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Sample records for high cortisol group

  1. Anxious attachment style predicts an enhanced cortisol response to group psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Nina; Thorn, Lisa; Oskis, Andrea; Hucklebridge, Frank; Evans, Phil; Clow, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Insecure attachment style is associated with poor health outcomes. A proposed pathway implicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), dysregulation of which is associated with a wide range of mental and physical ill-health. However, data on stress reactivity in relation to attachment style is contradictory. This relationship was examined using the novel Trier Social Stress Test for groups (TSST-G): a group-based acute psychosocial stressor. Each participant, in the presence of other group members, individually performed public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks. Seventy-eight healthy young females (20.2 ± 3.2 years), in groups of up to six participants completed demographic information and the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), and were then exposed to the TSST-G. Physiological stress reactivity was assessed using salivary cortisol concentrations, measured on seven occasions at 10-min intervals. Vulnerable attachment predicted greater cortisol reactivity independent of age, smoking status, menstrual phase and body mass index. Supplementary analysis indicated that insecure anxious attachment style (high scores on the insecurity and proximity-seeking sub-scales of the VASQ) showed greater cortisol reactivity than participants with secure attachment style. Avoidant attachment style (high scores for insecurity and low scores for proximity seeking) was not significantly different from the secure attachment style. Attachment style was not associated with the timing of the cortisol peak or post-stress recovery in cortisol concentrations. These findings in healthy young females indicate subtle underlying changes in HPA axis function in relation to attachment style and may be important for future mental health and well-being.

  2. Hair Measurements of Cortisol, DHEA, and DHEA to Cortisol Ratio as Biomarkers of Chronic Stress among People Living with HIV in China: Known-Group Validation

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    Li, Xiaoming; Zilioli, Samuele; Chen, Zheng; Deng, Huihua; Pan, Juxian

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing literature suggests that endocrine measures, including the steroid hormones of cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), as well as the DHEA to cortisol ratio in the human hair can be used as promising biomarkers of chronic stress among humans. However, data are limited regarding the validity of these measures as biomarkers of chronic stress among people living with HIV (PLWH), whose endocrine system or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may be affected by HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART) medications. Method Using hair sample data and self-reported survey from 60 PLWH in China, we examined the validity of three endocrine measures among Chinese PLWH using a known-groups validation strategy. High-stress group (n = 30) and low-stress group (n = 30) of PLWH were recruited through individual assessment interviews by a local licensed psychologist. The endocrine measures in hair were extracted and assessed by LC-APCI-MS/MS method. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the endocrine measures and the stress level, and to investigate if the associations differ by ART status. Results The levels of endocrine measures among Chinese PLWH were consistent with existing studies among PLWH. Generally, this pilot study confirmed the association between endocrine measures and chronic stress. The high stress group showed higher level hair cortisol and lower DHEA to cortisol ratio. The higher stress group also reported higher scores of stressful life events, perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Hair cortisol level was positively related to anxiety; DHEA was negatively associated with stressful life events; and the DHEA to cortisol ratio was positively related to stressful life events and perceived stress. ART did not affect the associations between the endocrine measures and stress level. Conclusions Our findings suggest that hair cortisol and DHEA to cortisol ratio can be used as

  3. Exogenous cortisol facilitates responses to social threat under high provocation.

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    Bertsch, Katja; Böhnke, Robina; Kruk, Menno R; Richter, Steffen; Naumann, Ewald

    2011-04-01

    Stress is one of the most important promoters of aggression. Human and animal studies have found associations between basal and acute levels of the stress hormone cortisol and (abnormal) aggression. Irrespective of the direction of these changes--i.e., increased or decreased aggressive behavior--the results of these studies suggest dramatic alterations in the processing of threat-related social information. Therefore, the effects of cortisol and provocation on social information processing were addressed by the present study. After a placebo-controlled pharmacological manipulation of acute cortisol levels, we exposed healthy individuals to high or low levels of provocation in a competitive aggression paradigm. Influences of cortisol and provocation on emotional face processing were then investigated with reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in an emotional Stroop task. In line with previous results, enhanced early and later positive, posterior ERP components indicated a provocation-induced enhanced relevance for all kinds of social information. Cortisol, however, reduced an early frontocentral bias for angry faces and--despite the provocation-enhancing relevance--led to faster reactions for all facial expressions in highly provoked participants. The results thus support the moderating role of social information processing in the 'vicious circle of stress and aggression'.

  4. Stress management reduces intraindividual cortisol variability, while not impacting other measures of cortisol rhythm, in a group of women at risk for breast cancer☆,☆☆,★

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    Sannes, Timothy S.; Dolan, Emily; Albano, Denise; Ceballos, Rachel M.; McGregor, Bonnie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The stress hormone cortisol exhibits a diurnal rhythm throughout the day, as well as within person variability. Recent statistical approaches allow for the estimation of intraindividual cortisol variability (“ICV”) and a greater ICV has been observed in some mood disorders (major depression, remitted bipolar disorder); however, ICV has not been examined following stress management. In this secondary analyses of an efficacious randomized clinical trial, we examine how ICV may change after cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) among healthy stressed women at risk for breast cancer. Second, we concurrently compare other calculations of cortisol that may change following CBSM. Methods Multilevel modeling (MLM) was applied to estimate ICV and to test for a group by time interaction from baseline, post-intervention, to 1 month following CBSM. Forty-four women were randomized to the CBSM; 47 to the comparison group; mean age of the entire group was 44.2 (SD = 10.27). Results After controlling for relevant covariates, a significant time by group interaction emerged (β estimate = −.070; p < .05), such that CBSM participants demonstrated a lower ICV following CBSM compared to the comparison group. The interaction for cortisol slope and cortisol output (area under the curve) approached significance (β estimates = −.10 and −.062, respectively; p's < .08), while other cortisol outcomes tested were not significantly changed following CBSM. Conclusion ICV may represent a novel index of cortisol dysregulation that is impacted by CBSM and may represent a more malleable within-person calculation than other, widely applied cortisol outcomes. Future research should examine these relationships in larger samples, and examine ICV and health outcomes. PMID:26526317

  5. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

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    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  6. Clinical implications for biochemical diagnostic thresholds of adrenal sufficiency using a highly specific cortisol immunoassay.

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    Kline, G A; Buse, J; Krause, R D

    2017-06-01

    Recent guidelines recommend a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency when a stimulated peak cortisol level falls below 500nmol/L. This may not be valid using a highly specific cortisol immunoassay or liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LCMS/MS). We sought to determine the diagnostic threshold for adrenal insufficiency using a new and widely available, highly specific cortisol immunoassay. All patients having a dynamic test of adrenal reserve had results measured using the historical cortisol assay (Roche Cortisol) and the newer assay (Roche Cortisol II). Subjects were categorized according to the traditional assay (normal>500nmol/L) with clinical case adjudication where necessary. Results from Cortisol II assay were concomitantly measured along with cortisol levels measured by LCMS/MS. ROC curve analysis was performed to generate new diagnostic thresholds. The Roche Cortisol II compared favourably with measures by LCMS/MS, generating cortisol levels approximately 30% lower than the older immunoassay. Many normal subjects had peak cortisols as low as 300nmol/L with Cortisol II. The optimized diagnostic threshold for adrenal insufficiency was 350nmol/L with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity 97%. Use of the old diagnostic threshold with the Cortisol II assay would have inappropriately doubled the rate of patient-classification as adrenal insufficient. Transition to a more specific cortisol assay requires revision of diagnostic thresholds for dynamic tests of adrenal insufficiency. With the Roche Cortisol II assay, a cut-off of 350nmol/L should replace the traditional 500nmol/L although some healthy subjects may be very close to this level. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  7. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

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    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  8. Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-18

    Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P sows. Among the W3 sows, there was a lower (P sows were group housed compared to when they were individually housed. The cortisol response, measured as variation in cortisol concentration in saliva, was also lower (P sows compared with W1 sows. For all management routines, sows already living in the new environment (resident sows) initiated more attacks (P sows entering the new environment (intruder sows). Overall, multiparous sows initiated more attacks and received fewer attacks than primiparous sows (P sows at three weeks post farrowing is less stressful than mixing and group housing sows at one week post farrowing. The results also indicate that parity and whether a sow is a resident or intruder in the group housing environment may have an effect on aggression levels when sows are group-housed.

  9. Microfluidic immunosensor for rapid and highly-sensitive salivary cortisol quantification.

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    Pinto, V; Sousa, P; Catarino, S O; Correia-Neves, M; Minas, G

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic immunosensor that integrates a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) optical detection system for a rapid and highly-sensitive quantification of salivary cortisol. The simple and non-invasive method of saliva sampling provides an interesting alternative to the blood, allowing a fast sampling at short intervals, relevant for many clinical diagnostic applications. The developed approach is based on the covalent immobilization of a coating antibody (Ab), a polyclonal anti-IgG, onto a treated PDMS surface. The coating Ab binds the capture Ab, an IgG specific for cortisol, allowing its correct orientation. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled cortisol is added to compete with the cortisol in the sample, for the capture Ab binding sites. The HRP-labelled cortisol, bonded to the capture Ab, is measured through the HRP enzyme and the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate reaction. The cortisol quantification is performed by colorimetric detection of HRP-labelled cortisol, through optical absorption at 450nm, using a CMOS silicon photodiode as the photodetector. Under the developed optimized conditions presented here, e.g., microfluidic channels geometry, immobilization method and immunoassay conditions, the immunosensor shows a linear range of detection between 0.01-20ng/mL, a limit of detection (LOD) of 18pg/mL and an analysis time of 35min, featuring a great potential for point-of-care applications requiring continuous monitoring of the salivary cortisol levels during a circadian cycle.

  10. Development of SPR Immunosensor by Indirect Competitive Method for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Salivary Cortisol Detection

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    Yusuke eTahara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol biosensor based on an indirect competitive method using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunosensor. The surface of a Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO as a cortisol analogue. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt to 100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the response time was 5 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our biosensor with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol biosensor had a high correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96. Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol biosensor for on-site diagnosis and bedside point-of-care testing (POCT from bedside testing.

  11. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

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    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  12. Lower cortisol response in high-resilient caregivers of people with autism: the role of anger.

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    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Romero-Martínez, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-10-13

    Caring for an offspring with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been related to high stress levels and health disturbances. However, a protective effect against these negative health outcomes has been described in high-resilient caregivers. In this context, the main aim of the present study was to assess the association between resilient coping and cortisol response to acute stress in caregivers of people with ASD. Furthermore, the study aimed to explore the mediating role of anger in this association. We exposed 40 caregivers of people with ASD to an acute psychosocial stressor in the laboratory. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained before, during, and after the stressor. Resilient coping, anger, and socio-demographic variables were also assessed. Resilient coping was negatively correlated with cortisol response. Specifically, cortisol release was lower in high-resilient than low-resilient caregivers. Anger was positively correlated with cortisol response, mediating the association with resilient coping. The observed associations of resilient coping and anger with cortisol response indicate that these variables may affect health outcomes, resilience being protective and anger harmful. Psychotherapeutic interventions focused on strengthening resilience and anger management could benefit caregivers, improving their health status and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Poverty, Relationship Conflict, and the Regulation of Cortisol in Small and Large Group Contexts at Child Care

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    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Willett, John B.; Ayoub, Catherine C.; Lindsley, Robert; Hulette, Annmarie C.; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the dynamics of cortisol regulation in the context of center-based child care by examining the impact of social context (large classroom vs. small group) and relationship quality with caregivers (conflict with mothers and teachers). We extend the research on children's physiologic stress system…

  14. Cortisol levels and aggression in neutered and intact free-roaming female cats living in urban social groups.

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    Finkler, H; Terkel, J

    2010-03-03

    Free-roaming domestic cats in urban areas often live in defined social groups, and the breeding females in these groups tend to form structures of a matrilineal nature. In recent years, resulting from the growing populations of free-roaming cats in many cities worldwide, these cats are being managed using the Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) method. The aims of this study were to explore the hypotheses that (a) neutering reduces aggression in the females living in such social groups; and (b) if such reduction does occur, that it might be accompanied by a reduction in cortisol levels. The study was conducted on eight cat feeding groups in residential neighbourhoods in Tel Aviv, Israel. The municipal veterinary department offers TNR services upon request. Cats are collected from the feeding group and returned to their original group after neutering. We found that neutered females showed reduced aggressiveness as well as reduced cortisol levels compared to the intact females. In addition, those intact females that displayed more aggression had higher cortisol levels compared to the less aggressive intact females. Based on the results of this study it is possible to suggest for the first time a possible relationship between cortisol levels and aggression in free-roaming female domestic cats. This study is an initial step in assessing the long-term effects of Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) on the welfare of the individual cat. If cortisol levels in female cats are reduced after neutering, partly as a result of reduced social and reproductive pressures (as expressed by lower aggression of the neutered females), it is possible that TNR has an added beneficial role in cat welfare in addition to that of control of population size.

  15. Cortisol Test

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    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  16. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

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    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-04

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys.

  17. Determination of cortisol and cortisone in urine using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

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    Jenner, D A; Richards, J

    1985-01-01

    The application of reversed-phase gradient high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection to the determination of cortisol and cortisone in 24-h urine samples is described. The method employs Sep-pak C18 cartridges for the part-purification and concentration of the corticosteroids, with sample enrichment at the head of an HPLC pre-column and separation using water/acetonitrile gradient. The internal standard is 6alpha-methylprednisolone. Measurement of both cortisone and cortisol provides further information on adrenocortical function. 24-hour excretion rate data from normal subjects are reported.

  18. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

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    Thomas Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  19. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

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    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  20. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

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    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  1. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

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    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P food choice (P food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  2. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to high-intensity cycling before and after an 11-day intensified training period.

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    Hough, John; Corney, Robert; Kouris, Antonios; Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to two, different high-intensity, ∼30-min cycles separated by 2 h rest before and after an 11-day intensified training period. Twelve recreationally active, healthy males completed the study. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after and 30 min after both bouts with salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations assessed. Compared with pre-training blunted exercise-induced salivary cortisol, testosterone and cortisol/testosterone responses to both bouts post-training were observed (P 0.05). Fatigue and Burnout scores were higher post- compared with pre-training (P < 0.05). These high-intensity exercise bouts can detect altered hormonal responses following intensified training. This test could assess an athlete's current hormonal status, reductions in salivary cortisol and testosterone responses suggestive of increased fatigue.

  3. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

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    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  4. Effects of varying floor space on aggressive behavior and cortisol concentrations in group-housed sows.

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    Hemsworth, P H; Morrison, R S; Tilbrook, A J; Butler, K L; Rice, M; Moeller, S J

    2016-11-01

    Floor space is an important determinant of aggression and stress in group-housed sows, and the aim of the present experiment was to comprehensively examine the effects of floor space in the range of 1.45 to 2.90 m/sow from mixing until 27 d after insemination on aggression, stress, and reproduction of group-housed sows. A previous experiment on the effects of floor space indicated spatial variability across and along the research facility in both sow aggression and stress. To minimize this spatial variability within the research facility, similar-sized pens but with varying groups sizes (10-20) in 4 separate blocks of 3 contiguous pens within each of 9 time replicates (180 sows/replicate) were used to examine 6 space allowances (1.45-2.9 m/sow). Space treatments were appropriately randomized to pens. Although it may be argued that space allowance is confounded with group size in this design, there was no evidence in our previous experiment of group size effects, for pens of 10 to 80 sows, or appreciable interactions between space and group size on aggression, stress, and reproduction. In the present experiment, sows were introduced to treatments within 4 d of insemination and were floor fed 4 times per day (2.5 kg/sow per d). On both Days 2 and 26 after mixing, aggressive behavior (bites and knocks) at feeding and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured. Restricted maximum likelihood mixed model analyses were used to examine the treatment effect after accounting for replicate and random spatial location effects within replicate. There was a consistent linear effect of floor space allowance on aggression at feeding at Day 2 ( space. However, there were no effects of space allowance on aggression and stress at Day 26 ( = 0.14 and = 0.79, respectively). These results show that increased floor space in the immediate post-mixing period reduces aggression and stress and that sows may adapt to reduced floor space over time. A strategy of staged-gestation penning

  5. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

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    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  6. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...... patients, as an awakening profile, before medication and light therapy started. The CAR was calculated by using three time-points: awakening and 20 and 60 min after awakening. RESULTS: Patients with low CAR had a very substantial effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy, whereas...... patients with a high CAR had no effect of bright light therapy compared with dim light therapy. CONCLUSION: High CAR was associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy. This result raises the question of whether bright light acts through a mechanism different from...

  7. Micro determination of cortisol and cortisone in umbilical cord blood by chemiluminescent high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kubo, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Koichi; Nowatari, Masahiko; Ishii, Masahiro

    2010-06-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific chemiluminescent high-performance liquid chromatography method, based on the luminol reaction, for determination of serum cortisol and cortisone, was established. In infants, placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11beta-HSD2) activity may affect adrenal function early after birth. The cortisol-cortisone ratio of serum concentrations in umbilical cord blood is an indicator of placental 11beta-HSD2 activity. The optimum conditions for the luminol reaction were determined to be 1.5 mM luminol, 0.6 M sodium hydroxide, 0.15 mm potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and 200 mM potassium hexacyanoferrate (II). The calibration curves for cortisol and cortisone exhibited good linearity. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were 0.996. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the ranges: cortisol 7.0-12.2 and 4.4-9.2%, cortisone 5.3-7.0 and 6.2-9.9%. The recoveries of these steroids were in the ranges: cortisol 97-105%, cortisone 94-102%. The limits of detection were as follows: cortisol, 0.17 microg/dl; cortisone 0.15 microg/dl. This assay could be successfully applied to determination of the cortisol-cortiosone ratio of serum concentrations in umbilical cord bloods. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Determination of free urinary cortisol in cushing's syndrome using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kinio Sugawara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of free urinary cortisol is a test of choice in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. In this study, cortisol was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC in urine samples previously extracted with ether and using triamcinolone acetonide as internal standard (IS. A BDS-Hypersil-C18® column, water-acetonitrile (72:28; v/v, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 243 nm were used. This method showed to be both effective and efficient, with sensitivity and linearity ranging from 2.50 to 150 μg/L, and can be used in substitution to the radioimmunoassay technique within this concentration range.

  9. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  10. Emotional expression and diurnal cortisol slope in women with metastatic breast cancer in supportive-expressive group therapy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; DiMiceli, Sue; Sephton, Sandra; Spiegel, David

    2006-08-01

    We examined coded emotional expression during an initial therapy session and its association with a known physiological risk factor for early death, aberrant diurnal cortisol slope, in women with metastatic breast cancer. Out of 64 women with metastatic breast cancer randomized to a multi-site clinical intervention trial of supportive-expressive group therapy (SET), a subsample of 29 met eligibility criteria for this study. We tested whether longer mean durations of primary negative affect (fear, sadness, and anger) expression were associated with steeper diurnal cortisol slopes after adjusting for speaking time, repressive-defensiveness, anxiety, and the interaction between repressive-defensiveness and anxiety. We found that steeper cortisol slopes were related to lower repressive-defensiveness and greater primary negative affect expression in line with a priori hypotheses. Additionally we explored whether coded positive affect, defensive/hostile affect, constrained anger, and the interaction between primary negative affect and repressive-defensiveness explained additional variance in diurnal cortisol patterns.

  11. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  12. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias.

  13. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  14. High cortisol awakening response is associated with impaired error monitoring and decreased post-error adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Yuan, Yiran; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), a rapid increase in cortisol levels following morning awakening, is an important aspect of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Alterations in the CAR have been linked to a variety of mental disorders and cognitive function. However, little is known regarding the relationship between the CAR and error processing, a phenomenon that is vital for cognitive control and behavioral adaptation. Using high-temporal resolution measures of event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with behavioral assessment of error processing, we investigated whether and how the CAR is associated with two key components of error processing: error detection and subsequent behavioral adjustment. Sixty university students performed a Go/No-go task while their ERPs were recorded. Saliva samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after awakening on the two consecutive days following ERP data collection. The results showed that a higher CAR was associated with slowed latency of the error-related negativity (ERN) and a higher post-error miss rate. The CAR was not associated with other behavioral measures such as the false alarm rate and the post-correct miss rate. These findings suggest that high CAR is a biological factor linked to impairments of multiple steps of error processing in healthy populations, specifically, the automatic detection of error and post-error behavioral adjustment. A common underlying neural mechanism of physiological and cognitive control may be crucial for engaging in both CAR and error processing.

  15. High cortisol awakening response is associated with an impairment of the effect of bright light therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus Per Juul; Lunde, Marianne Anita; Undén, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with non-seasonal major depression. METHOD: Patients were treated with sertraline in combination with bright or dim light therapy for a 5-week period. Saliva cortisol levels were measured in 63...

  16. Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and High Salivary Cortisol Predict Poorer Memory in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Becker, Suzanna; Schmidt, Louis A.; Nicol, Jeffrey; Muir, Cameron; MacMillan, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The predictive relations of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and salivary cortisol on memory in 168 children aged 12 at Time 1 (T1) were examined using a longitudinal design in which data were collected on four occasions over a 2-year period. Results indicated that: (1) peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and evening cortisol were…

  17. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  18. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  19. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High and low emotion events influence emotional stress perceptions and are associated with salivary cortisol response changes in a consecutive stress paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejtek, Vicki A

    2002-04-01

    Numerous studies over the last few decades have successfully utilized "psychological" stressors to examine stress-induced cortisol release as a function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cascade. In contrast, research examining the effect emotionally-laden stressors may have on cortisol release is scarce. Moreover, the results from the few studies that have examined subjective perceptions of emotional stress and their relationship to cortisol release are mixed. Thus, little is known about the impact an emotionally-charged stressor may have on cortisol responsivity and even less is understood about the relationship between cortisol release and perceived emotional stress. The primary goal of the present research was to investigate the effect of consecutive, emotionally stressful events on cortisol release. The secondary goal was to examine the influence perceptions about emotionally stressful events might have on cortisol responsivity. This is the first study to identify two distinct patterns of cortisol release that were significantly reversed (P=0.006) in response to high and low emotion events presented in a consecutive stress paradigm that were associated with perceptions of emotional stress.

  1. Diurnal cortisol and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Slavich, George M; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M; Cole, Steven W; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all pcortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r>36, all pcortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique on Adrenaline and Cortisol Levels in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Vandana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to find out the effect of Integrated Amrita Meditation Technique (IAM on the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol. One hundred and fifty healthy subjects were randomized into three groups. Blood was collected at 0 hour, 48 hours, 2 months, and 8 months after the first visit. Adrenaline was analyzed by ELISA and cortisol by Chemiluminescent method. In the IAM, PMR and control groups 44, 44, and 36 came, respectively, for the baseline visit. Within group, cortisol and adrenaline levels reduced in the IAM 48 hours onwards and the fall sustained until 8 months (P<.05. ANCOVA (Repeated measures on adrenaline taking the four levels of observation showed a highly significant (P=.001 drop in the IAM group. The mean cortisol values between groups were not statistically significant (P=.138. IAM Technique was effective in reducing adrenaline and cortisol levels within group comparisons.

  3. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism , in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... disease Cushing disease Cushing syndrome Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  4. Cortisol - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... Cushing syndrome Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  5. The role of cortisol suppression on craving for and satisfaction from nicotine in high and low impulsive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M; Netter, P; Rogausch, A; Sander, P; Kaltschmidt, M; Dörr, A; Hennig, J

    2002-07-01

    The rewarding properties of drug self-administration have been shown to depend on mesolimbic dopamine release but also on the availability of corticosterone, as shown in rats. Since this became particularly evident when tested in rat strains bred for high (HR) and low (LR) reactivity to novel stimuli, the role of cortisol and personality in drug craving was investigated in 60 male nicotine-deprived smokers divided according to questionnaire scores into high and low impulsives, a dimension considered to represent HR/LR rats. They either received the peripheral cortisol blocker metyrapone (MET) or the centrally blocking substance dexamethasone (DEX) or placebo (n=20 each) and were then allowed to smoke. MET more than DEX reduced craving for cigarettes during deprivation. This was only observed in low impulsives while high impulsives developed low craving unmodified by blockade of cortisol. Satisfaction from smoking was less achieved with DEX than with MET and not modified by impulsivity. Differences between MET and DEX in influencing craving during deprivation and satisfaction from smoking were discussed on the basis of different glucocorticoid receptors. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) seems to be the 'turn on switch' and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) the 'turn off switch' in mediating the rewarding properties of dopamine in drug self-administration.

  6. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P=0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P=0.0019; after heroin administration: P=0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  7. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-07-28

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction.

  8. Anxiety mediates the effect of acute stress on working memory performance when cortisol levels are high: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Spady, Thomas J; Kliebenstein, Alexa; Bachand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is an aversive emotional state characterized by perceived uncontrollability and hypervigilance to threat that can frequently cause disruptions in higher-order cognitive processes like working memory. The attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that anxiety negatively affects the working memory system. This study tested the association between anxiety and working memory after the addition of stress and measured the glucocorticoid, cortisol. To better understand this relationship, we utilized a moderated mediation model. Undergraduate students from a public university (N = 103) self-reported their anxiety levels. Participants first completed a short-term memory test. During and after a forehead cold pressor task (stress vs. control procedure) participants completed a working memory test. Salivary cortisol was taken at baseline and after the last working memory test. Overall, acute stress had no effect on working memory. However, we found that anxiety levels mediated the influence of condition (stressed vs. control) on working memory, but only among those individuals who had high cortisol levels after exposure to acute stress, supporting a moderated mediation model. These results imply that activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was necessary for working memory impairment in anxious individuals. These results provide support for the ACT.

  9. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  10. Academic self-concept of ability and cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle.

  11. High and low protein∶ carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation alter maternal-fetal cortisol regulation in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kanitz

    Full Text Available Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%, low (LP, 6.5% or adequate (AP, 12.1% protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein∶carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health.

  12. Effect of Stress Caused by Academic Tests on Cortisol and ProlactineLevels in a Group of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Salamanca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship betweenimmunological system and stress has been debatedin the last years. Neurohormonal changes produceimmunologic response variations with majorchanges in the cytokines levels, causing depressionof the cytolytic responses due to a decrease in theNK (Natural Killer cells population (1.Academic stress is a useful stress model to studyhormonal changes in the Hypotalamic-Pituitary–Adrenocortical (HPA axis (2, 3.Materials and Methods: The present studyevaluates th0e behavior of cortisol and prolactinehormones and their effect on the adaptativeresponses of Herpes Simplex Virus type I in apopulation of 26 medical students with agesbetween 14 and 27 years. Male students represented80.8% of the evaluated population. This is a threestage longitudinal intervention study whereantibodies, cortisol and prolactin levels weremeasured against Herpes Simplex Virus type I.The first measure was done 15 days previous tothe stressful event, the second during the stressfulevent (mid-academic period exams and the lastone, 15 days posterior to the stressful event. Allsamples were taken from 8:00 am to 10:00 am.Results and Discussion: Prolactine averagevalues were found to be significantly different (p< 0.001 when comparing the three stages.Cortisol values changes were near showingsignificant differences (p = 0.098, with an increaseduring the stressful event and a decrease after theexposure. Antibodies levels of Herpes SimplexVirus type I showed a significant difference (p =0.043 increasing tendency in the three stages.Adaptative responses to Herpes Simplex Virustype I augmented as a result of prolactineconcentration increase due to a stressor eventexposure. This explains an increment in thecytotoxic cell activity (NK cells which incrementcytokine concentration, such as INF-α, whichamplify humoral IgG antibody mediated response,according with obtained results. Even thoughcortisol levels do not significantly increased duringthe stressful

  13. SALIVARY CORTISOL CHANGES IN CHILDREN DURING DENTAL EXTRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental environment may be a source of stress for young children. Such stressful conditions may provoke fear and anxiety in children. Therefore stress factor is high in children visiting dentists and this stress may increase or decrease in the subsequent visits that follow dependent upon to what they are exposed to , during these visits especially high anxiety provoki ng procedures like dental extractions. Cortisol , called also “stress hormone” participates in organism’s response to stress situations and enters into complex interactions with the hormonal and immune system of a man. The salivary cortisol levels were inve stigated in 60 children who were divided into study and control groups respectively. The control group was not subjected to any treatment except for collection of saliva. Children belonging to the study group were subjected to dental extraction as indicate d and were performed in three scheduled appointments. Saliva samples were collected from all the children during all the appointments. Salivary cortisol levels were evaluated using the ELISA kit supplied by Salimetrics. The results indicated that the saliv ary cortisol levels increased in the study group when compared to the control groups and within the study group the salivary cortisol levels in the second appointment were on a higher level when compared to the first and third appointments

  14. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  15. Effects on postoperative salivary cortisol of relaxation/music and patient teaching about pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marion; Albert, Jeffrey M; Arafah, Baha; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Wotman, Stephen; Cong, Xiaomei; Lane, Deforia; Ahn, Sukhee

    2013-07-01

    The physiological and psychological stress of surgery and postoperative pain can leave patients more susceptible to infection and complications. The present study was designed to determine whether two interventions, patient teaching (PT) for pain management and relaxation/music (RM), reduced cortisol levels, an indicator of stress, following abdominal surgery. Patients (18-75 years) were randomly assigned to receive PT, RM, a combination of the two, or usual care; the 205 patients with both pre- and posttest cortisol values were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to compare groups for PT effects and RM effects. Stress was measured by salivary cortisol before and after 20-min tests of the interventions in the morning and afternoon of postoperative Day 2. Saliva was stimulated with lemon juice and analyzed with high-sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay. Comparisons using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels, showed no PT effect or RM effect on cortisol in the morning or afternoon. Post hoc ANCOVA showed no significant effects when intervention groups were compared to the control group. Although in previous studies, RM reduced pain and music reduced cortisol on Day 1, in the present study the cortisol response to surgery was not attenuated by PT or RM on Day 2. The RM intervention can be used for pain but needs to be further tested for effects on plasma cortisol in abdominal surgery patients on their first postoperative day.

  16. The cortisol and androgen pathways cross talk in high temperature-induced masculinization: the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase as a key enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, Juan Ignacio; Hattori, Ricardo Shohei; Kishii, Ai; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In many ectotherm species the gonadal fate is modulated by temperature early in life [temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)] but the transducer mechanism between temperature and gonadal differentiation is still elusive. We have recently shown that cortisol, the glucocorticoid stress-related hormone in vertebrates, is involved in the TSD process of pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis. Particularly, all larvae exposed to a male-producing temperature (MPT, 29 C) after hatching showed increased whole-body cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT; the main bioactive androgen in fish) levels and developed as males. Moreover, cortisol administration at an intermediate, mixed sex-producing temperature (MixPT, 24 C) caused increases in 11-KT and in the frequency of males, suggesting a relation between this glucocorticoid and androgens during the masculinization process. In order to clarify the link between stress and masculinization, the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd)11b2, glucocorticoid receptors gr1 and gr2, and androgen receptors ar1 and ar2 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and in situ hybridization in larvae reared at MPT, MixPT, and female-producing temperature (FPT, 17 C) during the sex determination period. We also analyzed the effects of cortisol treatment in larvae reared at MixPT and in adult testicular explants incubated in vitro. MPT and cortisol treatment produced significant increases in hsd11b2 mRNA expression. Also, gonadal explants incubated in the presence of cortisol showed increases of 11-KT levels in the medium. Taken together these results suggest that cortisol promotes 11-KT production during high temperature-induced masculinization by modulation of hsd11b2 expression and thus drives the morphogenesis of the testes.

  17. The Effects of High-Fidelity Simulation on Salivary Cortisol Levels in SRNA Students: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clinical simulation in graduate level nursing education provides the opportunity for students to learn and apply theoretical practices of nursing care in a safe and controlled environment. It was postulated that laboratory simulation would mimic the stress levels of a real clinical situation as measured by the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-fidelity simulation approximates the stress experienced by nurse anesthesia students in the operating room. Participants (n = 21 were recruited from an accredited nurse anesthesia program in the southern U.S. Saliva was collected for 3 days under controlled conditions for baseline data. Next, saliva was collected for 3 days: the day before, the day of, and the day after simulation. The same process was repeated for the first clinical day in the operating room. The participants acted as their own control. There was a significant (p 0.05, and levels were lower than levels during simulation. Laboratory simulation of patient scenarios raised the stress hormone cortisol level threefold above baseline levels in nurse anesthesia students, while actual clinical experience did not.

  18. High cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with breast milk dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Teruhiko; Dao, Tung Van; Ho, Manh Dung; Duc Dang, Nhu; Pham, Ngoc Thien; Okamoto, Rie; Pham, Tai The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Honma, Seijiro; Le, Son Ke; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins+polychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies.

  19. Context-dependent responses to novelty in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), selected for high and low post-stress cortisol responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basic, D.; Winberg, S.; Schjolden, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in a rainbow trout model, selectively bred for high (HR) and low (LR) post stress plasma cortisol levels, have yielded data that are indicative of contrasting stress coping styles. Fish from the HR line have been suggested to display a more diverse behavioral repertoire...

  20. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion on acute leukocyte, cortisol, and interleukin-6 response in high-intensity long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Vuorimaa, Timo; Puurtinen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Ismo; Mero, Antti A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of fluids with different carbohydrate concentrations (0, 1.5, and 7%) on the acute immune stress responses after high-intensity long-distance running. Continuous 18- to 20-km run was performed at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake with carbohydrate supplementation (CHO7%, 7% carbohydrate solution) and low-carbohydrate supplementation (lowCHO1.5%, 1.5% carbohydrate solution) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA) controlled design. Seven recreational runners (4 men and 3 women) completed all 3 trials. Blood was collected at baseline (PRE) and immediately after the run (POST). The running task induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in leukocyte (white blood cells), neutrophil, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) counts in every trial. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in cortisol with PLA and lowCHO1.5% but not with CHO7%. Increase in total leukocyte and neutrophil concentration was significantly lower with CHO7% compared with PLA (p ≤ 0.05). Postexercise IL-6 levels were significantly elevated when compared with baseline in all conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations did not differ significantly between trials. LowCHO1.5% sport drink did not significantly differ from PLA in measured variables, which indicated that the amount and rate of carbohydrate ingestion (15 g, 10 g·h) in low-carbohydrate sport drink was not enough to significantly protect from the stress induced by high-intensity long-distance running, whereas the ingestion of CHO7% (45 g·h) blunted the significant cortisol response and significantly decreased the leukocyte response.

  1. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  2. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  3. Level of cortisol and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH at neonatal period in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, M. [Akademia Rolnicza, Szczecin (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The studies were carried out on calves from 1st to 21st day of life. Cortisol level and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH were analysed. The highest level of cortisol in blood was observed in first days of life in the calves. Then the level became considerably decreased. In the experimental group two subgroups differing in cortisol level were distinguished. High or low level occurred on the first day and the difference kept over two weeks of their life. Adrenal cortex just on the day of birth showed full functional maturity of molecular receptors binding ACTH. (author). 15 refs.

