTC's embedded costs are actually too low to make it eligible for support... carriers. PRTC argues that the Commission must adopt its proposed embedded cost-based mechanism because: (1... comparable service; they ``include low-income consumers and those in rural, insular and high cost...

  15. Analysis on Premium Adjustment Mechanism of Critical Illness Insurance in China%我国重大疾病保险保费调整机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马绍东; 李成刚; 陈阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective: By constructing the cash flow model, it proposed the premium adjustment mechanism of critical illness insurance(CII). Methods: Based on the practical data of critical illness insurance in China, it established some actuarial assumptions and cash flow model to simulate and analyze premium adjustment mechanism of CII. Results: ( 1) Because of the deterioration of critical illness incidence rate and the change of market interest rates , CII guaranteed premium usually resents pricing risk, which showed that the cash flow is negative, sometimes accumulated cash is negative; (2) based on the criteria of insurance cost adjustment, it is suggested that when the loss rate reached more than 70%, which could permit the insurance company adjust the premium, if the loss rate reached more than 80%, it needs to compulsory the insurance companies to adjust premium. Conclusion: The study proposes the mechanism of CII premium adjustment, provides guidance for practice.%目的:通过构建现金流量模型提出我国重大疾病保险保费调整机制。方法:采用中国重大疾病保险实践数据,建立恰当的精算假设与现金流量模型,对中国重大疾病保险的保费调整进行模拟分析。结果:(1)由于重大疾病发生率的恶化及市场利率的变化,重大疾病保险保证保费通常存在定价不足风险,表现为保险期内当年现金流出现负值,部分情景下累积现金流出现负值;(2)在保费调整的准则上,建议当损失率达到70%以上时,可允许保险公司进行保费调整,若损失率达到80%以上时,必需强制保险公司进行保费调整。结论:本研究提出了重大疾病保险保费调整的机制,为实践提供指导。

  16. Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Users Handbook for the Argonne Premium Coal Samples provides the recipients of those samples with information that will enhance the value of the samples, to permit greater opportunities to compare their work with that of others, and aid in correlations that can improve the value to all users. It is hoped that this document will foster a spirit of cooperation and collaboration such that the field of basic coal chemistry may be a more efficient and rewarding endeavor for all who participate. The different sections are intended to stand alone. For this reason some of the information may be found in several places. The handbook is also intended to be a dynamic document, constantly subject to change through additions and improvements. Please feel free to write to the editor with your comments and suggestions.

  17. Ruin problems with stochastic premium stochastic return on investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rongming; XU Lin; YAO Dingjun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, ruin problems in the risk model with stochastic premium incomes and stochastic return on investments are studied. The logarithm of the asset price process is assumed to be a Lévy process. An exact expression for expected discounted penalty function is established. Lower bounds and two kinds of upper bounds for expected discounted penalty function are obtained by inductive method and martingale approach. Integro- differential equations for the expected discounted penalty function are ob- tained when the Lévy process is a Brownian motion with positive drift and a compound Poisson process, respectively. Some analytical examples and numerical examples are given to illustrate the upper bounds and the applications of the integro-differential equations in this paper.

  18. A "LHC Premium" for Early Career Researchers? Perceptions from within

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano; Florio, Massimo; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    More than 36,000 students and post-docs will be involved in experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until 2025. Do they expect that their learning experience will have an impact on their professional future? By drawing from earlier salary expectations literature, this paper proposes a framework aiming at explaining the professional expectations of early career researchers (ECR) at the LHC. Results from different ordered logistic models suggest that experiential learning at LHC positively correlates with both current and former students' salary expectations. At least two not mutually exclusive explanations underlie such a relationship. First, the training at LHC gives early career researchers valuable expertise, which in turn affects salary expectations; secondly, respondents recognise that the LHC research experience per se may act as a signal in the labour market. Respondents put a price tag on their experience at LHC, a "salary premium" ranging from 5% to 12% in terms of future salaries compared with...

  19. Cost-effective optoacoustic system based on the combination of high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Gawali, Sandeep B.; Leggio, Luca; Gallego, Daniel C.; Lamela, Horacio

    2017-03-01

    One of the main issues of the advances in optoacoustic (OA) applications is to reduce the high costs and the big sizes of solid state lasers. High-power diode lasers (HPDLs) have been demonstrated to be a valid alternative reducing enormously the expenses, besides other advantages such as smaller sizes and higher modulation frequencies. However, in some cases it is possible to furtherly reduce their costs. We present a cost-effective OA system based on the combination of several 905-nm HPDLs with direct coupling into a fiber bundle. These HPDLs have an internal pulse driver, based on an n-channel Mosfet and two charging capacitors, which needs an external Mosfet driver circuit and a voltage supply in order to improve the optical pulse shape and energy. We compare the performances and the prices of this OA system with another similar HPDL-based OA system built with commercial elements. Results indicate good OA signal generation ( 15.6 mVpp) with pulse energy of 12.3 μJ and, especially, a cost reduction by a factor of 15 if compared to the other HPDL-based system.

  20. Plan-provider integration, premiums, and quality in the Medicare Advantage market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-12-01

    To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan-provider integration. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan-provider integration through examination of plans' websites and governance documents. We found that integrated plan-providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Current policy encourages plan-provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Plan–Provider Integration, Premiums, and Quality in the Medicare Advantage Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate how integration between Medicare Advantage plans and health care providers is related to plan premiums and quality ratings. Data Source. We used public data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Area Resource File and private data from one large insurer. Premiums and quality ratings are from 2009 CMS administrative files and some control variables are historical. Study Design. We estimated ordinary least-squares models for premiums and plan quality ratings, with state fixed effects and firm random effects. The key independent variable was an indicator of plan–provider integration. Data Collection. With the exception of Medigap premium data, all data were publicly available. We ascertained plan–provider integration through examination of plans’ websites and governance documents. Principal Findings. We found that integrated plan–providers charge higher premiums, controlling for quality. Such plans also have higher quality ratings. We found no evidence that integration is associated with more generous benefits. Conclusions. Current policy encourages plan–provider integration, although potential effects on health insurance products and markets are uncertain. Policy makers and regulators may want to closely monitor changes in premiums and quality after integration and consider whether quality improvement (if any) justifies premium increases (if they occur). PMID:23800017

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, US$1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964

  3. Cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Motasim; Maartens, Gary; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Penrod, John R; Platt, Robert W; Wood, Robin; Beck, Eduard J

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3) and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4) receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group). Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, USD 1 = 7.6 Rand) included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY), whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19) for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97) for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03) versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61), respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG) was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52) for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85) for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49) compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62) respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964 for the HAART group for scenario 1 and

  4. Cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasim Badri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices.Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, USD 1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964 for the HAART group for scenario 1

  5. A low-cost hierarchical nanostructured beta-titanium alloy with high strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Joshi, Vineet V.; Srivastava, Ankit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodymyr A.; Lavender, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Lightweighting of automobiles by use of novel low-cost, high strength-to-weight ratio structural materials can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and in turn CO2 emission. Working towards this goal we achieved high strength in a low cost β-titanium alloy, Ti–1Al–8V–5Fe (Ti185), by hierarchical nanostructure consisting of homogenous distribution of micron-scale and nanoscale α-phase precipitates within the β-phase matrix. The sequence of phase transformation leading to this hierarchical nanostructure is explored using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Our results suggest that the high number density of nanoscale α-phase precipitates in the β-phase matrix is due to ω assisted nucleation of α resulting in high tensile strength, greater than any current commercial titanium alloy. Thus hierarchical nanostructured Ti185 serves as an excellent candidate for replacing costlier titanium alloys and other structural alloys for cost-effective lightweighting applications. PMID:27034109

  6. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  7. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Arrieta, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    A document describes the low-cost manufacturing of C103 niobium alloy combustion chambers, and the use of a high-temperature, oxidation-resistant coating that is superior to the standard silicide coating. The manufacturing process involved low-temperature spray deposition of C103 on removable plastic mandrels produced by rapid prototyping. Thin, vapor-deposited platinum-indium coatings were shown to substantially improve oxidation resistance relative to the standard silicide coating. Development of different low-cost plastic thrust chamber mandrel materials and prototyping processes (selective laser sintering and stereolithography) yielded mandrels with good dimensional accuracy (within a couple of mils) for this stage of development. The feasibility of using the kinetic metallization cold-spray process for fabrication of free-standing C1O3 thrusters on removable plastic mandrels was also demonstrated. The ambient and elevated temperature mechanical properties of the material were shown to be reasonably good relative to conventionally processed C103, but the greatest potential benefit is that coldsprayed chambers require minimal post-process machining, resulting in substantially lower machining and material costs. The platinum-iridium coating was shown to provide greatly increased oxidation resistance over the silicide when evaluated through oxyacetylene torch testing to as high as 300 F (= 150 C). The iridium component minimizes reaction with the niobium alloy chamber at high temperatures, and provides the high-temperature oxidation resistance needed at the throat.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  9. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material

  10. Evaluation of the Mean Cost and Activity Based Cost in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Laboratory Routine of a High-Complexity Hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Isabela N; de Assis Figueredo, Lida J; Soares, Valéria M; Vater, Maria C; Alves, Suely; da Silva Carvalho, Wânia; Kritski, Afrânio L; de Miranda, Silvana S

    2017-01-01

    At a global level, with the increase in healthcare costs, there is a need to assess the economic impact of the incorporation of new technologies in different health disorders in different countries. There is scarce information regarding costs incurred with the use of current or new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis or from the vantage point of their incorporation within the healthcare systems of high-burden countries. The present study aimed to assess the mean cost and the activity based cost of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis by means of conventional techniques and from the Detect TB(®)LabTest molecular test kit in a general high-complexity hospital of the public health system in Brazil. Cost analysis was performed by means of primary data, collected in the Mycobacteria and Molecular Biology Laboratory in 2013. The mean cost and activity based cost were, respectively, U$10.06/U$5.61 for centrifuged bacilloscopy by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) and Auramine (AU); U$7.42/U$4.15 for direct bacilloscopy by ZN; U$27.38/U$16.50 for culture in a Loweinstein-Jensen solid medium; and U$115.74/U$73.46 for the Detect TB(®)LabTest Kit. The calculation of the ABC should be used in making decisions by administrators to be the best method of assessing the costs of conventional techniques and molecular method for providing the real value of the tests. So it is need to calculate the ABC, and not of the mean cost, in various scenarios before incorporating new technologies in health institutions.

