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Sample records for high corticosterone levels

  1. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  2. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

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    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  3. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

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    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  4. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

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    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  5. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

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    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Seasonal changes in testosterone and corticosterone levels in four social classes of a desert dwelling sociable rodent.

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    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-04-01

    Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.

  7. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

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    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  8. What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

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    Poisbleau, M; Demongin, L; Angelier, F; Dano, S; Lacroix, A; Quillfeldt, P

    2009-06-01

    Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs. Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date. Rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) lay two eggs, of which the second egg (B-egg) is larger and hatches faster than the first egg (A-egg). The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs. Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone.

  9. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

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    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  11. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Nino events.

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    Romero, L M; Wikelski, M

    2001-06-19

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of "stress" in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations.

  12. High post-partum levels of corticosterone given to dams influence postnatal hippocampal cell proliferation and behavior of offspring: A model of post-partum stress and possible depression.

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    Brummelte, Susanne; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-09-01

    Post-partum stress and depression (PPD) have a significant effect on child development and behavior. Depression is associated with hypercortisolism in humans, and the fluctuating levels of hormones, including corticosterone, during pregnancy and the post-partum, may contribute to PPD. The present study was developed to investigate the effects of high-level corticosterone (CORT) post-partum in the mother on postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with either CORT (40 mg/kg) or sesame oil injections daily for 26 days beginning the day after giving birth. Dams were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and in the open field test (OFT) on days 24-26 post-partum. Results showed that the dams exposed to CORT expressed "depressive-like" behavior compared to controls, with decreased struggling behavior and increased immobility in the FST. To investigate the effects of treatment on hippocampal postnatal cell proliferation and survival in the offspring, males and females from treated dams were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg) on postnatal day 21 and perfused either 24 h (cell proliferation) or 21 days (cell survival) later. Furthermore, male and female offspring from each litter were tested in adulthood on various behavioral tests, including the forced swim test, open field test, resistance to capture test and elevated plus maze. Intriguingly, male, but not female, offspring of CORT-treated dams exhibited decreased postnatal cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Both male and female offspring of CORT-treated dams showed higher resistance to capture and greater locomotor activity as assessed in the open field test. As high levels of CORT may be a characteristic of stress and/or depression, these findings support a model of 'CORT-induced' post-partum stress and possibly depression and demonstrate that the offspring of affected dams can exhibit changes in postnatal neurogenesis and behavior in adulthood.

  13. Snow cover and snowfall impact corticosterone and immunoglobulin a levels in a threatened steppe bird.

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    Liu, Gang; Hu, Xiaolong; Kessler, Aimee Elizabeth; Gong, Minghao; Wang, Yihua; Li, Huixin; Dong, Yuqiu; Yang, Yuhui; Li, Linhai

    2018-05-15

    Birds use both the corticosterone stress response and immune system to meet physiological challenges during exposure to adverse climatic conditions. To assess the stress level and immune response of the Asian Great Bustard during conditions of severe winter weather, we measured fecal corticosterone (CORT) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) before and after snowfall in a low snow cover year (2014) and a high snow cover year (2015). A total of 239 fecal samples were gathered from individuals in Tumuji Nature Reserve, located in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. We observed high CORT levels that rose further after snowfall both in high and low snow cover years. IgA levels increased significantly after snowfall in the low snow cover year, but decreased after snowfall in the high snow cover year. These results suggest that overwintering Asian Great Bustards are subjected to climatic stress during severe winter weather, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system react to this challenge. Extreme levels of stress, such as snowfall in already prolonged and high snow cover conditions may decrease immune function. Supplemental feeding should be considered under severe winter weather conditions for this endangered subspecies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of sheltering on behavior and fecal corticosterone level of elderly dogs

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    Katsuji Uetake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, the human population is aging rapidly, and the abandonment of dogs by the elderly people who have died or been hospitalized becomes a problem. It is hypothesized that elderly dogs have difficulty adapting to the novel circumstances when brought to an animal shelter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess stress levels and demonstrate stress responses of elderly dogs just after admission to an animal shelter. As stress indicators, fecal corticosterone levels and changes in the ethogram of the dogs were investigated during the first week of admittance. Fecal corticosterone levels (mean ± SE stayed high during the first week of residence, although they fell gently from the day after admittance (16650.1 ± 3769.7 ng/g to the seventh day (12178.4 ± 2524.4 ng/g (P <0.001. The proportions of behavioral expressions changed as the days passed (P < 0.001. In particular, stereotypies decreased from 35.7% on the first day to 2.6% on the sixth day, and time spent sleeping increased from 0.0% to 42.7%. These results indicate that elderly dogs admitted to an animal shelter seem to behaviorally adapt themselves to their novel circumstances, but might be stressed even on the seventh day of residence.