  4. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  5. Modeling neuroendocrine stress reactivity in salivary cortisol: adjusting for peak latency variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Mayer, Stefanie E; Abelson, James L

    2014-07-01

    In this report, we present growth curve modeling (GCM) with landmark registration as an alternative statistical approach for the analysis of time series cortisol data. This approach addresses an often-ignored but critical source of variability in salivary cortisol analyses: individual and group differences in the time latency of post-stress peak concentrations. It allows for the simultaneous examination of cortisol changes before and after the peak while controlling for timing differences, and thus provides additional information that can help elucidate group differences in the underlying biological processes (e.g., intensity of response, regulatory capacity). We tested whether GCM with landmark registration is more sensitive than traditional statistical approaches (e.g., repeated measures ANOVA--rANOVA) in identifying sex differences in salivary cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test--TSST) in healthy adults (mean age 23). We used plasma ACTH measures as our "standard" and show that the new approach confirms in salivary cortisol the ACTH finding that males had longer peak latencies, higher post-stress peaks but a more intense post-peak decline. This finding would have been missed if only saliva cortisol was available and only more traditional analytic methods were used. This new approach may provide neuroendocrine researchers with a highly sensitive complementary tool to examine the dynamics of the cortisol response in a way that reduces risk of false negative findings when blood samples are not feasible.

  6. Determination of urinary cortisol, cortisone and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin using dilute and shoot ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Shah, Ajit Jesang; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Bayford, Richard

    2015-01-26

    Human sleep is a natural part of every individual's life. Clear relationship between sleep and endocrine system has been already established. In particular, melatonin and cortisol are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. Here we report the development of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (MT6s), cortisol and cortisone in urine. A separate method was developed for measurement of creatinine in urine. These levels were used to normalise the levels of analytes. First void morning urine samples were collected from 24 healthy volunteers. Samples were diluted 1:1 in water prior to injection onto reversed-phase C18 column and analysed using UHPLC-MS/MS method. Linear calibrations were obtained for all analytes with correlation coefficient in the range 0.998-0.999. The observed concentration was found to be in the range 92-105% for cortisol, 92-107% for cortisone and between 93 and 120% for MT6s of the reference levels. The total run time of 6 min with all peaks of interest eluting within 3 min was obtained. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilising the method for large multi-scale studies, where high throughput is required for studying the circadian rhythm of melatonin and cortisol secretion. These hormones play significant role in circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle; therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these endocrine markers in individuals suffering from sleep disorders. It is also beneficial with clinical applications to analyse melatonin and cortisol simultaneously in order to assess their interrelationships of these substances, such as their effect on diurnal rhythm and sleep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral contraceptive usage alters the effects of cortisol on implicit fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2012-09-01

    An important feature of the human defense system comprises fear learning, which stress hormones can crucially modulate. However, stress hormones might influence men and women differently, in part because of interactions with sex hormones. In women, distinct stages of the menstrual cycle or the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels. In this study, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus (UCS) following one neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS+), but not another (CS-).To investigate implicit fear learning, participants were distracted from detecting the contingencies between CS and UCS. To address interaction effects of sex and stress hormones, 32 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women received either 30 mg cortisol or a placebo. In the contrast CS+ minus CS-, an interaction between cortisol administration and sex hormone status emerged in the anterior parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus. Cortisol reduced fear learning in men, FO, and LU women, but enhanced it in OC women. Additionally, cortisol attenuated differential amygdala activation in the entire group. These results demonstrate that OC usage substantially modifies cortisol effects on emotional learning in women, particularly in memory-related medial temporal lobe regions. Further, a high dose of cortisol reduces amygdala differentiation pointing to a lowered learning ability of the defense system under high cortisol concentrations, irrespective of current sex hormone availability.

  8. Highly selective and automated online SPE LC-MS3 method for determination of cortisol and cortisone in human hair as biomarker for stress related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Bertram, Jens; Reska, Marcus; Lang, Jessica; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Hair analysis has been increasingly used to establish long-term biomarkers of exposure to both endogenous and exogenous substances, with a special emphasis on steroidal hormones. Hair cortisol and cortisone have been associated to physiological and psychological strains, anxiety and depression. Hair is a very complex matrix, which might jeopardize analyte detection at low concentrations. A new, highly selective and sensitive method based on fragments of second order, MS(3) (MS/MS/MS), was developed and validated for the analysis of hair cortisol and cortisone. An online solid phase extraction was performed on a C8 restricted access material (RAM) phase following by separation on a reversed-phase C18 column using methanol and 0.02% ammonium hydroxide as mobile phase. The developed method required minimal sample preparation and the injection of only 50 µL of sample leading to a LOQ of 2 pg mg(-1). Good linear responses were observed in the range 2-200 pg mg(-1) (R(2)>0.99) and extraction recoveries ranged between 77-125% and 70-123% for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 1.4 and 14%. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, preliminary tests (N=33) were conducted in 3 cm hair samples (close to scalp) of healthy volunteers with an age range of 4-63. Average concentrations in hair were 12.7±14 pg mg(-1) and 41.6±42 pg mg(-1) for cortisol and cortisone, respectively. Further investigations on cortisol and cortisone as biomarkers for chronic psychological strain will be assessed as a next step. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory.

  10. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75-90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  11. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Running

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  12. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  13. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  14. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  15. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... was associated only with higher job demands, but the self-report scores showed a number of interactions between cortisol group and gender. Among women, those showing a low CDD, compared with those with a higher CDD, had more favourable scores on a number of job stress factors and symptom load. In contrast, among...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  16. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  17. Influence of Cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mota Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Method: Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40 and control (normal weight, n = 40. Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Results: Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 μg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 μg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p 0.05. The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  18. [Night workers and plasmatic cortisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, P; Rosati, M V; Ciarrocca, M; Nicassio, P; Piccoli, F; Cerratti, D; Anzani, M F; Tomei, G; Perugi, F; Monti, C; Palitti, T; Tomao, E; Caciari, T; Tomei, F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to night work could cause alterations in the levels of plasmatic cortisol. The interest toward this argument arises form several studies in scientific literature referring the presence of an alteration in the synthesis and release of cortisol in workers exposed to night work. We studied a population of workers employed in night security service and monitoring service of alarm systems in different museums compared to a control group not performing shift-work and/or night work. The exposed and control subjects were compared by age, length of service, smoking habit (n. cigarettes per day), habitual consumption of alcoholic drinks (n. glass of wine/beer per day). We evaluated the levels of plasmatic cortisol on 50 workers exposed to night work, all males of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers and on 50 controls of whom 30 smokers and 20 non-smokers.

  19. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and normal-w

  20. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  1. [Behavior of circadian rhythm of ACTH and cortisol in 16 normal subjects after a balanced normocaloric diet and after a high protein diet (Cosinor mean method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellini, M; Giovannini, C; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Borboni, P

    1983-01-31

    In 16 normal subjects the circadian rhythm of ACTH has been studied during normal calories diet and after a 15 days period of high protein content diet (2 g/Kg body weight). The statistical study, according Cosinor method, has shown a significant increase of the mesor and of the amplitude, but has not shown any change of the ACTH and Cortisol rhythm, after hyperproteic diet. Data advise the increase of the tonic and fasic secretion of both hormones and shown the mantained acrophase. The action of the protein on the ACTH and Cortisol secretion does not seem related to mechanism like stress, neither to the probable mediation of intestinal like-ACTH messengers. On the contrary it seems related to a direct stimulus on the diencephalo-pituitary axis; it is possible that some amino-acids (tryptophan, arginine) act as a mediator, even if data concern just the effect of the over mentioned amino-acid in large doses.

  2. [Comparison of efficacy between the serum cortisol and 24 hour urine free cortisol in combined dexamethasone suppression test in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L; Chen, J H; Zhu, H J; Song, A L; Li, M; Chen, S; Pan, H; Gong, F Y; Wang, R Z; Xing, B; Yao, Y; Feng, M; Lu, Z L

    2016-07-19

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the 24 hour urine free cortisol (24 h UFC) and serum cortisol in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome (CS). Combined low dose DST (LDDST) and high dose DST (HDDST) were carried out in 67 cases of CS with surgically confirmed cases in recent 3 years(from January 2011 to November 2015). The serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were collected simultaneously for each subject and the sensitivity and specificity of serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were compared. There were Cushing disease (CD) group (n=53), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome group (n=7) and ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome group (n=7) according to the etiology of hypercorticordism.There were no significant differences among 3 groups in gender and age.The sensitivity of serum cortisol of different cut off points(50, 110, 140 nmol/L and 50% of control)after LDDST was 97.01%, 86.57%, 83.58% and 70.15% respectively.Meanwhile, the sensitivity of cutoff point of 24 h UFC Cushing syndrome.There was no significant differences in two groups between serum cortisol Cushing disease was 60.38% and 90.57%, and the specificity was 91.43% and 96.00% respectively.There were significant differences between serum cortisol and 24 h UFC in both of sensitivity and specificity (both P<0.05). In addition, if the suppression rate of 24 h UFC in HDDST was adjusted to 60.85% according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, it could have the best levels of sensitivity (92.6%) with the specificity of 85.7%. If the suppression rate of serum cortisol was adjusted to 61.53% in HDDST according to ROC curve, it could have the best sensitivity (64.8%) with the specificity of 78.6% accordingly. In combined LDDST, the serum cortisol <50 nmol/L had a higher sensitivity than the 24 h UFC<32 nmol when they were used as the criteria in determining the diagnosis of CS.In HDDST, the sensitivity and specificity of suppression rate of 24 h UFC

  3. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  4. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  5. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (pstress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas. Thus, dynamic meditation could be recommended for the amelioration of stress and stress related physical and mental disorders. More clinical studies should be done on dynamic meditation to prove its efficacy and become an approved

  6. Biomechanical, Mood, and Cortisol Response to Work Demands in Office Workers with High and Low Workstyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-06

    Industrial Medicine, 265: 597-612. Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. ( 1952 ). Some consequences of de- individuation in a group. Journal of...Role of mechanical and psychosocial factors in the onset of forearm pain: Prospective population based study. British Medical Journal , 321: 1-5...in the brain. Journal of Dental Research, 6512: 1378-1382. Mendonca-de-Souza, A., Souza, G., Vieira, A., Fischer, N., Souza, W., Rumjanek, V

  7. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. von Polier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.

  8. Effects of Cortisol on Reconsolidation of Reactivated Fear Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Shira Meir; Merz, Christian J; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-12-01

    The return of conditioned fear after successful extinction (eg, following exposure therapy) is a significant problem in the treatment of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Targeting the reconsolidation of fear memories may allow a more lasting effect as it intervenes with the original memory trace. Indeed, several pharmacological agents and behavioral interventions have been shown to alter (enhance, impair, or otherwise update) the reconsolidation of reactivated memories of different types. Cortisol is a stress hormone and a potent modulator of learning and memory, yet its effects on fear memory reconsolidation are unclear. To investigate whether cortisol intervenes with the reconsolidation of fear memories in healthy males and how specific this effect might be, we built a 3-day reconsolidation design with skin conductance response (SCR) as a measure of conditioned fear: Fear acquisition on day 1; reactivation/no-reactivation of one conditioned stimulus and pharmacological intervention on day 2; extinction learning followed by reinstatement and reinstatement test on day 3. The groups differed only in the experimental manipulation on day 2: Reactivation+Cortisol Group, Reactivation+Placebo Group, or No-reactivation+Cortisol Group. Our results revealed an enhancing effect of cortisol on reconsolidation of the reactivated memory. The effect was highly specific, strengthening only the memory of the reactivated conditioned stimulus and not the non-reactivated one. Our findings are in line with previous findings showing an enhancing effect of behavioral stress on the reconsolidation of other types of memories. These results have implications for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders and PTSD.

  9. Heritability and genetic correlation of hair cortisol in vervet monkeys in low and higher stress environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Lynn A; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Bailey, Julia N; Breidenthal, Sherry E; Grzywa, Rachel; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2011-09-01

    Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) system is a risk factor for a variety of physical and mental disorders, and yet the complexity of the system has made it difficult to define the role of genetic and environmental factors in producing long-term individual differences in HPA activity. Cortisol levels in hair have been suggested as a marker of total HPA activation over a period of several months. This study takes advantage of a pedigreed nonhuman primate colony to investigate genetic and environmental influences on hair cortisol levels before and after an environmental change. A sample of 226 adult female vervet monkeys (age 3-18) living in multigenerational, matrilineal social groups at the Vervet Research Colony were sampled in a stable low stress baseline environment and 6 months after the entire colony was moved to a new facility with more frequent handling and group disturbances (higher stress environment). Variance components analysis using the extended colony pedigree was applied to determine heritability of hair cortisol levels in the two environments. Bivariate genetic correlation assessed degree of overlap in genes influencing hair cortisol levels in the low and higher stress environments. The results showed that levels of cortisol in hair of female vervets increased significantly from the baseline to the post-move environment. Hair cortisol levels were heritable in both environments (h(2)=0.31), and there was a high genetic correlation across environments (rhoG=0.79), indicating substantial overlap in the genes affecting HPA activity in low and higher stress environments. This is the first study to demonstrate that the level of cortisol in hair is a heritable trait. It shows the utility of hair cortisol as a marker for HPA activation, and a useful tool for identifying genetic influences on long term individual differences in HPA activity. The results provide support for an additive model of the effects of genes and environment

  10. Increased Cortisol Levels in Depression: A Comparative Study Evaluating the Correlation of Hypercortisolemia with Prosocial Coping Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moica Theodor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate if depressed patients have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons and to assess the relation between high levels of cortisol and prosocial coping mechanisms, in the context of Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder. Methods: Morning serum cortisol level was measured in 15 depressed patients hospitalized in First Clinic of Psychiatry Tirgu Mures and in 15 healthy controls. We have analyzed 3 behavioral coping strategies with The Strategic Approach of Coping Scale (SACS: social joining (SJ, seeking social support (SSS and cautious action (CA. Results: 30 participants were included, the mean value of the cortisol for females was Mcort_female= 16.38 μg/dl and for males Mcort_male= 16.31 μg/dl. Independent sample t test showed that the cortisol level in depressed group was higher than the cortisol level in the control group: t = 2.394, p < 0.05 (0.024. In the MDD group the Spearman correlation between the level of serum cortisol and prosocial coping strategies was: rcortisol-SJ= -0.519; rcortisol-SSS= -0.107; rcortisol-CA= -0.382. Conclusions: Although the studied sample patient was small, we can conclude that the patients with Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder have an increased level of morning serum cortisol compared to healthy persons. In these patients there is an inverse correlation between the increased levels of morning cortisol and the frequency of use of the effective prosocial coping strategies, particularly the social joining type.

  11. EFECTO DEL ESTRÉS GENERADO POR EL EJERCICIO DE ALTO RENDIMIENTO SOBRE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE CORTISOL Y TESTOSTERONA EN CABALLARES PURA SANGRE INGLÉS EFFECT OF STRESS CAUSED BY HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE OVER CORTISOL AND TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN ENGLISH PURE BLOOD HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Reinartz Estrada

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se seleccionaron seis (6 caballos adultos de la raza Pura Sangre Inglés (PSI que compiten en carreras de 1100 m en el hipódromo Los Comuneros, del municipio de Guarne al oriente de Medellín (Antioquia, Colombia. A cada animal se le midieron las concentraciones de testosterona total y cortisol antes y después de la competencia con el fin de evaluar el cambio producido en éstas debido al estrés. Se utilizaron para tal efecto los métodos de espectrofotometría para la testosterona y de quimioluminiscencia para el cortisol. Los resultados muestran que los valores promedio de cortisol y testosterona antes de la competencia fueron 47,9 ng/dl y 8,76 ug/dl respectivamente; después de la competencia los promedios fueron 12,75 ug/dl para el cortisol y 26,55 ng/dl para la testosterona . A los resultados obtenidos se les aplicó la prueba de T de muestras pareadas, por medio de la cual se determinó que hay diferencia significativa en los niveles de cortisol antes y después de la competencia (PThis investigation was conduced in Los Comuneros racetrack, in Guarne ( Antioquia, Colombia . Six Pure English racing horses, that run the 1100 m competence, were selected to evaluate in each one the change in the serum concentrations of cortisol and testosterone before and after a high intensity exercise. Spectrophotometry and quimioluminiscence were used to determine the concentration of those substances. The results showed that cortisol and testosterone average concentrations before competence were 8,76 ug/dl and 47,9 ng/dl respectively; after the exercise the results were 12,75 ug/dl for cortisol and 26,55 ng/dl for testosterone. The T test for paired samples was applied to analyze the obtained data. It was determined a significant difference (P<0,05 between cortisol serum concentration before and after competence, but not for testosterone.

  12. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    Patients with functional amenorrhea have raised central dopaminergic activity and opioid-mediated GnRH inhibition leading to inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. In the present study, basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in normoprolactinemic amenorrheic patients...... with (N = 14) and without (N = 7) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Basal serum cortisol levels was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea compared with normal women. Basal serum cortisol was significantly (P less than 0.02) elevated in amenorrheic...... diabetic patients compared with menstruating diabetic women. In the amenorrheic groups both cortisol and ACTH levels increased significantly (P less than 0.01) after dopamine D-2 receptor blockade, whereas no hormonal changes occurred in the control groups. It is concluded that patients...

  13. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  14. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  15. High versus low fat/sugar food affects the behavioral, but not the cortisol response of marmoset monkeys in a conditioned-place-preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R B M; Patrono, E; Borges, A C; Tomaz, C; Ventura, R; Gasbarri, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Barros, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a high (chocolate) versus low fat/sugar (chow) food on a conditioned-place-preference (CPP) task was evaluated in marmoset monkeys. Anxiety-related behaviors and cortisol levels before and after the CPP task were also measured. Subjects were habituated to a two-compartment CPP box and then, on alternate days, had access to only one compartment during daily 15-min conditionings, for a total of 14 trials. Marmosets were provisioned with chocolate chips in the CC-paired compartment on odd-numbered trials and standard chow in the CW-paired compartment on even-numbered trials. They were then tested for preferring the CC-paired context after a 24-h interval. During the conditioning, a significantly greater amount (in kcal/trial) of chocolate was consumed than chow, yet the foraging pattern of both food types was similar. On the test trial, the time spent in the CC-paired context increased significantly compared to pre-CPP levels, yet this response was not readily predicted by baseline behavioral or cortisol levels. Also, the chocolate CPP response was positively correlated with foraging time, rather than the amount of calories consumed. The sudden absence of the food increased exploration, while the chocolate CPP effect was associated with vigilance - both anxiety-related behaviors in marmosets. This behavioral profile occurred regardless of any concomitant change or correlation with cortisol. Therefore, the high fat/sugar food was more prone to be overly consumed by the marmosets, to induce a CPP response and to lead to anxiety-related behavior in its absence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Concentração plasmática de cortisol, uréia, cálcio e fósforo em vacas de corte mantidas a pasto suplementadas com levedura de cromo durante a estação de monta Cortisol, urea, calcium and phosphorus plasma concentration in grazing beef cows supplemented with high chromium yeast during breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fabian Aragón Vásquez

    2003-08-01

    . The cows were grazing in Brachiaria brizantha pasture. Chromium was supplied as high-Cr yeast Sacharomices cerevisae (1gCr kg-1. Chromium was added to mineral premix to provide 0.017% of supplemental Cr. Blood samples were collected in three periods by jugular venipuncture in heparinized tubes. Plasma was analysed for phosphorus, calcium, urea and cortisol. Data were analysed as a randomised block design. Premix daily consumption was 72.92g in the supplemented cow (12.40mg Cr/animal/day and 77.84g premix in the non supplemented cow (0.78mg Cr/animal/day groups. The concentration of cortisol in Cr-supplemented group was lower than that in control treatment (2.11mg dl-1 vs. 3.29mg dl-1. Plasma phosphorus (6.36mg dl-1 vs. 3.56mg dl-1 and calcium (12.87mg dl-1 vs. 9.02mg dl-1 were higher in Cr-supplemented group in the first period but no differences were found between groups in other periods. There was no difference in urea level (17.13mg dl-1 vs 17.70mg dl-1 between supplemented and control group.

  17. Development of a formula for estimating plasma free cortisol concentration from a measured total cortisol concentration when elastase-cleaved and intact corticosteroid binding globulin coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong T T; Lewis, John G; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Torpy, David J; Shorten, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Cortisol bound to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) contributes up to 90% of the total cortisol concentration in circulation. Therefore, changes in the binding kinetics of cortisol to CBG can potentially impact on the concentration of free cortisol, the only form that is responsible for the physiological function of the hormone. When CBG is cleaved into elastase-cleaved CBG (eCBG) by the activity of neutrophil elastase, its affinity for cortisol is reduced. Therefore, when eCBG coexists with intact CBG (iCBG) in plasma, the calculation of free cortisol concentration based on the formulae that considers only one CBG pool with the same affinity for cortisol may be inappropriate. In this study, we developed in vivo and in vitro models of cortisol partitioning which considers two CBG pools, iCBG and eCBG, with different affinities for cortisol, and deduce a new formula for calculating plasma free cortisol concentration. The formula provides better estimates of free cortisol concentration than previously used formulae when measurements of the concentrations of the two CBG forms are available. The model can also be used to estimate the affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in different clinical groups. We found no significant difference in the estimated affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in normal, sepsis and septic shock groups, although free cortisol was higher in sepsis and septic shock groups. The in vivo model also demonstrated that the concentration of interstitial free cortisol is increased locally at a site of inflammation where iCBG is cleaved to form eCBG by the activity of elastase released by neutrophils. This supports the argument that the cleavage of iCBG at sites of inflammation leads to more lower-affinity eCBG and may be a mechanism that permits the local concentration of free cortisol to increase at these sites, while allowing basal free cortisol concentrations at other sites to remain unaffected.

  18. High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gaoyang; ZHANG Zhijing; ZHANG Weimin; TANG Xinglun

    2007-01-01

    In the process of machining ultrathin metal structure parts,the signal composition of high frequency group pulse,the influence of frequency to reverse current,and the design of the cathode in high frequency group pulse electrochemical machining (HGPECM) are discussed.The experiments on process were carried out.Results indicate that HGPECM can greatly improve the characteristics of the inter-electrode gap flow field,reduce electrode passivation,and obtain high machining quality.The machining quality is obviously improved by increasing the main pulse frequency.The dimensional accuracy reaches 30-40 pro and the roughness attained is at 0.30-0.35 μm.High frequency group pulse electrochemical machining can be successfully used in machining micro-parts.

  19. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  20. Effects of chronic cortisol administration on global expression of GR and the liver transcriptome in Sparus aurata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariana; Boltaña, Sebastian; Reyes-López, Felipe; Santos, Maria Ana; Mackenzie, Simon; Tort, Lluis

    2013-02-01

    The present work was designed to assess the effects of artificially increased high plasma cortisol levels induced by slow-release cortisol implants on the mRNA abundance of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in different organs of Sparus aurata (Gilthead sea bream), as well as to evaluate global transcriptional changes in the liver, using the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray technology. For that purpose, groups of fish were intraperitoneally injected with implants containing two different concentrations of cortisol (50 or 200 μg/g body weight). Blood and organs were sampled after 7 and 14 days of cortisol implantation. Only fish with 200 μg/g implants exhibited a significant rise in plasma cortisol. Thus, we evaluated the expression of the GR in different organs in these fish 7 and 14 days post-implantation. GR mRNA abundance was upregulated in head kidney and heart of fish at both sampling times. In liver and muscle, GR mRNA abundance was upregulated after 14 days, whereas in gills, the GR mRNA transcript was upregulated earlier, at day 7. These results suggest that increased plasma cortisol induced by a slow-release implant of cortisol mimics the overall effects of stress and affects the expression of GR mRNA in a time- and organ-specific manner. Data obtained with the Aquagenomics S. aurata oligo-nucleotide microarray allowed the identification of a total of 491 cortisol-responsive transcripts and highlight the strong intensity of transcriptional modulation in liver of fish implanted with cortisol after 7 days, in contrast to that observed at day 14. Transcriptional remodeling highlighted a significant activity in carbohydrate metabolism mainly in the gluconeogenic pathway linked to downregulation of inflammatory and immune response processes in implanted fish.

  1. Inadequate cortisol synthesis in prophyria cutanea tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereţianu, D; Sava, D; Giurcăneanu, C; Grigorie, D

    1991-01-01

    Many common clinical features suggest that between corticosuprarenal insufficiency (CSRI) and porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) there may be some pathogenic relationships. In order to further understand these relations we have performed the ACTH-depot stimulation test (1 mg, i.m.) in 9 patients (from 13 males) with PCT. In 8 patients cortisolemia was assayed 1, 2, (12) and 24 hours post-stimulation. In all 13 cases the basal eliminations of cortisol metabolite (17-OH-corticosteroids) were under normal limits: 2.88 mg/24 h/g creatinine vs 15 controls with 7.06 mg/24h/g creatinine. After ACTH four cases showed lack of stimulation, considered on the second day for 17-OH-corticosteroids. In one case, after one year of PCT treatment, the early post-stimulation level is only moderately decreased. In one case, the test was normal. In four cases the ACTH stimulation was over-normal, i.e., greater than on the first day, suggesting supraphysiological responses. In this group 2 patients showed unexpectedly low early stimulation slopes on cortisolemia (at 1 and 2 hours) associated with concordant high late stimulation levels. This later phenomenon suggests a functional impaired secretion of cortisol in PCT, which seems to be similar to that of insulinemia after glucose in NIDDM, as a receptor lesion. The lesions of cortisol secretion in PCT could have been made by porphyrin storage, impaired hem-enzyme synthesis (cyt P-450) and as a new and attractive hypothesis, could be due to mitochondrial porphyrin receptor decreased activity.

  2. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997. Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL. Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  3. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A P; Moura, M D; Rosa e Silva, A A M

    2006-08-01

    Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997). Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis). Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (13.2 +/- 2.1 ng/mL). Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 +/- 1.3 ng/mL) than in controls (10.5 +/- 1.4 ng/mL). Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  4. Cortisol increases gluconeogenesis in humans: its role in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, S; Tayek, J A

    2001-12-01

    Android obesity is associated with increased cortisol secretion. Direct effects of cortisol on gluconeogenesis and other parameters of insulin resistance were determined in normal subjects. Gluconeogenesis was determined using the reciprocal pool model of Haymond and Sunehag (HS method), and by the Cori cycle/lactate dilution method of Tayek and Katz (TK method). Glucose production (GP) and gluconeogenesis were measured after a 3 h baseline infusion and after a 4-8 h pituitary-pancreatic infusion of somatostatin, replacement insulin, growth hormone (GH), glucagon and a high dose of cortisol (hydrocortisone). The pituitary-pancreatic infusion maintains insulin, GH and glucagon concentrations within the fasting range, while increasing the concentration of only one hormone, cortisol. Two groups of five subjects were each given high-dose cortisol administration, and results were compared with those from a group of six 'fasting alone' subjects (no infusion) at 16 and 20 h of fasting. Fasting GP (12 h fasting) was similar in all groups, averaging 12.5+/-0.2 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1). Gluconeogenesis, as a percentage of GP, was 35+/-2% using the HS method and 40+/-2% using the TK method. After 16 h of fasting, GP had fallen (11.5+/-0.6 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1)) and gluconeogenesis had increased (55+/-5% and 57+/-5% of GP by the HS and TK methods respectively; P<0.05). High-dose cortisol infusion for 4 h increased serum cortisol (660+/-30 nmol/l; P<0.05), blood glucose (7.9+/-0.5 mmol/l; P<0.05) and GP (14.8+/-0.8 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1); P<0.05). The increase in GP was due entirely to an increase in gluconeogenesis, determined by either the HS or the TK method (66+/-6% and 65+/-5% of GP respectively; P<0.05). Thus cortisol administration in humans increases GP by stimulating gluconeogenesis. Smaller increases in serum cortisol may contribute to the abnormal glucose metabolism known to occur in the metabolic syndrome.

  5. 唾液皮质醇与血浆皮质醇、尿游离皮质醇测定的相关性分析及其临床价值%Correlation analysis of salivary cortisol,plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol and its clinical value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广碧; 贾丽; 储小宏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常人唾液皮质醇、血浆皮质醇和24 h尿游离皮质醇三者之间的相关性。方法选择30例健康受试者同时检测唾液皮质醇、血浆皮质醇和24 h尿游离皮质醇。男子组和女子组各15例。采用化学发光技术测定,唾液标本采用唾液收集器收集,血标本为血浆,24 h尿液标本用硼酸防腐。结果唾液皮质醇和血浆、24 h尿液皮质醇在正常男女组之间均无显著性差异(P>0.05),唾液皮质醇与血浆皮质醇(r=0.91)、唾液皮质醇与24 h尿游离皮质醇(r=0.95),均存在显著的相关性。结论唾液皮质醇可作为库欣氏综合征的筛查指标。%Objective To investigate the correlation among normal salivary cortisol ,plasma cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol of healthy human beings .Methods A total of 30 healthy subjects were selected and equally divided into male group and female group . The levels of salivary cortisol ,plasma cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol were detected by chemiluminescence technique .Salivary specimens were collected using salivary collector .Blood specimens were blood plasma .24-hour urine specimens were antisepticized by using boric acid .Results The levels of salivary cortisol ,plasma cortisol and 24-hour urine free cortisol showed no significant differ-ence between male group and female group (P>0.05).The correlation analysis results showed that the levels of three kinds of cortisol were highly related(P<0.001).Conclusions Salivary cortisol testing can be used as screening indicator of Cushing ’s syndrome.

  6. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic......-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs......Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor...

  7. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  8. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of endogenous cortisol in hair using (13)C3-labeled cortisol as surrogate analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binz, Tina M; Braun, Ueli; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Hair cortisol levels are increasingly applied as a measure for stress in humans and mammals. Cortisol is an endogenous compound and is always present within the hair matrix. Therefore, "cortisol-free hair matrix" is a critical point for any analytical method to accurately quantify especially low cortisol levels. The aim of this project was to modify current methods used for hair cortisol analysis to more accurately determine low endogenous cortisol concentrations in hair. For that purpose, (13)C3-labeled cortisol, which is not naturally present in hair (above 13C natural abundance levels), was used for calibration and comparative validation applying cortisol versus (13)C3-labeled cortisol. Cortisol was extracted from 20mg hair (standard sample amount) applying an optimized single step extraction protocol. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of cortisol using either cortisol or (13)C3-cortisol as calibrators and D7-cortisone as internal standard (IS). The two methods (cortisol/(13)C3-labeled cortisol) were validated in a concentration range up to 500pg/mg and showed good linearity for both analytes (cortisol: R(2)=0.9995; (13)C3-cortisol R(2)=0.9992). Slight differences were observed for limit of detection (LOD) (0.2pg/mg/0.1pg/mg) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (1pg/mg/0.5pg/mg). Precision was good with a maximum deviation of 8.8% and 10% for cortisol and (13)C3-cortisol respectively. Accuracy and matrix effects were good for both analytes except for the quality control (QC) low cortisol. QC low (2.5pg/mg) showed matrix effects (126.5%, RSD 35.5%) and accuracy showed a deviation of 26% when using cortisol to spike. These effects are likely to be caused by the unknown amount of endogenous cortisol in the different hair samples used to determine validation parameters like matrix effect, LOQ and accuracy. No matrix effects were observed for the high QC (400pg/mg) samples. Recovery was good with 92.7%/87.3% (RSD 9.9%/6.2%) for QC low and

  9. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  10. The relationship between cortisol and verbal memory in the early stages of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbin, Christopher A; Chua, Phyllis; Churchyard, Andrew; Hannan, Anthony J; Lowndes, Georgia; Stout, Julie C

    2013-03-01

    Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity has been linked to learning and memory difficulties in a range of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. In Huntington's disease (HD), both declines in learning and memory and HPA axis dysfunction are present early in the disease. However, the relationship between specific learning and memory deficits and HPA axis functioning in HD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in relation to verbal learning and memory in pre-diagnosed (pre-HD) participants and patients at the early stages of diagnosed HD (early-HD). Cortisol concentration was assayed in saliva samples from 57 participants (17 early-HD, 20 pre-HD, and 20 controls) at four time-points across a 24-h period. Verbal memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). We focused statistical analyses on the late evening cortisol concentration, and examined cortisol levels and verbal memory function in relation to diagnostic group (control, pre-HD, early-HD), and in a separate set of analyses combining pre-HD and early-HD (and excluding controls) we also examined cortisol and verbal memory performance in relation to the severity of HD-related motor signs. Of these two classification approaches, HD motor sign severity was more strongly associated with high evening cortisol levels and both reduced information encoding and memory retrieval. Separately, there was also a trend of higher cortisol levels in pre-HD. The findings suggest hypercortisolism and the underlying pathological changes may begin many years before a clinical diagnosis is made, but the memory decline associated with HPA axis disturbance may only become detectable once motor signs become pronounced.

  11. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and anxiety levels in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty patients suffering from myofascial pain were recruited as the study group. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as the control group. The salivary samples collected between 9-9:15 am from both groups were analyzed for cortisol levels with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured using Hamilton's anxiety scale. The mean serum cortisol level of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and the salivary cortisol levels in MPDS patients. These findings suggest that anxiety plays a vital role in the etio-pathogenesis of MPDS; thus, besides pharmacological treatment, psychological support is also needed.

  12. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    -sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low......-Risk twins. The 109 High-Risk twins had significantly higher evening cortisol levels than the 81 Low-Risk MZ twins, also after adjustment for age, sex, and the level of subclinical depressive symptoms. No significant difference was found in awakening cortisol levels between High-Risk and Low-Risk twins....... In conclusion, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was associated with a higher evening cortisol level, but not with awakening cortisol level. Future prospective family, high-risk and twin studies are needed to decide whether abnormalities in the HPA axis can be identified as an endophenotype...

  13. Cortisol response to social stress in parentally bereaved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J; Stoyak, Samuel; Melhem, Nadine; Porta, Giovanna; Matthews, Karen A; Walker Payne, Monica; Brent, David A

    2013-02-15

    Parental bereavement is associated with increased risk for psychiatric illness and functional impairment in youth. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be one pathway through which bereaved children experience increased risk for poor outcomes. However, few studies have prospectively examined the association between parental bereavement and cortisol response while accounting for psychiatric disorders in both youth and their caregivers. One-hundred and eighty-one bereaved and nonbereaved offspring and their caregivers were assessed at multiple time points over a 5-year period after parental death. Offspring participated in an adaptation of the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after exposure to social stressors. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of bereavement status, psychiatric disorder in both offspring and caregiver, and demographic indices on trajectories of cortisol response. After controlling for demographic variables and offspring depression, bereaved offspring demonstrated significantly different trajectories of cortisol response compared with nonbereaved offspring, characterized by higher total cortisol output and an absence of cortisol reactivity to acute social stress. Within the bereaved group, offspring of parents who died by sudden natural death demonstrated significant cortisol reactivity to social stress compared with offspring whose parents died by suicide, who demonstrated more blunted trajectory of cortisol response. Parentally bereaved youth demonstrate higher cortisol output than nonbereaved youth but are less able to mount an acute response in the face of social stressors. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CSF cortisol in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Julius; Schaper, Karsten; Kölsch, Heike; Cvetanovska, Gabriela; Rommel, Fatima; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Dodel, Richard; Wüllner, Ullrich; Jessen, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Hypercortisolaemia occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be involved in the AD related neurodegenerative process. In order to determine whether brain structures are exposed to high cortisol concentrations early in AD, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol in 66 subjects with AD, 33 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 34 control subjects. CSF cortisol concentrations were higher in AD subjects compared to controls (pcortisol in MCI subjects compared with controls suggesting that the increase of CSF cortisol is not an early event in the course of AD.