  11. Evaluation of the Mean Cost and Activity Based Cost in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Laboratory Routine of a High-Complexity Hospital in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Isabela N.; de Assis Figueredo, Lida J.; Soares, Valéria M.; Vater, Maria C.; Alves, Suely; da Silva Carvalho, Wânia; Kritski, Afrânio L.; de Miranda, Silvana S.

    2017-01-01

    At a global level, with the increase in healthcare costs, there is a need to assess the economic impact of the incorporation of new technologies in different health disorders in different countries. There is scarce information regarding costs incurred with the use of current or new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis or from the vantage point of their incorporation within the healthcare systems of high-burden countries. The present study aimed to assess the mean cost and the activity based cost of the laboratory diagnosis for tuberculosis by means of conventional techniques and from the Detect TB®LabTest molecular test kit in a general high-complexity hospital of the public health system in Brazil. Cost analysis was performed by means of primary data, collected in the Mycobacteria and Molecular Biology Laboratory in 2013. The mean cost and activity based cost were, respectively, U$10.06/U$5.61 for centrifuged bacilloscopy by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) and Auramine (AU); U$7.42/U$4.15 for direct bacilloscopy by ZN; U$27.38/U$16.50 for culture in a Loweinstein-Jensen solid medium; and U$115.74/U$73.46 for the Detect TB®LabTest Kit. The calculation of the ABC should be used in making decisions by administrators to be the best method of assessing the costs of conventional techniques and molecular method for providing the real value of the tests. So it is need to calculate the ABC, and not of the mean cost, in various scenarios before incorporating new technologies in health institutions. PMID:28261194

  12. The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Longstaff, Francis A.

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether there is a flight-to-liquidity premium in Treasury bond prices by comparing them with prices of bonds issued by Refcorp, a U.S. Government agency. Since Refcorp bonds are, in effect, guaranteed by the Treasury, they have the same credit as Treasury bonds. We find a large liquidity premium in Treasury bonds, which can be more than fifteen percent of the value of some Treasury bonds. We find strong evidence that this liquidity premium is related to changes in consumer con- fi...

  13. An empirical analysis of the external finance premium of public non-financial corporations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to analyze empirically the relationship between the external finance premium of non-financial corporations in Brazil with their default probability and with their demand for inventories. As for the former relation, we find that corporations that have greater external finance premium have greater probability of default. As for the latter, we find that the external finance premium is positive and statistically significantly correlated. The results confirm previous results of the literature that indicate that the balance sheet channel of monetary policy is relevant in Brazil.

  14. Design and Build of an Electrical Machines’ High Speed Measurement System at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos C. Kontogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of high speed measurement and acquisition equipment design and build in the laboratory at a very low cost. The presented architecture employees highly integrated market components eliminating thus the complexity of the hardware and software stack. The key element of the proposed system is a Hi-Speed USB to Serial/FIFO development module that is provided with full software and driver support for most popular operating systems. This module takes over every single task needed to get the data from the A/D to the user software gluelessly and transparently, solving this way the most difficult problem in data acquisition systems which is the fast and reliable communication with a host computer. Other ideas tested and included in this document offer Hall Effect measuring solutions using some excellent features and very low cost ICs widely available on the market today.

  15. A new aluminium-ion battery with high voltage, high safety and low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haobo; Wang, Wei; Yu, Zhijing; Yuan, Yan; Wang, Shuai; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2015-07-28

    A new kind of Al-ion battery with carbon paper as the cathode, high-purity Al foil as the anode and ionic liquid as the electrolyte is proposed in this work. The significance of the presented battery is going to be an extremely high average voltage plateau of ca. 1.8 V vs. Al(3+)/Al.

  16. An advanced low-cost workstation for NDE of high-risk components, experiences and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ona, R.; Cabrera, E.; Aldea, J.; Ortega, J. [Tecnatom, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Mechanized inspection by means of ultrasonic techniques is widely used when high levels of reliability are required. For such inspections it is necessary that automatic data acquisition, processing and display systems be available. This paper describes the main characteristics of the SUMIAD 3 system. The system is designed on the basis of low cost elements (PC technology), in a way ensuring coverage of the different phases of Inspection, Preparation, Execution and Evaluation.

  17. Computer Vision Approach for Low Cost, High Precision Measurement of Grapevine Trunk Diameter in Outdoor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego Sebastián; Bromberg, Facundo; Antivilo, Francisco Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Trunk diameter is a variable of agricultural interest, used mainly in the prediction of fruit trees production. It is correlated with leaf area and biomass of trees, and consequently gives a good estimate of the potential production of the plants. This work presents a low cost, high precision method for the measurement of trunk diameter of grapevines based on Computer Vision techniques. Several methods based on Computer Vision and other techniques are introduced in the literature. These metho...

  18. Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David W; Saria, Suchi; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Shah, Anand; Escobar, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    The US health care system is rapidly adopting electronic health records, which will dramatically increase the quantity of clinical data that are available electronically. Simultaneously, rapid progress has been made in clinical analytics--techniques for analyzing large quantities of data and gleaning new insights from that analysis--which is part of what is known as big data. As a result, there are unprecedented opportunities to use big data to reduce the costs of health care in the United States. We present six use cases--that is, key examples--where some of the clearest opportunities exist to reduce costs through the use of big data: high-cost patients, readmissions, triage, decompensation (when a patient's condition worsens), adverse events, and treatment optimization for diseases affecting multiple organ systems. We discuss the types of insights that are likely to emerge from clinical analytics, the types of data needed to obtain such insights, and the infrastructure--analytics, algorithms, registries, assessment scores, monitoring devices, and so forth--that organizations will need to perform the necessary analyses and to implement changes that will improve care while reducing costs. Our findings have policy implications for regulatory oversight, ways to address privacy concerns, and the support of research on analytics. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  20. [High cost drugs for rare diseases in Brazil: the case of lysosomal storage disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mônica Vinhas; Krug, Bárbara Corrêa; Picon, Paulo Dornelles; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein

    2010-11-01

    This paper approaches in a critical way aspects of Brazilian public policies for drugs, emphasizing those classified as high cost and for rare diseases. The lysosomal storage diseases was taken as an example because of their rarity and the international trend for the development of new drugs for their treatment, all at high costs. Three lysosomal storage diseases were approached: Gaucher disease, Fabry disease and mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Gaucher disease has its treatment drug licensed in Brazil and guidelines for its use are established through a clinical protocol by the Ministry of Health. The others have their drug treatments registered in Brazil; however, no treatment guidelines for them have been developed by the government. The objective of the paper was to foster the discussion on the role of health technology assessment for high-cost drugs for rare diseases in Brazil, emphasizing the need for establishing health policies with legitimacy towards these diseases. Despite the difficulties in establishing a health policy for each rare disease, it is possible to create rational models to deal with this growing challenge.

  1. A High-performance Low Cost Inverse Integer Transform Architecture for AVS Video Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-fei; WANG Qin; FU Yu-zhuo

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance, low cost inverse integer transform architecture for advanced video standard (AVS) video coding standard was presented. An 8×8 inverse integer transform is required in AVS video system which is compute-intensive. A hardware transform is inevitable to compute the transform for the real-time ap-plication. Compared with the 4×4 transform for H.264/AVC, the 8×8 integer transform is much more complex and the coefficient in the inverse transform matrix Ts is not inerratic as that in H.264/AVC. Dividing the Ts into matrix S8 and R8, the proposed architecture is implemented with the adders and the specific CSA-trees instead of multipliers, which are area and time consuming. The architecture obtains the data processing rate up to 8 pixels per-cycle at a low cost of area. Synthesized to TSMC 0.18 μm COMS process, the architecture attains the operating frequency of 300 MHz at cost of 34 252 gates with a 2-stage pipeline scheme. A reusable scheme is also introduced for the area optimization, which results in the operating frequency of 143 MHz at cost of only 19 758 gates.

  2. Low-cost fabrication of high efficiency solid-state neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Woei; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Weltz, Adam; English, Erik; Hella, Mona M.; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2016-05-01

    The development of high-efficiency solid state thermal neutron detectors at low cost is critical for a wide range of civilian and defense applications. The use of present neutron detector system for personal radiation detection is limited by the cost, size, weight and power requirements. Chip scale solid state neutron detectors based on silicon technology would provide significant benefits in terms of cost, volume, and allow for wafer level integration with charge preamplifiers and readout electronics. In this paper, anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers was used to replace deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) to produce microstructured neutron detectors with lower cost and compatibility with mass production. Deep trenches were etched by 30 wt% KOH at 85°C with a highest etch ratio of (110) to (111). A trench-microstructure thermal neutron detector described by the aforementioned processes was fabricated and characterized. The detector—which has a continuous p+-n junction diode—was filled with enriched boron (99% of 10B) as a neutron converter material. The device showed a leakage current of ~ 6.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at -1V and thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~16.3%. The detector uses custom built charge pre-amplifier, a shaping amplifier, and an analogto- digital converter (ADC) for data acquisition.

  3. Low-cost, high-performance and efficiency computational photometer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Sam B.; Shihadeh, Jeries; Myers, Randall; Khandhar, Jay; Ivanov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Anchorage and University of Colorado Boulder have built a low cost high performance and efficiency drop-in-place Computational Photometer (CP) to test in field applications ranging from port security and safety monitoring to environmental compliance monitoring and surveying. The CP integrates off-the-shelf visible spectrum cameras with near to long wavelength infrared detectors and high resolution digital snapshots in a single device. The proof of concept combines three or more detectors into a single multichannel imaging system that can time correlate read-out, capture, and image process all of the channels concurrently with high performance and energy efficiency. The dual-channel continuous read-out is combined with a third high definition digital snapshot capability and has been designed using an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to capture, decimate, down-convert, re-encode, and transform images from two standard definition CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras at 30Hz. The continuous stereo vision can be time correlated to megapixel high definition snapshots. This proof of concept has been fabricated as a fourlayer PCB (Printed Circuit Board) suitable for use in education and research for low cost high efficiency field monitoring applications that need multispectral and three dimensional imaging capabilities. Initial testing is in progress and includes field testing in ports, potential test flights in un-manned aerial systems, and future planned missions to image harsh environments in the arctic including volcanic plumes, ice formation, and arctic marine life.