  15. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (pcortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients.

  16. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  17. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  18. Cortisol Patterns at Home and Child Care: Afternoon Differences and Evening Recovery in Children Attending Very High Quality Full-Day Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watamura, Sarah E.; Kryzer, Erin M.; Robertson, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that many young children show different patterns of production of the hormone cortisol, which is sensitive to stress and challenge, on days when they are at child care compared with days when they are at home. At home, preschool age children typically show a decreasing pattern of cortisol production across the day which is…

  19. The temporal dynamics of cortisol and affective states in depressed and non-depressed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Sanne H.; Bos, Elisabeth H.; de Jonge, Peter; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cortisol levels have been related to mood disorders at the group level, but not much is known about how cortisol relates to affective states within individuals over time. We examined the temporal dynamics of cortisol and affective states in depressed and non-depressed individuals in dail

  20. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  1. THE ROLE OF CORTISOL IN CHRONIC BINGE ALCOHOL-INDUCED CEREBELLAR INJURY: OVINE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Shannon E.; Tress, Ursula; Lunde, Emilie R.; Chen, Wei-Jung A.; Cudd, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy are at high risk of giving birth to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that third trimester equivalent binge alcohol exposure at a dose of 1.75 g/kg/day results in significant fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in fetal sheep and that both maternal and fetal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels are elevated in response to alcohol treatment. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated elevations in cortisol from chronic binge alcohol are responsible at least in part for fetal neuronal deficits. Animals were divided into four treatment groups: normal control, pair-fed saline control, alcohol and cortisol. The magnitude of elevation in cortisol in response to alcohol was mimicked in the cortisol group by infusing pregnant ewes with hydrocortisone for 6 hours on each day of the experiment, and administering saline during the first hour in lieu of alcohol. The experiment was conducted on three consecutive days followed by four days without treatment beginning on gestational day (GD) 109 until GD 132. Peak maternal blood alcohol concentration in the alcohol group was 239 ± 7 mg/dl. The fetal brains were collected and processed for stereological cell counting on GD 133. The estimated total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the reference volume and the Purkinje cell density were not altered in response to glucocorticoid infusion in the absence of alcohol. These results suggest that glucocorticoids independently during the third trimester equivalent may not produce fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. However, the elevations in cortisol along with other changes induced by alcohol could together lead to brain injury seen in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23218665

  2. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  3. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  4. Cortisol secretion in children with symptoms of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Wilson, Philip; Young, David; Wallace, Alan Michael; Gorski, Charlotta; Follan, Michael; Smillie, Maureen; Puckering, Christine; Barnes, James; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2013-08-30

    Maltreated children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) have severe problems with social relationships and affect regulation. An association between early maltreatment and changes in the daily rhythm of cortisol secretion has already been reported for maltreated toddlers. We sought to find out whether such changes were apparent in school-age children with symptoms of RAD, who had experienced early maltreatment but were currently adopted in well-functioning families. We recruited 66 children: 34 adopted children, aged 5-12 years, with an early history of maltreatment and with social difficulties such as indiscriminate friendliness; and 32 age- and sex-matched comparison children with no history of maltreatment or social difficulties. Daily rhythms of cortisol production were determined from saliva samples collected over 2 days. The adopted group had significantly lower absolute levels of cortisol compared to the control group, but a typical profile of cortisol secretion. There was no association between cortisol secretion and symptom scores for psychopathology.

  5. Effects of cortisol and stress on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility and lysozyme activity following exposure to Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brian C; Bilodeau, A Lelania

    2005-05-15

    Periods of stress are often associated with disease outbreaks in cultured fish, and stress is often characterized by the secretion of cortisol. Although stress and cortisol secretion are highly correlated in fish, the role of cortisol in affecting channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) pathogen susceptibility is unclear. The effects of short-term stress and exogenous cortisol administration on channel catfish susceptibility to Edwardsiella ictaluri, the etiologic agent of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), were investigated. Channel catfish were exposed to virulent E. ictaluri following a standardized 30-min low-water stress or administration of dietary cortisol (100 mg/kg feed) and compared to a pathogen-challenged control group of catfish. Pathogen susceptibility increased in stressed catfish (43.3% mortality) when compared to cortisol-fed catfish (26.7%) and controls (26.7%). A greater (Pcortisol-fed catfish (13.0%) over the course of the study, however, average levels of circulating bacteria were not different (P>0.05) among the treatments. Catfish challenged by the low-water stress event had elevated (Pcortisol 1-day post-pathogen exposure and elevated (Pcortisol-fed and control-challenged catfish. Cortisol concentrations were not correlated (P>0.05) to either lysozyme activity or bacterial levels; however, lysozyme activity was positively correlated (P=0.0197) to blood bacterial concentrations. These results implicate other stress factors or pathways, separate from or possibly in conjunction with cortisol, in the stress-associated immunosuppression of channel catfish as it relates to ESC susceptibility.

  6. Stronger pharmacological cortisol suppression and anticipatory cortisol stress response in transient global amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGriebe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 hours. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027. The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008; p = 0.010 respectively, as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022; p= 0.024 respectively. The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021 and anxiety (p = 0.007, but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA.

  7. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  8. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  9. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  10. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of cortisol levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Umesh Nayak

    2013-01-01

    State - Trait anxiety inventory and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale were used to assess the anxiety levels of all the subjects. Clinical measures such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded. GCF and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using ELISA kit. Results: PI, GI, PPD, and CAL were higher in Group 3. Hormone level was significantly higher in Group 3. A positive correlation was found among salivary and GCF cortisol and CAL in Group 3. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results individuals with high-levels of anxiety seem to be more prone to have periodontal disease. Salivary and GCF cortisol levels can be used as biomarker for evaluating part of the etiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.

  12. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  13. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M Camille; Karban, Laura V; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies.

  14. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Is there consistency between psychosocial stress test and burdensome work shifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2017-07-10

    This study examined the consistency of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) total daily secretion between laboratory and field circumstances. The 95 participants were shift working female health care professionals with high (n = 53) or low (n = 42) psychosocial stress (job strain) measured by the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The Trier Social Stress Test including a 5-minute free speech and a mental arithmetic task was conducted with four, and field measurements with three daily saliva samples of cortisol and sAA during circadian rhythm and inter-shift recovery controlled morning shift, night shift, and a day off. The associations of salivary cortisol and sAA area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) between laboratory and field were tested using OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression. The sAA AUCg output in the laboratory was correlated with output during all field measurement days and similarly among high and low job strain groups (p<0.001). SAA AUCi and salivary cortisol AUCg and AUCi were not correlated between laboratory and field measurement, neither in the whole sample nor among low or high job strain group. In conclusion, a laboratory measure of sAA AUCg output is promising in predicting stress-related output during burdensome work shifts and leisure time, whereas sAA AUCi or salivary cortisol seem not to have this potential.

  15. Emprego da cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência na determinação de cortisol sérico em substituição à técnica de radioimunoensaio High-performance liquid chromatography application for serum cortisol quantification as a substitute for radioimmunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kinio Sugawara

    2008-10-01

    is routinely measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. In the determination of free urinary cortisol this technique has been replaced by the high-performance liquid chromatography mainly in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. As to serum cortisol determination, there is no evidence of the application of liquid chromatography as a substitute for other analytical techniques. OBJECTIVE: The development of an analytical methodology using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC to determine serum cortisol levels as a substitute for RIA in order to reduce radioactive waste. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cortisol was directly quantified by RP-HPLC in previously ether-extracted serum samples. Triamcinolone acetonide was used as internal standard (IS. The chromatographic separation was developed in a BDS-Hypersil-C18® column (125 x 4 mm, 5 µm using water-acetonitrile (72:28; v/v as mobile phase at 1 ml/min and steroid peaks were measured at 243 nm. RESULTS: Cortisol and IS presented retention time of 3.4 and 7.1 min, respectively. The precision was less than 10% and accuracy was less than 4%. DISCUSSION: The method was effective and efficient, with good sensitivity and linearity in the concentration range of 2.5 to 60.0 µµg/dl. CONCLUSION: The present methodology substitutes RIA at clinical application.

  16. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  17. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  18. Cortisol concentrations in follicular fluid of 'low responder' patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bider, D; Shine, S; Tur-Kaspa, I; Levron, J; Dor, J

    1998-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine any differences existing in total cortisol concentrations in the follicular fluid (FF) of pre-ruptured follicles between 'low responder' patients (group 1, n = 20) and 'good responder' patients (group 2, n = 15). The groups were defined according to how many oocytes had been retrieved during the previous in-vitro fertilization procedure (group 1: three or fewer; group 2: more than three) and total oestradiol concentration at previous in-vitro fertilization (IVF) (group 1: 500 pg/ml). All patients were aged 36-43 years (group 1 mean +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 4.7; group 2: 32.1 +/- 3.8 years) and were diagnosed with tubal or unexplained infertility. The total FF cortisol concentrations obtained in conjunction with an IVF procedure were assayed and related to oocyte fertilization. Follicular fluid was analysed for total cortisol content. Only follicles between 19 and 20 mm diameter were analysed in both groups. After aspiration of blood-free FF, total cortisol concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, designed for the quantitative measurement of cortisol, and related to oocyte fertilization. Total cortisol concentration in FF from fertilized oocytes was 9.7 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (mean +/- SD) in group 1 compared to 9.2 +/- 4.4 microg/ml in group 2 (not statistically significant). Total cortisol concentrations were not associated with oocyte fertilization and no difference between the groups was found in total cortisol concentrations in the FF of unfertilized oocytes or empty follicles.

  19. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity in generalized anxiety disorder, major depression and their comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Wichmann, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Hilbert, Kevin; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited. Alongside psychometric data, HCC (N = 43) and salivary cortisol stress reactivity in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 45) were determined. Findings revealed that MD patients exhibited lower HCC compared to controls and GAD patients, with no differences between the latter two groups. Interestingly, when the GAD group was separated into two groups based on MD comorbidity, lower HCC in MD patients were found compared to controls and GAD-noMD patients, but did not show differences when compared to GAD-MD patients. No HCC differences were seen between GAD-MD or GAD-noMD patients and healthy controls. No TSST group differences emerged. Our findings suggest MD to be related to long-term attenuation in cortisol secretion. While no group differences emerged between patients with GAD, neither with nor without MD, and controls, the current results provide tentative evidence that MD determines long-term endocrine changes, with pure GAD showing a distinct pattern. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in larger samples of pure and comorbid groups.

  20. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  1. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients.

  2. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect. PMID:28228738

  3. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  4. Husbandry of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and the cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Michail; Digka, Nikoletta; Theodoridi, Antonia; Campo, Aurora; Barsakis, Konstantinos; Skouradakis, Gregoris; Samaras, Athanasios; Tsalafouta, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    The effect of common husbandry conditions (crowding, social environment, water quality, handling, and background color) on the cortisol stress response in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, was investigated to check the usefulness of zebrafish as a model organism in aquaculture research. In addition, a noninvasive methodology for assessing stress was evaluated. Zebrafish showed a fast cortisol response with high values at 30 min that returned to basal levels within 2 h of poststress. There was a significant positive correlation between trunk cortisol concentrations and the free water cortisol rate (r(2)=0.829-0.850, pzebrafish. It is concluded that adult laboratory zebrafish had a preference for a transparent or black background aquarium, at a number of 10 individuals per 2 L of available water volume, to express their normal behavior and avoid increased cortisol stress reaction.

  5. Delayed memory effects after intense stress in Special Forces candidates: exploring path processes between cortisol secretion and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Taylor, Marcus K; Smeets, Tom

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it explores delayed effects of high endogenously evoked cortisol concentrations on visuo-spatial declarative memory. Subsequently, it applies multiple mediation (MM) analyses to reveal path processes between stress and cognitive performance in a sample of 24 male Special Forces (SF) candidates (mean age = 27.0 years, SD = 4.1). The SF candidates were randomly assigned to a control (n = 12) or an intense stress group (n = 12), and cortisol secretion for the intense stress condition was triggered by a brusque 60 min prisoner of war exercise. Stress exposure provoked robust increases in cortisol concentrations and a significant decline in immediate recall performance, measured with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). The relative retrieval differences in regard to the ROCF persisted even after a recovery period of 24 h, as both groups showed similar levels of memory decline over 24 h. Next, the study applied a MM design that involved distribution-independent asymptotic and resampling strategies to extend traditional bivariate analyses. MM results showed that ROCF performance was mediated by increases in cortisol concentrations. Considering the studied variables, the current analysis was the first to provide statistical support for the generally accepted thesis that cortisol secretion in itself, rather than subjective strain or the experimental treatment, affects cognitive performance. The revelation of such path processes is important because it establishes process identification and may refine existing paradigms.

  6. The impact of cortisol in steatotic and non-steatotic liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Bujaldon, Esther; Mendes-Braz, Mariana; Avalos de León, Cindy G; Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Álvarez-Mercado, Ana I; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Rodés, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2017-04-04

    The intent of this study was to examine the effects of regulating cortisol levels on damage and regeneration in livers with and without steatosis subjected to partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion. Ultimately, we found that lean animals undergoing liver resection displayed no changes in cortisol, whereas cortisol levels in plasma, liver and adipose tissue were elevated in obese animals undergoing such surgery. Such elevations were attributed to enzymatic upregulation, ensuring cortisol production, and downregulation of enzymes controlling cortisol clearance. In the absence of steatosis, exogenous cortisol administration boosted circulating cortisol, while inducing clearance of hepatic cortisol, thus maintaining low cortisol levels and preventing related hepatocellular harm. In the presence of steatosis, cortisol administration was marked by a substantial rise in intrahepatic availability, thereby exacerbating tissue damage and regenerative failure. The injurious effects of cortisol were linked to high hepatic acethylcholine levels. Upon administering an α7 nicotinic acethylcholine receptor antagonist, no changes in terms of tissue damage or regenerative lapse were apparent in steatotic livers. However, exposure to an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist protected livers against damage, enhancing parenchymal regeneration and survival rate. These outcomes for the first time provide new mechanistic insight into surgically altered steatotic livers, underscoring the compelling therapeutic potential of cortisol-acetylcholine-M3 muscarinic receptors. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Animal Rights Groups Target High School Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Two groups leading the charge against dissection are People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and the Student Action Corps for Animals (SACA). Protests by student and community members remain the movement's strongest weapon. (MLF)

  8. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue.

  9. Sunspot Group Development in High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, J; Ludmány, A

    2014-01-01

    The Solar and Heliospheric Obseratory/Michelson Doppler Imager--Debrecen Data (SDD) sunspot catalogue provides an opportunity to study the details and development of sunspot groups on a large statistical sample. The SDD data allow, in particular, the differential study of the leading and following parts with a temporal resolution of 1.5 hours. In this study, we analyse the equilibrium distance of sunspot groups as well as the evolution of this distance over the lifetime of the groups and the shifts in longitude associated with these groups. We also study the asymmetry between the compactness of the leading and following parts, as well as the time-profiles for the development of the area of sunspot groups. A logarithmic relationship has been found between the total area and the distance of leading-following parts of active regions (ARs) at the time of their maximum area. In the developing phase the leading part moves forward; this is more noticeable in larger ARs. The leading part has a higher growth rate than...

  10. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.

  11. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to in

  12. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2013-12-01

    The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  13. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  14. Genetic Moderation of Cortisol Secretion in Holocaust Survivors: A Pilot Study on the Role of ADRA2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ayala; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we tested whether "ADRA2B" moderates stress regulation of Holocaust survivors as indexed by their diurnal cortisol secretion and cortisol reactivity to a stressor. Salivary cortisol levels of 54 female Holocaust survivors and participants in the comparison group were assessed during a routine day and in response to a…

  15. The Effect of Low- Intensity Resistance Training with Blood Flow Restriction on Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Based on the research evidence, the efficiency of resistance exercises depends on the changes in the hormones level to improve the muscle strength and mass. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of a short course blood flow restricted resistance training on serum cortisol and testosterone levels in young men. Patients and Methods A total of 30 healthy young men (aged 19 - 24 years were volunteered for this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: low-intensity blood flow restricted (LIBFR (n = 15 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 15 repetitions at 20% of 1RM (one repetition maximum, traditional high-intensity without blood flow restriction (HIWBFR (n = 12 resistance exercise group (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1RM, and a control group (n = 13. Both LIBFR and HIWBFR groups trained for front leg and squat exercises 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Fasting growth hormone cortisol and testosterone levels were measured in the morning before and after exercise sessions. Data were analyzed with paired t-test and One-way ANOVA at the significant level of P < 0.05. Results Serum cortisol level significantly increased after the exercise for both protocols compared to baseline (P < 0.05. After 3 weeks, serum cortisol level increased significantly in LIBFR and HIWBFR groups compared to control group (P < 0.001. At the end of the exercise protocols, serum testosterone level was higher in LIBFR group compared to HIWBFR group; however, this difference was not significant (P ˃ 0.49. Conclusions Short term blood flow restriction (BFR exercise stimulates cortisol hormones production in young men. However, this program seems too short to express any difference in testosterone change. Generally, it can be concluded that low-intensity resistance training can increase short-term BFR catabolic-anabolic hormones in young men.

  16. The effects of cortisol increase on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollenaar, Marieke S; Elzinga, Bernet M; Spinhoven, Philip; Everaerd, Walter A M

    2008-03-01

    In this study the effects of stress-induced cortisol increases on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress were examined. Seventy male students were exposed to either a psychosocial stress task or to a non-stressful control task. During and after this task, retrieval was tested for idiosyncratic emotionally negative and neutral word pair associations that were learned 1 day or 5 weeks earlier. Within the stress condition, retrieval of negative words, 5 weeks after learning, was impaired both during and after the stress task compared to the control group. Further, during the stress task, when sympathetic activity was enhanced, impaired retrieval of both neutral and emotional words was significantly related to enhanced cortisol response. In contrast, after the stress task, when cortisol levels were still increased but sympathetic activity was low again, no association was found between cortisol increase and retrieval of either neutral or emotional material. These results are in line with the previous animal research showing that when arousal is high, cortisol increase can impair memory retrieval.

  17. There is no difference in the plasma cortisol level between women with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal 25 kg/m² and polycystic ovary syndrome and the control group without polycystic ovary syndrome and BMI 25 kg/m².

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Kiałka, Marta; Gosztyła, Katarzyna; Lurzyńska, Małgorzata; Kabzińska-Turek, Monika

    2016-01-01

    A 4-8% of women of reproductive age suffer from the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The clinical and/ or biochemical hyperandrogenemia is found up to 75% of women with PCOS. It is unclear whether the hyperandogenemia in PCOS is caused directly by this disorder or by obesity. The recent studies have shown that the cortisol level in PCOS patients can be elevated, decreased or comparable to the control group. The aim of our study was to assess the cortisol plasma level in women with body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/ m², with and without PCOS. The study population consisted of 17 overweight women with PCOS and 44 overweight women without PCOS. There were not statistically significant differences in the body mass (group 1: 88.9 ± 17.0 kg, vs. group 2: 84.4 ± 15.2 kg; NS) nor the body mass index between both groups (group 1: 31.7 ± 5.9 kg/m², vs. group 2: 30.6 ± 5.4 kg/m²; NS). The groups did not differ in TSH, FSH, estradiol, SHBG, prolactin level at the baseline. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in the cortisol levels at 5 a.m. and 7 a.m. Our study suggests that there is no difference in the morning and 7 p.m. cortisol level between the women with and without PCOS among the population of women with body mass index greater than or equal 25 kg/m².

  18. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, IGF-1 and cortisol elicited by regular aerobic exercise in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong Kyun; Ha, Chang Ho

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted on adolescent subjects whose brains are still developing with the purpose of identifying the effect of 8 weeks duration of aerobic exercises on the expression of BDNF, IGF-1 and cortisol, to identify effect of aerobic exercise on the expression of cortisol, BDNF and IGF-1 related to nerve cell growth. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 junior-high school students with no history of physical illness. The students were divided into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group performed 3 treadmill exercise times per week for 8 weeks. The exercise time for the consumption of 200 kcal was calculated and the exercises were performed by each individual for 8 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed statistically significant in increases serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but cortisol showed no significant change. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in serum BDNF and IGF-1 after 8 weeks, but the difference in cortisol levels was not significant. [Conclusion] We found that long-term regular aerobic exercises has a positive effect on the enhancement of serum BDNF levels at rest and IGF-1 of adolescents who are still undergoing through brain developments.

  19. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG. Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23. This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  20. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Adha, Nikmatul; Zainol, Rosilawati; Isahak, Marzuki; Nemati, Nahid

    2014-10-01

    The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  1. High School Transfer Students: A Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valine, Warren J.; Amos, Louise Cleary

    1973-01-01

    A counselor's awareness of many incidents of adjustment problems among new students in a large and impersonal high school prompted an effort to make changes in the situation; the resulting program, designed to help new students is described in this article. (Author)

  2. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD.

  3. High-throughput determination of cortisol, cortisone, and melatonin in oral fluid by on-line turbulent flow liquid chromatography interfaced with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa

    2013-07-15

    Cortisol, cortisone, and melatonin (CORTol, CORTone, and MELA, respectively) are hormones related to stress and sleep disorders. Their detection is relevant to epidemiological studies aimed at investigating the effects of circadian cycle disruption. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a high-throughput assay for the detection of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA concentrations in non-invasively collected oral fluid samples. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method to measure levels of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA in oral fluid samples in the presence of deuterated analogs was optimized and validated. A 50 μL aliquot of oral fluid sample, obtained by centrifugation of a chewed swab, was purified using on-line turbulent flow liquid chromatography. Analytes were then separated using C18 reversed-phase chromatography, subjected to positive ionization using an electrospray source, then quantitated using a triple quadrupole mass detector in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Limits of quantification and linear dynamic ranges were found to be 0.55 nmol/L, 5.5 nmol/L, and 0.004 nmol/L, and up to 28 nmol/L, 277 nmol/L, and 0.43 nmol/L for CORTol, CORTone, and MELA, respectively. Inter- and intra-run precisions as relative standard deviation values were <5%, and accuracies were within 95-106% of theoretical concentrations. An evaluation of matrix effects showed that the use of deuterated analogs controlled sources of bias. Furthermore, the total analysis time per sample was 13 min, resulting in a throughput of approximately 100 samples/day. To our knowledge, this is the first automated, high-throughput assay for the simultaneous quantification of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA in oral fluid specimens. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Cortisol Awakening Response for Modified Method for Higher Order Logical Relationship Using Different Mean Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the free cortisol response to waking, believed to be genetically influenced, would be elevated in a significant percent age of cases, regard less of the afternoon Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST value based on high-order fuzzy logical relationships. First, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical data into fuzzy sets to form high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it calculates the value of the variable between the subscripts of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of high-order fuzzy logical relationships. Finally, it chooses a modified high-order fuzzy logical relationships group to forecast the free cortisol response to walking and the short day time profile using various mean techniques like, Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Heronian Mean, Root Mean Square and Harmonic Mean.

  5. Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Lu, Juming

    2013-10-01

    The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity--in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level--salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

  6. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years.

  7. The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Torre Bartolomé

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were performed three years apart with more than 8500 subjects responding to a questionnaire in both waves. In this paper our analyses are based on 529 individuals who held a job, participated in both waves as well as in an interview linked to the second wave. They gave saliva samples at awakening, half an hour later, at lunchtime and before going to bed on a weekday in close connection with the interview. Job control and job demands were assessed from the questionnaire in the second wave. Mixed models were used to analyse the association between the demand control model and saliva cortisol. Results Women in low strain jobs (high control and low demands had significantly lower cortisol levels half an hour after awakening than women in high strain (low control and high demands, active (high control and high demands or passive jobs (low control and low demands. There were no significant differences between the groups during other parts of the day and furthermore there was no difference between the job strain, active and passive groups. For men, no differences were found between demand control groups. Conclusion This population-based study, on a relatively large sample, weakly support the hypothesis that the demand control model is associated with saliva cortisol concentrations.

  8. Effects of high-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease - A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, Erik; Knol, Dirk; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van Someren, Eus; Deijen, Jan-Berend; Swaab, Dick; Scheltens, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a previous study, low-frequency (0.5 Hz) cranial electrostimulation (CES) neither improved the rest-activity rhythm nor reduced the level of salivary cortisol in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease ( AD). To investigate whether the frequency of CES was responsible for these nega

  9. High energy flare physics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The contributions of the High Energy Flare Physics Special Session in the American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting are reviewed. Oral and poster papers were presented on observatories and instruments available for the upcoming solar maximum. Among these are the space-based Gamma Ray Observatory, the Solar Flare and Cosmic Burst Gamma Ray Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, the Soft X Ray Telescope on the spacecraft Solar-A, and the balloon-based Gamma Ray Imaging Device. Ground based observatories with new capabilities include the BIMA mm-wave interferometer (Univ. of California, Berkeley; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Maryland), Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the Very Large Array. The highlights of the various instrument performances are reported and potential data correlations and collaborations are suggested.

  10. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  11. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  12. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  13. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hötting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  14. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  15. Changes in Plasma Cortisol during Infection Period%小儿感染期血浆皮质醇值的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉儿; 吴恒慧; 李氏驹

    1986-01-01

    The main part of glucocorticoid in human body is cortisol. The Change regularity of the adrenal cortex function of pre-and postoperative children with pyogenic infections can be understood by measuring plasma cortisol level. Radioimmunoassay(RIA)was employed in the determination in 22 pyogenic infection cases and 17 non-infections. The infection cases were divided into two groups, one was celiac viseeral and general infections in which cortisol level was high, the secretion of glucocorticold was increased and cortisol coacentration raised in blood. The mean value and standad deviation was 38.61±20.19 ug/dl. And the other was superficial soft. tissue infections, where cortisol was not, or just slightly, increased (8.33±5.19 ug/dl)Cortisol was re-assyed 3-7days after the removal of the infections and pus drainage. In the former group, the cortisol level was found evidently decreased(12.65±7.20 ug/dl)and had statistically significant difference before and after operation(P<0.01), but not the latter group(P>0.05). Different reactions of cortex function in various pyogenic periods was discussed.%@@ 糖皮质激素具有抗炎、抗毒、抗过敏及抗休克的作用.因此,感染期糖皮质激素浓度可反映机体的抗病能力和应激功能.人体中糖皮质激素以皮质醇为主,测定血浆皮质醇可作为肾上腺皮质分泌功能变化的指标.本文目的是了解化脓性感染患儿手术前后,肾上腺皮质功能的变化规律及临床意义.

  16. Analysis of cortisol, cortisone and dexamethasone in human serum using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and assessment of cortisol: cortisone ratios in patients with impaired kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Julie A; Kushnir, Mark M; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne

    2011-06-11

    We developed a high sensitivity method for simultaneous measurement of cortisol, cortisone and dexamethasone. Using this method, we compared concentrations of cortisol, cortisone and their ratios in samples from intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients, and cortisol and dexamethasone concentrations in patients with Cushing's and suspected Cushing's syndrome. Two hundred microliters of human serum aliquots were extracted using solid phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Primary mass transitions monitored for cortisol, cortisone and dexamethasone were m/z 363/121, 361/163 and 393/373 respectively. The limits of quantification for cortisol and cortisone were 0.3 μg/l (0.8 nmol/l) and for dexamethasone it was 0.5 μg/l (1.2 nmol/l). Total imprecision was cortisone ratio of ICU patient samples was found to be 2 times higher than non-ICU samples. 54.2% of patients after 1mg dose of overnight dexamethasone could be categorized as consistent with Cushing's syndrome. The method has high sensitivity and specificity. High cortisol to cortisone ratios in samples from ICU patients suggest change in activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in modulation of systemically available cortisol. Simultaneous measurement of dexamethasone and cortisol can be used to differentially diagnose diseases causing increased concentrations of cortisol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include......-term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  18. Relation Between Night Urinary Free Cortisol and Hypertension in Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶涛; 刘治全; 傅毅; 牟建军; 傅西汉; 高保林; 张晓红

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To study the relation between night urinary free cortisol (UFC) ex-cretion and hypertension in youth. Methods Nighturinary free cortisol excretion and blood pressure & itsrelated factor were measured in 188 young people.Results In young men with hypertension the 8 h'snight UFC excretion was significantly higher than thatin the group with normal blood pressure 21.57 ± 6.28μg/8hvs 10. 54 ± 5. 46μg/8 h (P <0.05). Inagroup of young people with positive family history ofhypertension, the night UFC excretion was much higherthan that in the group with negative family history ofhypertension. Men excrete much more night UFC thanwomen (12.73±5.85 μg/8hvs7.80±4.15 μg/8h, P < 0. 05). Conclusions There is an associationbetween hypertension and high 8h's night UFC excre-tion; furthermore, there is gender difference in nightUFC excretion.

  19. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  20. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  1. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  2. Consistent group selection in high-dimensional linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Fengrong; 10.3150/10-BEJ252

    2010-01-01

    In regression problems where covariates can be naturally grouped, the group Lasso is an attractive method for variable selection since it respects the grouping structure in the data. We study the selection and estimation properties of the group Lasso in high-dimensional settings when the number of groups exceeds the sample size. We provide sufficient conditions under which the group Lasso selects a model whose dimension is comparable with the underlying model with high probability and is estimation consistent. However, the group Lasso is, in general, not selection consistent and also tends to select groups that are not important in the model. To improve the selection results, we propose an adaptive group Lasso method which is a generalization of the adaptive Lasso and requires an initial estimator. We show that the adaptive group Lasso is consistent in group selection under certain conditions if the group Lasso is used as the initial estimator.

  3. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  4. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  5. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene; Johansson, Gerd; Karlson, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Prior findings indicate that individuals scoring high on vital exhaustion show a dysfunctional stress response (DSR), that is, reduced cortisol reactivity and habituation to psychosocial stressors. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether a DSR may be a vulnerability factor in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during the early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. persons who during the past 6 month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) score over 3.75, considered to indicate a pre-stage of ED (n=17); 3. persons who had not experienced stress at work during the past 6 months and had a SMBQ score below 2.75 (n=20). The participants were exposed twice to a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test (V-TSST), during which salivary cortisol samples were collected. In addition, high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), heart rate (HR), t-wave amplitude (TWA), and α-amylase were assessed to examine stress reactivity and habituation in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The initial analyses showed clear hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activations in both V-TSST sessions, together with habituation of cortisol and heart rate in the second session, but without any significant group differences. However, the former ED patients showed considerable variation in self-reported signs of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both groups' cortisol response habituated to the second V-TSST session. The ANS responses did not differ between the two groups. Thus, persons in a pre-stage of ED and

  6. Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Kalin, Ned H; Thurow, Marchell E; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol levels were no longer manipulated, inverted-U quadratic trends were found for recognition memory tasks, reflecting memory facilitation in the 20-mg group for both negative and neutral information. Results suggest that the effects of cortisol on memory do not differ substantially for emotional and neutral information. The study provides evidence of beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on explicit memory in humans.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to dehydration-rehydration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul J; van Rosendal, Simon P; Coombes, Jeff S; Gordon, Richard D; Stowasser, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Aldosterone and cortisol are useful biomarkers of dehydration and stress, respectively. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and cortisol in human plasma that could be applied to the study of athletes undergoing exercise and rehydration. Samples were prepared and analysed using an on-line sample preparation/HPLC system coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem-mass spectrometer. Samples (200 microL) were pre-treated and extracted on Hysphere C18 HD cartridges (7 microm, Spark Holland). Chromatography was performed on a Sunfire C18 analytical column (50 mm x 3.0 mm, 3 microm, Waters) under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of 35% acetonitrile/water. Mass spectrometric detection was by selected reaction monitoring using negative electrospray ionization conditions. The assay had an analytical range of 25-500 pg/mL and 25-500 ng/mL for aldosterone and cortisol, respectively (r(2)>0.992, n=22). Inter-day accuracy and imprecision for quality control samples was 99.4-106% and dehydration, rehydration and exercise when measured by this method. The reported method is suitable to facilitate the study of athletes undergoing dehydration and rehydration protocols.

  8. Twenty four Hours Circadian Cortisol Profile in Shift Work Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kakooei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It is well established that adrenal hormone cortisol has long been used in human psychobiological studies as a biological marker of circadian rhythm, stress, and anxiety. There is little information, however, about the interrelationships of night work, plasma cortisol levels in females’ nurses of the developing countries. The aim of the present study was to compare circadian cortisol profile between two groups of nurses with shift and permanent work in a Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between January 2006 to September 2008. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we examined the reproducibility of plasma cortisol levels during one month period in 34 shift work nurses and 10 permanent day shift works. We evaluated potential associations between night work and hormone levels, using current and shift work information for the health care shift workers. Results: The results clearly revealed that shift work significantly increased nighttime cortisol levels (34.93 μg/dl during night shift and decreased the peak levels of cortisol in the morning (39.03 μg/dl. During the work shift the plasma cortisol presented a decreased concentration in the morning and increasing levels (44.93 μg/dl by the end of the evening. In contrast , the permanent day work nurses, who had never worked at night shifts, showed a lowest secretion of cortisol during the first half of night time sleep (10.02 μg/dl , and a peak value of the cortisol after awakening at 07:00 h ( 59.75 μg/ml. We also observed a significant association between night work and increased levels of cortisol over the remaining of the day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nurses with night shift work have an abnormal cortisol secretion profile. Shift work nurses on rotating night shifts seem to experience changes in hormones levels that may be associated with increased of circadian disorders risk observed among night

  9. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  10. Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Birnie, Andrew K; Korgan, Austin C; Santo, Jonathan B; French, Jeffrey A

    2012-02-01

    High levels of prenatal cortisol have been previously reported to retard fetal growth. Although cortisol plays a pivotal role in prenatal maturation, heightened exposure to cortisol can result in lower body weights at birth, which have been shown to be associated with adult diseases like hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study examines the relationship between natural variation in gestational cortisol and fetal and postnatal growth in marmoset monkeys. Urinary samples obtained during the mother's gestation were analyzed for cortisol. Marmoset body mass index (BMI) was measured from birth through 540 days in 30- or 60-day intervals. Multi-level modeling was used to test if marmoset growth over time was predicted by changes in gestational cortisol controlling for time, sex, litter, and litter size. The results show that offspring exposed to intra-uterine environments with elevated levels of cortisol had lower linear BMI rates of change shortly after birth than did offspring exposed to lower levels of cortisol, but exhibited a higher curvilinear growth rate during adolescence. Average daily change in gestational cortisol during the first trimester had a stronger relationship with postnatal growth than change during the third trimester. Higher exposure to cortisol during gestation does alter developmental trajectories, however there appears to be a catch-up period during later post-natal growth. These observations contribute to a larger discussion about the relationship of maternal glucocorticoids on offspring development and the possibility of an earlier vulnerable developmental window.

  11. Does the cortisol response to stress mediate the link between expressed emotion and oppositional behavior in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psychogiou Lamprini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Emotions (EE are associated with oppositional behavior (OPB in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. EE has been linked to altered stress responses in some disorders, but ADHD has not been studied. We test the hypothesis that OPB in ADHD is mediated by altered stress-related cortisol reactivity to EE. Methods Two groups of children (with/without ADHD and their respective parents were randomly assigned to two different conditions with/without negative emotion and participated in an emotion provocation task. Parents' EE, their ratings of their children's OPB and their children's salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results Low parental warmth was associated with OPB in ADHD. High levels of parental EE elicited a larger cortisol response. Stress-related cortisol reactivity mediated the EE-OPB link for all children. This highlights the general importance of parent-child interactions on externalizing behavior problems. Conclusion High EE is a salient stressor for ADHD children that leads to increased levels of cortisol and OPB. The development of OPB might be mediated by the stress-response to high EE.

  12. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Min Zhai; Hui-Qi Li; Jian-Bo He; Hai-Guo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection and its correlation with nerve function, humoral immunity and cellular immunity.Methods:A total of 86 patients with cerebral infarction were divided into observation group (cerebral infarction combined with infection) (n=40) and control group (cerebral infarction alone) (n=46) according to the combination of infection. Serum content of cortisol, nerve function-related indexes and humoral immunity indexes as well as peripheral blood levels of cellular immunity indexes of two groups of patients were determined on admission, and the correlation between serum cortisol level and the above illness-related indexes in cerebral infarction patients with infection was further analyzed.Results: Serum cortisol content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group; serum nerve function indexes S100β, GFAP, Hcy and HO1 content were significantly higher than those of control group while IGF-1 content was significantly lower than that of control group; humoral immunity indexes IgA, IgM, IgG, C3 and C4 content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; cellular immunity indexes CD3+, CD4+ and CD54+T lymphocyte content in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of control group while CD19+T lymphocyte content and CD4+/CD8+ level were significantly higher than those of control group; hemodynamic indexes rCBF and rCBV levels were significantly lower than those of control group while MTT, TTP and DLY levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum cortisol level in cerebral infarction patients with infection was directly correlated with the levels of nerve function, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and other illness-related indexes. Conclusions:The high cortisol state in cerebral infarction patients with infection is the visual sign of severe nerve function damage and suppressed immune function, and it can be a

  13. Measurement of cortisol concentration in the tears of horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kelsey A; Kitchings, Kalyn M; Kimura, Shune; Norton, Natalie A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare tear cortisol concentrations between horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and healthy nonaged (≤ 15 years old) and aged (≥ 20 years old) horses and to determine whether serum and tear cortisol concentrations were correlated. ANIMALS 11 horses and ponies with PPID and 20 healthy control horses and ponies (11 nonaged and 9 aged). PROCEDURES Paired tear and serum samples were obtained from PPID and control animals. All animals were free of active ocular disease. Tear and serum cortisol concentrations were measured with an ELISA and chemiluminescent assay, respectively. Groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests, and Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine relationships between tear and serum cortisol concentrations within groups. RESULTS Median tear cortisol concentration was significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals, despite comparable serum cortisol concentrations in PPID and aged control animals. Median tear-to-serum cortisol concentration ratios were also significantly higher in PPID animals than in aged control animals. Serum and tear cortisol concentrations were not significantly correlated in PPID or control animals. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Some horses and ponies with PPID had increased tear cortisol concentrations, compared with concentrations in healthy aged animals. Localized cortisol production in the tear film or altered cortisol binding dynamics could have contributed to this increase. Further studies are warranted to evaluate these mechanisms and to determine whether increased tear cortisol concentrations are associated with delays in corneal wound healing in horses and ponies with and without PPID.

  14. Mothers' parenting stress is associated with salivary cortisol profiles in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpa, Terpsichori; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Angeli, Eleni; Apostolakou, Filia; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Kolaitis, Gerasimos

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to explore the relation between mothers' parenting stress and the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), as expressed by daily salivary cortisol concentrations, in their children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Seventy-five children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with ADHD predominant Hyperactive-Impulsive/Combined (ADHD-HI/C, N = 49) and Inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I, N = 26) and 45 healthy peers and their mothers participated in the study. Μothers completed measures assessing their children's ADHD status, perceived parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form, PSI-SF), mothers' symptoms of psychopathology, social support and socio-economic status. Children's salivary cortisol samples were collected at six different time points on a single day. Mothers of children with ADHD-HI/C reported higher levels of parenting stress than mothers of children with ADHD-I and controls. All PSI-SF subscales showed significant associations with children's Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) in both ADHD groups, with the exception of the Parental Distress subscale in the ADHD-I group. In both ADHD groups, the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale, the Difficult Child subscale and the PSI total score were significantly associated with children's CAR. An interrelation is revealed between mothers' high levels of parenting stress and HPAA functioning in children with ADHD. In this population, CAR has been identified as a sensitive peripheral measure of HPAA functioning in children.

  15. The effect of cortisol in rat steatotic and non-steatotic liver transplantation from brain-dead donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Negrete-Sánchez, Elsa; Casillas-Ramírez, Araní; Gulfo, Jose; Álvarez-Mercado, Ana I; Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Rodés, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2017-04-25

    In the present study, we examined the effects of cortisol on steatotic and non-steatotic liver grafts from brain-dead donors and characterized the underlying mechanisms involved. Non-steatotic liver grafts showed reduced cortisol and increased cortisone levels in association with up-regulation of enzymes that inactivate cortisol. Conversely, steatotic liver grafts exhibited increased cortisol and reduced cortisone levels. The enzymes involved in cortisol generation were overexpressed, and those involved in cortisol inactivation or clearance were down-regulated in steatotic liver grafts. Exogenous administration of cortisol negatively affected hepatic damage and survival rate in non-steatotic liver transplantation (LT); however, cortisol treatment up-regulated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, resulting in protection against the deleterious effects of brain-dead donors on damage and inflammatory response in steatotic LT as well as in increased survival of recipients. The present study highlights the differences in the role of cortisol and hepatic mechanisms that regulate cortisol levels based on the type of liver. Our findings suggest that cortisol treatment is a feasible and highly protective strategy to reduce the adverse effects of brain-dead donor livers in order to ultimately improve liver graft quality in the presence of steatosis, whereas cortisol treatment would not be recommended for non-steatotic liver grafts. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  17. No PTSD-related differences in diurnal cortisol profiles of genocide survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart, Cindy; Engler, Harald; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with reduced cortisol levels. Opposing results have been interpreted as resulting from methodological differences between studies.We investigated the diurnal profile of salivary cortisol in a population of highly traumatized adult males from Rwanda with and without PTSD, who spent the whole day of examination together under amaximally standardized schedule. Besides the detection of PTSDrelated alterations in cortisol release we aimed at...

  18. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001. There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  19. Social network characteristics and salivary cortisol in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Julian C L; Chong, Alice M L; Siu, Oswald T; Evans, Phil; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2012-01-01

    Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in "cultivation") exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  20. Social Network Characteristics and Salivary Cortisol in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. L. Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychobiological research on aging in humans has been confounded by individual differences that have not been adequately characterized in the literature. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this issue by examining the impact of social network characteristics predictive of successful aging on salivary cortisol among 78 older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Eight salivary cortisol samples were collected each day for two consecutive days from immediately after awakening to 12 hours later. Two components of the cortisol diurnal cycle, response to awakening and diurnal decline, were examined in relation to social network characteristics including size, emotional support, and cultivation. ANOVAs with repeated measured were run to examine influences of the three social network characteristics on the cortisol awakening response and diurnal decline, with the effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and waking time controlled. Results indicated that those who spent more time and effort in developing and strengthening their social ties (i.e., those high in “cultivation” exhibited a significantly greater rise in cortisol in the morning and a significantly steeper decline over the day, thus attesting to more effective activation and deactivation of the HPA axis. Network cultivation reflected a positive motivation to nurture social relationships more than the other two network characteristics. Its effect on cortisol might stem from the positivity underlying the motivation.

  1. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Bina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin. Cortisol, also called as "stress hormone", has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Recent studies have been conflicting, and hence, in the present study, evaluation of salivary cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in oral lichen planus (OLP patients was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with clinically and histopathologically proven cases of OLP, along with the age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of cortisol with cortisol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Psychosocial factors of study and control groups were measured by depression anxiety and stress scale. Student′s t-test was used to compare the psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels between patients with the OLP and the control group. Results: Irrespective of sex, significantly higher depression (83.4 ± 15.4%, anxiety (80.5 ± 11.3%, and stress (94.2 ± 6.2% scores were observed in OLP patients compared to controls. Increased cortisol levels were observed among 17 (56.6% OLP patients in the study group. A positive correlation was found between psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. The values of Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r", between depression, anxiety, and stress with salivary cortisol was: +0.42,S; +0.27,NS; and +0.65,HS, respectively among the study group.

  2. Detection of endogenous cortisol in human hair by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry%头发中内源性氢化可的松的高效液相色谱/串联质谱检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巧珍; 皋伟; 李季峰; 乔婷; 邓慧华; 陆祖宏

    2011-01-01

    A new method for detection of endogenous cortisol in human hair was developed based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS), and the results detected was compared with that determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLU). Hair sample (50 mg ) was incubated in methanol after being washed and pulverized, and then the extraction was purified by C18 solid phase extraction column. Cortisol identification was performed by electro-spray ionization (ESI) in negative mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the quantification was performed using external standard method. The limit of quantification is 2 pg/mg, and the linear range is 2 to 100 pg/mg. The recovery of cortisol spiked at 50 pg/mg is (99. 4 ±9. 1 ) %, intra-day precision is 7. 6 %, inter-day precision is 8. 3 %. Because of the differences in hair pretreatment method, cortisol extraction method, matrix effect and quantitative method, cortisol concentration detected by HPLC/MS/MS is significantly lower than that determined by HPLC/FLU. However, Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is a significant linear correlation (r =0. 749, p <0. 01 ) between hair cortisol contents analyzed by these two methods.%基于高效液相色谱/串联质谱(HPLC/MS/MS)建立了一种检测头发中内源性氢化可的松含量的方法,并与高效液相色谱/荧光法(HPLC/FLU)的测定结果进行比较.头发样品(50 mg)经过清洗与研磨、甲醇提取和C18固相萃取后,在电喷雾(ESI)负离子模式和多反应监测(MRM)方式下进行定性,以外标法进行定量.方法的定量限为2 pg/mg,工作曲线的线性范围为2~100 pg/mg;在空白头发添加50 pg/mg外标时,方法的回收率为(99.4±9.1)%,日内精密度为7.6%,日间精密度为8.3%.由于前处理提取方法、基质效应和定量方法不同,所以HPLC/MS/MS法的测定结果明显低于HPLC/FLU法的测定

  3. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  4. Cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of SSRI reduces cortisol levels in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnick, Christopher B; Wetherell, Julie L; White, Kamila S; Andreescu, Carmen; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    Elevated cortisol in stress and aging, such as has been seen in late-life anxiety disorders, is postulated to accelerate cognitive and physiological decline in this large and increasing population. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. On the other hand, there is very little research examining the effect of combining these therapies on peak cortisol levels. For the current analyses, we examined the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels in older adults diagnosed with GAD. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with late-life GAD who received an acute course of the SSRI escitalopram and then entered a 16-week randomized phase. Twenty-one participants were randomized to receive 16 sessions of CBT in addition to continuing escitalopram and the remaining 21 participants continued on escitalopram without CBT. Generalized estimating equations were performed to assess the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels (30 min after waking). Older adults with GAD who received both escitalopram and CBT demonstrated a significant reduction in peak cortisol levels at posttreatment compared to the group who received escitalopram without CBT augmentation. CBT augmentation of SSRI treatment reduced peak cortisol levels for older adults with GAD. Since persistently high cortisol levels in aging are thought to increase age-related cognitive and medical problems, our findings suggest that there may be a benefit to health and cognition of CBT augmentation for late-life anxiety disorders. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Overlay Share Mesh for Interactive Group Communication with High Dynamic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-hua; CAI Yun-ze; XU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    An overlay share mesh infrastructure is presented for high dynamic group communication systems, such as distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and distributed virtual environments (DVE). Overlay share mesh infrastructure can own better adapting ability for high dynamic group than tradition multi-tree multicast infrastructure by sharing links among different groups. The mechanism of overlay share mesh based on area of interest (AOI) was discussed in detail in this paper. A large number of simulation experiments were done and the permance of mesh infrastructure was studied. Experiments results proved that overlay mesh infrastructure owns better adaptability than traditional multi-tree infrastructure for high dynamic group communication systems.

  6. Cortisol reaction in success and failure condition in endogenous depressed patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, S; Merz, P; Netter, P

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied differences in cortisol response to controllable and uncontrollable stress and its relationship to Seligman's theory of learned helplessness in hospitalized unipolar depressed patients (11 nontreated, acutely depressed; 11 treated patients) and 11 age and sex matched controls hospitalized for traumatic surgery. Control and lack of control were achieved by induction of success and failure in a simple number addition test and applied in balanced order on 2 consecutive days. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after the test. No group differences in baseline cortisol levels were observed. Cortisol increased after uncontrollable and decreased after controllable stress in control patients, whereas cortisol decreased after both conditions in the acutely depressed group and less so in the treated group, although they were as emotionally upset after failure as controls. Thus, the normally observed ability of the neuroendocrine system to discriminate between controllable and uncontrollable stress deteriorates with increasing severity of depression.

  7. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  8. Low Impact of Urinary Cortisol in the Assessment of Hydrocortisone Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C S; Rahvar, A-H; Danneberg, S; Lehnert, H; Moenig, H; Harbeck, B

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocortisone replacement therapy is a cornerstone in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI). While urinary cortisol has been used as a diagnostic tool for AI, it remains unclear whether it is a useful parameter to monitor hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences in cortisol metabolism between adrenal insufficient patients and healthy subjects and to assess the value of urinary cortisol in AI management. In a case-control study, urinary cortisol excretion was determined in 14 patients with primary and secondary AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions from midnight to 8:00 AM. Results were correlated with serum cortisol levels and compared to urinary values obtained from 53 healthy volunteers. Urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects was 14.0±7.8 μg/8 h (range: 0.24-35.4), levels did not differ between 3 groups aged 20-34 years, 35-49 years, and ≥50 years. Patients with AI receiving hydrocortisone infusions demonstrated significantly higher rates of urinary cortisol excretion (51.6±37.8 μg/8 h; range 17.1-120.0, pcortisol levels (r(2)=0.98). Of interest, patients with secondary AI showed significantly higher serum cortisol levels after hydrocortisone infusion than those with primary AI, conceivably due to residual adrenal function. In conclusion, we showed that: (i) there is a wide inter-individual variability in urinary cortisol excretion rates; (ii) cortisol metabolism in adrenal insufficient patients differs when compared to controls; (iii) there is a strong correlation between urinary and serum cortisol levels; and (iv) urinary cortisol levels despite their variability may help to discriminate between secondary and primary adrenal insufficiency.

  9. Can the neural-cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K W; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Samuel S Y; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-18

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural-cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural-cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal-cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal-cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study.

  10. Associations between endogenous cortisol levels and emotional memory in young women: influence of encoding instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Diana; Schoofs, Daniela; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-09-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is known to influence memory. Elevated cortisol levels as a consequence of stress or as a consequence of cortisol administration have been repeatedly shown to enhance encoding and consolidation of (emotional) memory. Whether similar associations exist between basal cortisol levels and emotional memory remains to be established. The present study therefore evaluated if resting cortisol levels are correlated with memory for emotionally arousing and neutral pictures in a sample of young healthy females (n = 56). A second aim of the study was to explore if the relationship between basal cortisol levels and memory might be modulated by encoding instructions (intentional vs. incidental encoding). A significant positive correlation between basal salivary cortisol levels and memory for emotionally arousing pictures in a 24 h delayed free recall test was found. Further analyses revealed that this association only occurred in the group receiving intentional encoding instructions. Results indicate that basal cortisol levels, similarly to stress induced cortisol levels, are associated with emotional memory formation. Moreover this effect seems to be modulated by encoding instructions, suggesting a role of focussed attention or arousal induced by testing in this relationship.

  11. Hair cortisol content in patients with adrenal insufficiency on hydrocortisone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan

    2011-06-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) require life-long replacement therapy with exogenous glucocorticoids. Several studies have shown impaired subjective health status in these patients as well as increased morbidity and mortality risk, which may be caused by glucocorticoid over-replacement. As a measure of long-term cortisol exposure, the usefulness of hair cortisol analysis in patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy was investigated. Hair samples, demographics, medical history and perceived stress scale questionnaires were collected from 93 patients across North America diagnosed with primary or secondary AI. Sixty-two household partners served as a control group. Cortisol was measured in the proximal 2 cm of hair, representing the most recent 2 months of exposure. A modified enzyme immunoassay was used for the measurement of cortisol. The male patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the male controls (P cortisol content correlated significantly with glucocorticoid dose (r = 0·3, P cortisol content correlates with hydrocortisone (HC) dose in patients with AI. Our results suggest that some AI patients may be over-treated and hence may be at risk for the adverse effects of cortisol. Measurement of HC in hair may become a useful monitoring tool for long-term cortisol exposure in patients treated with glucocorticoids. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Urinary 6β-Hydroxycortisol/Cortisol Ratio Most Highly Correlates With Midazolam Clearance Under Hepatic CYP3A Inhibition and Induction in Females: A Pharmacometabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Hee; Ahn, Li Young; Choi, Man Ho; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Lee, Jieon; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo-Youn

    2016-09-01

    Endogenous metabolites of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A) are useful in predicting drug-drug interactions between in vivo CYP3A inhibitors and inducers for clinical applications of CYP3A substrate drugs. This study aimed to develop predictable markers of the magnitude of hepatic CYP3A induction and inhibition in healthy female subjects using pharmacometabolomics. Twelve female subjects received midazolam during three study phases: 1 mg midazolam (control phase), 1 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 400 mg ketoconazole once daily for 4 days (CYP3A inhibition phase), and 2.5 mg midazolam after pretreatment with 600 mg rifampicin once daily for 10 days (CYP3A induction phase). Throughout the study, blood samples were collected 24 h after midazolam administration and urine samples at 12-h intervals during the 24 h before and after midazolam administration for the analysis of endogenous steroid metabolites. A statistical model was generated to predict midazolam clearance using measurements of endogenous metabolites associated with the inhibition and induction of CYP3A. Mean midazolam clearance decreased to ∼20% of control levels during the inhibition phase and increased more than 2-fold during the induction phase. Of the urine and plasma metabolites measured, the 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was most significantly correlated with midazolam clearance during hepatic CYP3A inhibition and induction. Our results suggest that the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio is the best predictor of hepatic CYP3A activity under both maximal inhibition and maximal induction. Furthermore, the predictive model including 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol as a covariate could be applied to predict the magnitude of CYP3A-mediated drug interactions.

  13. Improved determination of urinary cortisol and cortisone, or corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M; Mormède, P

    1997-11-21

    A sensitive assay was developed for the determination of low levels of free (unconjugated) glucocorticoids in human, swine (cortisol and cortisone) and rat urine (corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone), using solid-phase extraction and HPLC with UV absorbance detection (254 nm). Precise quantitation is allowed by the use of internal standards (dexamethasone for swine urine and Reichstein's substance S for rat urine). This simple method allows the use of small urine samples (less than 2 ml), and is suitable for a wide range of applications in human and animal clinical and physiological studies.

  14. The effects of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and an equivalent dose of cortisol on the serum concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anna-Lena; Rafnsson, Arnar Thor; Johannsson, Magnus; Dallongeville, Jean; Arnadottir, Margret

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a strong lipid-lowering effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in healthy individuals and in patients with different kinds of dyslipoproteinemia. The mechanism behind this effect has not been established and its direct ACTH-specific nature has been questioned. Therefore, the present study was performed. Thirty healthy young males were randomized into 3 groups of equal size: one group received ACTH1-24 1 mg IM, daily for 4 days, another group was treated with cortisol 150 mg ID (50 mg tid) daily for 4 days, whereas a control group was observed for 4 days. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after treatment or observation. The serum concentrations of cholesterol (12%, P group but not in the cortisol and control groups. The statistical workup confirmed that only ACTH had a lowering effect on the apo B-containing lipoproteins. In contrast, the results indicated conformity between the treatment groups with respect to increases in the serum apo E concentrations. There were inconsistent changes in the serum concentrations of the triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A, and lipoprotein(a). The main results were clear: the lowering effect of ACTH on the serum concentration of apo B-containing lipoproteins could not be ascribed to cortisol. These, in combination with previous in vitro results, indicated an ACTH-specific effect.

  15. Eye tracking, cortisol, and a sleep vs. wake consolidation delay: combining methods to uncover an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-06-18

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants' eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation.

  16. Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A.; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Payne, Jessica D.

    2014-01-01

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants’ eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation. PMID:24962611

  17. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  18. Estabilidad emocional y cortisol como factores diferenciadores de la fibromialgia Emotional stability and cortisol as differentiating factors for fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Díaz Robredo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca un acercamiento al diagnóstico de la fibromialgia desde un modelo psicofisiológico del estrés. En la Introducción justificaremos los principios teóricos en que se basa este trabajo. Las hipótesis planteadas intentarán buscar la diferencia de factores psicológicos y de cortisol entre los grupos control y experimental, así como la correlación entre dichos factores. En el apartado Materiales y métodos nos centramos en los registros de cortisol y de variables de personalidad que realizamos en un grupo de 35 mujeres, 18 con fibromialgia y otras 17 libres de la enfermedad. Los aspectos psicológicos serán recogidos por el test de Personalidad CEP de Pinillos, mientras que el cortisol será medido mediante recolección de saliva. Los resultados, muestran diferencias significativas en los factores psicológicos y fisiológicos de los grupos. En las conclusiones afirmamos que el control emocional y los niveles de cortisol son factores distintivos de esta enfermedad con respecto a un grupo control. Sin embargo, no encontramos una correlación significativa entre control emocional y cortisol pudiendo ser debida a variables extrañas o al escaso número de sujetos de la muestra. Además, los resultados de cortisol suponen una contradicción a estudios previos en los que se observa una reducción de esta hormona en pacientes con fibromialgia, por lo que se recomienda una recogida de cortisol del ciclo diurno para complementar el estudio y solucionar estas disensiones.This study looks for an approach to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia from a psychophysiological model of stress. In the Introduction chapter, we will justify the theoretical principles in which this work is based on. The hypothesis that we suggest will try to find the difference in psychological factors and cortisol between control and experimental group, as well as the correlation of these two factors. In the instrument and method chapter, we will focus on the

  19. Cortisol and CBG - Getting cortisol to the right place at the right time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David; Lightman, Stafford; Carrell, Robin

    2016-10-01

    Cortisol is transported in the blood by corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors. Recent structural advances reveal how CBG acts as a releasing-agent as well as a carrier of cortisol. Taken together, the structures of the various forms of CBG and of the closely related thyroxine binding-globulin, show how the inherent conformational mechanism of the serpins has been adapted to modulate hormone release to the tissues by changes in binding affinities. A deduction from this, of the temperature dependence of hormone binding, is remarkably borne out with CBG, with a doubling in plasma free cortisol as the body temperature rises to 39°C. Another insight, against a dogma in the corticosteroid field, is that the proteolytic cleavage of CBG in inflammation results in a partial and not a complete loss of cortisol binding. This becomes of medical importance in conjunction with recent evidence of a pool of the circulating cleaved-form of CBG. It is now evident that tissue levels of free cortisol are buffered by two responsive plasma pools, intact CBG with a high binding-affinity and, particularly in inflammation and sepsis, a further pool of cleaved-CBG with a ten-fold lower affinity. The new molecular understandings, as well as providing insights into the differential release of circulating hormones, also open prospects for therapeutic interventions and draw attention to the potential of CBG and TBG as vehicles for the targeted delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does cortisol manipulation influence outmigration behaviour, survival and growth of sea trout? A field test of carryover effects in wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    , in particular glucocorticoids, influences fitness-oriented endpoints such as migration timing and survival. We experimentally assessed the effect of cortisol by combining passive integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry with a physiologically relevant exogenous cortisol manipulation (i.e., intracoelomic injection......) in juvenile sea trout in the Gudsø Stream in Denmark. Individual survival, migration behaviour (timing and speed), and growth were assessed for four treatment categories: control (CO), sham (SH), and low- (LW; 25 mg/kg) and high-dose (HI; 100 mg/kg) cortisol. There was no difference in the timing of migration...... among treatments, but trout in the HI treatment had lower survival rates to the lower station (41.6%) when compared to the CO (53.9%) and SH (52.3%) groups. After migration, the system was electroshocked again to contrast growth of trout that remained in the system. HI, LW and SH individuals recaptured...

  1. Urinary cortisol/cortisone ratios in hypertensive and normotensive cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Syme, Harriet M

    2009-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in older cats, particularly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 predisposes to hypertension in human patients by allowing excessive stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by cortisol. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that reduced conversion of cortisol to cortisone contributes to the development of systemic hypertension in some cats with CKD and idiopathic hypertension (iHT). The study included 60 client-owned cats: 21 clinically normal, 16 normotensive cats with CKD (NTCKD), 14 hypertensive cats with CKD (HTCKD) and nine iHTs. Urine cortisol and cortisone were extracted into dichloromethane and chloroform, respectively, prior to analysis by radioimmunoassay. Data are reported as median and range. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare cortisol:cortisone ratios between groups with post-hoc testing using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to compare results before and after treatment of hypertensive cats with amlodipine. The urinary cortisol:cortisone ratio was significantly higher in clinically normal cats (0.87; 0.46-1.39) when compared to NTCKD (0.60; 0.35-1.20; Pcortisone ratio was detected (P=0.327). Reduced urinary cortisol to cortisone conversion does not appear to be associated with systemic hypertension in cats. In fact, the cortisol to cortisone shuttle appears to be more effective in cats with CKD (hypertensive and normotensive) and iHT than clinically normal cats. The mechanism for this potentially adaptive response to kidney disease is not clear.

  2. Effects of acute cortisol administration on perceptual priming of trauma-related material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Elena; Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a "traumatic" context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or "traumatic" picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the "traumatic" stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a "traumatic" context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the "traumatic" stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea that administration

  3. Effects of acute cortisol administration on perceptual priming of trauma-related material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Holz

    Full Text Available Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a "traumatic" context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160 watched either neutral or "traumatic" picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the "traumatic" stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a "traumatic" context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the "traumatic" stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a "traumatic" context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support the idea

  4. Effects of Acute Cortisol Administration on Perceptual Priming of Trauma-Related Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streb, Markus; Pfaltz, Monique; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They reflect excessive and uncontrolled retrieval of the traumatic memory. Acute elevations of cortisol are known to impair the retrieval of already stored memory information. Thus, continuous cortisol administration might help in reducing intrusive memories in PTSD. Strong perceptual priming for neutral stimuli associated with a “traumatic” context has been shown to be one important learning mechanism that leads to intrusive memories. However, the memory modulating effects of cortisol have only been shown for explicit declarative memory processes. Thus, in our double blind, placebo controlled study we aimed to investigate whether cortisol influences perceptual priming of neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. Two groups of healthy volunteers (N = 160) watched either neutral or “traumatic” picture stories on a computer screen. Neutral objects were presented in between the pictures. Memory for these neutral objects was tested after 24 hours with a perceptual priming task and an explicit memory task. Prior to memory testing half of the participants in each group received 25 mg of cortisol, the other half received placebo. In the placebo group participants in the “traumatic” stories condition showed more perceptual priming for the neutral objects than participants in the neutral stories condition, indicating a strong perceptual priming effect for neutral stimuli presented in a “traumatic” context. In the cortisol group this effect was not present: Participants in the neutral stories and participants in the “traumatic” stories condition in the cortisol group showed comparable priming effects for the neutral objects. Our findings show that cortisol inhibits perceptual priming for neutral stimuli that appeared in a “traumatic” context. These findings indicate that cortisol influences PTSD-relevant memory processes and thus further support

  5. Feasibility of a Research Protocol to Investigate the Effect of the TherapressureTM Program Using Salivary Cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Weeks

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an absence of high quality research to support the use of the Therapressure ProgramTM. This pilot study aimed at developing appropriate research protocols to investigate the effectiveness of the Therapressure ProgramTM on the stress response in children with sensory overresponsivity. Method: A one-group pre-test/post-test repeated measures design was conducted using a convenience sample. Six children (6-8 years of age with sensory overresponsivity received 14 consecutive days of the Therapressure ProgramTM by their parents at home. Parents concurrently collected salivary cortisol samples from their children. Results: Children with sensory overresponsivity displayed both hyper- and hypo-cortisolism at baseline. All of the children’s cortisol levels shifted toward a normative range after intervention. Aspects have been identified related to the data collection protocol. Conclusion: When testing children with sensory overresponsivity who are constantly activating their stress response system, we raise awareness of the need to check for both hyper- and hypo-cortisolism during statistical analysis. Preliminary pilot data may also show modulation of sympathetic arousal following the intervention. Further research is warranted and recommendations are made related to data collection protocols.

  6. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  9. The effect of guided relaxation on cortisol and affect: Stress reactivity as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Cynthia A; Busse, David; Yim, Ilona S

    2017-01-01

    Stress-reduction interventions have been linked with enhanced well-being and health. This study examined affect and cortisol in 111 individuals randomly assigned to a single 35-minute guided relaxation or a stress management lecture control group. Positive affect increased more in the relaxation compared to the control group ( F = 6.62, p = .01). Dispositional stress reactivity had a moderating influence ( R(2)  = .248, p stress reactivity showed highest increases in positive affect to the relaxation. Results indicate that a single guided relaxation intervention improves positive affect among individuals high in stress reactivity.

  10. Cortisol in Hair and the Metabolic Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Alexander, Nina; Bornstein, Stefan R; Gao, Wei; Miller, Robert; Stark, Sabine; Bosch, Jos A; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-01

    ...), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis, which for the first time allows the assessment of long-term integrated hormone levels...

  11. Cortisol administration induces sex change from ovary to testis in the protogynous Wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in triggering sex change. However, the upstream mechanism that regulates the secretion of sex steroid hormones controlling sex change is not yet known. Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in teleost fish, is known to exhibit anti-stress action and is involved in many physiological functions, including regulation of steroidogenesis. Therefore, cortisol could be one of the candidate factors involved in the onset of sex change. In this study, we investigated the role of cortisol in sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by prolonged administration of cortisol. Our results showed that gonads of all individuals treated with cortisol (1,000 µg/g diet) for 6 weeks contained spermatogenic germ cells. One of them exhibited matured testes with an ovarian cavity, indicating sex change. Additionally, the plasma estradiol-17β level in the cortisol treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group suggesting that cortisol plays a direct and/or indirect role in the regulation of estrogen production. These data imply that cortisol might be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis by causing a decrease in the estrogen level, leading to the onset of sex change.

  12. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, pcortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, pcortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  13. Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2002-12-15

    The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate.

  14. Motivation, stress, anxiety, and cortisol responses in elite paragliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Alix, Deborah; Rouveix, Matthieu; Le Scanff, Christine

    2007-06-01

    In this study metamotivational dominance (measured with the Telic Dominance Scale), precompetition anxiety (evaluated with the CSAI-2), perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale), and cortisol responses by 10 paragliding competitors prior to and following a paragliding competition were examined. Saliva was collected for each subject for cortisol analysis on eight occasions: during a resting day (baseline values) and prior to and after competition. Analysis indicated subjects were all paratelic-dominant (characterized by a desire for high arousal, a focus on the present). Scores were high on the Perceived Stress Scale and cognitive nxiety (a telic emotion). Cortisol values showed a significant increase early on the day of the competition and remained elevated all the day, with highest concentrations at the start. Participants' cognitive anxiety and cortisol responses were significantly correlated .79 just before the jump and the direction of the cognitive anxiety was rated as facilitative of performance. These results may suggest that the more frequently the subject is playful in life, the more cortisol they produce when aroused in a less frequent telic state.

  15. Planned Missing Data Designs for Spline Growth Models in Salivary Cortisol Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogue, C.M.; Pornprasertmanit, S.; Fry, M.D.; Rhemtulla, M.; Little, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is often used as an index of physiological and psychological stress in exercise science and psychoneuroendocrine research. A primary concern when designing research studies examining cortisol stems from the high cost of analysis. Planned missing data designs involve intentionally o

  16. Planned Missing Data Designs for Spline Growth Models in Salivary Cortisol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Candace M.; Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Fry, Mary D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is often used as an index of physiological and psychological stress in exercise science and psychoneuroendocrine research. A primary concern when designing research studies examining cortisol stems from the high cost of analysis. Planned missing data designs involve intentionally omitting a random subset of observations from data…

  17. Planned Missing Data Designs for Spline Growth Models in Salivary Cortisol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Candace M.; Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Fry, Mary D.; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary cortisol is often used as an index of physiological and psychological stress in exercise science and psychoneuroendocrine research. A primary concern when designing research studies examining cortisol stems from the high cost of analysis. Planned missing data designs involve intentionally omitting a random subset of observations from data…

  18. Group Lasso for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical properties of the group Lasso estimator for high dimensional sparse quantile regression models where the number of explanatory variables (or the number of groups of explanatory variables) is possibly much larger than the sample size while the number of variables in "active" groups is sufficiently small. We establish a non-asymptotic bound on the $\\ell_{2}$-estimation error of the estimator. This bound explains situations under which the group Lasso estimator is potentially superior/inferior to the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator in terms of the estimation error. We also propose a data-dependent choice of the tuning parameter to make the method more practical, by extending the original proposal of Belloni and Chernozhukov (2011) for the $\\ell_{1}$-penalized quantile regression estimator. As an application, we analyze high dimensional additive quantile regression models. We show that under a set of primitive regularity conditions, the group Lasso estimator c...

  19. A nonlabeled method to evaluate cortisol production rate by modeling plasma CBG-free cortisol disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Gayrard-Troy, Véronique,; Alvinerie, Michel; Smeyers, Hélène; Ricou, Raphael; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a nonlabeled method for the measurement of cortisol production rate to evaluate adrenal function. The cortisol production rate determination requires that of cortisol clearance, which is not a parameter but a variable resulting from the saturable binding of cortisol to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Our method is based on evaluation of the plasma clearance of the CBG-free cortisol fraction. This parameter was evaluated from a pharmacokinetic model of total ...

  20. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Mathilakath M Vijayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  1. Cortisol awakening response and cortisol/DHEA ratio associations with hippocampal volume in MDD

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Jin Rowen; Sara Mason; Mellon, Synthia H.; Reus, Victor I.; Epel, Elissa S.; Heather M. Burke; Rebecca Rosser; John Coetzee; Laura Mahan; Michelle Coy; J Craig Nelson; Hamilton, Steven P; Sally Mendoza; Weiner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of Hypothalamic-Pituatary-Adrenal (HPA) associations with hippocampal (HC) volume have yielded inconsistent results. This might be due to the use of basal cortisol rather than cortisol reactivity measures and to the use of cortisol in isolation from related steroids. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the relationship of HC volume to cortisol awakening responses (CARs) and to the ratio of cortisol/DHEA in depressed (MDD) subjects and healthy controls. We additionally assessed...