  4. Discounting in agro-industrial complex. A methodological proposal for risk premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marques-Perez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the discount rate is decisive for a reliable economic valuation. The discount rate has to be adjusted for the risks related to the company, the sector which the company has its market, and the risks related to the investment project. We present a proposal to incorporate the risk premium to the discount rate. The novelty of the methodology is that difference risk groups according to activity as a factor to adjust the cost of capital to companies. The study applies the methodology to the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC in Spain. The AIC is formed by industries that add value to farming production. This sector’s economic success demands financial management techniques that assess risk. The conventional method responds neither to the heterogeneity of the economic activities that make up the AIC, nor to differentiating risk by groups. The proposed methodology distinguishes activity groups in accordance with the NACE (National Code of Economic Activities and uses net profitability variability to distinguish the risk in each group. Our results demonstrate the various levels of risk per group. The results show that among all the groups that form the AIC there are wide differences between levels of risk; thus, the risk neutral groups present risk levels on the order of 150 times lower than the groups extreme risk levels.

  5. Hydroprocessing and premium II refinery: a new refining philosophy for an era of clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgaudio, Caio Veiga Penna; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a brief history of Brazilian's emission and fuel specifications, since the appearance of PROCONVE until the late stages of the program for vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel. The development of the Brazilian refining is analyzed taking into account the emission and specification evolutions, and it can be perceived that the system's complexity increases while new constraints are imposed by the regulator. This aspect is even more apparent when the detailed scheme of the Premium II refinery and its main unit, the catalytic hydrocracker (HCC, which has not yet been part of PETROBRAS' refining park and will appear in three of the four new refineries of the company) is described. The new projects represent the culmination of the intensive use of energy and raw material for obtaining the products with the new specifications. There is a price for this development, both in investments and increased operating costs due to greater complexity of the system. To adapt to the era of clean fuels, refiners will present a series of challenges that will lead them to seek for more efficient processes and operational excellence (and ongoing efforts to reduce their emissions) in order to ensure positive refining margins. (author)

  6. Design and Construction of Low Cost High Voltage dc Power Supply for Constant Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N. S.; Jayasankar, V.

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed load applications like laser based systems need high voltage dc power supplies with better regulation characteristics. This paper presents the design, construction and testing of dc power supply with 1 kV output at 300 W power level. The designed converter has half bridge switched mode power supply (SMPS) configuration with 20 kHz switching. The paper covers the design of half bridge inverter, closed loop control, High frequency transformer and other related electronics. The designed power supply incorporates a low cost OPAMP based feedback controller which is designed using small signal modelling of the converter. The designed converter was constructed and found to work satisfactorily as per the specifications.

  7. Estimated Costs of Dental Care due to Dental Decay in Mexican High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate the cost of dental care generated by the dental decay prevalence in high school students at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a population of 78,870 high schoolers (conducted between the years 2003 and 2005). The need for dental caries treatment was determined by the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT) as it is indicated at the Automated Medical Exam (EMA, acronym in Spanish). The estimation of ...

  8. Project GeoWSN: High precision but low-cost GNSS landslide monitoring in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel; Brandstätter, Michael; Kühtreiber, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    At present, GNSS monitoring of landslides is an accepted and approved method to detect movements of slopes at risk in the sub-centimetre level. However, high-precision geodetic GNSS-receivers are expensive, therefore this monitoring method is not widely applied. Recently low-cost GNSS-receivers are conquering the geodetic market and are well suited for a cost effective and yet precise GNSS-monitoring. During the project GeoWSN, which was funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), an applicable low-cost monitoring system was developed at Graz University of Technology. The system is based on a so-called Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of low-cost GNSS-receivers, temperature and humidity sensors and inertial measurement units. Additionally energy-harvesting technologies and power-saving algorithms provide that the system is energy- autarkic. For real-time applications, a communication link between the sensor nodes is implemented. The relative positioning method RTK (Real Time Kinematic) is applied to reach the highest possible accuracy. The GeoWSN sensor nodes enable the detection of possible movements in the real-time processed positions of the sensor nodes. To ensure a real-time evaluation and interpretation of the data, the current status of the slope can be acquired by a local warning centre. Therefore, affected people can be warned within a short latency. Several test-scenarios have shown the acceptance of the system at the warning centre of Styria, Austria. This contribution should give an overview of the main idea of a low-cost warning system and results of the project GeoWSN.

  9. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  10. The High Cost of High School Failure in New Jersey. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    State and local education officials in New Jersey tout the state's high school graduation rate as the highest in the nation. At the same time, independent research indicates that 40 percent of students in Newark drop out and only half of African-American students in urban districts graduate. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern in New Jersey…

  11. Effects of high-involvement work systems on employee satisfaction and service costs in veterans healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Joel; Scotti, Dennis J; Behson, Scott; Farias, Gerard; Petzel, Robert; Neuman, Joel H; Keashly, Loraleigh

    2003-01-01

    Two strong imperatives for healthcare managers are reducing costs of service and attracting and retaining highly dedicated and competent patient care and support employees. Is there a trade-off or are there organizational practices that can further both objectives at the same time? High-involvement work systems (HIWS) represent a holistic work design that includes interrelated core features such as involvement, empowerment, development, trust, openness, teamwork, and performance-based rewards. HIWS have been linked to higher productivity, quality, employee and customer satisfaction, and market and financial performance in Fortune 1000 firms. Apparently, few prior studies have looked at the impacts of this holistic design within the healthcare sector. This research found that HIWS were associated with both greater employee satisfaction and lower patient service costs in 146 Veterans Health Administration centers, indicating that such practices pay off in both humanistic and financial terms. This suggests that managers implementing HIWS will incur real expenses that are likely to be more than offset by more satisfied employees, less organizational turmoil, and lower service delivery costs, which, in this study, amounted to over $1.2 million in savings for an average VHA facility.

  12. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  13. 76 FR 60031 - Notice of Order: Revisions to Enterprise Public Use Database Incorporating High-Cost Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY Notice of Order: Revisions to Enterprise Public Use Database Incorporating High-Cost Single-Family... contains Enterprise single-family and multifamily mortgage loan-level data reported to FHFA by the... data characteristics of single-family high-cost loans purchased and securitized by the Enterprises...

  14. 76 FR 77533 - Notice of Order: Revisions to Enterprise Public Use Database Incorporating High-Cost Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... AGENCY Notice of Order: Revisions to Enterprise Public Use Database Incorporating High-Cost Single-Family... matrices to include certain data fields for high-cost single-family loans purchased and securitized by the... rate spread field has been corrected in the Single Family Census Tract Data Set. Both files...

  15. Silicon carbide high performance optics: a cost-effective, flexible fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, John M.; Rashed, Abuagela; Plummer, Ronald; Bray, Don; Gates, Rob L.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Ferber, Matt K.; Kirkland, Tim

    2001-12-01

    Silicon carbide may well be the best known material for the manufacture of high performance optical components. This material offers many advantages over glasses and metals that have historically been used in high performance optical systems. A combination of extremely high specific stiffness (E/r), high thermal conductivity and outstanding dimensional stability make silicon carbide superior overall to beryllium and low-expansion glass ceramics. A major impediment to wide use of silicon carbide in optical systems has been the cost associated with preliminary shaping and final finishing of silicon carbide. Because silicon carbide is an extremely hard and strong material, precision machining can only be done with expensive diamond tooling on very stiff high quality machine tools. Near-net-shape slip casting of silicon carbide can greatly reduce the cost of silicon carbide mirror substrates but this process still requires significant diamond grinding of the cast components. The process described here begins by machining the component from all special type of graphite. This graphite can rapidly be machined with conventional multi-axis CNC machine tools to achieve any level of complexity and lightweighting required. The graphite is then directly converted completely to silicon carbide with very small and very predictable dimensional change. After conversion to silicon carbide the optical surface is coated with very fine grain CVD silicon carbide which is easily polished to extreme smoothness. Details of the fabrication process are described and photos and performance specifications of an eight-inch elliptical demonstration mirror are provided.

  16. An alternative computational method for finding the minimum-premium insurance portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikis, Vasilios N.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we design a computational method, which differs from the standard linear programming techniques, for computing the minimum-premium insurance portfolio. The corresponding algorithm as well as a Matlab implementation are provided.

  17. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  18. Designing HIGH-COST medicine: hospital surveys, health planning, and the paradox of progressive reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Barbara Bridgman

    2010-02-01

    Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas' hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.

  19. Inkjet printing of novel wideband and high gain antennas on low-cost paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-09-01

    A complete characterization of the inkjet printing process using metallic nanoparticle inks on a paper substrate for microwave frequencies up to 12.5 GHz as well as its application to low-cost, high gain and wideband antenna design are demonstrated in this work. Laser and heat sintering of metallic nanoparticles are compared on paper substrate for the first time which demonstrate immense cost and time benefits of laser sintering. The antennas fabricated using the characterized process include a Vivaldi for the UWB band which exhibits a significantly higher gain of up to 8 dBi as compared to the currently published inkjet printed antennas, and a novel slow-wave log periodic dipole array which employs a new miniaturization technique to show 20% width reduction. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  20. Locating operations in high labor cost countries – Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Diaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The location of operations in high labor cost countries is increasingly discussed in the media, in part for recent declarations and actions from the president of USA, Donald Trump. While this particular instance can be labeled as populist or protectionist, the factors underlying the debate are extremely important: advances in systematic increases in productivity, low population growth, and the transfer of jobs to countries with lower labor costs are creating unemployment and underemployment in developed countries that could eventually result in protectionism and restrictions to free trade. This phenomenon has enormous social and economic implications, and has attracted considerable interest from researchers. In particular, this study provides empirical evidence of the location of manufacturing and services in the context of a European country (Spain, exploring the drivers, social implications and organizational theories that can explain it.