  2. Test-enhanced learning may be a gender-related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Charles B; Jensen, Morten Lind; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    student performance in a CPR scenario using a checklist and a single blinded assessor. We measured salivary cortisol pre-course, half an hour before the end of the course and post-course, and compared learning outcomes and cortisol responses between groups and genders. Results In total, 146 of 202 (72......%) students completed the study. We found a significant difference in learning outcome between the intervention and control groups for both genders (mean ± standard deviation, 5.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.006). We found a significant effect of increase in cortisol on learning outcome in men. The correlation between...... learning outcome and cortisol increase was medium to large for men (r = 0.38), but not for women (r = - 0.05). Conclusions Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills testing induces a rise in cortisol in men, which is related to the better retention of skills in men. Cortisol modulates test-enhanced learning...

  3. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Aleksei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13. Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions

  4. Stress eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting--does the oral application of cortisol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koessler, Susanne; Steidle, Laura; Engler, Harald; Kissler, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that stress and glucocorticoids can affect memory. Psychosocial stress has been reported to eliminate retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), the phenomenon that repeated retrieval of a subset of previously learned material impairs later recall of related, but non-retrieved information. The stress-related reduction of RIF has been found correlated with an increase in salivary cortisol levels. Based on these findings, the current placebo-controlled study examined the effect of an oral dose of 25mg hydrocortisone on the RIF effect in 37 healthy men. Even though participants in the hydrocortisone group showed a marked increase in salivary cortisol, retrieval-induced forgetting was not affected by the pharmacological treatment. Thus, cortisol administration alone in contrast to stress experience does not impair the RIF effect. However, participants with high state anxiety during retrieval practice did not show RIF, whereas participants with low state anxiety did. This finding suggests a role for state anxiety in stress-related elimination of retrieval-induced forgetting, perhaps indicative of a memory-modulating sympathetic nervous system effect.

  5. Are amino groups advantageous to insensitive high explosives (IHEs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wen, Yushi; Xiang, Bin; Long, Xinping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2012-10-01

    There is usually a contradiction between increasing energy densities and reducing sensitivities of explosives. The explosives with both high energy densities and low sensitivities, or the so-called insensitive high explosives (IHEs), are desirable in most cases. It seems from applied explosives that amino groups are advantageous to IHE but the amount of amino groups contained IHEs is very limited. To make this clear, we present systemic examinations of the effects on the two properties stressed in IHEs after introducing amino groups to different molecular skeletons. As a result, the amino groups on resonant sites to nitro groups in conjugated systems can improve distinctly sensitivities and change energy densities in terms of oxygen balance; while the amino groups in unconjugated systems can hardly increase energy densities and usually cause increased sensitivities. It agrees well with a fact that almost all the molecules of applied amino group contained explosives possess conjugated skeletons. We therefore confirm that if amino groups are introduced resonantly to a nitro group in a conjugated system and the introduction improves OB, they are advantageous to IHEs.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of Urinary Free Cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-28

    RIA determination of T issue cortisol levels as a function of psy- cortisol in human serum or plasma is sim-chological or physical stress have been...lo remove cross reacting materia ls and of— lution ( I : 9. v, v . 1 ransfe r 9 ml to a oi- lers t he con’, eni c nce ot us ing a commercial umet rie...dclerminitiions on plasma ~ ht,n the procedure rec-Radiocortisol working solution is pre- ommcndcd (is RtA of Catifornia is used i~ . 6 134 VOL. 14 . NO. 2, H.L.S

  7. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  8. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  9. Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative--COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  10. Spot determinations of urinary cortisol for the screening of Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Hata, K; Ogata, E; Kojima, I

    1991-08-01

    The usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushing's syndrome was evaluated by measuring the cortisol concentration in randomly sampled urine in 68 normal subjects and in 9 patients with Cushing's syndrome. The urinary cortisol concentration in the morning was significantly higher in patients with Cushing's syndrome but some overlap existed between normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome. In contrast, there was a clear discrimination between two groups when urinary cortisol was measured in the late evening: urinary cortisol was lower than 75 micrograms per gram creatinine (microgram/gCr) in normal subjects but higher than 150 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. When 1 mg dexamethasone was administered at 2300 h in the evening, spot urinary cortisol the next morning was less than 80 micrograms/gCr in normal subjects while it was above 100 micrograms/gCr in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Dexamethasone-induced suppression of urinary cortisol in normal subjects lasted until late in the afternoon, which allows sampling of urine at any time in the morning and possibly in the afternoon. These results suggest the usefulness of spot determination of urinary cortisol in the screening of Cushings' syndrome.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

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    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  12. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-03-01

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  13. Dietary macronutrient content alters cortisol metabolism independently of body weight changes in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, Roland H; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Homer, Natalie Z M; Wake, Deborah J; Morton, Nicholas M; Andrew, Ruth; Lobley, Gerald E; Walker, Brian R

    2007-11-01

    Dietary macronutrient composition influences cardiometabolic health independently of obesity. Both dietary fat and insulin alter glucocorticoid metabolism in rodents and, acutely, in humans. However, whether longer-term differences in dietary macronutrients affect cortisol metabolism in humans and contribute to the tissue-specific dysregulation of cortisol metabolism in obesity is unknown. The objective of the study was to test the effects of dietary macronutrients on cortisol metabolism in obese men. The study consisted of two randomized, crossover studies. The study was conducted at a human nutrition unit. Participants included healthy obese men. INTERVENTIONS, OUTCOME MEASURES, AND RESULTS: Seventeen obese men received 4 wk ad libitum high fat-low carbohydrate (HF-LC) (66% fat, 4% carbohydrate) vs. moderate fat-moderate carbohydrate (MF-MC) diets (35% fat, 35% carbohydrate). Six obese men participated in a similar study with isocaloric feeding. Both HF-LC and MF-MC diets induced weight loss. During 9,11,12,12-[(2)H](4)-cortisol infusion, HF-LC but not MF-MC increased 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) activity (rates of appearance of cortisol and 9,12,12-[(2)H](3)-cortisol) and reduced urinary excretion of 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced [(2)H](4)-cortisol metabolites and [(2)H](4)-cortisol clearance. HF-LC also reduced 24-h urinary 5alpha- and 5beta-reduced endogenous cortisol metabolites but did not alter plasma cortisol or diurnal salivary cortisol rhythm. In sc abdominal adipose tissue, 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity were unaffected by diet. A low-carbohydrate diet alters cortisol metabolism independently of weight loss. In obese men, this enhances cortisol regeneration by 11beta-HSD1 and reduces cortisol inactivation by A-ring reductases in liver without affecting sc adipose 11beta-HSD1. Alterations in cortisol metabolism may be a consequence of macronutrient dietary content and may mediate effects of diet on metabolic health.

  14. Age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, B; Wysham, C; Pfohl, B

    1985-09-01

    We studied the effect of age on the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol in 34 normal subjects, aged 18-75 yr. Blood was sampled at 20-min intervals beginning at 2000 h, and the data were analyzed using the PULSAR program and the cosinor method. There was a negative correlation between age and the time of the maximum cortisol concentration (r = -0.548; P = 0.001), the time of the nadir cortisol concentration (r = -0.543; P = 0.001), and the acrophase (r = 0.528; P = 0.001). When the subjects were divided into those 39 yr of age and younger and 40 yr of age and older, the times of the cortisol nadir, maximum, and acrophase were significantly earlier in the older group. The interval between the nadir and peak cortisol levels was not significantly different, consistent with an age-related phase advance of the cortisol circadian rhythm. Quantitative indices of adrenal function, including the 24-h mean cortisol concentration and the number of cortisol peaks as well as their amplitude and duration, were not different in the two groups. There was a significant negative correlation between age and customary bedtime (r = -0.686; P = 0.001) that may explain, in part, the phase advance in the older subjects. This observation strengthens the evidence that sleep onset is a major factor contributing to synchronization of the cortisol rhythm. Alternative explanations are that age-related changes in the control of hormonal and other rhythms have important influences on sleep and activity schedules, or that sleep and cortisol variables do not influence each other, but are both the final expression of some central change.

  15. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

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    Yun-Mi Jang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS.ResultsMidnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12 than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34 (P=0.001. Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4.ConclusionThe results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

  16. A two-year follow-up study of salivary cortisol concentration and the risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Kolstad, Henrik A.; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a suspected cause of depression. High cortisol concentration, a biomarker of an activated stress response, has been found in depressed patients. The aim of this study was to determine if a high level of salivary cortisol is a risk factor of depression. In 2007, we enrolled 4467 public...... employees. Morning and evening salivary cortisol concentration were measured for each participant. Participants reporting high levels of depressive, burnout, or stress symptoms, assessed by questionnaires were assigned to a psychiatric interview. In this interview 98 participants were diagnosed...... were estimated for every 1.0nmol/l increase in morning, evening, and daily mean cortisol concentration, as well as for the difference between morning and evening cortisol concentration. The risk of depression decreased by increasing daily mean cortisol concentration and by increasing difference between...

  17. Effects of Cortisol Administered through Slow-Release Implants on Innate Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    R. Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is a key hormone in the fish stress response with a well-known ability to regulate several physiological functions, including energy metabolism and the immune system. However, data concerning cortisol effects on fish innate immune system using a more controlled increase in cortisol levels isolated from any other stress related signaling is scarce. The present study describes the effect of doses of cortisol corresponding to acute and chronic levels on the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. We also evaluated the effects of these cortisol levels (from intraperitoneally implanted hydrocortisone on the mRNA levels quantified by RT-qPCR of selected key immune-related genes in the liver, head kidney, and spleen. For that purpose, 60 specimens of rainbow trout were divided in to two groups: a control group injected with a coconut oil implant and another group injected with the same implant and cortisol (50 μg cortisol/g body weight. Our results demonstrate the role of cortisol as a modulator of the innate immune response without the direct contribution of other stress axes. Our results also show a relationship between the complement and lysozyme activity in plasma and mRNA levels in liver, supporting the important role of this organ in producing these immune system proteins after a rise of cortisol in the fish plasma.

  18. HIV Sentinel Surveillance Among High Risk Groups: Scenario In Gujarat

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    L B Chavan, Prakash Patel, Vaibhav Gharat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of data so that appropriate action can be taken within time. Aims and Objective: The present annual HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS was carried out for monitoring trends of HIV epidemic in high risk group populations in selected sites of Gujarat state.. Methodology: The HSS was carried out in representative populations from High Risk Group (HRG like Female Sex Workers (FSW, Man having Sex with Man (MSM and Single Male Migrant. Target sample size was 250 at each HRG site (Female Sex Worker, Male Sex Male & SMM. Consecutive sampling was done at designated sentinel site for selecting the survey participants. Results: Overall 3726 samples (1494 FSWs, 1732 MSMs & 500 SMM were tested in the High risk group of HSS 2008. The overall sero-positivity in samples from FSWs, MSMs sites was 4.5%. Sero-positivity was more or less high (? 5% among FSWs as well as MSMs irrespective of age, place of residence, literacy level, occupation; and migration status. Conclusion: The overall trend of sero-positivity in High risk groups shows decreasing trend of HIV in the state from 2004 to 2008.

  19. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller KL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Katja Linda Waller,1,2 Erik Lykke Mortensen,2,3 Kirsten Avlund,2,3,†, Merete Osler,3,4 Birgitte Fagerlund,5 Martin Lauritzen,2,6 Steen Gammeltoft,7 Poul Jennum1,2 1Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Clinic of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Research Center for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark †Kirsten Avlund passed away on June 15, 2012 Abstract: Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than in the high-functioning group (−4.6 pg/mL, 95% CI: −7.84, −1.36, P=0.006. The 24

  20. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  1. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörelius, Evalotte; He, Hong-Gu; Shorey, Shefaly

    2016-03-18

    Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  2. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  3. Intimate partner violence is associated with increased maternal hair cortisol in mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Daruy-Filho, Ledo; Martinez, Manuela; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The chronic consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) on HPA activation are a topic of debate. The current study investigated hair cortisol concentrations in female victims of IPV and their children. A total of 52 mother-child dyads were divided into two groups depending on exposure to IPV: IPV group (n=27 dyads) and control group (n=25 dyads). Hair cortisol concentration was measured in 1-cm-long hair strands, representing 30days of exposure before assessment. PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed in the mother and child. Women reporting IPV presented with higher hair cortisol levels, depression and PTSD symptoms severity in comparison to control women. Children who witnessed IPV reported more severe PTSD symptoms, but depressive symptoms and hair cortisol were not statistically different than those in control children. Correlation analyses revealed a positive association between the number of injury events and the level of hair cortisol in children. No associations between the hair cortisol levels in mothers and those in their children were found. Higher hair cortisol levels detected in women exposed to IPV reflected long-lasting changes in HPA axis functioning associated with chronic stress exposure. Children whose parents recurrently engage in violent conflicts with intimate partners may often feel threatened and consequently reporting more PTSD-related symptoms. Given that experiencing and witnessing violence during childhood and adolescence are predictive of intimate partner violence in adulthood, the need of early interventions is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of covalent adducts between cortisol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and protein: possible role in the pathogenesis of cortisol toxicity and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The incubation of albumin with cortisol or 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone results in the formation of covalent steroid-protein adducts. The rate of adduct formation increases in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride (NaCNBH3), indicating that the reaction proceeds nonenzymatically through a Schiff base intermediate. Under nonreducing conditions, a stable adduct forms with cortisol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone but not with estrone, which lacks a hydroxyl group adjacent to the reactive carbonyl. It i...

  5. Beijing Encourages High-Risk Groups to Undertake AIDS Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    High-risk groups in Beijing, China's capital city, such as sex workers, drug-takers who share needles and gay communities are being encouraged to take voluntary counseling and tests (VCT) as part of an effort to stem the spread of AIDS. Tens of thousands of flyers have been distributed to disease control centers at district levels, and they will be handed to high-risk individuals by AIDS workers and volunteers over the next few weeks.

  6. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-11-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and (/sup 14/C)cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the /sup 3/H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the /sup 14/C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the /sup 3/H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6.

  7. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  8. Using saliva to measure endogenous cortisol in nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Kovach, Christine R; Raff, Hershel; Joosse, Laura; Basmadjian, Alicia; Hegadoren, Kathleen M

    2008-06-01

    Two research teams determined the feasibility of saliva collection for cortisol measurement in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. Study aims were to: (a) determine if sufficient saliva could be obtained for assay and (b) examine whether cortisol values exhibited range and variability for meaningful interpretation. Useable samples were consistent across sites, suggesting that saliva collection for cortisol assay is a viable method in this setting. Cortisol values showed range and variability. More than half of the residents showed the normal adult pattern of high morning levels decreasing throughout the day. A third of the participants demonstrated an increase in the evening cortisol levels, while the remaining profiles were flat, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation in this population.

  9. Cortisol, Health, and Coping in Patients with Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger;

    2016-01-01

    Subjective health complaints (SHC), including nonspecific low back pain (LBP) as the most common single complaint, are the main reasons for long-term sick leave in many western countries. These complaints are often attributed to "stress". Cortisol has frequently been considered a biomarker...... reflecting sustained physiological HPA-axis activity, and is characterized by a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low evening values. The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBP patients had a normal characteristic cortisol profile, and whether possible deviations were related to coping...... and health. 305 patients on long-term sick leave for LBP participated in the study, and saliva cortisol profiles were compared to a reference population consisting of Danish workers. Cortisol was measured upon awakening, after 30 min, and in the evening. Additionally, patients answered questionnaires about...

  10. Frontal lobe activation mediates the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hani D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-10-01

    Low sensation seekers are theorized to avoid risk more often because risk is emotionally more costly for them (in comparison to high sensation seekers). Therefore, individual differences in sensation seeking should predict differences in risk task-induced cortisol changes. Furthermore, the neural mediation that accounts for the relation between sensation seeking and cortisol changes has not been studied. The current study tested whether individual differences in sensation seeking predicted cortisol changes in relation to a risk task and whether this relation was mediated by frontal lobe activation. Participants (N=17) who varied in sensation seeking completed an fMRI study in which they rated the likelihood they would take various risks. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples collected prior to and after the fMRI procedure. The findings show that low sensation seekers showed the greatest rise in cortisol after the risk procedure, and this relation was partially mediated by increased orbitofrontal cortex activity.

  11. The effects of threatened social evaluation of the physique on cortisol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Social self preservation theory asserts that situations high in social-evaluative threat elicit increases in cortisol, a hormone released by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Most tests of the theory have examined threats associated with social evaluation of a performance. Two experiments examined the effects of threatened social evaluation of one's physique. In Experiments 1 (n = 50) and 2 (n = 40), participants allocated to an experimental (threat) condition had significantly higher post-manipulation cortisol than participants in a control (no threat) condition. In Experiment 1, perceptions of social-evaluative threat were significantly correlated with post-manipulation cortisol levels. These results suggest that the threatened social evaluation of one's body can activate the cortisol response. Women who frequently experience such threats may be at increased risk for a variety of health conditions associated with chronic cortisol exposure.

  12. Prefrontal serotonin transporter availability is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    higher cortisol responses when exposed to psychosocial stressors relative to high expressing 5-HTTLPR variants. However, it is not clear how the relation between SERT and cortisol output is reflected in the adult brain. We investigated the relation between cortisol response to awakening (CAR) and SERT...... binding in brain regions considered relevant to modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods: thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent in vivo SERT imaging with [11C]DASB-Positron Emission Tomography (PET), genotyping, and performed home-sampling of saliva to assess CAR. Results: CAR, defined...... between CAR and prefrontal SERT binding as tested by an interaction analysis (genotype×CAR). Conclusion: prefrontal SERT binding is positively associated with cortisol response to awakening. We speculate that in mentally healthy individuals prefrontal serotonergic neurotransmission may exert an inhibitory...

  13. Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Peres, Jeremy C; Dismukes, Andrew R; Lee, Yoojin; Phan, Jenny M

    2014-02-01

    The authors conjecture that to understand normal stress regulation, including cortisol stress reactivity, it is important to understand why these biomarkers are released and what they function to accomplish within the individual. This perspective holds that high (or rising) cortisol has advantages and disadvantages that must be understood within a context to understand how individual differences unfold. This perspective is juxtaposed with a popular vantage point of this stress hormone or of stress exposure that emphasizes the deleterious consequences or problems of this hormone. While the costs and benefits of cortisol are emphasized for normal stress regulation, this dynamic context-dependent purpose of stress hormones should extend to the development of psychopathology as well. This functional and dynamic view of cortisol is helpful for interpreting why Tackett and colleagues (2014) appear to observe advantageous cortisol recovery from stress in individuals with elevated personality disorder symptoms.

  14. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear.

  16. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS−) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS− than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS− differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  17. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pNeuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  18. Cortisol release in response to UVB exposure in Xiphophorus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Adam J; Boswell, Mikki; Downs, Kevin P; Pasquali, Amanda; Walter, Ronald B

    2014-06-01

    Xiphophorus fishes are comprised of 26 known species. Interspecies hybridization between select species has been utilized to produce experimental models to study melanoma development. Xiphophorus melanoma induction protocols utilize ultraviolet light (UVB) to induce DNA damage and associated downstream tumorigenesis. However, the impact of induced stress caused by the UVB treatment of the experimental animals undergoing tumor induction protocols has not been assessed. Stress is an adaptive physiological response to excessive or unpredictable environmental stimuli. The stress response in fishes may be measured by an assay of cortisol released into the water. Here, we present results from investigations of stress response during an experimental treatment and UVB exposure in Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B, Xiphophorus couchianus, and F1 interspecies hybrids produced from the mating X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus. Overall, cortisol release rates for males and females after UVB exposure showed no statistical differences. At lower UVB doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)), X. couchianus exhibited 2 fold higher levels of DNA damage then either X. maculatus or the F1 hybrid. However, based on the cortisol release rates, none of the fish types tested induced a primary stress response at the UVB lower doses (8 and 16kJ/m(2)). In contrast, at a very high UVB dose (32kJ/m(2)) both X. maculatus and the F1 hybrid showed a 5 fold increase in the cortisol release rate. To determine the effect of pigmentation on UVB induced stress, wild type and albino Xiphophorus hellerii were exposed to UVB (32kJ/m(2)). Albino X. hellerii exhibited 3.7 fold increase in the cortisol release while wild type X. hellerii did not exhibit a significant cortisol response to UVB. Overall, the data suggest the rather low UVB doses often employed in tumor induction protocols do not induce a primary stress response in Xiphophorus fishes.

  19. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (pathletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research.

  20. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  2. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  3. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  4. Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Rosengren, Malin; Del Villar, Diego

    2013-01-01

    (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating...... higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter...

  5. Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Joacim; Rosengren, Malin; Del Villar, Diego

    2013-01-01

    (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating...... higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter...

  6. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  7. Quantification of cortisol in human eccrine sweat by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Chew, Wade M; Feinstein, Yelena; Skeath, Perry; Sternberg, Esther M

    2016-03-21

    Cortisol has long been recognized as the "stress biomarker" in evaluating stress related disorders. Plasma, urine or saliva are the current source for cortisol analysis. The sampling of these biofluids is either invasive or has reliability problems that could lead to inaccurate results. Sweat has drawn increasing attention as a promising source for non-invasive stress analysis. A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of cortisol ((11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione) in human eccrine sweat. At least one unknown isomer that has previously not been reported and could potentially interfere with quantification was separated from cortisol with mixed mode RP HPLC. Detection of cortisol was carried out using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive ion mode, using cortisol-9,11,12,12-D4 as internal standard. LOD and LOQ were estimated to be 0.04 ng ml(-1) and 0.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. Linear range of 0.10-25.00 ng ml(-1) was obtained. Intraday precision (2.5%-9.7%) and accuracy (0.5%-2.1%), interday precision (12.3%-18.7%) and accuracy (7.1%-15.1%) were achieved. This method has been successfully applied to the cortisol analysis of human eccrine sweat samples. This is the first demonstration that HPLC-MS/MS can be used for the sensitive and highly specific determination of cortisol in human eccrine sweat in the presence of at least one isomer that has similar hydrophobicity as cortisol. This study demonstrated that human eccrine sweat could be used as a promising source for non-invasive assessment of stress biomarkers such as cortisol and other steroid hormones.

  8. Group Lasso estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bigot, Jérémie; Loubes, Jean-Michel; Alvarez, Lilian Muniz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Group Lasso estimator of the covariance matrix of a stochastic process corrupted by an additive noise. We propose to estimate the covariance matrix in a high-dimensional setting under the assumption that the process has a sparse representation in a large dictionary of basis functions. Using a matrix regression model, we propose a new methodology for high-dimensional covariance matrix estimation based on empirical contrast regularization by a group Lasso penalty. Using such a penalty, the method selects a sparse set of basis functions in the dictionary used to approximate the process, leading to an approximation of the covariance matrix into a low dimensional space. Consistency of the estimator is studied in Frobenius and operator norms and an application to sparse PCA is proposed.

  9. Serotonin and Cortisol as Suicidogenic Factors in Patients with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Grah, Majda; Mihanović, Mate; Svrdlin, Pero; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Restek-Petrović, Branka

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently occurs in commorbidity with different mental disorders, including suicidal behaviour. Group of biological factors, including serotonergic system, HPA axis and some genetic factors, are being studied as potential markers, able to differentiate suicidal and non-suicidal behaviour across the group of PTSD patients. This study is examining statistical relation between platelet serotonine concentration and serum cortisole concentration, within the g...

  10. Trajectories of Diurnal Cortisol in Mothers of Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Relations to Health and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%).…

  11. Trajectories of Diurnal Cortisol in Mothers of Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Relations to Health and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%).…

  12. High Mobility Group Proteins and Their Post-Translational Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qingchun; Wang, Yinsheng

    2008-01-01

    The high mobility group (HMG) proteins, including HMGA, HMGB and HMGN, are abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosome and other multi-protein complexes in a dynamic and reversible fashion to regulate DNA processing in the context of chromatin. All HMG proteins, like histone proteins, are subjected to extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as lysine acetylation, arginine/lysine methylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation, to modulate their inter...

  13. Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different subgroups of orthologs defined as major lineages (e.g. Proteobacteria or Firmicutes. Results Using correlations in entropy measures as a proxy for evolutionary pressure, we observed two distinct behaviors within our ortholog collection. The first subset of ortholog groups, called here informational, consisted mostly of proteins associated with information processing (i.e. translation, transcription, DNA replication and the second, the non-informational ortholog groups, mostly comprised of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. The evolutionary pressure acting on non-informational proteins is more uniform relative to their informational counterparts. The non-informational proteins show higher level of correlation between entropy profiles and more uniformity across subgroups. Conclusion The low correlation of entropy profiles in the informational ortholog groups suggest that the evolutionary pressure acting on the informational ortholog groups is not uniform across different clades considered this study. This might suggest "fine-tuning" of informational proteins in each lineage leading to lineage-specific differences in selection. This, in turn, could make these proteins less exchangeable between lineages. In contrast, the uniformity of the selective pressure acting on the non-informational groups might allow the exchange of the genetic material via lateral gene transfer.

  14. Effects of cortisol and growth hormone on the metabolism of liver and bone in children with malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, A; Sapan, N; Salantur, E

    1992-01-01

    A protein-energy deficit produces stress in the organism affecting all systems. Proportional to the degree of disease, cortisol and GH are mostly responsible for some of these effects. To investigate the effects on liver and bone, cortisol, GH, AST, ALT, ALP activities and Ca(T) and P(i) in serum were measured in 21 marasmus, nine kwashiorkor and 34 control children. In the marasmus group, we found a positive correlation between cortisol and AST, ALT and Ca(T) and a negative correlation between cortisol and ALP. In the kwashiorkor group there were positive correlations between the same parameters, although, they were of a lesser degree. Furthermore, in the kwashiorkor group we established a positive correlation between GH and ALP. Cortisol stimulates transaminases directly and suppresses ALP activity, thus indirectly increasing Ca(T), whereas GH has no direct effect on these enzymes. As the disease progresses and as liver functions deteriorate, AST, ALT and ALP increase in serum.

  15. Morning Cortisol Levels and Perceived Stress in Irregular Shift Workers Compared with Regular Daytime Workers

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    Harri Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24/7 work environment and irregular shifts may markedly enhance the psychological pressure of media work. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect adaptation to stress. We analysed the correlation between subjective stress, sleep, salivary cortisol, and melatonin hormones among Finnish media workers with regular daytime work (RDW and with irregular shift work (ISW while controlling confounders. From 874 employees with regular daytime work or with irregular shift work, 70 employees from both groups were randomly selected. The final number of employees with a complete salivary cortisol profile was 66 in the RDW group and 65 in the ISW group. Five saliva samples were gathered from each subject before and during a working day. The salivary cortisol level of the sample taken 60 minutes after awakening (T1 was compared to the salivary cortisol level taken immediately after awakening (T0, T1/T0 ratio. The ratio was higher in the ISW group than in RDW group. Irregular shift work (P<0.001, severe stress (P<0.05, and less sleep (P<0.05 were independently associated with an augmented cortisol response after awakening. A stressful work environment and irregular shift work enhance cortisol excretion after waking. In the long run, this may become detrimental to health.

  16. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

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    Castillo Victor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group. Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group. Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex.

  17. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy

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    Zakir Shaik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : The preferential occurrence of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC in males with a typical Type A personality and behavior and a relative absence in females is a possible indicator towards the role of serum cortisol and /or the male sex hormone testosterone. Aims : To study levels of cortisol and testosterone in ICSC. Settings and Design : Case-control study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : The study was conducted on 23 cases of ICSC. Twelve patients with unilateral sudden painless loss of vision of less than one month duration served as controls. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels at 8.00 a.m. were estimated by radioimmunoassay in both groups. Statistical analysis used : Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0 software. Independent Sample t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the two groups. Results : Mean age of patients with ICSC was 37.1 ± 9.7 years and 96% of the patients were males. Mean serum cortisol levels were significantly higher (P=0.002 in patients with ICSC i.e., 495.02 ± 169.47 nano moles/liter (nmol/L as compared to controls i.e., 362.25 ± 51.54 nmol/L. Mean serum testosterone levels were 3.85 ± 1.81 nano grams/ml (ngm/ml and 4.23 ± 1.89 ngm/ml in cases and controls respectively and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.58. Conclusions : ICSC is associated with elevated 8.00 a.m. serum cortisol levels. However, mean serum testosterone levels in both patients of ICSC and controls were within normal range.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for cortisol and cortisone determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasconi, Marco; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco; Mazzei, Franco

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we present a surface-plasmon-resonance-based immunosensor for the real-time detection of cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva samples. The method proposed here is simple, rapid, economic, sensitive, robust, and reproducible thanks also to the special features of the polycarboxylate-hydrogel-based coatings used for the antibody immobilization. The sensor surface displays a high level of stability during repeated regeneration and affinity reaction cycles. The immunosensor shows high specificity for cortisol and cortisone; furthermore, no significant interferences from other steroids with a similar chemical structure have been observed. The suitability of the hydrogel coating for the prevention of nonspecific binding is also investigated. A good correlation is noticed between the results obtained by the proposed method and the reference liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of cortisol and cortisone in urine and saliva samples. Standard curves for the detection of cortisol and cortisone in saliva and urine are characterized by a detection limit less than 10 microg l(-1), sufficiently sensitive for both clinical and forensic use.

  19. Crowding increases salivary cortisol but not self-directed behavior in captive baboons.

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    Pearson, Brandon L; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Judge, Peter G

    2015-04-01

    Reduced space can lead to crowding in social animals. Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. To determine the stress induced from increased social density in a group of nineteen baboons living in an indoor/outdoor enclosure, saliva cortisol levels and rates of anxiety-related behavior were analyzed across two unique crowding episodes. Initially, mean salivary cortisol levels when animals were restricted to their indoor quarters were compared to those when they also had access to their larger outdoor enclosure. Then, mean cortisol levels were compared before, during, and after two distinct crowding periods of long and short duration. Crowding resulted in significantly elevated cortisol during crowding periods compared to non-crowded periods. Cortisol levels returned to baseline following two crowding episodes contrasting in their length and ambient climate conditions. These cortisol elevations indicate greater metabolic costs of maintaining homeostasis under social stress resulting from reduced space. Self-directed behavior, conversely, was not reliably elevated during crowding. Results suggest that the potential for negative social interactions, and/or the uncertainty associated with social threat can cause physiological stress responses detected by salivary cortisol. Self-directed behavioral measures of stress may constitute inadequate indicators of social stress in colony-housed monkeys or represent subjective emotional arousal unrelated to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis activation.

  20. Cortisol suppression and hearing thresholds in tinnitus after low-dose dexamethasone challenge

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    Simoens Veerle L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is a frequent, debilitating hearing disorder associated with severe emotional and psychological suffering. Although a link between stress and tinnitus has been widely recognized, the empirical evidence is scant. Our aims were to test for dysregulation of the stress-related hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis in tinnitus and to examine ear sensitivity variations with cortisol manipulation. Methods Twenty-one tinnitus participants and 21 controls comparable in age, education, and overall health status but without tinnitus underwent basal cortisol assessments on three non-consecutive days and took 0.5 mg of dexamethasone (DEX at 23:00 on the first day. Cortisol levels were measured hourly the next morning. Detection and discomfort hearing thresholds were measured before and after dexamethasone suppression test. Results Both groups displayed similar basal cortisol levels, but tinnitus participants showed stronger and longer-lasting cortisol suppression after DEX administration. Suppression was unrelated to hearing loss. Discomfort threshold was lower after cortisol suppression in tinnitus ears. Conclusions Our findings suggest heightened glucocorticoid sensitivity in tinnitus in terms of an abnormally strong glucocorticoid receptor (GR-mediated HPA-axis feedback (despite a normal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR-mediated tone and lower tolerance for sound loudness with suppressed cortisol levels. Long-term stress exposure and its deleterious effects therefore constitute an important predisposing factor for, or a significant pathological consequence of, this debilitating hearing disorder.

  1. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

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    Serrano–Ostariz Enrique

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years, diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women.

  2. Elevation of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed patients.

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    Young, Allan H; Gallagher, Peter; Porter, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Elevated basal cortisol levels are a feature of depressive illness and cause deficits in learning and memory. The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has antiglucocorticoid properties that may offer protection against the deleterious effects of cortisol. The authors examined the ratio of cortisol to DHEA in drug-free depressed patients and a matched comparison group. Cortisol and DHEA were measured in saliva samples from 39 patients with unipolar depression who had been medication free for at least 6 weeks and 41 healthy comparison subjects. The molar cortisol-DHEA ratio was significantly higher in the depressed patients than in the healthy comparison subjects. Cortisol-DHEA ratios from saliva samples taken at 8:00 p.m. correlated positively with length of current depressive episode. Elevated cortisol-DHEA ratios may be a state marker of depressive illness and may contribute to the associated deficits in learning and memory. Administration of DHEA or other antiglucocorticoid treatments may reduce neurocognitive deficits in major depression.

  3. THE ROLE OF CORTISOL IN SKIN-DISXROMY

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone or glucocor ticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system. The primary control of cortisol is the primary gland, peptide, ACTH.

  4. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  6. Endogenous cortisol elevations are related to memory facilitation only in individuals who are emotionally aroused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Speck, Nicole S; Monticelli, Roxanne M

    2006-02-01

    Animal research suggests that cortisol facilitates memory only during emotional arousal. Thus, we predicted that during mild emotion and stress elicitation, endogenous cortisol elevations would predict memory facilitation only in individuals who report high stress-related negative affect. Thirty-one men viewed neutral and emotional stimuli and then were subjected to a public speaking stress task. Area under the curve for overall cortisol output during the speech was computed. Negative affect (NA) using the PANAS state version [Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Tellegen, A., 1988. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J. Personality Social Psychol. 54, 1063-1070.] was measured at baseline and immediately after the speech stressor. Cortisol output during the speech and change in NA interactively predicted free recall performance assessed 2 days later. This interaction was due to the finding that higher cortisol output was related to memory facilitation only in subjects who reported high stress-related negative affect (i.e. only in those individuals whose NA increased compared to baseline). This relation was especially prominent for recall of unpleasant pictures. Subjects who reported low stress-related negative affect, no relation was found between cortisol output during the speech and memory performance. Thus, the relation between cortisol and memory appears to depend on an increase in negative affect related to stress.

  7. Cortisol response to psychosocial stress during a depressive episode and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cortisol responses to a standardized psychosocial stressor during a major depressive episode (MDE) and again during remission in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-six individuals with no personal or family history of a major psychiatric disorder (NC) and 24 individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at Time 1 participated in the study. The MDD group showed robust cortisol responses during their index episode and after recovery. In contrast, the NC group showed habituation to the repeated psychosocial stressor, as evident in a flatter cortisol response profile at Time 2. Within the MDD group, net peak cortisol during the first stress test was positively associated with the duration of the index MDE and negatively associated with the total duration of all MDEs. Whereas summary indices of cortisol responses were relatively stable across repeated stress tasks within the MDD group, this was not the case for NC. Results demonstrate that cortisol responses fail to habituate to repeated psychosocial stress during recovery from an MDE and could reflect a trait-like marker of risk for recurrence.

  8. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample s...

  9. The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Roelofs, Karin; Rotteveel, Mark; van Dijk, J Gert; Spinhoven, Philip; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of photographs of happy and angry faces by making an approaching (flexion) or avoiding (extension) arm movement. The task consisted of an affect-congruent (approach happy faces and avoid angry faces) and an affect-incongruent (reversed instruction) condition. Behavioral and ERP analyses showed that cortisol enhanced congruency effects for angry faces in highly avoidant individuals only. The ERP effects involved an increase of both early (P150) and late (P3) positive amplitudes, indicative of increased processing of the angry faces in high avoidant subjects after cortisol administration. Together, these results suggest a context-specific effect of cortisol on processing of, and adaptive responses to, motivationally significant threat stimuli, particularly in participants highly sensitive to threat signals.

  10. Tandem mass spectrometry determined maternal cortisone to cortisol ratio and psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy-interaction with birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Charlotte; Edvinsson, Åsa; Olivier, Jocelien D; Fornes, Romina; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ubhayasekera, S J Kumari A; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bergquist, Jonas; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-07-01

    Maternal serum cortisol has been suggested to be influenced by psychiatric morbidity, and may also influence fetal growth. However, several studies found equal cortisol levels in depressed and healthy pregnant women. Placental 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) shields the fetus from maternal cortisol by conversion to cortisone, a function that may be compromised by maternal stress. We aimed to compare the serum ratio of cortisone to cortisol, in women with and without psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy. A secondary aim was to investigate whether fetal growth, approximated by infant birth weight, was associated with the cortisone to cortisol ratio. We performed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of serum cortisol and cortisone in late pregnancy in 94 women with antenatal psychiatric morbidity and 122 controls (cohort 1). We also compared the placental gene expression of HSD11B1 and 2 in another group of 69 women with psychiatric morbidity and 47 controls (cohort 2). There were no group differences in cortisol to cortisone ratio, absolute levels of cortisone and cortisol (cohort 1), or expression of HSD11B1 or 2 (cohort 2). However, cortisone to cortisol ratio was positively associated with birth weight in women with psychiatric morbidity, also after adjustment for gestational length, fetal sex, maternal height, smoking, SSRI use, and time of blood sampling (standardized β=0.35, pcortisone to cortisol ratio does not seem to be affected by psychiatric morbidity, but psychiatric morbidity may increase fetal exposure to cortisol or other metabolic factors influencing fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Evaluation of Psychological Factor and Salivary Cortisol and IgA Levels in

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    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic immunological disorder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to determine psychological factors and salivary cortisol, IgA level in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 20 patients with OLP and healthy person were admitted to this study. Saliva samples were collected between - Am. saliva cortisol, IgA level was detected by ELIZA method. In this study, patients with anxiety and depression were measured using the SCL-90 questionnaire. Data analyzed by t-test. Results: The mean salivary cortisol level in patients with OLP was 3.2±1.9 ng/mL and the mean saliva cortisol level in healthy person was 3.5±1.9 ng/mL. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups (p=0.04. The mean salivary IgA level in patients with OLP was 0.69±0.29 ng/mL and the mean saliva IgA level in healthy person was 0.9±0.43 ng/mL but no significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Results showed that anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls but there was no significant difference between healthy subjects. Conclusion: Finding revealed the mean salivary cortisol level in patient with OLP less than healthy persons. Significant difference was observed in the salivary cortisol levels in the 2 study groups. Based on the t-student test, no significant difference was observed in the salivary IgA levels in the 2 study groups. Anxiety levels in patients with oral lichen planus were slightly higher than controls.

  12. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

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    Roshni Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  13. [Isolation and properties of cortisol inducible and cortisol non-inducible isoenzymes of rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertvetsov, N P; Chesnokov, V N; Sakhno, L V; Salganik, R I

    1976-08-01

    Rat liver contains two groups of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoenzymes; during electrophoresis in agar gel one of the groups moves to the anode and the other--to the catode. Cortisol is shown to induce only the anode isoenzymes of TAT, which were isolated, purified and thoroughly analyzed. The inducible anode isoenzyme of TAT spearated from other proteins is more sensitive to the effect of proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) than the catode isoenzyme. Some kinetic parameters of the purified TAT isoenzymes were studied. Both isoenzymes have pH optimum around 7.5; their apparent Km values for tyrosine are also similar. However, the catode isoenzyme of TAT possesses a higher affinity for alpha-ketoglutarate than does the anode isoenzyme. Unlike the latter, the former isoenzyme may use oxaloacetate as an amino group acceptor. Pyridoxal phosphate is firmly bound to the catode isoenzyme and can be readily spearated from the anode isoenzyme during dyalisis. An increased sensitivity of the inducible isoenzyme to proteases is due not only to the possibility of coenzyme dissociation, but also to some specific properties of the apoenzyme. The results obtained support the assumption that a high sensitivity of the inducible isoenzymes to proteases provides for a removal of excessive amounts of the enzymes from the cells under cessation of hormonal induction, thus maintaining enzymatic homostasis in the cell.

  14. Influence of cortisol on adipose tissue development in the fetal sheep during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, A; Pearce, S; Budge, H; Elmes, M; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which the late gestation rise in fetal plasma cortisol influenced adipose tIssue development in the fetus. The effect of cortisol on the abundance of adipose tIssue mitochondrial proteins on both the inner (i.e. uncoupling protein (UCP)1) and outer (i.e. voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)) mitochondrial membrane, together with the long and short forms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) protein and leptin mRNA was determined. Perirenal adipose tIssue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which (i) cortisol (2-3 mg/day for 5 days) or saline was infused up to 127-130 days of gestation, and (ii) adrenalectomised and intact controls at between 142 and 145 days of gestation (term=148 days). UCP1 protein abundance was significantly lower in adrenalectomised fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and UCP1 was increased by cortisol infusion and with gestational age. Adrenalectomy reduced the concentration of the long form of PRLR, although this effect was only significant for the highest molecular weight isoform. In contrast, neither the short form of PRLR, VDAC protein abundance or leptin mRNA expression was significantly affected by gestational age or cortisol status. Fetal plasma triiodothyronine concentrations were increased by cortisol and with gestational age, an affect abolished by adrenalectomy. When all treatment groups were combined, both plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine concentrations were positively correlated with UCP1 protein abundance. In conclusion, an intact adrenal is necessary for the late gestation rise in UCP1 protein abundance but cortisol does not appear to have a major stimulatory role in promoting leptin expression in fetal adipose tIssue. It remains to be established whether effects on UCP1 protein are directly regulated by cortisol alone or mediated by other anabolic fetal hormones such as triiodothyronine.

  15. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention.

  16. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  17. Cortisol response to low dose versus standard dose (back-to-back adrenocorticotrophic stimulation tests in children and young adults with thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia major patients with repeated blood transfusion have high prevalence of endocrinopathies due to iron overload. Materials and Methods: We examined the adrenocortical function in 23 thalassemic patients (10 children and 13 young adults aged 8-26 years. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S concentrations were determined in each subject before blood transfusion both in basal condition and after low dose (LD (1 μg, followed by standard dose (SD (250 μg, respectively with synthetic corticotrophin beta 1-24 ACTH (Synacthen, Ciba. Normal controls were a group of 13 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Results: Using a peak total cortisol cutoff level of 550 nmol/L and increments of 200 μg above basal cortisol, adrenal insufficiency (AI was demonstrated in 8 patients (34.7% after the LD ACTH and in 2 patients (8.7% after SD cosyntropin (ACTH test, but none of the controls. Using a peak total cortisol cutoff level of 420 nmol/L and increments of 200 μg above basal cortisol, AI was demonstrated in 5 patients (21.7% after the LD ACTH and in 2 patients after SD ACTH test (8.7%, but none of controls. All patients with biochemical AI were asymptomatic with normal serum sodium and potassium concentrations and had no history suggestive of adrenal pathology. The peak cortisol concentrations in thalassemic patients with impaired adrenal function both after 1 μg and 250 μg cosyntropin (294 ± 51 nmol/L and 307 ± 58.6 were significantly lower than those with patients with normal (454 ± 79.7 nmol/L and 546.1 ± 92.2 nmol/L, respectively and controls (460.2 ± 133.4 nmol/L and 554.3 ± 165.8 nmol/L, respectively. Adolescents and young adults, but not children with thalassaemia, had significantly lower peak cortisol concentration after SD ACTH versus controls. Peak cortisol response to LD ACTH was correlated significantly with peak cortisol response to SD in all patients (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001. In adolescents and

  18. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic field (EMF emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term exposure EMF (group 3 testosterone and cortisol levels were increased (p<0.01, but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term EMF exposure (group 2 did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.

  19. Cortisol levels, binding, and properties of corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, L L; Murai, J T; Siiteri, P K

    1986-01-01

    New World primates have exceptionally high plasma levels of cortisol and other steroid hormones when compared with humans and other primates. It has been suggested that this difference can be explained by either low affinity or concentration of cellular steroid receptors. We have assessed cortisol availability in serum from several species of New and Old World primates under physiological conditions (whole serum at 37 degrees C). Measurements were made of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and affinity for cortisol, distribution of cortisol in serum, and its binding to albumin. In agreement with earlier reports, plasma free cortisol levels in Old World primates, prosimians, and humans range from 10-300 nM. However, very high total plasma cortisol together with low CBG binding capacity and affinity result in free cortisol concentrations of 1-4 microM in some New World primates (squirrel monkey and marmosets) but not in others such as the titi and capuchin. In squirrel monkeys, free cortisol levels are far greater than might be predicted from the affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor estimated in cultured skin fibroblasts. In addition to low affinity, CBG from squirrel monkeys and other New World primates exhibits differences in electrophoretic mobility and sedimentation behavior in sucrose density ultracentrifugation, suggestive of a molecular weight that is approximately twice that of CBG from other species. Together with other data these results indicate that the apparent glucocorticoid resistance found in New World primates is a complex phenomenon that is not easily explained by present concepts of glucocorticoid action.

  20. Simultaneous assay of cortisol and dexamethasone improved diagnostic accuracy of the dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Grethe Å; Methlie, Paal; Kellmann, Ralf; Bjørgaas, Marit; Åsvold, Bjørn O; Thorstensen, Ketil; Kelp, Oskar; Thordarson, Hrafnkell B; Mellgren, Gunnar; Løvås, Kristian; Husebye, Eystein S

    2017-06-01

    The overnight dexamethasone (DXM) suppression test (DST) has high sensitivity, but moderate specificity, for diagnosing hypercortisolism. We have evaluated if simultaneous measurement of S-DXM may correct for variable DXM bioavailability and increase the diagnostic performance of DST, and if saliva (sa) is a feasible adjunct or alternative to serum. Prospective study of DST was carried out in patients with suspected Cushing's syndrome (CS) (n = 49), incidentaloma (n = 152) and healthy controls (n = 101). Cortisol, cortisone and DXM were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Three hundred and two subjects underwent DST; S-cortisol was ≥50 nmol/L in 83 patients, of whom 11 had CS and 27 had autonomous cortisol secretion. The lower 2.5 percentile of S-DXM in subjects with negative DST (n = 208) was 3.3 nmol/L, which was selected as the DXM cut-off level. Nine patients had the combination of low S-DXM and positive DST. Of these, three had been misdiagnosed as having autonomous cortisol secretion. DST results were highly reproducible and confirmed in a replication cohort (n = 58). Patients with overt CS had significantly elevated post-DST sa-cortisol and sa-cortisone levels compared with controls; 23 of 25 with autonomous cortisol secretion had elevated sa-cortisone and 14 had elevated sa-cortisol. Simultaneous measurement of serum DXM and cortisol reduced false-positive DSTs by 20% and improved the specificity. S-DXM >3.3 nmol/L is sufficient for the suppression of cortisol <50 nmol/L. Measurement of glucocorticoids in saliva is a non-invasive and easy procedure and post-DST sa-cortisone was found particularly useful in the diagnosis of CS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Patrone

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a member of highly conserved non-histone DNA binding protein family, has been studied as transcription factor and growth factor. Secreted extracellularly by activated monocytes and macrophages or passively released by necrotic or damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 is a potent mediator of inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 has apparently contrasting biological actions: it sustains inflammation (with the possible establishment of autoimmunity or of self-maintaining tissue damage, but it also activates and recruits stem cells, boosting tissue repair. Here, we focus on the role of HMGB1 in physiological and pathological responses, the mechanisms by which it contributes to tissue repair and therapeutic strategies base on targeting HMGB1.

  2. Repeated salivary daytime cortisol and onset of mood episodes in offspring of bipolar parents

    OpenAIRE

    Goodday, Sarah M.; Horrocks, Julie; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; Grof, Paul; Duffy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Differences in cortisol secretion may differentiate individuals at high compared to low genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and predict the onset or recurrence of mood episodes. The objectives of this study were to determine if salivary cortisol measures are: (1) different in high-risk offspring of parents with BD (HR) compared to control offspring of unaffected parents (C), (2) stable over time, (3) associated with the development of mood episode onset/recurrence, and (4) influ...

  3. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  4. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  5. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Sousa GOMES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children’s behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children’s behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS and placebo (PS. An observer assessed the children’s behaviour (videos using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS. The children’s saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level. Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004, but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319 or placebo (p = 0.080 groups. Children’s behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  6. Cortisol level decreases natural killer cell activity among women with aircraft noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Hartono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the impacts of exposure to noise is stress. Natural killer (NK cells are one of the leukocyte subsets that are responsive to physiological and psychological stress. The objective of the present research was to determine the relationship between cortisol levels and NK cell activity among women with aircraft noise stress in the area of Adi Sumarmo Airport, Solo. This study was an analytical survey with a cross sectional design. The number of subjects was 39, who were divided into 3 groups of 13 subjects each. Groups 1 to 3 were exposed to noise levels of 92.29 dB, 71.79 dB and 52.17 dB, respectively. The sample was taken using simple random sampling. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test and Anova followed by post hoc test using LSD test. The Anova test showed that there were significant differences in circulating cortisol levels among all groups (p = 0.018. The Pearson correlation test showed that there was a positive association between circulating cortisol levels and the number of NK cells (r = 0.547; p< 0.05 and a negative association between circulating cortisol levels and NK cell activity (r = - 0.578; p < 0.05. This study indicated that cortisol levels decreased NK cell activity among women with exposure to aircraft noise. Women who experienced aircraft noise stress showed increased cortisol levels and decreased NK cells activity.

  7. Cortisol reactivity, maternal sensitivity, and learning in 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Trevathan, Wenda R

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. Sixty-three 3-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10 min normal interaction period, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony was measured using Isabella and Belsky's [Isabella, R. A., & Belsky, J. (1991). Interactional synchrony and the origins of infant-mother attachment: A replication study. Child Development, 62, 373-384] coding scheme. The percentage of synchronous behaviors served as a measure of maternal sensitivity. Learning and short-term memory involved relating the infant's mother's voice with a moving colored block in a preferential looking paradigm. Infants whose cortisol increased during the session showed no learning or memory, infants whose cortisol declined appeared to learn and remember the association, while infants whose cortisol did not change evidenced learning, but not memory for the voice/object correspondence. Sensitivity and cortisol reactivity were correlated for mothers, but not for infants. Infant and maternal cortisol values for the first sampling period were highly correlated, but their cortisol reactivity values were uncorrelated, supporting the notion that infants and mothers have coordinated adrenocortical functioning systems when physically together, but become uncoordinated during a separation/learning event.

  8. No PTSD-related differences in diurnal cortisol profiles of genocide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Cindy; Engler, Harald; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2009-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with reduced cortisol levels. Opposing results have been interpreted as resulting from methodological differences between studies. We investigated the diurnal profile of salivary cortisol in a population of highly traumatized adult males from Rwanda with and without PTSD, who spent the whole day of examination together under a maximally standardized schedule. Besides the detection of PTSD-related alterations in cortisol release we aimed at determining physiologically relevant effects of cumulative trauma exposure on HPA functioning in interaction with or independent of diagnosis. There were no differences in the diurnal pattern of cortisol release between subjects with and without PTSD. We observed an increasing prevalence of PTSD with increasing number of different traumatic event types experienced, replicating earlier results on a "building-block effect" of multiple traumatization. However, size of cumulative exposure was not related to any of the cortisol measures. The results suggest that besides methodological constraints also confounding factors not previously controlled for, e.g., sex differences or current life stress, might contribute to the diverging results of lowered, unchanged or enhanced cortisol secretion in PTSD. Future research should therefore closely monitor these possible confounds to optimize models for cortisol in research on stress-dependent illnesses.

  9. Electroweak renormalization group corrections in high energy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Melles, M

    2001-01-01

    At energies ($\\sqrt{s}$) much higher than the electroweak gauge boson masses ($M$) large logarithmic corrections of the scale ratio $\\sqrt{s}/M$ occur. While the electroweak Sudakov type double (DL) and universal single (SL) logarithms have recently been resummed, at higher orders the electroweak renormalization group (RG) corrections are folded with the DL Sudakov contributions and must be included for a consistent subleading treatment to all orders. In this paper we derive first all relevant formulae for massless as well as massive gauge theories including all such terms up to order ${\\cal O} (\\alpha^n \\beta_0 \\log^{2n-1} \\frac{s}{M^2})$ by integrating over the corresponding running couplings. The results for broken gauge theories in the high energy regime are then given in the framework of the infrared evolution equation (IREE) method. The analogous QED-corrections below the weak scale $M$ are included by appropriately matching the low energy solution to the renormalization group improved high energy resul...

  10. Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentrations over the day for young children in childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, A C; Parker, S W; Lane, S; Sebanc, A; Gunnar, M R

    2000-11-01

    The current study investigated whether patterns of cortisol production in preschool-aged children in group care were influenced by characteristics such as group size, adult:child ratio, separation from family/parents, and quality of attention and stimulation from the childcare provider. Data were obtained from preschoolers attending home-based childcare. Cortisol levels were sampled at home and at childcare. Parents and teachers assessed the child's temperament (CBQ, TBQ). At childcare, the children were observed using the Observational Ratings of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE). Childcare characteristics were independent of family or child characteristics. In home-based childcare, children's cortisol patterns over the day correlated significantly with the amount of attention and stimulation provided by the childcare provider. Using a median split on the quality index measure of focused attention/stimulation, children in settings that were above the median exhibited no change in cortisol from home to childcare, while those in settings below the median exhibited a reversal of the typical pattern of cortisol production from morning to afternoon. At home these children exhibited the expected decrease in cortisol from morning to afternoon. Patterns of cortisol production at childcare were also correlated with child temperament with larger increases from morning to afternoon for more emotionally negative children and those with less self-control. Finally, cortisol production in home-based childcare was compared to data from children in center-based childcare and children not enrolled in full-day childcare.

  11. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  12. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  13. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not agr

  14. Variation in maternal urinary cortisol profiles across the peri-conceptional period: a longitudinal description and evaluation of potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnaschy, P A; Salvante, K G; Zeng, L; Pyles, C; Ma, H; Blais, J C; Wen, L; Barha, C K

    2015-06-01

    weeks post-conception (89.29 ± 46.76 ng/ml). The magnitude of the increase between the pre- and post-conception periods varied significantly between women (likelihood ratio test statistic = 8.0017, P = 0.005). The peri-conceptional period is characterized by an increasing cortisol trajectory (+1.36% per day; P = 0.007) interrupted by a week-long decline immediately prior to conception (-4.02% per day; P = 0.0013). After conception cortisol increased again (+1.73% per day; P = 0.0008) for 4 weeks, fell in the fifth week (-6.60% per day; P = 0.0002) and increased again in post-conceptional week 6 (+8.86% per day; P = 0.002). Maternal urinary cortisol levels varied with sex of the gestating embryo. During gestational week 2, mothers carrying female embryos (N = 10) had higher mean cortisol levels than those carrying male embryos (N = 9) (t(17) = 2.28, P = 0.04). Our results are based on a relatively small sample (n = 22) of women. However, our repeated-measures design with an average of 27 ± 8 (mean ± SD) data points per woman strengthens the precision of estimates resulting in high statistical power. Additionally, our study population's high degree of ethnic and cultural homogeneity reduces the effects of confounders compared with those found in industrialized populations. This higher level of homogeneity also increases our statistical power. However, since there may be small differences in absolute cortisol values among ethnic groups, the social and biological background of our sample may affect the generalizability of our results. General patterns of HPAA activity, however, are expected to be universal across women. Finally, as there is, to the best of our knowledge, no evidence to the contrary, we assumed that urinary cortisol levels reflect HPAA activity and that changes in gonadal steroids across the menstrual cycle do not affect the levels of free cortisol measured in urine. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal profile of basal maternal HPAA activity

  15. Psychophysiological evidence for cortisol-induced reduction in early bias for implicit social threat in social phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, J.M. van; Spinhoven, P.; Roelofs, K.

    2010-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is important for the regulation of social motivational processes. High cortisol levels have been associated with social fear and avoidance, which play an important role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), as does hypervigilant processing of social threat. However, causal ef

  16. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Wester, Anne E.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Meijman, Theo F.

    2006-01-01

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol. mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels

  17. Salivary cortisol day curves in Addison's disease in patients on hydrocortisone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Walt, J S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Haarburger, D H; Pillay, T S

    2013-01-01

    Using salivary cortisol (SC) measurements, cortisol exposure in Addison's disease patients on hydrocortisone replacement was determined and compared with healthy controls. Cortisol pharmacokinetics was assessed in 31 patients with Addison's disease on replacement hydrocortisone doses (median daily dose 20 mg; range 5-50 mg) and 30 healthy control subjects. Saliva samples (n=16) were collected between 08:00 and 00:00 h in 1 day, using a passive drool technique. Cortisol exposure was evaluated by noncompartmental approach. In the patients, cortisol exposure was significantly higher than in controls: median inter-quartile range (IQR) peak cortisol (C(max)) 174.5 (59.3-837.0) vs. 6.50 (4.7-19.3) nmol/l, p=0.0001; area under the curve (AUC) 390.1 (177.1-928.9) vs. 21.4 (14.6-28.4) minutes*nmol/l, p=0.0001, trough cortisol level (C(min)) 0.49 (0.49-0.96) vs. 0.49 (0.49-0.49) nmol/l, p=0.02, occurring at 480.0 (0.1-660.0) vs. 405.0 (180.0-570.0) min, p=0.56. First peak cortisol was 174.5 (53.0-754.7) vs. 6.27 (3.90-8.47) nmol/l, p=0.0001 and second peak cortisol 18.90 (5.22-76.9) vs. 3.12 (1.76-4.79) nmol/l, p=0.0001. The time to first peak cortisol differed between the 2 groups, 30 (30-75) vs. 0.1 (0.1-30) minutes; p=0.0001. At doses studied, hydrocortisone replacement therapy results in cortisol pharmacokinetics being markedly different from endogenous cortisol profiles in healthy control subjects. Addison's disease patients had significantly higher SC levels compared to healthy control subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Attenuation of Morphine Physical Dependence and Blood Levels of Cortisol by Central and Systemic Administration of Ramelteon in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic administration of morphine cause physical dependence but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. The aim of this study is the assessment of systemic and intracerebroventricular (icv administration of ramelteon (a melatonin receptor agonist on morphine physical dependence. Methods: 88 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups, namely “systematic” and “central” administration of ramelteon. In the first category, systemic administration of ramelteon at various dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with positive (received morphine and saline as systemic administration, negative control (saline and group under treatment by ramelteon (40 mg/kg groups. In the second category, central administration of ramelteon at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg, was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with the positive control (received morphine and saline as icv and negative control (saline groups, and the group under treatment by ramelteon (50 μg/5 μl/rat. On the test day, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg and were observed for withdrawal signs. Total withdrawal score (TWS was also determined. Finally, to evaluate the stress level of dependent rats, blood cortisols were measured. Results: Central administration of ramelteon in all doses and systemic administration in high doses attenuate withdrawal syndrome in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Both central and systemic administrations of ramelteon can attenuate the blood cortisol level in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that central administration of ramelteon attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms and cortisol level as a stress marker.

  19. High solid and high stability waterborne polyurethanes via ionic groups in soft segments and chain termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, B K

    2009-08-01

    High solid and high stability waterborne polyurethanes were molecularly designed and synthesized. The positions and concentrations of the anionic groups were varied, along with the molecular weights of the polyol. It was found that the dispersions containing ionic groups at the chain termini (called terminal ions) gave the smallest dispersion size, and the highest dispersion stability and viscosity, whereas the hard ions, containing ionic groups in the hard segments, resulted in the greatest swelling in water. However, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the dispersion cast films were similar. It was demonstrated that highly stable dispersions with a high solid content (45%) can be obtained at a low ionic content (2%) by simply incorporating the ionic groups at the flexible chain ends. The results were interpreted in terms of the high mobility and low free energy of the chain ends.

  20. Influence of Cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Mota Martins; Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira; Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz; Camila Guedes Borges de Araújo; Francisco Erasmo de Oliveira; Gustavo Santos Sousa; Nadir do Nascimento Nogueira; Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Method: Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic...

  1. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  2. Fecal cortisol metabolite analysis for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terio, K A; Citino, S B; Brown, J L

    1999-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay was validated for quantifying excreted cortisol metabolites in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feces. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that immunoreactivity was associated with a water-soluble metabolite in fecal extracts from males and females. None of the immunoreactivity corresponded with free cortisol or corticosterone but rather was associated with a more polar, unidentified metabolite. To determine the biologic relevance of excreted immunoreactive cortisol metabolites, cheetahs were exposed to a variety of situations anticipated to increase cortisol secretion. First, to assess acute changes in adrenal activity, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 400 IU i.m.) was administered to two adult males and two adult females. Pre-ACTH baseline serum cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations varied among individuals. Serum cortisol concentrations were elevated above baseline within 10 min of ACTH injection, followed by corresponding increases in fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations (690-4,194% above baseline) 48 hr later in three of four cheetahs. In the fourth cheetah, a smaller increase (334% above baseline) in fecal cortisol metabolite excretion was observed 96 hr after ACTH injection. Seven cheetah females also were subjected to a variety of potentially stressful manipulations, including immobilization, translocation, and introduction to a male to assess the ability of this technique to detect physiologic changes in adrenal activity. Increased fecal corticoid metabolite excretion was observed 24-72 hr after exposure to these exogenous stressors. Results indicate that adrenocortical activity can be monitored noninvasively in the cheetah through analysis of these metabolites. This technique could be valuable for evaluating, and thus optimizing, environmental and management conditions and for investigating the role of stress in disease pathogenesis and the usually poor reproductive performance of this species in

  3. Serum cortisol concentrations during induced hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia are associated with neurological outcome in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Giampietri, Matteo; Fiorentini, Erika; Bartalena, Laura; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ciampi, Mariella; Boldrini, Antonio; Ghirri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a cause of neonatal death or adverse neurological sequelae. Biomarkers can be useful to clinicians in order to optimize intensive care management and communication of prognosis to parents. During perinatal adverse events, increased cortisol secretion is due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We aimed to investigate if cortisol variations during therapeutic hypothermia are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared 18 cases (neonates with birth asphyxia) with 18 controls (healthy term newborns) and confirmed increased serum cortisol concentrations following the peri-partum adverse event. Among cases, we stratified patients according to neurological outcome at 18 months (group A - good; group B - adverse) and found that after 24 h of therapeutic hypothermia serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower in group A vs group B (28.7 ng/mL vs 344 ng/mL, *p = 0.01). In group B serum, cortisol concentration decreased more gradually during therapeutic hypothermia. We conclude that monitoring serum cortisol concentration during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia can add information to clinical evaluation of neonates with birth asphyxia; cortisol values after the first 24 h of hypothermia can be a biomarker associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.

  4. [HTLV-I infection in a high-risk group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, E; Ollero, M; Gimeno, A; Colchero, J; Alcoucer, R; Márquez, P

    1990-07-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the presence of HTLV-1 in a high-risk population in west Andalusia. We studied 267 samples of serum from 255 patients: 179 of these patients being intravenous drug-users, 14 had ADVP sexual partners, 16 were inhalation drug-users, 4 were hemophiliacs, 9 had other high-risk habits and 25 hematological patients afflicted with leukemia or lymphoma. All of them were tested for antibodies against HTLV-1 by means of an in vitro qualitative ELISA technique (ELISA Du Pont HTLV-1). The positive results were confirmed by the Western blot technique. Additionally, the p24 antigen and the antibodies against VIH-1 and VIH-2 (ENV/CORE) were analysed, except in the 25 hematological patients. We found 20 serum samples positive to HTLV-1 by ELISA (7.4%), but only 1 (0.3%) was confirmed by the Western blot technique. The prevalence of VIH-1 was 46%; 9% had p24 VIH antigen and 26% had false positive ELISA to VIH-2. We found a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0005) between positive ELISA to HTLV-1 and antibodies against VIH. We conclude that HTLV-1 has penetrated into the high-risk population of west Andalusia , although not yet to a great degree, and point out the need for seric epidemiological surveillance to prevent the spread of the retrovirus in these groups.

  5. Egg cortisol exposure enhances fearfulness in larvae and juvenile rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colson, Violaine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Geffroy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an early boost of cortisol exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs during fertilisation on subsequent behavioural responses when exposed to a sudden stimulus in larvae and juveniles. At 55 d post-fertilisation (dpf), treatment had no effect on high...... accelerations occurring after a sudden event. At 146 dpf, these high accelerations were more frequent in cortisol-treated fish than in controls. At 146 dpf also, swimming activity was increased in cortisol-treated fish both before and after the sudden stimulus. This study underlines the important behavioural...... modifications in both larvae and juveniles, linked to a change in the surrounding environment of the embryo. Indeed, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs showed a higher level of fearfulness later in life. Our findings are of major interest for stress management in an aquaculture context and also allow for a better...

  6. Cortisol secretion and change in sleep problems in early childhood: Moderation by maternal overcontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Hummel, Alexandra C; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18-20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers' cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood.

  7. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  8. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  9. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  10. Seasonal carryover effects following the administration of cortisol to a wild teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Hasler, Caleb T; Philipp, David P; Cooke, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    Stress can have sublethal effects that are manifested either immediately or at spatial or temporal scales that are removed from the stress event (i.e., carryover effects). We tested whether a short-term elevation of plasma cortisol would result in seasonal carryover effects in wild largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Using exogenous hormone implants, we raised circulating cortisol concentrations in a group of wild fish for approximately 5 d in October 2007. We then compared activity (velocity, distance traveled) of cortisol-treated animals with that of sham-treated and control animals throughout the winter using an automated acoustic telemetry array. Immediately following treatment, the cortisol-treated fish showed increased activity relative to controls. However, this difference disappeared following the cessation of the elevation of circulating cortisol. During the winter of 2007 to 2008, the lake experienced a nearly complete winterkill event, providing insight into how a transient stress response can influence the response of wild animals to subsequent challenges. Most fish carrying acoustic transmitters succumbed during this winterkill event, but cortisol-treated fish died earlier than fish in other groups and showed a decrease in activity relative to controls and sham-treated fish before mortality. This study provides preliminary evidence of seasonal carryover effects in wild fish and yields insight into the ecological consequences of stress across broad temporal scales.

  11. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  13. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-12-30

    The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80 healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically significant decreases were found in awakening salivary cortisol (P=0.04) and in all day salivary cortisol (P=0.02) in the escitalopram group compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress between the intervention groups. These findings from a randomised clinical trial suggest that a long-term escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity measured by salivary cortisol compared with inert placebo. However, change in salivary cortisol was one out of multiple outcome measures. The results of the present trial do not refute salivary cortisol as a potential endophenotype for depression.

  14. Seasonal effects on plasma cortisol concentrations in the Bedouin buck: circadian studies and response to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, N; Mormede, P; Foury, A; Khammar, F; Amirat, Z

    2017-03-01

    Our work aims at the exploration of cortisol secretion in the Bedouin goat, native to the Algerian Sahara desert, to understand the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme hot climates. In the present study, diurnal and seasonal variations of cortisol concentrations were measured in basal conditions, as well as the response to ACTH stimulation tests across seasons in bucks. The plasma concentrations of cortisol showed no diurnal cycle but a large variation across seasons. The highest levels occurred in summer and winter when the environmental conditions are at their extreme levels. The rectal temperature showed nychthemeral and seasonal variations, and BW was also different across seasons with highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The results obtained after administration of two doses (2 or 10 μg/kg BW) of synthetic ACTH to three different age groups (kids, adults and elderly animals) showed a strong increase in plasma cortisol concentrations under all conditions with maximum levels achieved between 15 and 120 min. The analysis of the area under the cortisol curve showed no significant difference between the responses to the two doses of ACTH and between age groups, but showed seasonal variations with the lowest response in autumn than in other seasons. We conclude that season significantly affects secretion of cortisol in both basal state and under ACTH stimulation. However, the variation of adrenal reactivity to ACTH is not sufficient to explain seasonal differences, and in particular the summer peak in basal circulating cortisol concentrations. Further research should focus on the respective contribution of environmental factors (such as day length, temperature, humidity) and the mechanisms involved in cortisol regulation.

  15. A STUDY ON PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM CORTISOL IN DETERMINING THE OUTCOME IN THE CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients are at risk for the development of adrenal insufficiency of critical illness (AICI. This may present as hypotension, unresponsiveness to catecholamine infusions, and/or ventilator dependence. The study aims at the prognostic value of serum cortisol in determining the outcome in the critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY : The study was conducted at the General Medicine and Intensive Care units of SMS Medical college Hospital, Jaipur. It was a Hospital based Case control study done over one year period. Patients were enrolled in to two groups after matching factors like age, sex etc. Those fulfilling definition of critical illness and APACHE II score>20 were enrolled as cases ( G roup A and those with non - critical illness were included in control group ( G roup B. Venous blood samples for serum cortisol were drawn under aseptic conditions at morning 8AM. Serum cortisol level was determined by Chemo Luminescent Immuno Assay. Cortisol levels were then compared between group A and group B patients. Later correlation between serum cortisol and outcome in these groups was analyzed. RESULTS: 80 patients admitted in Medical ICU and wards, who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and were grouped in to group A (40 Critically – ill and Group B (40 non Critically – ill and were followed till discharge or death. Group A, mean cortisol level was 33.68 μg / dl , and in group B mean cortisol level was 15.94 μg / dl and the difference was statistically significant p=0.001. There was a positive correlation between APACHE II score and cortisol level and was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: C ortisol level is increased in critically ill and can be used as a prognostic marker of mortality in critically ill. Correlation between APACHE II score and cortisol in our study proposes cortisol level as an alternative to complicated APACHE II score in predicting outcome in critically ill patients

  16. A Selective Review of Group Selection in High Dimensional Models

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many statistical modeling problems. Several methods have been proposed for variable selection that respect grouping structure in variables. Examples include the group LASSO and several concave group selection methods. In this article, we give a selective review of group selection concerning methodological developments, theoretical properties, and computational algorithms. We pay particular attention to group selection methods involving concave penalties. We address both group selection and bi-level selection methods. We describe several applications of these methods in nonparametric additive models, semiparametric regression, seemingly unrelated regressions, genomic data analysis and genome wide association studies. We also highlight some issues that require further study.