  1. Medical costs associated with cardiovascular events among high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonafede MM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Machaon M Bonafede,1 Barbara H Johnson,1 Akshara Richhariya,2 Shravanthi R Gandra2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Global Health Economics, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Objectives: This study descriptively examined acute and longer term direct medical costs associated with a major cardiovascular (CV event among high-risk coronary heart disease risk-equivalent (CHD-RE patients. It also gives a firsthand look at fatal versus nonfatal CV events. Methods: The MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database was used to identify adults with a CV event in 2006–2012 with hyperlipidemia or lipid-lowering therapy use in the 18 months prior to one of the following inpatient CV events: myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, unstable angina, transient ischemic attack, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Patients were required to have a preindex diagnosis of at least one of the following: peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, or diabetes. A subset analysis was conducted with patients with data linkable to the Social Security Administration Master Death File. Direct medical costs were reported for each quarter following a CV event, for up to 36 months after the first CV event. Results: In total, 38,609 CHD-RE patients were included, mean age 57 years, 31% female. CABG, myocardial infarction, and percutaneous coronary intervention were the most frequent and most expensive first CV events, accounting for >75% of all first CV events with mean first quarter costs ranging from $17,454 (nonfatal transient ischemic attack to $125,690 (fatal CABG. Overall, 15% of those with a first CV event went on to have a second event during the 36-month study period with mean first quarter nonfatal and fatal costs similar to first event levels. Third CV events were rare, happening in less than 3% of patients. Conclusion: CV events among CHD-RE patients were

  2. Low-cost high-efficient 10-Watt X-band high-power amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bent, G. van der; Hek, A.P. de; Bessemoulin, A.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    A high power X-band amplifier with an output power over 10 Watts and a Power Added Efficiency (PAE) in excess of 40 percent has been developed. The design was fabricated in a 0.25 μm pHEMT GaAs process (WIN Semiconductor PP25-01). The small die area in combination with a 6-inch wafer technology prov

  3. How high are the personnel costs for OSCE? A financial report on management aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Liebhardt, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) was put to the test in order to assess the clinical practical skills of students in medical studies in the medical faculties. For the implementation of an OSCE, a large number of personnel is necessary. In particular for subjects with limited resources, therefore, efficient cost planning is required. In the winter semester 09/10, the Department of Neurology at the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm introduced the OSCE as a pilot project. A financial report retrospectively shows the personnel expenses. The report is intended as an example for an insight into the resources needed for the OSCE with simulated patients. Included in the calculation of the financial costs of the OSCE were: employment, status of staff involved in the OSCE, subject-matter and temporal dimension of the task. After the exam, acceptance of the examination format was reviewed by a focus group interview with the teachers and students. The total expenses for the personnel involved in the OSCE amounted to 12,468 €. The costing of the clinic's share was calculated at 9,576 €. Tuition fees from the students have been used to the amount of 2.892 €. For conversion of total expenditure to the number of examines the sum of 86 € per student was calculated. Both students and teachers confirmed the validity of the OSCE and recognised the added value in the learning effects. The high acceptance of the OSCE in neurology by both students and teachers favours maintaining the test format. Against the background of the high financial and logistical costs, however, in individual cases it should be assessed how in the long-term efficient examination procedure will be possible.

  4. Correlating compressor and turbine costs with thermodynamic properties for CAES power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadasz, P.; Weiner, D.

    1987-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that converts excess base load energy into stored pneumatic energy by means of a compressor for a later release through a turbine as premium peaking power. The CAES system consists of a modified gas turbine combined with an underground storage reservoir. Since 1978, such a power plant has operated successfully in Huntorf, West Germany. Others are in construction throughout the world, the largest being constructed in Donbas, Soviet Union (1050 MW). CAES is more economic with respect to other energy storage facilities due to its relatively low installation cost, short construction time, and high reliability. However, since the number of CAES plants all over the world is still small, it is essential for plant planning and optimization to evaluate normative functions for the turbine and compressor cost. The components costs are evaluated from their thermodynamic and turbo-aerodynamic properties, enabling evaluation of the optimal plant parameters.

  5. A DEMAND-SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF THE SPANISH EDUCATION WAGE PREMIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel A. Hidalgo

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates education demand for Spain in order to analyze whether variations of the education wage premium between the 1980s and 1990s can be explained within the framework of a supply and demand model. The evidence reveals a stable pattern of growth in the demand for education throughout the eighties and nineties, empirically showing that differences in the evolution of the education wage premium during the two decades can be explained by varying growth in education supply coupled ...

  6. Spatial Risk Premium on Weather Derivatives and Hedging Weather Exposure in Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Osipenko, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Due to dependency of energy demand on temperature, weather derivatives enable the effective hedging of temperature related fluctuations. However, temperature varies in space and time and therefore the contingent weather derivatives also vary. The spatial derivative price distribution involves a risk premium. We examine functional principal components of temperature variation for this spatial risk premium. We employ a pricing model for temperature derivatives based on dynamics modelled via a v...

  7. College wage premium over time: trends in Europe in the last 15 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Crivellaro

    2014-01-01

    While there has been intense debate in the empirical literature over the evolution of the college wage premium in the United States, its evolution in Europe has received little attention. This paper investigates the causes of the evolution of the college wage premium in 12 european countries from 1994 to 2009. I use cross country variation in relative supply, demand, and labour market institutions to examine their effects on the trend in wage inequality. I address possible concerns of endogen...

  8. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  9. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  10. Improved breast cancer biomarker detection through a simple, high frequency, low cost external proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Wolber, Robert; Garratt, John; Kalloger, Steven; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-12-01

    We describe a simple, low cost, high frequency immunohistochemistry external proficiency testing program, and show how its use can lead to improved breast cancer biomarker detection. Over a 30 month period in British Columbia, Canada, we used tissue microarray slides to follow the performance of twelve clinical laboratories in nine separate external proficiency testing runs. Sensitivity for detection of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 were calculated for each laboratory, biomarker, and run. Mean sensitivities for detection of ER, PR, and HER2 were 97.1%, 84.8%, and 90.7%, respectively. HER2 sensitivity improved over time, from 87.0% to 92.9% (p=0.04), with a trend towards improvement seen for PR (81.9-88.1%, p=0.13). ER sensitivities were high throughout the test period. Improvements occurred without mandating any specific laboratory changes. This simple, low cost, high frequency external proficiency testing program is highly sustainable and can be implemented in any multi-institutional group or region.

  11. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  12. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Schneider

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  13. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis of High-Speed Rail Link between Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Legislative Council in Hong Kong has approved a funding of USD$8.60 billion to build the high-speed rail (HSR line linking mainland China. HSR is a break-through technology that allows trains running at a speed over 250 km per hour. The most controversial part of the HSR investment is whether its cost could be compensated by the social benefits. In this study, a cost-benefit analysis of the Hong Kong to mainland HSR (HKM-HSR line is carried out. First, all the direct and indirect costs, and social benefits are defined; then, monetary equivalents are assigned to these elements; third, all the future values are discounted into present values and aggregated. The results show that the project has a positive net present value (NPV up to USD$2,068.49 million, which proves that the investment is worth. In addition, other transport alternatives, i.e. the existing roadway and conventional railway, are examined and compared with HKM-HSR, which unveils that HSR has the largest positive NPV among these three passenger transportation modes because of its excellent performance in ticket revenue, travel time savings and safety improvement.

  15. What are the costs and benefits of biodiversity recovery in a highly polluted estuary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, M; Borja, A; Franco, J; Burdon, D; Atkins, J P; Elliott, M

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity recovery measures have often been ignored when dealing with the restoration of degraded aquatic systems. Furthermore, biological valuation methods have been applied only spatially in previous studies, and not jointly on a temporal and spatial scale. The intense monitoring efforts carried out in a highly polluted estuary, in northern Spain (Nervión estuary), allowed for the economic valuation of the costs and the biological valuation of the benefits associated with a 21 years sewage scheme application. The analysis show that the total amount of money invested into the sewage scheme has contributed to the estuary's improvement of both environmental and biological features, as well as to an increase in the uses and services provided by the estuary. However, the inner and outer parts of the estuary showed different responses. An understanding of the costs and trajectories of the environmental recovery of degraded aquatic systems is increasingly necessary to allow policy makers and regulators to formulate robust, cost-efficient and feasible management decisions.

  16. A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

    2001-07-01

    Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was

  17. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  18. NSSS capital costs for a mature LMFBR industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, S.U.

    1978-10-23

    The conceptual design of a commercial LMFBR (Target Plant) and its NSSS capital cost have been developed in support of the United Engineers and Constructors Contract EN-78-C-02-4954 with the Department of Energy. The objective of this work is to provide the Department of Energy/Office of Program Planning and Analysis - Nuclear Energy Programs with periodic updates of technical, capital cost, fuel cycle cost, and operating and maintenance cost information. This effort supports Task 3B of the UE and C's Phase I Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program. Past estimates of LMFBR capital costs have generally predicted that these costs would be higher than those of a comparably sized LWR, primarily due to the more demanding technology associated wih higher temperatures and the large number of engineered systems. The LMFBR, because of its low fuel cycle costs, can tolerate a capital cost premium relative to thermal reactors. The key issues, therefore, are: the allowable LMFBR cost premium, and the steps necessary to reduce the capital cost below the projected allowable cost premium for a safe and reliable plant.