  17. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  18. The aetiological association between the dynamics of cortisol productivity and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by salivary cortisol. The phenotypic and aetiological association of cortisol productivity with ADHD was investigated. A selected twin design using 68 male twin-pairs aged 12–15, concordant or discordant for high ADHD symptom scores, or control twin-pairs with low ADHD symptoms, based on developmentally stable parental ADHD ratings. A genetic growth curve ...

  19. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  20. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD.

  1. Ear tagging in piglets: the cortisol response with and without analgesia in comparison with castration and tail docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numberger, J; Ritzmann, M; Übel, N; Eddicks, M; Reese, S; Zöls, S

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to compare the cortisol response caused by ear tagging piglets with the distress caused by other known painful husbandry procedures (e.g. castration and tail docking) and to evaluate the effectiveness of analgesia with meloxicam to reduce the cortisol response caused by these procedures. In total, 210 male piglets were randomised to equal numbers (n=30) into one of seven groups: a control group which was only handled (H), an ear tagged group that received no analgesia (ET), an ear tagged group with analgesia (ETM), a castration group with no analgesia (C), a castration group with analgesia (CM), a tail-docked group with no analgesia (TD) and a tail-docked group with analgesia (TDM). The procedures were carried out on day 3 or 4 after farrowing. Five blood samples were taken from each piglet: 30 min before the respective procedure (baseline value), and 30, 60 min, 4 and 7 h after processing, to assess cortisol concentrations. Means as well as the area under the curve (AUC) value were analysed and the effective sizes of the procedures were established. At 7 h after the experimental treatment, cortisol concentrations had returned to base values in all groups. ET evoked a greater cortisol response than H piglets at 30 min (Pear tagging causes a dramatic increase in cortisol levels compared with handling alone in piglets, which suggests that this procedure causes substantial distress. However, further research is needed to confirm these results.

  2. Determination of cortisol and cortisone in human saliva by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Nakamura, Odete Hirata; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechko

    2014-11-01

    Salivary cortisol measurement plays an important role in the evaluation of adrenal function. Its high correlation with free serum cortisol, the easy of sampling and the limited presence of interfering steroids, generated multiple recent studies of its application, in special in the screening of adrenal hyperfunction. In this paper we present our experience in the development of a high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for salivary cortisol and cortisone measurement. For this study we used 181 saliva samples from our routine diagnostic laboratory. The HPLC-MS/MS method was based on a Waters Quattro Premier tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray probe. After derivatization with hydroxylamine transitions monitored included cortisol and cortisone. An in-house radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used for salivary cortisol results comparison. Functional sensitivity was 24 ng/dL for cortisol and linearity from 24 to 1929 ng/dL. Saliva cortisol values obtained in the 181 samples presented a median of 52 ng/dL with 5-95% percentile of 24 and 374 ng/dL. With the RIA the results were 86, 25 and 436 ng/dL, respectively, with values for RIA being significantly higher (PCortisone measured in 159 samples showed a median of 278 ng/dL, with 5-95% percentile of 100 and 1,133 ng/dL. Correlation with cortisol values was significant (r=0.820, Pcortisone measurement and the evaluation of 11βHSD2 activity.

  3. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of Momordica charantia in edema paw and in cortisol seric modulation; Potencial antiinflamatorio da Momordica charantia no edema de pata e na modulacao do cortisol serico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnata, Simey S.L.P. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: sfmagnata@terra.com.br; Correia, Marilia B.L.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson C.; Souza, Grace M.L.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Terra, Daniele A.; Amorim, Lucia F. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2005-07-01

    The first sources that the humanity disposed to disease's treatment was plants and herbs. The Momordica charantia, Melao de Sao Caetano (bitter melon), occur in South and Central America and in East, it has been used as an anti-diabetic agent, anti-tumor, anti-helmintic and anti-ulcerogenic. The objective of this study is to research the Momordica charantia's activity on inflammatory process and the change on cortisol hormone seric concentration. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity were used mice (n=5) in test groups (30,60,100,250 mg/kg of extract) and control (negative and positive) groups (AAS 250 mg/kg and NaCl 0,9%); the inflammatory agent (carrageenan 1% p/v, 0,1 mL) was injected into right hind paw planter surface, 30 min after, the groups received each dose IP of extract, AAS and solution saline respectively; 4 hour after the mice was sacrificed and the difference between right and left hind foot mass was measured. There was a significant reduction (p<0,05)in carrageenan-induced edema paw at test from control group, the best result was obtained at 60 mg/kg dose which inhibits edema formation by 50%. To determinate the cortisol concentrations male Wistar rats, were divided in three groups: control, test A (2 hours of treatment) and test B (4 hours of treatment). The control group received 0,25 mL of saline solution (NaCl) 0,9% and the test groups 0,25 mL of Momordica charantia's aqueous extract, obtained by decoction of green leaves, (31,16 mg/kg animal); all by via IP. After the treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the serum obtained for realization of dosages. The cortisol was determined through radioimmunoassay. The results showed a reduction on a average by 83,9% from control group. The Momordica charantia's extract showed a high anti-inflammatory effect and was capable of reducing the seric cortisol on normal rats. (author)

  5. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were...... and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than...... in the high-functioning group (-4.6 pg/mL, 95% CI: -7.84, -1.36, P=0.006). The 24-hour mean melatonin concentration (high-functioning group: 4.80±0.70 pg/mL, vs cognitively impaired group: 4.81±0.76 pg/mL; P>0.05) (or the area under the curve, AUC) was not significantly different between the two groups...

  6. Salivary and serum cortisol and relation to blood pressure in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2015-10-01

    Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis possibly explains the relation between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in later life. Very-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight blood pressure, already in early childhood. We investigated cortisol levels, relation to blood pressure and reliability of salivary cortisol in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants. We included 41 children, participating in the randomized controlled Neonatal Insulin Replacement Therapy in Europe (NIRTURE) trial. Serum and salivary samples for cortisol measurement (immunoassay) were taken simultaneously at 6 mo and separately at 2 y corrected age. Blood pressure was measured at 2 y corrected age. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys and in the early-insulin treated group. At 2 y corrected age serum cortisol was significantly higher in the early-insulin group compared to the standard care group. At 6 mo corrected age salivary cortisol was significantly correlated to serum cortisol. In very-low-birth-weight boys, the positive correlation between cortisol and blood pressure is present at 2 y corrected age. Early insulin therapy could affect programming of the HPA axis. Salivary cortisol mirrors serum levels at 6 mo corrected age.

  7. Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Flannery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

  8. Low cortisol levels and the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Hermans, Erno J; Putman, Peter

    2003-10-27

    The neuro-endocrinological basis of psychopathy, a disorder characterized by lack of fear, is relatively unknown. However, low levels of cortisol may result in fearlessness and have been observed in individuals with psychopathic tendencies. Low fear models state that psychopaths are not motivated to avoid punishment, especially when reward is pending. In agreement, disadvantageous decision making on the IOWA gambling task in psychopaths and psychopathic analogous, indicates low punishment sensitivity and high reward dependency. Here, it was investigated whether low basal cortisol levels predicted the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency in the same manner. As hypothesized, the most disadvantageous pattern of decision making was found in the subjects with the lowest cortisol levels. These findings suggest that low levels of cortisol may set the balance between the sensitivity for punishment and reward dependency towards a pre-disposition for psychopathy.

  9. Sparse group lasso and high dimensional multinomial classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Hansen, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    group lasso classifier. On three different real data examples the multinomial group lasso clearly outperforms multinomial lasso in terms of achieved classification error rate and in terms of including fewer features for the classification. An implementation of the multinomial sparse group lasso...

  10. Food restriction alters salivary cortisol and α-amylase responses to a simulated weightlifting competition without significant performance modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durguerian, Alexandre; Filaire, Edith; Drogou, Catherine; Bougard, Clément; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-05-05

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a 6-day food restriction period on the physiological responses and performance of 11 high-level weightlifters. After a period of weight maintenance (T2), they were assigned into two groups depending on whether they lost (Diet group, n = 6) or maintained their body weight (Control group, n = 5) during the course of those 6 days. An evaluation of performance and the measurement of salivary cortisol concentrations and salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity were performed during a simulated weightlifting competition which took place at T2, after a 6-day period of food restriction (T3). Dietary data were collected using a 6-day diet record. We noted a 41.8% decrease in mean energy intake during the dietary restriction period, leading to a 4.34% weight loss for the Diet group. Dietary restriction did not modify absolute performance levels, whilst a significant improvement was noted for the Control group. Furthermore, we noted a response of decreased salivary cortisol and increased sAA activity to the simulated competition stress at T3 for the Diet group. These results may indicate that dietary reduction led to a dissociation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adreno-medullary system, which could impair training adaptations and absolute performance development.

  11. Stress-coping and cortisol analysis in patients with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: an explorative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Gassling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic clefts of the orofacial region occur in approximately 1 per 500 to 2,500 live births, depending on geographical area and ethnicity. It can be supposed that the disruption of the normal facial structure and the long-standing pressure of treatment from birth to adulthood bring about a range of life stressors which may lead to a long-lasting impact on affected subjects throughout their lives. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess different aspects of psychosocial stress in affected individuals. METHODS: The study was divided into two parts: first, the Trier Social Stress Test which involves uncontrollability and high levels of social-evaluative stress under real conditions and second, the query of various aspects of coping with psychosocial stress. The test group consisted of 30 affected adult subjects, and an equally sized control group of unaffected volunteers. Cortisol dysregulation was determined by saliva samples before and after stress induction. Meanwhile, participants were asked to complete the SVF 120 stress-coping questionnaire. RESULTS: The analysis of saliva samples showed a similar baseline concentration as well as a similar increase in cortisol levels after stress induction for both groups. Subsequently, the decline in cortisol concentrations was significantly faster in the CLP group (course: p<0.001; groups: p = 0.102; interaction: p = 0.167. The evaluation of the stress-coping questionnaire revealed a significantly shorter rumination about a stressful event in individuals with CLP-related malformations (p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: We conclude that adults with CLP have significantly better stress-coping strategies than their healthy peers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Organization DRKS00003466.

  12. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  13. High-mobility group box-1 in sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, A; Tohme, S; Billiar, T R

    2014-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a ubiquitous nuclear protein, but it was later determined that the protein has different roles both inside and outside of cells. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription, whereas cytosolic HMGB1 is involved in inflammasome activation and autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 has drawn attention because it can bind to related cell signalling transduction receptors, such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR9. It also participates in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. HMGB1 is actively secreted by stimulation of the innate immune system, and it is passively released by ischaemia or cell injury. This review focuses on the important role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic sterile inflammatory conditions. Strategies that target HMGB1 have been shown to significantly decrease inflammation in several disease models of sterile inflammation, and this may represent a promising clinical approach for treatment of certain conditions associated with sterile inflammation. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  14. Circulating maternal cortisol levels during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernholm, Ylva Vladic; Nyberg, Annie; Cardell, Monica; Höybye, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Maternal S-cortisol levels increase throughout pregnancy and peak in the third trimester. Even higher levels are seen during the physical stress of delivery. Since analgesia for women in labor has improved, it is possible that maternal stress during labor is reduced. The aim of this study was to compare maternal S-cortisol during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section. Twenty healthy women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and healthy women (n = 20) undergoing elective cesarean section were included in the study. S-cortisol was measured during three stages of spontaneous vaginal delivery (tvd1, tvd2 and tvd3), as well as before and after elective cesarean section (tcs1 and tcs2). In the vaginal delivery group, mean S-cortisol at tvd1 was 1325 ± 521 nmol/L, at tvd2 1559 ± 591 nmol/L and at tvd3 1368 ± 479 nmol/L. In the cesarean section group, mean S-cortisol at tcs1 was 906 ± 243 nmol/L and at tcs2 831 ± 257 nmol/L. S-cortisol was higher in the vaginal delivery group at the onset of labor as compared to the cesarean section preoperative group (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences between S-cortisol levels postpartum as compared to postoperatively (p cesarean section, indicating higher stress levels. A reduction in the hydrocortisone dose at childbirth in women with adrenal insufficiency should be considered, particularly in women undergoing an elective cesarean section.

  15. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ivars

    Full Text Available Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life.130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30, noon (10:00-12:00 and evening (19:30-21:30, each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist.A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life.Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  17. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Ravussin, Eric; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interact to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, especially during stress. Pima Indians have a low SNS activity, which may contribute to both their increased risk of obesity and reduced risk of hypertension. Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol and muscle SNS activity [muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (MSNA), microneurography] in 58 males [27 Pimas/31 Caucasians]. Seven Pimas and 12 Caucasians were randomized to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to examine the effect of overnight partial chemical adrenalectomy (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P fasting cortisol and basal MSNA. Administration of metyrapone did not lead to significant changes in MSNA. In response to a hydrocortisone infusion, MSNA decreased in Pima Indians (P = 0.03) but not in Caucasians (P = 0.7). Our data indicate that the low SNS activity that predisposes Pima Indians to obesity is not due to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population.

  18. Cortisol mediates the effects of stress on the contextual dependency of memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Kindt, Merel

    2014-03-01

    Stress is known to exert considerable impact on learning and memory processes. Typically, human studies have investigated memory for single items (e.g., pictures, words), but it remains unresolved how exactly stress may alter the storage of memories into their original encoding context (i.e., memory contextualization). Since neurocircuitry underlying memory contextualization processes is sensitive to the well-known stress hormone cortisol, we here investigated whether cortisol mediates stress effects on memory contextualization. Forty healthy young men were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress or control group. Ten minutes after stress manipulation offset, participants were instructed to learn and remember neutral and negative words, each of which was depicted against a unique background picture. Approximately 24h later, memory was tested by means of cued retrieval and recognition tasks. To assess memory contextualization half of the words were tested in intact item-contexts pairs, and half in rearranged item-context combinations. Recognition data showed that cortisol, but no other indices of stress such as heart rate or subjective stress, mediated the effects of stress on contextualization of neutral and negative memories. The mediation analysis further showed that stress resulted in increases in cortisol and that cortisol was positively related to memory contextualization, but unrelated to other measures of memory. Thus, there seems to be a specific role for cortisol in the integration of a central memory into its surrounding context.

  19. Stress and cortisol responses in men: differences according to facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2017-09-19

    Stress response is associated with increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Chronic stress-induced elevation in cortisol may alter its own negative regulation with multiple long-term consequences for physical and psychological health. One of the most reliable physical traits associated with mental, apparent physical health, and competitiveness is the degree of facial fluctuating asymmetry. However, to our knowledge there are no studies regarding the relationship between cortisol levels, facial symmetry and male competitiveness, and how cortisol changes after a stressful test depending on these traits. Here, a group of 100 college men were photographed to obtain their facial asymmetry levels. They then, answered the perceived stress scale and the intrasexual competition test and donated two saliva samples (pre-and post-test sample) to measure the change in their cortisol levels after a stressful test. We found that basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with both perceived stress and competitiveness, but not with facial fluctuating asymmetry. Cortisol levels increased in most symmetrical men after a short stressful test, but it decreased in most asymmetrical men. The results suggest differences in endocrine responses according to facial fluctuating asymmetry in men and how these responses could be related to the maintenance of social status.

  20. Cortisol and self-report measures of anxiety as predictors of neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Shelley; Skeel, Reid

    2012-05-01

    Although increased anxiety and cortisol reactivity can disrupt neural activity and impact cognition, little research has evaluated associations between anxiety, cortisol, and performance on neuropsychological instruments. The current study investigated the relationship between exogenous salivary cortisol activity and self-report state anxiety on measures tapping a variety of cognitive domains. Fifty-eight male participants were randomly assigned to either a control (no stress induction) or an experimental condition simulating testing anxiety. Self-report state anxiety measures and saliva samples were jointly collected on three occasions. The experimental group generally performed worse than controls on declarative memory and working memory tests. Cortisol and self-report anxiety were not correlated. Inverse relationships were demonstrated between self-report anxiety and neuropsychological test scores. Baseline levels of cortisol at session arrival were positively associated with facilitative memory effects, though there was little association between changes in cortisol and cognitive performance. This study highlights the importance of considering the impact of anxiety during neuropsychological evaluations.

  1. Daily cortisol production rate in man determined by stable isotope dilution/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, N.V.; Loughlin, T.; Yergey, A.L.; Zawadzki, J.K.; Booth, J.D.; Winterer, J.C.; Loriaux, D.L. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Growth retardation as well as the development of Cushingoid features in adrenally insufficient patients treated with the currently accepted replacement dose of cortisol (33-41 mumol/day.m2; 12-15 mg/m2.day) prompted us to reevaluate the cortisol production rate (FPR) in normal subjects and patients with Cushing's syndrome, using a recently developed thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The stable isotope (9,12,12-2H3)cortisol was infused continuously for 31 h at about 5% of the anticipated FPR. Blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals for 24 h, spun, and pooled in 4-h groups. Tracer dilution in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated with controlled infusions in 6 patients with adrenal insufficiency. Results from 12 normal volunteers revealed a FPR of 27.3 +/- 7.5 mumol/day (9.9 +/- 2.7 mg/day) or 15.7 mumol/day.m2; 5.7 mg/m2. day. A previously unreported circadian variation in FPR was observed. Patients with Cushing's syndrome demonstrated unequivocal elevation of FPR and cortisol concentration correlated during each sample period in normal volunteers, indicating that cortisol secretion, rather than metabolism, is mainly responsible for changes in plasma cortisol. Our data suggest that the FPR in normal subjects may be lower than previously believed.

  2. Inhibition of cortisol production with metyrapone prevents mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction and baroreflex impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Andrew J M; Korszun, Ania; Abdelaal, Eltigani; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Christopher J H; Nash, Gerard B; Ray, Clare; Deanfield, John; Frenneaux, Michael P

    2005-07-19

    This study was designed to investigate the role of cortisol in stress-induced endothelial dysfunction and impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) by blocking cortisol production with metyrapone before subjecting healthy volunteers to mental stress. Mental stress raises cortisol levels and is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality, especially from sudden cardiac death. It also causes endothelial dysfunction and impaired BRS. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function, and BRS in 36 subjects without CHD risk factors who were then randomized in a double-blind fashion to oral metyrapone 750 mg x 2 or placebo. Five hours later we subjected subjects to mental stress and then remeasured endothelial function and BRS. Prestress cortisol levels were significantly higher in the placebo group at 270.5 (30.9) nmol/l versus 89.1 (11.8) nmol/l (p = 0.01), and the increase with stress was higher at 57.9 (17.9) nmol/l versus 11.2 (2.2) nmol/l (p Analysis of covariation showed a significant effect of metyrapone on change in both FMD (p = 0.009) and BRS (p = 0.024). Stress-related endothelial dysfunction and BRS impairment can be prevented by blocking cortisol production with metyrapone, demonstrating a direct or facilitative role for cortisol in these phenomena and suggesting mechanisms by which stress contributes to CHD and sudden cardiac death.

  3. The relationship between 63days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S L; Schenk, H M; van der Veen, A; van Rossum, E F C; Kema, I P; Rosmalen, J G M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. METHODS: Ten

  4. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  5. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  6. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward

  7. Emotional memory can be persistently weakened by suppressing cortisol during retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Cortisol's effects on memory follow an inverted U-shaped function such that memory retrieval is impaired with very low concentrations, presumably due to insufficient activation of high-affine mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), or with very high concentrations, due to predominant low-affine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Through corresponding changes in re-encoding, the retrieval effect of cortisol might translate into a persistent change of the retrieved memory. We tested whether partial suppression of morning cortisol synthesis by metyrapone, leading to intermediate, circadian nadir-like levels with presumed predominant MR activation, improves retrieval, particularly of emotional memory, and persistently changes the memory. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design, 18 men were orally administered metyrapone (1g) vs. placebo at 4:00 AM to suppress the morning cortisol rise. Retrieval of emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 days earlier) was assessed 4h after substance administration and a second time one week later. Metyrapone suppressed endogenous cortisol release to circadian nadir-equivalent levels at the time of retrieval testing. Contrary to our expectations, metyrapone significantly impaired free recall of emotional texts (pcortisol to nadir-like concentrations not only impairs acute retrieval, but also persistently weakens emotional memories corroborates the concept that retrieval effects of cortisol produce persistent memory changes, possibly by affecting re-encoding.

  8. Cortisol secretion and functional disabilities in old age: importance of using adaptive control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Miller, Gregory E; Schulz, Richard

    2009-11-01

    To examine whether the use of health-related control strategies moderates the association between elevated diurnal cortisol secretion and increases in older adults' functional disabilities. Functional disabilities of 164 older adults were assessed over 4 years by measuring participants' problems with performing activities of daily living. The main predictors included baseline levels of diurnal cortisol secretion and control strategies used to manage physical health threats. A large increase in functional disabilities was observed among participants who secreted elevated baseline levels of cortisol and did not use health-related control strategies. By contrast, high cortisol level was not associated with increases in functional disabilities among participants who reported using these control strategies. Among participants with low cortisol level, there was a relatively smaller increase in functional disabilities over time, and the use of control strategies was not significantly associated with changes in functional disabilities. The findings suggest that high cortisol level is associated with an increase in older adults' functional disabilities, but only if older adults do not engage in adaptive control strategies.

  9. Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn; Trumbell, Jill M

    2012-10-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a normative rise in cortisol levels across the 30 minutes post awakening. Both the levels and the degree of change in cortisol across this time period are sensitive to the perceived challenges of the day and are thought to prepare the individual to meet these tasks. However, working parents of young children may be under unique strains at this time as they attempt to simultaneously care for their children while also preparing themselves for the workday ahead. In these analyses we examined the contributions of both work and parenting stress on maternal cortisol levels and awakening responses, and how these relationships differed on workdays compared with nonworkdays. To do this, saliva samples were collected from 56 working mothers (25% single) with a child between the ages of 2 and 4 years old (mode = 2 children), at awakening and 30 min postawakening. Samples were collected on 4 consecutive days-2 nonworkdays followed by 2 workdays. Analyses revealed mothers reporting higher levels of parenting stress had higher average a.m. cortisol on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Further, mothers reporting a combination of high job strain and high parenting stress had significantly higher cortisol levels and steeper CAR increases on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Findings are discussed by integrating knowledge from the fields of parenting stress, work-family, and stress physiology.

  10. The stress hormone cortisol blocks perceptual learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinse, Hubert R; Kattenstroth, J C; Lenz, M; Tegenthoff, M; Wolf, O T

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid (GC) in humans, influences neuronal excitability and plasticity by acting on mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Cellular studies demonstrated that elevated GC levels affect neuronal plasticity, for example through a reduction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). At the behavioural level, after treatment with GCs, numerous studies have reported impaired hippocampal function, such as impaired memory retrieval. In contrast, relatively little is known about the impact of GCs on cortical plasticity and perceptual learning in adult humans. Therefore, in this study, we explored the impact of elevated GC levels on human perceptual learning. To this aim, we used a training-independent learning approach, where lasting changes in human perception can be induced by applying passive repetitive sensory stimulation (rss), the timing of which was determined from cellular LTP studies. In our placebo-controlled double-blind study, we used tactile LTP-like stimulation to induce improvements in tactile acuity (spatial two-point discrimination). Our results show that a single administration of hydrocortisone (30mg) completely blocked rss-induced changes in two-point discrimination. In contrast, the placebo group showed the expected rss-induced increase in two-point discrimination of over 14%. Our data demonstrate that high GC levels inhibit rss-induced perceptual learning. We suggest that the suppression of LTP, as previously reported in cellular studies, may explain the perceptual learning impairments observed here.

  11. Influence of cortisol, gonadal steroids and an energy deficit on biochemical indicators of bone turnover in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, U; Finsler, S; Claus, R

    2003-03-01

    In the pig a high growth potential seems to favour a disposition for skeletal problems. Hormones of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis as well as cortisol and gonadal steroids are endocrine determinants of the anabolic potential but their effects on bone turnover in pigs have not been described. Thus, key hormones were either infused for 7 days (cortisol, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), oestradiol) or influenced by Metyrapone (inhibition of cortisol synthesis) or energy deficit (increasing GH). Each treatment was carried out in six growing barrows/treatment. Bone turnover was characterized by daily measurements indirect parameter of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, osteocalcin (OC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) respectively. All treatments except cortisol infusion seemed to favour bone formation, as they led either to a pronounced increase in OC (Metyrapone: +14%) or to significantly reduced TRAP (DHT: -9%, E2: -17%, energy deficit: -25%) followed by significantly higher OC (DHT: +9%, E2: +6%, energy deficit: +18%). Cortisol infusion affected bone loss mainly by a severe inhibition of osteoblastic activity (OC: -61%). Some reactions are explained by direct effects of the infused gonadal steroids on bone cells (inhibition of osteoclasts) or of the experimentally modified cortisol levels (inhibition of osteoblasts by cortisol). Other effects seem to be mediated by concomitant changes of IGF-I (inhibition of osteoclasts after energy deficit or cortisol) and GH-secretion (increased osteoblastic activity during energy deficit), respectively. Consequences for co-ordinated bone turnover are discussed.

  12. Changes in mood states and salivary cortisol levels following two months of training in elite female water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corrado, Donatella; Agostini, Tiziano; Bonifazi, Marco; Perciavalle, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Psychological and physiological markers have been used to maximize competitive sport preparation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two months of training and competitions on mood states and salivary cortisol diurnal variation in 15 female elite water polo players. The results demonstrated that the β coefficient values of the regression slope of cortisol values on sampling time was significantly flatter following the training period. The values of the area under the cortisol curve (AUC) 'with respect to ground' (AUCg) and those of the β coefficients of the slope of the diurnal change in cortisol levels were highly negatively correlated. The slope correlated positively with the dysfunctional Profile of Mood States scale and negatively with the functional scale. AUCg correlated negatively with dysfunctional factors and positively with the vigor index. These findings support the hypothesis that subclinical hypocortisolism and a flattened diurnal rhythm of cortisol may play a role in determining dysfunctional mood states.

  13. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    full-term children. Importantly, in the preterm group, greater neonatal procedural pain-related stress (adjusted for morphine) was associated with lower cortisol levels on the study day (p=.044) and lower diurnal cortisol at home (p=.023), with effects found primarily in boys. In addition, child attention problems were negatively, and thought problems were positively, associated with the cortisol response during cognitive assessment on the study day in preterm children. Our findings suggest that neonatal pain/stress contributes to altered HPA axis function up to school-age in children born very preterm, and that sex may be an important factor.

  14. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    bedtime compared to full-term children. Importantly, in the preterm group, greater neonatal procedural pain-related stress (adjusted for morphine) was associated with lower cortisol levels on the study day (p=0.044) and lower diurnal cortisol at home (p=0.023), with effects found primarily in boys. In addition, child attention problems were negatively, and thought problems were positively, associated with the cortisol response during cognitive assessment on the study day in preterm children. Our findings suggest that neonatal pain/stress contributes to altered HPA axis function up to school-age in children born very preterm, and that sex may be an important factor. PMID:25313535

  15. Parenting stress and salivary cortisol in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Longitudinal variations in the context of a service dog's presence in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Stéphanie-M; Boivin, Louise; Trudel, Marcel; Corbett, Blythe A; Harrell, Frank E; Viau, Robert; Champagne, Noël; Picard, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A significant portion of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report high levels of stress related to parenting responsibilities, which have been linked to abnormal cortisol patterns. This study seeks to better understand the parents' adaptation to caregiving demands and use of a service dog, by taking into account longitudinal variations in salivary cortisol and perception of parental stress. Salivary cortisol was collected one day per week for 15 weeks by 98 primary caregivers of children with ASD. Overall, parents perceived high levels of stress at baseline. Mean morning cortisol increase was below expected levels for healthy adults, and perception of stress predicted morning cortisol activity. Hypocorticolism related to chronic stress may be present in parents of children with ASD. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the presence of a service dog in the family had an effect on parenting stress, wakening and morning cortisol levels.

  16. Investigating the impact of sex and cortisol on implicit fear conditioning with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-01-01

    Fear conditioning is influenced by stress but opposing effects in males and females have often been reported. In a previous human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we observed acute effects of the stress hormone cortisol on prefrontal structures. Men showed evidence for impaired fear conditioning after cortisol treatment, while the opposite pattern was found for women. In the current experiment, we tested whether similar sex-dependent effects would occur on the neural level if contingency awareness was prevented experimentally to investigate implicit learning processes. A differential fear conditioning experiment with transcutaneous electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus and geometric figures as conditioned stimuli (CS) was conducted. One figure was always paired (CS+), whereas the other (CS-) was never paired with the UCS. Thirty-nine (19 female) subjects participated in this fMRI study, receiving either placebo or 30 mg cortisol (hydrocortisone) before conditioning. Dependent variables were skin conductance responses (SCRs) and neural activity (BOLD signal). In line with prior findings in unaware participants, no differential learning could be observed for the SCRs. However, a sex x cortisol interaction was detected with a reduced mean response to the CS after cortisol treatment in men, while the opposite pattern was observed in women (enhanced mean SCR under cortisol). In the contrast CS+ minus CS-, neural activity showed a sex x cortisol interaction in the insula and further trends in the hippocampus and the thalamus. In these regions, cortisol reduced the CS+/CS- differentiation in men but enhanced it in women. In contrast to these sex specific effects, differential amygdala activation was found in the placebo group but not in the cortisol group, irrespective of sex. Further, differential neural activity in the amygdala and thalamus were positively correlated with the SCRs in the placebo group only. The present study in contingency

  17. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  18. Cortisol and α-Amylase Secretion Patterns between and within Depressed and Non-Depressed Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne H Booij

    Full Text Available Associations between biological stress markers and depression are inconsistent across studies. We assessed whether inter- and intra-individual variability explain these inconsistencies.Pair-matched depressed and non-depressed participants (N = 30 collected saliva thrice a day for 30 days, resulting in 90 measurements per individual. The relationships between measures of stress-system function and depression were examined at the group level by means of mixed model analyses, and at the individual level by means of pair-matched comparisons. The analyses were repeated after adjusting for time-varying lifestyle factors by means of time-series regression analyses.Cortisol and α-amylase levels were higher, the α-amylase/cortisol ratio larger, and the daily cortisol slope steeper in the depressed compared to the non-depressed group. Adjusting for lifestyle factors and antidepressant use reduced the associations under study. In 40%-60% of the matched comparisons, depressed individuals had higher cortisol and α-amylase levels, a larger α-amylase/cortisol ratio, and a steeper daily slope than their non-depressed match, regardless of adjustment.Our group-level findings were mostly in line with the literature but generalization to individuals appeared troublesome. Findings of studies on this topic should be interpreted with care, because in clinical practice the focus is on individuals instead of groups.

  19. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders.

  20. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; ROSS, RANDAL G .; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  1. Stress of dying is not suppressed by high-dose morphine or by dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Zeynel A; Klooker, Tamira; Endert, Eric; Huitinga, Inge; Swaab, Dick F

    2004-01-01

    Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation is a response of the organism to psychological and physical stress, resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol in humans. In our previous studies we found post-mortem blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels to be up to 20-fold higher than in vivo levels. Since clinical observations point to similar strong elevations of cortisol in fatally ill patients, we suggested that the high post-mortem cortisol levels might be due to the stress during the process of dying. We hypothesized that if the cortisol rise during dying is due to the psychological stress of the impending death, then the rise in cortisol should be inversely proportional to the degree of dementia, and that high-dose morphine giving analgesia, sedation, and sleep would suppress this response. Therefore, we measured the cortisol levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the post-mortem CSF of 85 Alzheimer patients and 52 controls. In addition, post-mortem serum cortisol of 17 subjects from the Alzheimer group and nine from the control group were measured. The Alzheimer patients were subdivided according to their degree of dementia, as scored on the Reisberg Scale, before their death. All groups were further analyzed for the effect of morphine treatment, as well as for the effects of the confounding factors like age, gender, time, and season of death. Alzheimer patients had significantly higher cortisol levels than controls, both in CSF (mean (nmol/l)+/-SEM: 482+/-32 vs 285+/-30, respectively, plevel of the severely demented Alzheimer group was even significantly higher than that of mildly demented group (508+/-35 vs 225+/-65, p=0.024) and controls (plevels correlated positively with the degree of dementia in the Alzheimer group (r=0.236, p=0.035). High-dose morphine did not cause a suppression of cortisol rise, neither in controls nor in Alzheimer patients. Our results indicate that the extreme elevations of cortisol levels

  2. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: relation to familiar risk of affective disorder, BDNF levels and salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Bennike, Bente

    2009-01-01

    with a familiar risk of affective disorder and whether these genotypes affect whole blood BDNF level and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with and without a co-twin (high- and low-risk twins, respectively) history of affective disorder were identified...... familiar risk of affective disorder and the met allele was associated with a higher whole blood BDNF (p=0.02) and a higher evening cortisol level (p=0.01), but not with awakening cortisol. CONCLUSION: Individuals at high risk of affective disorders and who are carriers of the met allele of the Val66Met...

  3. Naturalistic Stress and Cortisol Response to Awakening: Adaptation to Seafaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Jonathan; Abelson, James L.; King, Anthony; Liberzon, Israel

    2008-01-01

    Study of the hypothalmic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been critical to advancing our understanding of human adaptation to stress. The cortisol response to awakening (CRA) is a potentially useful measure for understanding group and individual differences in HPA axis regulation. In this study, the CRA was examined in the context of a naturalistic stressor – a six-week voyage of work and study aboard an oceangoing ship, including both experienced and novice sailors. Thirty-one subjects provided weekday and weekend baseline CRA data onshore prior to boarding, followed by three CRAs at sea and one shore leave CRA. Subjective measures of sleep, stress and control were also collected. Results suggest that novice sailors' cortisol response to awakening was elevated at sea relative to both a shoreside weekend and a shore leave during the voyage, but the most striking elevation was found during a workday onshore. Inexperienced students' profiles changed differently over the course of the voyage from those of professional crew. CRAs were not affected by sleep variables and were not predicted by subjective ratings. These data support the value of the cortisol response to awakening as a neuroendocrine marker of HPA regulatory responses to a naturalistic stressor, influenced by changes in work and living environment, and perhaps prior experience with the stressor. PMID:18657911

  4. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypertension and the Cortisol-Cortisone Shuttle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinkler, Marcus; Stewart, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) plays a crucial role in converting hormonally active cortisol to inactive cortisone, thereby conferring specificity on the mineralocorticoid receptor...