  19. The Application of High Density Electronic Packaging for Spacecraft Cost and Mass Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Lynn E.; Prokop, Jon S.; Sandborn, Peter; Evans, Kristan

    1995-01-01

    It has become clear over the past few years that packaging of spacecraft electronic systems must be improved. Not only have the weight and volume taken up by conventional packaging and interconnect systems become excessive, but active devices have advanced to the point where system performance is often limited by the packaging. Since electronic systems account for up to 30% of the size and weight budgets of a spacecraft, the utilization of high density electronic packaging will be a very important path to overall spacecraft miniaturization. In the late 1970's high density interconnection technologies were being introduced into mainframe computer applications. Subsequently, these technologies have been applied to avionics, telecommunication, biomedical and automotive systems. In each application the driving forces behind the adoption of these technologies were; improved electrical performance, miniaturization, reduced power consumption, increased reliability and reduced manufacturing costs. The application of these technologies to planetary missions could provide significant benefits by way of reduced cost and design time if commercial technology and best commercial manufacturing practices are accepted. A mixed signal telecommunication function has been used as an example to illustrate the potential mass, volume and power reduction achievable with the implementation of high density packaging technologies. The tradeoff analysis which was performed demonstrated that packaging technology selection is application specific, and system level impact must be considered early on in the design process. The results of this study which compare size, performance, cost, risk and system level impact are given. Finally, the technical and cultural obstacles which have inhibited the implementation of these technologies is discussed. Specifically, the issues of space qualified hardware and technology availability is addressed. Space qualification is perceived by industry as being the

  20. Standard semiconductor packaging for high-reliability low-cost MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Kieran P.

    2005-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging technology has evolved over the years in response to the needs of IC technology. The fundamental purpose of the package is to provide protection for the silicon chip and to provide electrical connection to the circuit board. Major change has been witnessed in packaging and today wafer level packaging technology has further revolutionized the industry. MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology has created new challenges for packaging that do not exist in standard ICs. However, the fundamental objective of MEMS packaging is the same as traditional ICs, the low cost and reliable presentation of the MEMS chip to the next level interconnect. Inertial MEMS is one of the best examples of the successful commercialization of MEMS technology. The adoption of MEMS accelerometers for automotive airbag applications has created a high volume market that demands the highest reliability at low cost. The suppliers to these markets have responded by exploiting standard semiconductor packaging infrastructures. However, there are special packaging needs for MEMS that cannot be ignored. New applications for inertial MEMS devices are emerging in the consumer space that adds the imperative of small size to the need for reliability and low cost. These trends are not unique to MEMS accelerometers. For any MEMS technology to be successful the packaging must provide the basic reliability and interconnection functions, adding the least possible cost to the product. This paper will discuss the evolution of MEMS packaging in the accelerometer industry and identify the main issues that needed to be addressed to enable the successful commercialization of the technology in the automotive and consumer markets.

  1. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  2. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...... and its control software offers the flexibility to automatically adapt to the different irradiation conditions set by the flashing solar simulator. Simulation and experimental tests have been carried out, in order to verify the behaviour and performance of the designed I-V curve tracer....

  3. [High-cost therapy. Ethical principles of allocation of scarce resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, O F

    1992-10-10

    This article raises some ethical problems concerning high-cost therapy for malignant haematological diseases. The problem of setting priorities is discussed within the framework of utilitarianism, right-based theories and the contractarian theory of John Rawls. It is argued that utilitarianism can provide precise answers, based on the principle of allocative efficiency. However, this is not the only objective of a public health care system. The right-based approach is discussed, but sufficiently precise definitions seem hard to formulate. The contractarian approach is regarded as interesting, since it tries to address the question of trade-offs between objectives of allocative efficiency and distributive fairness.

  4. The burden of responsibility: Interpersonal costs of high self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Christy Zhou; vanDellen, Michelle R; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Ranby, Krista W

    2015-05-01

    The psychological literature on self-control has illustrated the many benefits experienced by people with high self-control, who are more successful both personally and interpersonally. In the current research, we explore the possibility that having high self-control also may have some interpersonal costs, leading individuals to become burdened by others' reliance. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effects of actors' self-control on observers' performance expectations and found that observers had higher performance expectations for actors with high (vs. low) self-control. In Study 3, we tested the effect of actors' self-control on work assigned to actors and found that observers assigned greater workloads to actors with high (vs. low) self-control. In Study 4, we examined how actors and observers differed in their assessments of the effort expended by high and low self-control actors and found that observers (but not actors) reported that high self-control actors expended less effort than low self-control actors. Finally, we found that people high (vs. low) in self-control reported greater burden from the reliance of coworkers (Study 5) and romantic partners (Study 6), and this tendency led them to feel less satisfied with their relationships (Study 6). Together, results from these studies provide novel evidence that individuals' self-control affects others' attitudes and behaviors toward them, and suggest that these interpersonal dynamics can have negative consequences for high self-control individuals.

  5. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task in the project can begin only when all its predecessor tasks have been completed, and each task has a range of feasible durations with a month-by-month cost profile for each duration...

  6. Analysis of Life Insurance Premium in Regard to Net Income as an Influencing Factor– the Case of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olja Munitlak Ivanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current business conditions, insurance market in the Republic of Serbia notes positive but relatively slow growing trend. During the last few years, life insurance market in Serbia has an upward trend, however, it still significantly falls back in comparison to developed European countries. Insufficient development of life insurance sector is in direct relation to insufficient economic development, weak financial market, high unemployment rate and poor implementation of economic reforms. Additionally there is a problem due to the lack of both quality and quantity of education with insufficient basic knowledge of potentials that this type of insurance offers. The aim of this paper is to present the projection of life insurance premium on the basis of linear trend parameters and correlation degree between average net income and the amount of life insurance premium and to emphasize the necessity of intense development of life insurance market. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-offs: Production Builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how some energy-efficiency measure cost increases can balance against measures that reduce up-front costs: Advanced framing cuts lumber costs, right sizing can mean downsizing the HVAC, moving HVAC into conditioned space cuts installation costs, designing on a 2-foot grid reduces materials waste, etc.

  8. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  9. A scalable-low cost architecture for high gain beamforming antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2010-10-01

    Many state-of-the-art wireless systems, such as long distance mesh networks and high bandwidth networks using mm-wave frequencies, require high gain antennas to overcome adverse channel conditions. These networks could be greatly aided by adaptive beamforming antenna arrays, which can significantly simplify the installation and maintenance costs (e.g., by enabling automatic beam alignment). However, building large, low cost beamforming arrays is very complicated. In this paper, we examine the main challenges presented by large arrays, starting from electromagnetic and antenna design and proceeding to the signal processing and algorithms domain. We propose 3-dimensional antenna structures and hybrid RF/digital radio architectures that can significantly reduce the complexity and improve the power efficiency of adaptive array systems. We also present signal processing techniques based on adaptive filtering methods that enhance the robustness of these architectures. Finally, we present computationally efficient vector quantization techniques that significantly improve the interference cancellation capabilities of analog beamforming architectures. © 2010 IEEE.

  10. A High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solution for On-Board Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Boscaino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-input, low-voltage, and high-current applications are addressed. A single-ended isolated topology which improves the power efficiency, reduces both switching and conduction losses, and heavily lowers the system cost is presented. During each switching cycle, the transformer core reset is provided. The traditional tradeoff between the maximum allowable duty-cycle and the reset voltage is avoided and the off-voltage of active switches is clamped to the input voltage. Therefore, the system cost is heavily reduced and the converter is well suited for wide-input applications. Zero-voltage switching is achieved for active switches, and the power efficiency is greatly improved. In the output mesh, an inductor is included making the converter suitable for high-current, low-voltage applications. Since the active clamp forward converter is the closest competitor of the proposed converter, a comparison is provided as well. In this paper, the steady-state and small-signal analysis of the proposed converter is presented. Design examples are provided for further applications. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the great advantages brought by the proposed topology.

  11. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates.

  12. High efficiency and low cost preparation of size controlled starch nanoparticles through ultrasonic treatment and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yan, Xiaoxia; Wang, Qian; Ren, Lili; Tong, Jin; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop an approach to produce size controlled starch nanoparticles (SNPs), via precipitation with high efficiency and low cost. High concentration starch aqueous pastes (up to 5wt.%) were treated by ultrasound. Viscosity measurements and size exclusion chromatography characterization revealed that, after 30min ultrasonic treatment, viscosity of the starch pastes decreased two orders of magnitude and the weight average molecular weight of the starch decreased from 8.4×10(7) to 2.7×10(6)g/mol. Dynamic light scattering measurements and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the SNPs prepared from the starch pastes with ultrasonic treatments were smaller (∼75nm) and more uniform. Moreover, SNPs could be obtained using less non-solvents. X-ray diffraction results indicated that effect of the ultrasonic treatment on crystalline structure of the SNPs was negligible. Ultrasound can be utilized to prepare smaller SNPs through nanoprecipitation with higher efficiency and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IMPACT OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN LITIGATION CONCERNING ACCESS TO HIGH-COST DRUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Perez Galan, Ana

    2017-07-31

    The impact of health technology assessment (HTA) in the judicialization of the right of health has not been deeply studied in Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to review the process of judicialization of the access to high cost drugs in Uruguay and assess the impact HTAs have had on this process. The methodology used for this study included a comprehensive literature search in electronic databases, local journals, internal documents developed in the Ministry of Health, as well as conducting interviews with key informants. Judicialization of the access of high cost drugs has been increasing since 2010. The strategy of the Ministry of Health of Uruguay to decrease this problem included the organization of roundtables with judges and other stakeholders on the basis of HTA, the training of defense lawyers in the use and interpretation of HTA, and the participation of a professional who develops HTA in the preparation of the defense arguments. A year after the implementation of this strategy, 25 percent of writs of protection were won by the Ministry of Health. Even though the strategy implemented was effective in reducing the loss of litigations, it was not effective in reducing the growing number of writs of protection. It is essential to address this problem in a broad debate and to promote understanding between the parties.

  14. Drug costs and benefits of medical treatments in high-unmet need solid tumours in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterlund, P; Sorbye, H; Pfeiffer, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Regional and hospital decision-makers increasingly require analyses assessing the cost benefit profile of new cancer drugs. This analysis evaluates the cost-benefit profile of nano albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) in pancreatic cancer, versus other drugs indicated in high-u...

  15. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  16. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  17. Investigation of a Solution-Processable, Nonspecific Surface Modifier for Low Cost, High Work Function Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Allison C; Wang, Congcong; Pfattner, Raphael; Kong, Desheng; Zhou, Yan; Ecker, Ben; Gao, Yongli; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-08-03

    We demonstrate the ability of the highly fluorinated, chemically inert copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to significantly increase the work function of a variety of common electrode materials. The work function change is hypothesized to occur via physisorption of the polymer layer and formation of a surface dipole at the polymer/conductor interface. When incorporated into organic solar cells, an interlayer of PVDF-HFP at an Ag anode increases the open circuit voltage by 0.4 eV and improves device power conversion efficiency by approximately an order of magnitude relative to Ag alone. Solution-processable in air, PVDF-HFP thin films provide one possible route toward achieving low cost, nonreactive, high work function electrodes.

  18. Segmentation of low‐cost high efficiency oxide‐based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Linderoth, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    efficiency of TE oxides has been a major drawback limiting these materials to broaden applications. In this work, theoretical calculations are used to predict how segmentation of oxide and semimetal materials, utilizing the benefits of both types of materials, can provide high efficiency, high temperature...... segmented legs based p-type Ca3Co4O9 and n-type ZnO oxides excluding electrical and thermal losses. It is found that the maximum efficiency of segmented unicouple could be linearly decreased with increasing the interfacial contact resistance. The obtained results provide useful tool for designing a low...... oxide-based segmented legs. The materials for segmentation are selected by their compatibility factors and their conversion efficiency versus material cost, i.e., “efficiency ratio”. Numerical modelling results showed that conversion efficiency could reach values of more than 10% for unicouples using...

  19. A low-cost sensor for high density urban CO2 monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.; Martin, C.

    2015-12-01

    The high spatial-termporal variability of greenhouse gases and other pollution sources in an urban environment can not be easily resolved with current high-accuracy but expensive instruments. We have tested a small, low-cost NDIR CO2 sensor designed for potential use. It has a manufacturer's specified accuracy of +- 30 parts per million (ppm). However, initial results running parallel with a research-grade greenhouse gas analyzer have shown that the absolute accuracy of the sensor is within +-5ppm, suggesting their utility for sensing ambient air variations in carbon dioxide. Through a multivariate analysis, we have determined a correction procedure that when accounting for environmental temperature, humidity, air pressure, and the device's span and offset, we can further increase the accuracy of the collected data. We will show results from rooftop measurements over a period of one year and CO2 tracking data in the Washington-Baltimore Metropolitan area.

  20. Toward Low-Cost Highly Portable Tactile Displays with Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new concept of low-cost, high-resolution, lightweight, compact and highly portable tactile display. The prototype consists of an array of 8 × 8 upward/downward independent moveable pins based on shape memory alloy (SMA technology. Each tactile actuator consists of an antagonist arranged pair of miniature NiTi SMA helical springs capable of developing a 300 mN pull force at 1.5 Hz bandwidth by using simple forced-air convection. The proposed concept allows the development of 200 g weight tactile instruments of compact dimensions which can be easily carried by a visually disabled user. A detailed technical description of the SMA active element, tactile actuator and tactile display is presented and discussed. Preliminary perceptual results confirm the effectiveness of the display on information transmission.

  1. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  2. 42 CFR 408.21 - Reduction in Medicare Part B premium as an additional benefit under Medicare+Choice plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... After determining the Medicare Part B premium reduction amount for each eligible beneficiary, CMS will— (1) Transmit this information to the Social Security Administration, Railroad Retirement Board,...

  3. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  4. Cost Analysis of Ceramic Heads in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Keith J; Odum, Susan M; Troyer, Jennifer L; Fehring, Thomas K

    2016-11-02

    The advent of adverse local tissue reactions seen in metal-on-metal bearings, and the recent recognition of trunnionosis, have led many surgeons to recommend ceramic-on-polyethylene articulations for primary total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, there has been little research that has considered whether the increased cost of ceramic provides enough benefit over cobalt-chromium to justify its use. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of ceramic-on-polyethylene implants and metal-on-polyethylene implants in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Markov decision modeling was used to determine the ceramic-on-polyethylene implant revision rate necessary to be cost-effective compared with the revision rate of metal-on-polyethylene implants across a range of patient ages and implant costs. A different set of Markov models was used to estimate the national cost burden of choosing ceramic-on-polyethylene implants over metal-on-polyethylene implants for primary total hip arthroplasties. The Premier Research Database was used to identify 20,398 patients who in 2012 were ≥45 years of age and underwent a total hip arthroplasty with either a ceramic-on-polyethylene implant or a metal-on-polyethylene implant. The cost-effectiveness of ceramic heads is highly dependent on the cost differential between ceramic and metal femoral heads and the age of the patient. At a cost differential of $325, ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings are cost-effective for patients price premium for ceramic and the age of the patient. A wholesale switch to ceramic bearings regardless of age or cost differential may result in an economic burden to the health system. Economic and decision analysis, Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  5. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  6. Foraging behavior of humpback whales: kinematic and respiratory patterns suggest a high cost for a lunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Calambokidis, John; Croll, Donald A; Harvey, James T; Newton, Kelly M; Oleson, Erin M; Schorr, Greg; Shadwick, Robert E

    2008-12-01

    Lunge feeding in rorqual whales is a drag-based feeding mechanism that is thought to entail a high energetic cost and consequently limit the maximum dive time of these extraordinarily large predators. Although the kinematics of lunge feeding in fin whales supports this hypothesis, it is unclear whether respiratory compensation occurs as a consequence of lunge-feeding activity. We used high-resolution digital tags on foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaengliae) to determine the number of lunges executed per dive as well as respiratory frequency between dives. Data from two whales are reported, which together performed 58 foraging dives and 451 lunges. During one study, we tracked one tagged whale for approximately 2 h and examined the spatial distribution of prey using a digital echosounder. These data were integrated with the dive profile to reveal that lunges are directed toward the upper boundary of dense krill aggregations. Foraging dives were characterized by a gliding descent, up to 15 lunges at depth, and an ascent powered by steady swimming. Longer dives were required to perform more lunges at depth and these extended apneas were followed by an increase in the number of breaths taken after a dive. Maximum dive durations during foraging were approximately half of those previously reported for singing (i.e. non-feeding) humpback whales. At the highest lunge frequencies (10 to 15 lunges per dive), respiratory rate was at least threefold higher than that of singing humpback whales that underwent a similar degree of apnea. These data suggest that the high energetic cost associated with lunge feeding in blue and fin whales also occurs in intermediate sized rorquals.

  7. Predicting high-cost pediatric patients: derivation and validation of a population-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey J; Saloner, Brendan; Wherry, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Health care administrators often lack feasible methods to prospectively identify new pediatric patients with high health care needs, precluding the ability to proactively target appropriate population health management programs to these children. To develop and validate a predictive model identifying high-cost pediatric patients using parent-reported health (PRH) measures that can be easily collected in clinical and administrative settings. Retrospective cohort study using 2-year panel data from the 2001 to 2011 rounds of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A total of 24,163 children aged 5-17 with family incomes below 400% of the federal poverty line were included in this study. Predictive performance, including the c-statistic, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values, of multivariate logistic regression models predicting top-decile health care expenditures over a 1-year period. Seven independent domains of PRH measures were tested for predictive capacity relative to basic sociodemographic information: the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener; subjectively rated health status; prior year health care utilization; behavioral problems; asthma diagnosis; access to health care; and parental health status and access to care. The CSHCN screener and prior year utilization domains exhibited the highest incremental predictive gains over the baseline model. A model including sociodemographic characteristics, the CSHCN screener, and prior year utilization had a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.74), surpassing the commonly used threshold to establish sufficient predictive capacity (c-statistic>0.70). The proposed prediction tool, comprising a simple series of PRH measures, accurately stratifies pediatric populations by their risk of incurring high health care costs.

  8. One step lithography-less silicon nanomanufacturing for low cost high-efficiency solar cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Logan

    2014-03-01

    To improve light absorption, previously various antireflection material layers were created on solar wafer surface including multilayer dielectric film, nanoparticle sludges, microtextures, noble metal plasmonic nanoparticles and 3D silicon nanostructure arrays. All of these approaches involve nanoscale prepatterning, surface-area-sensitive assembly processes or extreme fabrication conditions; therefore, they are often limited by the associated high cost and low yield as well as the consequent industry incompatibility. In comparison, our nanomanufacturing, an unique synchronized and simultaneous top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication approach called simultaneous plasma enhanced reactive ion synthesis and etching (SPERISE), offers a better antireflection solution along with the potential to increase p-n junction surface area. High density and high aspect ratio anechoic nanocone arrays are repeatedly and reliably created on the entire surface of single and poly crystalline silicon wafers as well as amorphous silicon thin films within 5 minutes under room temperature. The nanocone surface had lower than 5% reflection over the entire solar spectrum and a desirable omnidirectional absorption property. Using the nanotextured solar wafer, a 156mm × 156mm 18.1%-efficient black silicon solar cell was fabricated, which was an 18.3% enhancement over the cell fabricated by standard industrial processes. This process also reduces silicon loss during the texturing step and enables tighter process control by creating more uniform surface structures. Considering all the above advantages, the demonstrated nanomanufacturing process can be readily translated into current industrial silicon solar cell fabrication lines to replace the costly and ineffective wet chemical texturing and antireflective coatings.

  9. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF. Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  10. A Highly Reliable and Cost-Efficient Multi-Sensor System for Land Vehicle Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Xu, Qimin; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui

    2016-05-25

    In this paper, we propose a novel positioning solution for land vehicles which is highly reliable and cost-efficient. The proposed positioning system fuses information from the MEMS-based reduced inertial sensor system (RISS) which consists of one vertical gyroscope and two horizontal accelerometers, low-cost GPS, and supplementary sensors and sources. First, pitch and roll angle are accurately estimated based on a vehicle kinematic model. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the uncertain nonlinear drift of MEMS inertial sensors is eliminated by an H∞ filter. Further, a distributed-dual-H∞ filtering (DDHF) mechanism is adopted to address the uncertain nonlinear drift of the MEMS-RISS and make full use of the supplementary sensors and sources. The DDHF is composed of a main H∞ filter (MHF) and an auxiliary H∞ filter (AHF). Finally, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) module with good approximation capability is specially designed for the MEMS-RISS. A hybrid methodology which combines the GRNN module and the AHF is utilized to compensate for RISS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution, road-test experiments with various scenarios were performed. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed system can achieve accurate and reliable positioning for land vehicles.