  6. Effects of epinephrine and cortisol on the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yavuz; Saglam, Mustafa Bahadir; Yildirim, Kadir; Karatay, Saliha; Polat, Beyzagul; Uslu, Turan; Suleyman, Halis; Akcay, Fatih

    2011-09-01

    Some endogenous hormones (epinephrine and cortisol) can change an individual's pain threshold. Propranolol is a non-selective β adrenergic receptor blocker which antagonises the anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs via the β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors. The roles of epinephrine and cortisol were investigated in the analgesic activity of metyrosine in rats with reduced epinephrine levels induced by metyrosine. Pain threshold measurement was performed using an analgesimeter with different doses and the single or combined usage of metyrosine, prednisolone, metyrapone and propranolol in rats. Epinephrine and corticosterone levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in metyrosineadministered rats. Metyrosine reduces the epinephrine levels without affecting the corticosterone levels, thereby creating an analgesic effect. It was determined that prednisolone did not have an analgesic effect in rats with normal epinephrine levels, but its analgesic activity increased with a parallel decrease in the epinephrine levels. Similarly, the combined use of prednisolone and metyrosine provided a stronger analgesic effect than that rendered by metyrosine alone. The strongest analgesic effect, however, was observed in the group of rats with the lowest epinephrine level in whom the metyrosine + prednisolone combination was administered. The findings of this study may be useful in severe pain cases in which the available analgesics are unable to relieve the individual's pain.

  7. Predictors of hair cortisol concentrations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    People at older ages are at increased risk for developing stress-related diseases associated with chronically elevated cortisol secretion. However, the main factors contributing to such endocrine alterations in this age group are still largely unknown. This cross-sectional study examined patterns of long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as assessed in hair, in a sample of 654 participants in middle and old adulthood (mean age: 65.8 years; range: 47-82 years) from the German cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study in Potsdam. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined from the first scalp-near 3 cm hair segment and several sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, disease-related, and psychological parameters were assessed. In simple linear regressions, HCC were found to increase with participants' age and to be higher in men compared to women. HCC also showed positive associations with waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, smoking, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental health, daytime sleeping, and being unemployed or retired--as well as a negative association with diastolic blood pressure. After full mutual adjustment, only age and smoking remained independent predictors of HCC. The association between prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus and HCC was attenuated but still persisted independently in women. Similar, a positive relationship between HCC and alcohol consumption was found in women. The current results confirm previous evidence of positive associations of HCC with age, sex, alcohol consumption, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and add new knowledge on factors--such as smoking--that may contribute to elevated cortisol levels in people at older ages.

  8. Social interactions and cortisol treatment increase the production of aggressive electrocommunication signals in male electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kent D; Pelczar, Patricia L; Knapp, Rosemary

    2002-09-01

    Brown ghost knife fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, continually emit a weakly electric discharge that serves as a communication signal and is sensitive to sex steroids. Males modulate this signal during bouts of aggression by briefly (approximately 15 ms) increasing the discharge frequency in signals termed "chirps." The present study examined the effects of short-term (1-7 days) and long-term (6-35 days) male-male interaction on the continuous electric organ discharge (EOD), chirping behavior, and plasma levels of cortisol and two androgens, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and testosterone. Males housed in isolation or in pairs were tested for short-term and long-term changes in their EOD frequency and chirping rate to standardized sinusoidal electrical stimuli. Within 1 week, chirp rate was significantly higher in paired fish than in isolated fish, but EOD frequency was equivalent in these two groups of fish. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in paired fish than in isolated fish, but there was no difference between groups in plasma 11KT levels. Among paired fish, cortisol levels correlated positively with chirp rate. To determine whether elevated cortisol can cause changes in chirping behavior, isolated fish were implanted with cortisol-filled or empty Silastic tubes and tested for short-term and long-term changes in electrocommunication signals and steroid levels. After 2 weeks, fish that received cortisol implants showed higher chirp rates than blank-implanted fish; there were no difference between groups in EOD frequency. Cortisol implants significantly elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to blank implants but had no effect on plasma 11KT levels. These results suggest that male-male interaction increases chirp rate by elevating levels of plasma cortisol, which, in turn, acts to modify neural activity though an 11KT-independent mechanism. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  9. Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  10. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration.

  11. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  12. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    focused on the effects of pain killers ( morphine ) and the development of PTSD. The results indicated that for Soldiers who received morphine ... hippocampus and prevent neurogenesis in the same regions, both of which can interfere with cognition and the future adaptation to stress (Ganzel, Morris...cortisol can damage areas of the hippocampus . The damage caused by the cortisol then causes a lack of ability to cope with stress in the future. This

  13. Sparse group lasso and high dimensional multinomial classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Martin; Hansen, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm is available in the R package msgl. Its performance scales well with the problem size as illustrated by one of the examples considered - a 50 class classification problem with 10 k features, which amounts to estimating 500 k parameters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......The sparse group lasso optimization problem is solved using a coordinate gradient descent algorithm. The algorithm is applicable to a broad class of convex loss functions. Convergence of the algorithm is established, and the algorithm is used to investigate the performance of the multinomial sparse...... group lasso classifier. On three different real data examples the multinomial group lasso clearly outperforms multinomial lasso in terms of achieved classification error rate and in terms of including fewer features for the classification. An implementation of the multinomial sparse group lasso...

  14. Relationship between salivary levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in saliva and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhi Mudrika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA levels in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 20 subjects, with clinical examinations including oral hygiene index, sulcus bleeding index (Muhlemann and Son and probing depth was also performed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS software package (version 7.0, and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Mann-Whitney test and t-test were used to see the correlation between the groups. Results: In cortisol and DHEA the mean and standard deviation of periodontitis group were (2.6 ± 0.37 and (66.7 ± 8.7 respectively. Conclusion: This shows there is an increase in the mean value of cortisol and DHEA in periodontitis than the control group. Salivary cortisol and DHEA level were found to be increased in concordance with disease severity. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001.

  15. [Changes in plasma cortisol and ACTH caused by diazepam, bromazepam, triazolam, and alprazolam in oral premedication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Huertas, F; Carrasco, M S; García-Baquero, A; Coq, F D; Freire, J

    1992-01-01

    Benzodiazepines relieve anxiety and modify the endocrine response to surgical-anesthetic stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of four benzodiazepines on preoperative secretion of cortisol and ACTH. We studied 60 patients programmed for abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly allocated into six groups of treatment: control group (placebo), diazepam 10 mg, triazolam 0.5 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg, bromazepam 6 mg, and bromazepam 12 mg. Blood samples for cortisol and ACTH measurements were obtained at five different stages of the anesthetic-surgical procedure: baseline, preanesthesia, anesthesia, surgery, and postoperative phase. Diazepam and bromazepam (6 and 12 mg) lessened the increase in plasmatic cortisol induced by preanesthesia and anesthesia in control patients. Triazolam attenuated the cortisol response only during preanesthesia. Administration of 12 mg of bromazepam decreased ACTH levels during preanesthesia and anesthesia with respect to the control group. Benzodiazepines failed to modify cortisol and ACTH levels during surgery and during the immediate postoperative period. The most marked attenuation of adrenocortical response was achieved with 12 mg of bromazepam and the less marked lessening was induced by 0.5 mg of alprazolam.

  16. Physical activity, life events stress, cortisol, and DHEA: preliminary findings that physical activity may buffer against the negative effects of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between habitual physical activity, life events stress, the diurnal rhythms of cortisol and DHEA, and the cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio in older adults. Thirty-six participants aged ≥ 65 reported their habitual physical activity, and indicated if a particular event happened to them in the past year (stress incidence) and how stressful they perceived the event to be (stress severity). Older adults with higher stress severity demonstrated a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio. Individuals with higher stress incidence scores and who did not participate in aerobic exercise had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm compared with those who regularly participated in aerobic exercise. In conclusion, life events stress may have a negative impact on the cortisol:DHEA ratio in older adults. Under conditions of high stress exposure, exercise may protect older adults from an increased cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm.

  17. Interrelationships among cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenendione exposures in the management of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria T; Willis, Brian A; Brundage, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocortisone is the standard replacement therapy for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Relationships between cortisol exposures and pharmacodynamic responses of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione exposures have not been systematically evaluated. (1) Assess individual oral hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics; (2) relate the observed cortisol exposure in each subject to the observed exposures of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione; (3) determine potential individualized treatment regimens based on each subject's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. Thirty-four patients (18 boys, 16 girls, aged 1.4 to 18.1 years) with CAH underwent 6-hour pharmacokinetic studies. Results were analyzed by noncompartmental methods to obtain the area under the curve (AUC) for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione; maximum concentration and time-to-maximum concentration for cortisol; and minimum and time-to-minimum concentration for 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione. Mean (SD) cortisol half-life and Cmax were 1.01 (0.20) hours and 24.4 (5.4) μg/dL, respectively. The AUCs for cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione were 40.8 (14.5) μg hour/dL, 29,490 (23,539) ng hour/dL, and 680 (795) ng hour/dL, respectively. No significant relationships existed between cortisol AUCs and the AUCs of either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.32) or androstenedione (P=0.99); nor were there differences between the change-from-baseline concentrations for cortisol with either 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P=0.80) or androstenedione (P=0.40). Cortisol simulations indicated that although four daily doses decreased 24-hour hypercortisolemia and hypocortisolemia, substantial periods of each remained. Concentration profiles of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione are highly variable in children with CAH, and knowledge of them can assist in personalizing the therapy of CAH patients. Hydrocortisone's rapid half-life and the lack of

  18. Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

  19. Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    El Naschie, M S

    2008-01-01

    Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(−5) with dimH =69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein’s modular curve.

  20. The Highly Perturbed X-ray Bright Group NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    The NGC 5044 group is the X-ray brightest group in the sky and hosts many small X-ray cavities that were inflated by weak AGN outbursts. The cumulative effect of many weak AGN outbursts may be the dominant reheating mechanism in cooling flows. While AGN feedback probably prevents the bulk of gas from cooling in NGC 5044, the presence of molecular structures, Halpha filaments, [CII] emission and star formation indicates that at least some gas is able to condense out of the hot phase. The near by 5044 group is the best target for detecting small X-ray cavities with Chandra and investigating the cumulative effect of repeated weak AGN outbursts. The wealth of multi-frequency data also makes NGC 5044 an ideal target for studying gas over a broad range of temperatures in a cooling flow.

  1. Changes in brain arginine vasotocin, isotocin, plasma 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol in round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males subjected to overcrowding stress during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Ewa; Kleszczyńska, Agnieszka; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Arciszewski, Bartłomiej; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In natural spawning grounds, breeding round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males are exposed to various social stimuli, including high density of same-sex competitors and separation from females. We hypothesize that breeding males subjected to overcrowding in the wild experience high stress that affects their socio-sexual behavior and their relationships among conspecifics. We designed an experiment to mimic natural stimulation when highly aggregated breeding males are subjected to same-sex opponents. Males were sampled sequentially from experimental tank stocked at decreasing fish densities of 15 fish/m(2), 9 fish/m(2) and 4 fish/m(2). We studied the effects of overcrowding on male behavior and selected hormones, brain arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol as these are known to play roles in reproduction and related social interactions. The highest brain AVT and plasma cortisol levels were measured in non-aggressive males kept in the overcrowded group of 15 fish/m(2). IT level was elevated in fish kept at the lower density of 9 fish/m(2), and at which the males began to display territoriality and aggression. The plasma level of 11-KT was similar in all the males. Brain AVT and IT and plasma cortisol along with behavioral observations can be applied as species-specific indicators of the well-being of round goby males.

  2. Burnout and Hypocortisolism - A Matter of Severity? A Study on ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-01-01

    Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  3. Burnout and hypocortisolism – a matter of severity? A study on ACTH and cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin eLennartsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.

  4. Reduced nocturnal ACTH-driven cortisol secretion during critical illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Meersseman, Philippe; Vervenne, Hilke; Meyfroidt, Geert; Guïza, Fabian; Wouters, Pieter J.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, during critical illness, cortisol metabolism was found to be reduced. We hypothesize that such reduced cortisol breakdown may suppress pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion via feedback inhibition. To test this hypothesis, nocturnal ACTH and cortisol secretory profiles were constructed by deconvolution analysis from plasma concentration time series in 40 matched critically ill patients and eight healthy controls, excluding diseases or drugs that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Blood was sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 to quantify plasma concentrations of ACTH and (free) cortisol. Approximate entropy, an estimation of process irregularity, cross-approximate entropy, a measure of ACTH-cortisol asynchrony, and ACTH-cortisol dose-response relationships were calculated. Total and free plasma cortisol concentrations were higher at all times in patients than in controls (all P cortisol secretion was 54% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.005), explained by reduced cortisol burst mass (P = 0.03), whereas cortisol pulse frequency (P = 0.35) and nonpulsatile cortisol secretion (P = 0.80) were unaltered. Pulsatile ACTH secretion was 31% lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.03), again explained by a lower ACTH burst mass (P = 0.02), whereas ACTH pulse frequency (P = 0.50) and nonpulsatile ACTH secretion (P = 0.80) were unchanged. ACTH-cortisol dose response estimates were similar in patients and controls. ACTH and cortisol approximate entropy were higher in patients (P ≤ 0.03), as was ACTH-cortisol cross-approximate entropy (P ≤ 0.001). We conclude that hypercortisolism during critical illness coincided with suppressed pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion and a normal ACTH-cortisol dose response. Increased irregularity and asynchrony of the ACTH and cortisol time series supported non-ACTH-dependent mechanisms driving hypercortisolism during critical illness. PMID:24569590

  5. The effect of heat exposure on cortisol and catecholamine excretion rates in workers in glass manufacturing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, K; Deyanov, Ch; Velkova, D; Ivanova, M; Stanchev, V

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of long term repeated heat exposure on the excretion rates of stress hormones of workers in glass manufacturing unit. Sixteen operators, exposed to heat, were studied during the hot period and compared to a control group of 16 subjects, working in the same manufacturing unit. Both groups had moderate work load. The microclimate components and the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature were used for defining the heat exposure. The excretion rates of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the early morning shifts on three hour intervals using RIA and fluoriphotometric methods. Heart rate was followed, too. The psychosocial factors were measured by the "My job" questionnaire. Highly significantly higher cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline values were measured in the heat exposed operators compared to the control group, while significant differences of the psychosocial factors between the two groups lacked. Even if the heart rate was in the safe limits, the found alterations in the stress system are considerable and indicate heat stress. The work in conditions of overheat is associated with considerable heat stress and the possible health implications need to be clarified.

  6. EFFECT OF FLOOR SPACE ON SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL OF OSMANABADI KIDS IN MUMBAI REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameswar Panda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid, Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid. The feeding and other management practices for all the three groups were similar. The blood sample was collected from each goat in fifteen days interval and the serum cortisol concentration (nM/l was determined with the help of Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit. The average serum cortisol concentration were 12.66 ± 3.08, 10.85 ± 3.51 and 15.18 ± 3.88 nM/l in Group T0, T1 and T2 kids respectively. There was no significant effect (P<0.05 of floor space on cortisol concentration as a stress indicator in Osmanabadi kids.

  7. Improving nutritional management within high-risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Binsbergen, van J.J.; Berg, van den M.G.A.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Staveren, van W.A.; Rasmussen-Conrad, E.; Weel, van C.

    2009-01-01

    The current pitfalls and future possibilities of nutritional management are discussed by two patients with tongue cancer who have suffered from substantial weight loss. Their nutritional problems are illustrative of those among other (cancer) patient groups. The main concerns are the lack of early c

  8. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...

  9. Relationships among prenatal depression, plasma cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Melissa M; Schminkey, Donna L; Groer, Maureen W

    2015-05-01

    A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol, and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States Depression/Dejection Scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200, and cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus.

  10. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghi Kim

    2015-01-01

    The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only easy to use, but also high-powered robustly across various scenarios. The usage and advantages of these novel tests are demonstrated on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and simulated data.

  11. Milk-based phospholipids increase morning cortisol availability and improve memory in chronically stressed men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Melanie; Contreras, Carina; Franz, Nadin; Hellhammer, Juliane

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipids (PLs) have been shown to dampen the activity and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). To further investigate stress protective effects of PL, 75 chronically stressed men aged 30 to 51 years were enrolled in a randomized and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects received a bovine milk drink with either 0.5% PL, 1% PL, or a placebo for 42 days to test the hypothesis that supplementation with specific phospholipids would normalize the cortisol response of the HPAA. For determining HPAA activity, the cortisol awakening response was studied before and after treatment. In addition, participants were exposed to an acute stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to assess treatment effects on stress reactivity and stress-related memory impairment. After receiving PL-enriched milk, both PL groups showed a delayed decline from peak levels in morning salivary cortisol, suggesting a prolonged availability of free cortisol. Treatment with 0.5% PL additionally resulted in a stronger increase of cortisol after awakening, whereas no such differences could be observed in the 1% PL group and the placebo group, respectively. The acute stress response did not significantly differ among placebo and PL groups. An exploratory data analysis further revealed that elderly participants receiving the higher PL dosage had a significant better memory performance after the Trier Social Stress Test as compared with elderly participants from the placebo and low-PL dosage group; no such difference was observed at baseline. Our results suggest that PL may increase the availability of cortisol in chronically stressed men and may attenuate stress-induced memory impairments. Results of the present study are discussed within the context of previous research and current state of knowledge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol.

  13. Effects of coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of plasma cortisol levels on leukocyte transcriptional response to endotoxin challenge in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sleight, Kirsten; Nguyen, Tung T; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-10-01

    Severe traumas are associated with hypercortisolemia due to both disruption of cortisol secretion rhythm and increase in its total concentration. Understanding the effects of altered cortisol levels and rhythms on immune function is of great clinical interest, to prevent conditions such as sepsis from complicating the recovery. This in vivo study assesses the responses of circulating leukocytes to coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of cortisol, preceding an immune challenge induced by endotoxin administration. Through continuous infusion, plasma cortisol concentration was increased to and kept constant at a level associated with major physiologic stress. In response, transcriptional programming of leukocytes was altered to display a priming response before endotoxin exposure. Enhanced expression of a number of receptors and signaling proteins, as well as lowered protein translation and mitochondrial function indicated a sensitization against potential infectious threats. Despite these changes, response to endotoxin followed very similar patterns in both cortisol and saline pre-treated groups except one cluster including probe sets associated with major players regulating inflammatory response. In sum, altered dose and rhythm of plasma cortisol levels engendered priming of circulating leukocytes when preceded an immune challenge. This transcriptional program change associated with stimulated surveillance function and suppressed energy-intensive processes, emphasized permissive actions of cortisol on immune function.

  14. Perceived Stigmatization, Resilience, and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm Among Children of Parents Living With HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Slatcher, Richard B.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a prevalent risk factor challenging the health and well-being of children from marginalized groups. One potential protective factor for such children is resilience—one’s capability to adapt flexibly, persistently, and resourcefully to stressful situations. This study investigated the associations among stigma, resilience, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in a sample of 645 youth affected by parental HIV. Perceived stigmatization was associated with lower cortisol levels at awakening and flatter cortisol slopes, whereas resilience was independently associated with higher levels of salivary cortisol at awakening and steeper cortisol slopes. We found evidence for an indirect effect of resilience on diurnal cortisol through lower perceived stigma. These associations remained significant after controlling for demographic and health factors and stressful life events. Our findings demonstrate that perceived stigma and resilience are associated with HPA axis functioning in childhood. Broadly, the data suggest that resilience-promoting and stigma-reducing efforts should be considered to improve the health of children from disadvantaged groups. PMID:25888685

  15. Stress-induced cortisol secretion impairs detection performance in x-ray baggage screening for hidden weapons by screening novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Livia; Schwaninger, Adrian; Heimgartner, Nadja; Hedinger, Patrik; Hofer, Franziska; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2014-09-01

    Aviation security strongly depends on screeners' performance in the detection of threat objects in x-ray images of passenger bags. We examined for the first time the effects of stress and stress-induced cortisol increases on detection performance of hidden weapons in an x-ray baggage screening task. We randomly assigned 48 participants either to a stress or a nonstress group. The stress group was exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test (TSST). Before and after stress/nonstress, participants had to detect threat objects in a computer-based object recognition test (X-ray ORT). We repeatedly measured salivary cortisol and X-ray ORT performance before and after stress/nonstress. Cortisol increases in reaction to psychosocial stress induction but not to nonstress independently impaired x-ray detection performance. Our results suggest that stress-induced cortisol increases at peak reactivity impair x-ray screening performance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  17. Psychophysiological evidence for cortisol-induced reduction in early bias for implicit social threat in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Jacobien M; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is important for the regulation of social motivational processes. High cortisol levels have been associated with social fear and avoidance, which play an important role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), as does hypervigilant processing of social threat. However, causal effects of cortisol on threat processing in SAD remain unclear. In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the effects of cortisol on task-irrelevant (implicit) processing of social threat in SAD, exploring the temporal dynamics as well as the role of symptom severity and stimulus awareness. Angry face processing was measured in participants with clinical SAD after double-blind, within-subject oral administration of cortisol (50mg) and placebo, using a masked and an unmasked emotional Stroop task. Both tasks showed significantly increased P2 midline ERP amplitudes for angry compared to neutral and happy faces in the placebo condition, reflecting an early attentional bias for social threat in SAD. Furthermore, cortisol administration significantly decreased P2 amplitudes for masked angry faces. This effect correlated with social anxiety, showing stronger decreases in patients with higher levels of social anxiety. These results indicate a highly specific effect of cortisol on early motivated attention to social threat and, together with previous findings, highlight the importance of motivational context (stimulus- or task-relevance) as well as symptom severity.

  18. Salivary Cortisol Protocol Adherence and Reliability by Sociodemographic Features: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; DeSantis, Amy S.; Wu, Meihua; Castro, Cecilia; Seeman, Teresa E.; Tadros, Sameh; Shrager, Sandi; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    Collection of salivary cortisol has become increasingly popular in large population-based studies. However, the impact of protocol compliance on day-to-day reliabilities of measures, and the extent to which reliabilities differ systematically according to socio-demographic characteristics, has not been well characterized in large-scale population-based studies to date. Using data on 935 men and women from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated whether sampling protocol compliance differs systematically according to socio-demographic factors and whether compliance was associated with cortisol estimates, as well as whether associations of cortisol with both compliance and socio-demographic characteristics were robust to adjustments for one another. We further assessed the day-to-day reliability for cortisol features and the extent to which reliabilities vary according to socio-demographic factors and sampling protocol compliance. Overall, we found higher compliance among persons with higher levels of income and education. Lower compliance was significantly associated with a less pronounced cortisol awakening response (CAR) but was not associated with any other cortisol features, and adjustment for compliance did not affect associations of socio-demographic characteristics with cortisol. Reliability was higher for area under the curve (AUC) and wake up values than for other features, but generally did not vary according to socio-demographic characteristics, with few exceptions. Our findings regarding intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) support prior research indicating that multiple day collection is preferable to single day collection, particularly for CAR and slopes, more so than wakeup and AUC. There were few differences in reliability by socio-demographic characteristics. Thus, it is unlikely that group-specific sampling protocols are warranted. PMID:24703168

  19. Job stress and agentic-communal personality traits related to serum cortisol levels of male workers in a Japanese medium-sized company: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2015-02-01

    Although serum cortisol is a widely accepted index of stress levels, associations between job stress and cortisol levels have been inconsistent. Individual differences in personality traits were discussed as one compelling explanation for this discrepancy. Agentic-communal personality traits have been examined as possible predictive factors for psychological stress. This study investigated correlations among agentic-communal personality traits and serum cortisol levels. It was also investigated whether job stress levels modified correlations between agentic-communal personality and cortisol levels. Participants were 198 male workers (mean age = 52.2 years) employed by a shipbuilding company in Japan. Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected during an annual health checkup. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) that assesses job control as job stress levels the Communion-Agency scale (CAS) and questions regarding health behaviors. Communion positively correlated with serum cortisol levels and unmitigated agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels. Stratified by job control, communion positively correlated with serum cortisol levels and agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels in participants with low levels of job control. Unmitigated agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels in participants with high levels of job control. Levels of job control may modify correlations of gender-related personality with serum cortisol levels. Especially with exposure to high job stress, male workers with high femininity (i.e., high communion and low agency) were more likely to have a high stress response as measured by serum cortisol levels.

  20. Induction of progesterone receptor A form attenuates the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Ni, Xiaotian; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Zhu, Xiaoou; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

  1. Association of Job Strain With Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Among Shift-Working Health Care Professionals in Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and α-amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Overwinter fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout: plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in relation to energy mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Pottinger, T.G.; Rand-Weaver, M; Sumpter, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of cortisol and growth hormone during a period of fasting in overwintering salmonid fish. Indices of carbohydrate (plasma glucose, liver glycogen), lipid (plasma free fatty acids) and protein metabolism (plasma protein, total plasma amino acids) were determined, together with plasma growth hormone (GH), cortisol and somatolactin levels (SL) at intervals in three groups of rainbow trout (continuously fed; fasted for 9 weeks then fed; fasted for 17 weeks). In f...

  3. Simultaneous quantification of cortisol and cortisone in urines from infants with packed-fiber solid-phase extraction coupled to HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Xiongwei; Shen, Kangwei; Gu, Pan; Kang, Xuejun

    2017-09-01

    Cortisol and cortisone are two important glucocorticoids in human body, their interconversion is controlled by two isotypes of 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2). The ratio of urinary cortisol to cortisone can be used to assess the activity of 11β-HSDs. An analytical method to quantify urinary cortisol and cortisone using high performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry following a packed-fiber solid-phase extraction (PFSPE) was developed. The proposed method was validated and applied to determine the urinary cortisol and cortisone concentrations in infants. Linearity was observed in the range of 0.6-150ng/mL for cortisol and 0.8-200ng/mL for cortisone. The intra-day RSD was 2.4-4.5% for cortisol and 3.3-6.2% for cortisone. Inter-day RSD was 3.7-6.6% for cortisol and 4.3-8.2% for cortisone. The recovery was 97.8±4.6% for cortisol and 98.9±4.4% for cortisone. The established method is simple and efficient for the quantification of urinary cortisol and cortisone and for indirectly assessing the activity of 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C; Galea, Sandro; Vlahov, David

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine distribution programs have historically targeted individuals at high risk of complications due to influenza. Despite recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, vaccination coverage among high-risk populations has been generally low. This review systematically summarizes the recent literature evaluating programs in different settings, from within medical settings to venue-based and community-based approaches, in an effort to identify successful program components. The published literature was identified by using the MEDLINE database from 1990 to 2006 covering studies that reported on interventions or programs aimed at vaccinating high-risk populations. The authors reviewed 56 studies. In the United States, the Healthy People 2010 goals included 90% vaccination coverage for adults aged > or = 65 years and 60% for high-risk adults aged 18-64 years. Only a handful of the studies reviewed managed to meet those goals. Interventions that increased vaccination coverage to Healthy People 2010 goals included advertising, provider and patient mailings, registry-based telephone calls, patient and staff education, standing orders coupled with standardized forms, targeting of syringe exchange customers, and visiting nurses. Few studies evaluated the impact of vaccination programs by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Few studies targeted individuals outside of the health-care and social services sectors. Given the growing disparities in health and health-care access, understanding the way in which interventions can remedy disparities is crucial.

  5. Distribution between protein-bound and free forms of plasma cortisol in the gilt and fetal pig near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattesh, H G; Baumbach, G A; Gillespie, B B; Schneider, J F; Murai, J T

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five time-dated pregnant gilts were used to document plasma levels of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity, and percent distribution of cortisol among protein-bound (CBG and albumin) and free forms in the fetal pig during the last 24 days of gestation. Plasma from fetal pigs on days 110-114 of gestation (gestation length 114 days) had significantly higher levels of total cortisol (p pigs located in the cervical region of the uterus had lower (p pig are directly related and highly similar to those of another precocious species, the sheep.

  6. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  7. [Salivary cortisol as an indicator of physological stress in children and adults; a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; García García, I; Rodríguez López, M A; Ortegón Piñero, A; Cortés Castell, E

    2014-05-01

    Salivary cortisol is a steroid hormone that is produced in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and secreted into saliva when persons are under stress. High levels of cortisol in saliva can be produced by many different factors, including obesity and certain psychological disorders. The articles selected for inclusion in this review were identified using Google Scholar and Medline, and this search obtained a total of 57 items. The validity of these studies was established according to the degree of evidence presented, by citations and by their applicability to the healthcare context in Spain. Specifically, this review takes into consideration studies of salivary cortisol and stress in children and adults, and those examining the relation between high levels of salivary cortisol and other disorders such as anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia or emotional deprivation. These studies show that salivary cortisol is a clear indicator of stress in both children and adults. High levels of this hormone in saliva are associated with the following main consequences: reduced immune function, affecting healing and thus prolonging recovery time; delayed growth in children; increased blood pressure and heart rate in both children and adults.

  8. Sunshine Group Builds High-End Aluminum Product Industrial Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to propel development of the aluminum industry to move toward featured,specialized,and ecological directions,Sunlight Sanyuan Aluminum Company plans to expropriate 300 mu of land in Hanjiang District of Putian City,Fujian province,where it plans to construct high-end aluminum product industrial park,introduce the world’s most advanced fully automatic production equipment and technologies for aluminum profile and

  9. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxi Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms and long (1,600 ms visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group, individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the

  10. Short communication: Ovine leukocyte telomere length is associated with variation in the cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, L; Oh, S Y; Li, Z; You, Q; Quinton, V M; Gilchrist, G C; Karrow, N A

    2016-04-01

    Stress has been associated with biological aging and numerous age-related diseases. This may be due, in part, to accelerated shortening of telomeres, which are critical genomic structures that cap and protect chromosomal ends. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may indirectly contribute to telomere shortening if an animal reacts too strongly or weakly to a stressor, leading to accelerated biological aging. In this study, outbred Rideau-Arcott sheep were stress challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin and classified as high, middle, or low cortisol responders to investigate a potential relationship between cortisol response and age, and telomere length. In the present study, no association was found between age and telomere length. The study, however, revealed shorter telomeres in high and low cortisol responders compared with the middle cortisol responders, which suggests that health and longevity may be compromised in extreme high- and low-stress-responding sheep.

  11. High-performance functional Renormalization Group calculations for interacting fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J.; Sánchez de la Peña, D.; Rohe, D.; Di Napoli, E.; Honerkamp, C.; Maier, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    We derive a novel computational scheme for functional Renormalization Group (fRG) calculations for interacting fermions on 2D lattices. The scheme is based on the exchange parametrization fRG for the two-fermion interaction, with additional insertions of truncated partitions of unity. These insertions decouple the fermionic propagators from the exchange propagators and lead to a separation of the underlying equations. We demonstrate that this separation is numerically advantageous and may pave the way for refined, large-scale computational investigations even in the case of complex multiband systems. Furthermore, on the basis of speedup data gained from our implementation, it is shown that this new variant facilitates efficient calculations on a large number of multi-core CPUs. We apply the scheme to the t ,t‧ Hubbard model on a square lattice to analyze the convergence of the results with the bond length of the truncation of the partition of unity. In most parameter areas, a fast convergence can be observed. Finally, we compare to previous results in order to relate our approach to other fRG studies.

  12. The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 μg/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; Psleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (Psleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (PSleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly.

  13. Blunted serum and enhanced salivary free cortisol concentrations in the chronic phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage--is stress the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, E M; Gilsbach, J M; Hans, F-J; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a cause of stroke, which constitutes a severe trauma to the brain and may lead to serious long-term medical, psychosocial and endocrinological sequelae. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency, which is considered to occur in up to 20% of all survivors, is a possible consequence of bleeding. Moreover, preliminary data suggest that a poor psychosocial outcome in SAH survivors is linked to alterations in cortisol secretion. Despite these findings, investigation of diurnal cortisol profiles and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in chronic SAH patients has not been done so far. In this study, basal serum cortisol and salivary cortisol concentration profiles were investigated in 31 SAH patients more than 1 year after the acute event and in 25 healthy controls. Additionally, low-dose dexamethasone (DEX) suppression tests were conducted, and sensitivity to stress was measured with a psychometric questionnaire (Neuropattern(TM)). Although significantly higher salivary cortisol concentrations were observed on waking in SAH patients (p = 0.013, ANOVA), without a CAR change, total serum cortisol concentrations were blunted, but only in patients with high levels of perceived stress (SAH high stress: 337 nmol/l, SAH low stress: 442 nmol/l, controls: 467 nmol/l; Controls vs. SAH high stress p = 0.018). DEX suppression of cortisol secretion was not significantly different between patients and controls. The results indicate that total (serum) and free (salivary) cortisol concentrations give different information about cortisol availability in patients after aneurysmal SAH. Enhanced free cortisol concentrations may reflect a meaningful biological coping mechanism in SAH patients.

  14. Contralateral adrenal suppression on adrenocortical scintigraphy provides good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction from unilateral adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabami, Takuyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Obi, Ryusei; Asai, Shiko; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2016-12-30

    Unilateral and/or predominant uptake on adrenocortical scintigraphy (ACS) may be related to autonomous cortisol overproduction in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS). However, there is no information regarding whether increased tracer uptake on the tumor side or decreased uptake on the contralateral side on ACS is more greatly associated with inappropriate cortisol production. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between quantitative (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) uptake in both adrenal glands and parameters of autonomic cortisol secretion and attempted to set a cut off for SCS detection. The study included 90 patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma who fulfilled strict criteria. The diagnosis of SCS was based on serum cortisol ≥3.0 μg/dL after 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) with at least 1 other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function abnormality. Twenty-two (27.7%) subjects were diagnosed with SCS. The uptake rate on the affected side in the SCS group was comparable to that in the non-functioning adenoma group. In contrast, the uptake rate on the contralateral side was lower and the laterality ratio significantly higher in the SCS group. The two ACS indices were correlated with serum cortisol levels after a 1-mg DST, but uptake on the tumor side was not. Tumor size was also important for the functional statuses of adrenal tumors and NP-59 imaging patterns. The best cut-off point for the laterality ratio to detect SCS was 3.07. These results clearly indicate that contralateral adrenal suppression in ACS is good evidence showing subclinical cortisol overproduction.

  15. Menstrual cycle effects on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval following a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M; Mordecai, Kristen L; Rubin, Leah H; Sundermann, Erin; Savarese, Antonia; Eatough, Erin; Drogos, Lauren

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Laboratory-induced stress produces elevations in cortisol and deficits in memory, especially when stress is induced immediately before retrieval of emotionally valent stimuli. Sex and sex steroids appear to influence these stress-induced outcomes, though no study has directly compared the effects of laboratory-induced stress on cortisol and emotional retrieval across the menstrual cycle. We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval in women tested during either the follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) or the luteal phase (higher estradiol and progesterone). Forty women (50% White; age 18-40 years) participated in the study; 20 completed the task during the luteal phase and 20 during the follicular phase. Psychosocial stress was induced with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). On the day before the TSST, participants learned two lists of word pairs to 100% criterion. The next day, participants recalled one list after the control condition and the other after the TSST. Women in the follicular phase, but not the luteal phase, demonstrated a significant cortisol response to the TSST. There was a stress-induced decrease in emotional retrieval following the TSST, but this effect was not modified by menstrual phase. However, regression and correlational analyses showed that individual differences in stress-induced cortisol levels were associated with impaired emotional retrieval in the follicular phase only. The present findings indicate that cortisol responsivity and the impairing effects of cortisol on emotional memory are lower when levels of estradiol and progesterone are high compared to when levels are low.

  16. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.