  11. Case studies: low cost, high-strength, large carbon foam tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, R.; Danford, H. [Touchstone Research Laboratory Ltd., Triadelphia, WV (USA)

    2009-01-15

    A new carbon foam tooling system has been developed that results in a low-cost, high-strength material that has been proving attractive for creation of tooling for composite parts. Composites are stronger; lighter and less subject to corrosion and fatigue than materials that are currently used for fabrication of advanced structures. Tools to manufacture these composite parts must be rigid, durable and able to offer a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) closely matching that of the composites. Current technology makes it difficult to match the CTE of a composite part in the curing cycle with anything other than a carbon composite or a nickel iron alloy such as Invar. Fabrication of metallic tooling requires many, expensive stages of long duration with a large infrastructure investment. Card ban fiber reinforced polymer resin composite tooling has a shorter lead-time but limited production use because of durability concerns. Coal-based carbon foam material has a compatible CTE and strong durability, that make it an attractive alternative for use in tooling. The use of coal-based carbon foam in tooling for carbon composites is advantageous because of its low cost, light weight, machinability , vacuum integrity and compatibility with a wide range of curing processes. Large-scale tooling case studies will be presented detailing carbon foam's potential for tooling applications.

  12. Are high labour costs destroying the competitiveness of danish dairy farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt; Bogetoft, Peter

    This paper analysis the competitiveness of Danish dairy farmers relative to dairy farmers in other Northern European countries. We use individual farm accounts data from the European Commission’s Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and have an average of 1665 observations per year in the period......¿erences in average e¿ciencies between countries. The results shows that the Danish dairy farmers, on average, were the most economically e¿cient in Northern Europe in 2007 and 2008. We ¿nd that the e¿ect of labour costs for the Danish dairy farmers is decreasing during the study period despite of the salary di......¿erences increasing. In 2002 the negative impact of having the highest hourly pay was an average 4.7 percentage points whereas it in 2008 was only 0.6 percentage 1points.This indicates that the Danish dairy farmers have been highly successful in adapting to having the highest, and increasing, hourly labour costs...

  13. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun, E-mail: Z.Hu@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin [BGT Materials Limited, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, Andre K. [Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Novoselov, Kostya S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10{sup 4 }S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  14. Unconventional microbial systems for the cost-efficient production of high-quality protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchero, José Luis; Gasser, Brigitte; Resina, David; Smith, Wesley; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Vázquez, Felícitas; Abasolo, Ibane; Giuliani, Maria; Jäntti, Jussi; Ferrer, Pau; Saloheimo, Markku; Mattanovich, Diethard; Schwartz, Simó; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Villaverde, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Both conventional and innovative biomedical approaches require cost-effective protein drugs with high therapeutic potency, improved bioavailability, biocompatibility, stability and pharmacokinetics. The growing longevity of the human population, the increasing incidence and prevalence of age-related diseases and the better comprehension of genetic-linked disorders prompt to develop natural and engineered drugs addressed to fulfill emerging therapeutic demands. Conventional microbial systems have been for long time exploited to produce biotherapeutics, competing with animal cells due to easier operation and lower process costs. However, both biological platforms exhibit important drawbacks (mainly associated to intracellular retention of the product, lack of post-translational modifications and conformational stresses), that cannot be overcome through further strain optimization merely due to physiological constraints. The metabolic diversity among microorganisms offers a spectrum of unconventional hosts, that, being able to bypass some of these weaknesses, are under progressive incorporation into production pipelines. In this review we describe the main biological traits and potentials of emerging bacterial, yeast, fungal and microalgae systems, by comparing selected leading species with well established conventional organisms with a long run in protein drug production.

  15. \\title{Low-Cost Bump-Bonding Processes for High Energy Physics Pixel Detectors}

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, Michele; Colombo, Fabio; Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann; Husemann, Ulrich; Kudella, Simon; Weber, M

    2015-01-01

    In the next generation of collider experiments detectors will be challenged by unprecedented particle fluxes. Thus large detector arrays of highly pixelated detectors with minimal dead area at reasonable costs are required. Bump-bonding of pixel detectors has been shown to be a major cost-driver. KIT is one of the production centers of the CMS barrel pixel detector for the Phase I Upgrade. In this contribution the SnPb bump-bonding process and the production yield is reported. In parallel to the production of the new CMS pixel detector, several alternatives to the expensive photolithography electroplating/electroless metal deposition technologies are developing. Recent progress and challenges faced in the development of bump-bonding technology based on gold-stud bonding by thin ($15\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$) gold wire is presented. This technique allows producing metal bumps with diameters down to $30\\,\\rm{\\mu m}$ without using photolithography processes, which are typically required to provide suitable under bu...

  16. A Low-Cost, Portable, High-Throughput Wireless Sensor System for Phonocardiography Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarapol Sa-ngasoongsong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm ´ 5 cm ´ 1 cm, high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate, and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2, and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4 and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60–180 Hz through exercise testing.

  17. End-of-life care in nursing homes: the high cost of staff turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Virginia P; Thompson, Sarah A; Gajewski, Byron J; Bott, Marjorie J

    2012-01-01

    Nursing home staff turnover results in high cost--both economic and personal--and has a negative impact on the quality of care provided to residents at the end of life. Reducing staff turnover in nursing homes would benefit both the cost to the U.S. health care system, and, most importantly, the care residents receive in the vulnerable period leading to death. There is rising pressure on nursing homes to improve their palliative and end-of-life care practices and reduce transfers to hospital for situations and conditions that can be safely managed on site. Nursing care staff deserve an investment in the specific training necessary for them to give the highest quality care to dying residents. This training should be multifaceted and include the physiological, psychological, spiritual, interpersonal, and cultural (including ethnic) aspects of dying. Empowerment with these necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes will not only result in better care for residents but likely also will reduce the burnout and frustration staff experience in caring for residents near death.

  18. High-response intrauterine insemination cycles converted to low-cost in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletebi F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatma AletebiAssisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University, Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaBackground: There is a trend to cancel intrauterine insemination (IUI in women with a high response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF in high-response IUI cycles in comparison with conventional IVF.Methods and materials: A total of 46 women were included in the study. Group A (study group included 23 women with hyper-response to IUI cycles who were converted to IVF. They received oral letrozole 2.5 mg twice daily from days 3–7 of the menstrual cycle, along with 75 International Units (IU of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on days 3 and 8. Group B (control group underwent conventional IVF, and received downregulation with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist followed by stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone 150–300 IU/day. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin, followed by IVF and embryo transfer. The primary outcome measure analyzed was pregnancy rates in both groups.Results: The study group received a significantly lower (P = 0.001 total dose of follicle-stimulating hormone and had significantly (P = 0.002 decreased levels of terminal estradiol. Although the pregnancy rate (30.43% in the study group versus 39.13% in the conventional group per stimulated cycle was higher in the conventional IVF group, the miscarriage rate (study group 4.34% versus conventional group 13.04% was also higher, and hence the take-home baby rate (study group 26.08% versus conventional group 30.43% was more or less similar in both the groups.Conclusion: IVF can be offered to women having a high response to IUI cycles with good pregnancy rates and at low cost compared with use of a conventional protocol, and therefore can be considered more patient-friendly in selected cases.Keywords: low-cost

  19. 42 CFR 447.80 - Enforceability of alternative premiums and cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including a pharmacy or hospital, to require an individual, as a condition for receiving the item or service.... (1) A provider, including a pharmacy and a hospital, may not require an individual whose family... the service. (2) A hospital that has determined after an appropriate medical screening pursuant to...

  20. Descriptive analysis of childbirth healthcare costs in an area with high levels of immigration in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of childbirth in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, including the costs of prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care (3 months. Costs were assessed by taking into account maternal origin and delivery type. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of all deliveries in a teaching hospital to mothers living in its catchment area between October 2006 and September 2007. A process cost analysis based on a full cost accounting system was performed. The main information sources were the primary care program for sexual and reproductive health, and hospital care and costs records. Partial and total costs were compared according to maternal origin and delivery type. A regression model was fit to explain the total cost of the childbirth process as a function of maternal age and origin, prenatal care, delivery type, maternal and neonatal severity, and multiple delivery. Results The average cost of childbirth was 4,328€, with an average of 18.28 contacts between the mother or the newborn and the healthcare facilities. The delivery itself accounted for more than 75% of the overall cost: maternal admission accounted for 57% and neonatal admission for 20%. Prenatal care represented 18% of the overall cost and 75% of overall acts. The average overall cost was 5,815€ for cesarean sections, 4,064€ for vaginal instrumented deliveries and 3,682€ for vaginal non-instrumented deliveries (p Conclusions Neither immigration nor prenatal care were associated with a substantial difference in costs. The most important predictors of cost were delivery type and neonatal severity. Given the impact of cesarean sections on the overall cost of childbirth, attempts should be made to take into account its higher cost in the decision of performing a cesarean section.

  1. Use of highly alkaline conditions to improve cost-effectiveness of algal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon-Rubio, Karen A; Sharp, Christine E; Bergerson, Joule; Strous, Marc; De la Hoz Siegler, Hector

    2016-02-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms have been proposed as an alternative to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and to produce biofuels and other valuable products. Low CO2 absorption rates, low volumetric productivities, and inefficient downstream processing, however, currently make algal biotechnology highly energy intensive, expensive, and not economically competitive to produce biofuels. This mini-review summarizes advances made regarding the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms at highly alkaline conditions, as well as other innovations oriented toward reducing the energy input into the cultivation and processing stages. An evaluation, in terms of energy requirements and energy return on energy invested, is performed for an integrated high-pH, high-alkalinity growth process that uses biofilms. Performance in terms of productivity and expected energy return on energy invested is presented for this process and is compared to previously reported life cycle assessments (LCAs) for systems at near-neutral pH. The cultivation of alkaliphilic phototrophic microorganisms in biofilms is shown to have a significant potential to reduce both energy requirements and capital costs.

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  7. Is a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy for invasive aspergillosis cost effective in high-risk haematology patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesic, N; Morrissey, C O; Liew, D; Bohensky, M A; Chen, S C-A; Gilroy, N M; Milliken, S T; Szer, J; Slavin, M A

    2017-01-27

    Empirical antifungal therapy is frequently used in hematology patients at high risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with substantial cost and toxicity. Biomarkers for IA aim for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, data on the cost-effectiveness of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (BDS) are limited. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of BDS using results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and individual patient costing data. Data inputs derived from a published RCT were used to construct a decision-analytic model to compare BDS (Aspergillus galactomannan and PCR on blood) with standard diagnostic strategy (SDS) of culture and histology in terms of total costs, length of stay, IA incidence, mortality, and years of life saved. Costs were estimated for each patient using hospital costing data to day 180 and follow-up for survival was modeled to five years using a Gompertz survival model. Treatment costs were determined for 137 adults undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant or receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia in four Australian centers (2005-2009). Median total costs at 180 days were similar between groups (US[Formula: see text] for SDS [IQR US[Formula: see text

  8. 78 FR 26269 - Connect America Fund; High-Cost Universal Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... current version of the CAM suggest that this better calibrated approach results in more reliable cost... funding) are roughly 20-25 percent lower in the current version of the CAM than in the cost model... network costs are assets with an accounting lifetime of 20 years or more, such as loop plant,...

  9. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation among high-cost patients in the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Pal Chee, Christine; Wagner, Todd H; Yoon, Jean; Cohen, Danielle M; Holmes, Tyson H; Ritchie, Christine; Asch, Steven M

    2015-04-16

    To investigate the relationship between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation patterns among the highest cost patients in a large, integrated healthcare system. In this retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients in the U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, we aggregated costs of individuals' outpatient and inpatient care, pharmacy services and VA-sponsored contract care received in 2010. We assessed chronic condition prevalence, multimorbidity as measured by comorbidity count, and multisystem multimorbidity (number of body systems affected by chronic conditions) among the 5% highest cost patients. Using multivariate regression, we examined the association between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation and costs, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, homelessness and health insurance status. USA VA Health Care System. 5.2 million VA patients. Annual total costs; absolute and share of costs generated through outpatient, inpatient, pharmacy and VA-sponsored contract care; number of visits to primary, specialty and mental healthcare; number of emergency department visits and hospitalisations. The 5% highest cost patients (n=261,699) accounted for 47% of total VA costs. Approximately two-thirds of these patients had chronic conditions affecting ≥3 body systems. Patients with cancer and schizophrenia were less likely to have documented comorbid conditions than other high-cost patients. Multimorbidity was generally associated with greater outpatient and inpatient utilisation. However, increased multisystem multimorbidity was associated with a higher outpatient share of total costs (1.6 percentage points per affected body system, psystem, p<0.01). Multisystem multimorbidity is common among high-cost VA patients. While some patients might benefit from disease-specific programmes, for most patients with multimorbidity there is a need for interventions that coordinate and maximise efficiency of outpatient services across multiple

  10. High Cost Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material for Electro-optic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; ZHU Gui-Hua; SUN Xiao-Qiang; LI Tong; GAO Wei-Nan; ZHANG Da-Ming; HOU A-lin

    2009-01-01

    We report a low-cost electro-optic (EO) sol-gel material with large EO coefficient and excellent poling stability for EO devices. Disperse red 1 (DR1) chromophore is doped in the three-dimensional silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide network possessing a high γ33 (88pm/V at 1300 nm wavelength and 71 pm/V at 1550nm wavelength). Favourable poled stability (less than 5% relaxed after 2500 hours at 80 ℃) and low absorption are demonstrated. Strip-loaded waveguide Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) modulators are implemented based on this synthesized EO material, showing 7 V half-wave voltage and less than 9dB insertion loss at 1550nm wavelength.

  11. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Laser Based Synthesis of High Purity Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondall, M A; Qahtan, Talal F; Dastageer, M A; Yamani, Z H; Anjum, D H

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and cost effective method is developed to synthesize high purity cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots in acetone medium using second harmonic of Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. The thermal agglomeration due the nanosecond pulse duration of the laser was successfully eliminated by using unfocussed laser beam and thereby providing a favorable conditions for the synthesis of quantum dots having the grain size of 3 nm. The morphological and optical characterizations like XRD, HRTEM, optical absorption of the synthesized CdSe quantum dots, reveal that the material possesses the similar characteristics of the one synthesized through cumbersome wet chemical methods. Relative to the CdSe bulk material, the synthesized CdSe quantum dots showed a blue shift in the measured band gap energy from near infrared spectral region to visible region, making this material very attractive for many solar energy harvesting applications like photo-catalysis and solar cells.

  12. Are High Labour Costs Destroying the Competitiveness of Danish Dairy Farmers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt; Bogetoft, Peter

    This paper analysis the competitiveness of Danish dairy farmers relative to dairy farmers in other Northern European countries. We use individual farm accounts data from the European Commission’s Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and have an average of 1665 observations per year in the period...... on the differences in average efficiencies between countries. The results shows that the Danish dairy farmers, on average, were the most economically efficient in Northern Europe in 2007 and 2008. We find that the effect of labour costs for the Danish dairy farmers is decreasing during the study period despite...... of the salary differences increasing. In 2002 the negative impact of having the highest hourly pay was an average 4.7 percentage points whereas it in 2008 was only 0.6 percentage points.This indicates that the Danish dairy farmers have been highly successful in adapting to having the highest, and increasing...

  13. A cost-effective high-flux source of cold ytterbium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Zou, Yueyang; Zhang, Shanchao; Cho, Chang-woo; Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2016-10-01

    We report a cost-effective way to prepare high-flux slow ytterbium atoms with extremely low-power 399-nm light suitable for the production of quantum degenerate ytterbium gases. By collimating an atomic beam through an array of micro-capillary tubes, we obtain a bright atomic beam through the Zeeman slower operating at low light power of only 15 mW for the source. We achieve the loading rate of 2 × 107 s-1 into the intercombination magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a sufficient steady-state MOT atom number of 2 × 108 for 174Yb atoms. Our apparatus highlights an efficient method to obtain slow ytterbium atoms using a simple low-power 399-nm laser system.

  14. A Low-Cost Time-Hopping Impulse Radio System for High Data Rate Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Zhang

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient, low-cost implementation of time-hopping impulse radio that fulfills the spectral mask mandated by the FCC and is suitable for high-data-rate, short-range communications. Key features are (i all-baseband implementation that obviates the need for passband components, (ii symbol-rate (not chip rate sampling, A/D conversion, and digital signal processing, (iii fast acquisition due to novel search algorithms, and (iv spectral shaping that can be adapted to accommodate different spectrum regulations and interference environments. Computer simulations show that this system can provide 110 Mbps at 7–10 m distance, as well as higher data rates at shorter distances under FCC emissions limits. Due to the spreading concept of time-hopping impulse radio, the system can sustain multiple simultaneous users, and can suppress narrowband interference effectively.

  15. Low-cost, high-speed back-end processing system for high-frequency ultrasound B-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin Ho; Sun, Lei; Yen, Jesse T; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-07-01

    For real-time visualization of the mouse heart (6 to 13 beats per second), a back-end processing system involving high-speed signal processing functions to form and display images has been developed. This back-end system was designed with new signal processing algorithms to achieve a frame rate of more than 400 images per second. These algorithms were implemented in a simple and cost-effective manner with a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and software programs written in C++. The operating speed of the back-end system was investigated by recording the time required for transferring an image to a personal computer. Experimental results showed that the back-end system is capable of producing 433 images per second. To evaluate the imaging performance of the back-end system, a complete imaging system was built. This imaging system, which consisted of a recently reported high-speed mechanical sector scanner assembled with the back-end system, was tested by imaging a wire phantom, a pig eye (in vitro), and a mouse heart (in vivo). It was shown that this system is capable of providing high spatial resolution images with fast temporal resolution.

  16. Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Instruction Expenditures towards High School Completion among Oahu's Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Larson S. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The following study attempted to ascertain the instructional cost-effectiveness of public high school teachers towards high school completion through a financially based econometric analysis. Essentially, public high school instruction expenditures and completer data were collected from 2000 to 2007 and bivariate interaction analyzed through a…

  17. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Texas. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in Texas high school graduation rates. Only 67 percent of Texas students graduate from high school, and some large urban districts have graduation rates of 50 percent or lower. This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Texas and examines how school choice could provide large public benefits…

  18. Parametric Equations for Estimating Aircraft Airframe Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    prototype program for the first few aircraft is substantially lower because many costs are deferred until a decision to produce for inventory is made...overhead rates. It is necessary to begin with labor hours and convert tbam into dollars. That conversion can result in a serious misstatement of...general and administrative expense (G&A), miscellaneous direct charges (overtime premium, travel, per diem, miscellaneous taxes , etc.), and, in the

  19. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  20. Enabling low cost biopharmaceuticals: high level interferon alpha-2b production in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P; Mustalahti, Eero; Wahl, Ramon; Croute, Laurence; Sivasiddarthan, Dhinakaran; Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Sommer, Benjamin; Ostermeier, Christian; Helk, Bernhard; Saarinen, Juhani; Saloheimo, Markku

    2016-06-10

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has tremendous capability to secrete over 100 g/L of proteins and therefore it would make an excellent host system for production of high levels of therapeutic proteins at low cost. We have developed T. reesei strains suitable for production of therapeutic proteins by reducing the secreted protease activity. Protease activity has been the major hindrance to achieving high production levels. We have constructed a series of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα-2b) production strains with 9 protease deletions to gain knowledge for further strain development. We have identified two protease deletions that dramatically improved the production levels. Deletion of the subtilisin protease slp7 and the metalloprotease amp2 has enabled production levels of IFNα-2b up to 2.1 and 2.4 g/L, respectively. With addition of soybean trypsin protease inhibitor the level of production improved to 4.5 g/L, with an additional 1.8 g/L still bound to the secretion carrier protein. High levels of IFNα-2b were produced using T. reesei strains with reduced protease secretion. Further strain development can be done to improve the production system by reducing protease activity and improving carrier protein cleavage.