  15. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

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    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  16. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

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    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-04-17

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

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    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  18. Effect of deafferentation of the rat tongue on plasma corticosterone, aldosterone, angiotensin and ACTH levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyntsev, Yu.V.; Serova, O.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of deafferentation of the tongue on the plasma level of hormones involved in regulation of the sodium ion level -- aldosterone, corticosterone, ACTH, and angiotensin -- was studied. Plasma hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the important role of orosensory and taste perception in the processes of regulation of the sodium balance in the body. The experiments in this study were conducted on rats

  19. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

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    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  20. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galápagos marine iguanas during El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L. Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Plasma levels of corticosterone are often used as a measure of “stress” in wild animal populations. However, we lack conclusive evidence that different stress levels reflect different survival probabilities between populations. Galápagos marine iguanas offer an ideal test case because island populations are affected differently by recurring El Niño famine events, and population-level survival can be quantified by counting iguanas locally. We surveyed corticosterone levels in six populations during the 1998 El Niño famine and the 1999 La Niña feast period. Iguanas had higher baseline and handling stress-induced corticosterone concentrations during famine than feast conditions. Corticosterone levels differed between islands and predicted survival through an El Niño period. However, among individuals, baseline corticosterone was only elevated when body condition dropped below a critical threshold. Thus, the population-level corticosterone response was variable but nevertheless predicted overall population health. Our results lend support to the use of corticosterone as a rapid quantitative predictor of survival in wild animal populations. PMID:11416210

  1. Blood corticosterone concentration reaches critical illness levels early during acute malnutrition in the weanling mouse.

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    Monk, Jennifer M; Makinen, Kimberley; Shrum, Bradly; Woodward, Bill

    2006-03-01

    Acute (i.e., wasting) pediatric malnutrition consistently elevates blood glucocorticoid levels, but neither the magnitude of the rise in concentration nor its kinetics is clear. Male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, and CBA/J mice, initially 23 days old, consumed a complete purified diet either ad libitum (age-matched control) or in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus), or they consumed a purified isocaloric low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor). Serum levels of corticosterone were assessed by double antibody radioimmunoassay after 3, 6, and 14 days (C57BL/6J strain) or after 6 and 14 days in the genetically distant CBA/J strain. Age-matched control groups of both strains exhibited mean corticosterone levels of 5-30 ng/ml, whereas the acutely malnourished groups exhibited mean levels of this hormone that were elevated by more than an order of magnitude as early as 3 days after initiation of weight loss. This outcome was confirmed in a second experiment in which the serum corticosterone level of C57BL/6J weanlings was examined by competitive binding enzyme immunoassay 3 and 14 days after initiation of the dietary protocols. Therefore, deficits of protein and/or energy in weanling murine systems relevant to acute pediatric malnutrition elicit early elevations in blood glucocorticoid levels to a magnitude reminiscent of critical illness and multiple trauma. The key to this novel finding was an exsanguination method that permitted accurate assessment of the blood corticosterone level of the healthy, quiescent mouse. Overall, the results of this investigation provide a new perspective on the glucocorticoids as part of the early hormonal response to acute weanling malnutrition coincident with the shift toward catabolic metabolism and the initiation of depression in cellular immune competence.

  2. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

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    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

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    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartu, S.; Angelier, F.; Bustnes, J.O.; Moe, B.; Hanssen, S.A.; Herzke, D.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Verboven, N.; Verreault, J.; Labadie, P.; Budzinski, H.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination

  5. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  6. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of parasitic infection and reproduction on corticosterone plasma levels in Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Michela; Sancesario, Giulia; Pastore, Donatella; Bernardini, Sergio; Cruz, Marilyn; Carrión, Jorge E; Carosi, Monica; Vignoli, Leonardo; Lauro, Davide; Gentile, Gabriele

    2017-08-01

    In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids (corticosterone in reptiles), steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). In the Galápagos Islands, populations of land iguanas are differentially impacted by a tick-transmitted apicomplexan hemoparasite of genus Hepatozoon , which could cause diseases and ultimately reduce fitness. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C. subcristatus in Wolf volcano (Isabela Island). We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. subcristatus from the same island (Bahia Urbina) as a reference. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells (WBCs) in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C. marthae and C. subcristatus at Wolf volcano. The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites (V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina) would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction.

  8. Changes in eosinophil and corticosterone levels and catecholamine metabolism during emotionalpainful stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.V.; Manukhin, B.N.; Petrova, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study blood levels of eosinophils, corticosterone (CS), adrenalin, noradrenalin (NA), and dopamine (DA) during the development of the stress reaction, and also to study neuronal uptake and synthesis of catecholamines in the adrenals and heart. In some animal groups, the neuronal uptake of 3 H-NA and the intensity of 3 H-Na and 3 H-DA synthesis from 3 H-tyrosine were investigated by a method described previously, 2 h after the end of induction of emotional-painful stress (EPS). Radioactivity was measured on an SL-30 liquid scintillation counter. A regular relationship was found between changes in blood eosinophil level, the CH concentration, and catecholamine metabolism in the course of EPS

  9. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N

    2001-07-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. On day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. Using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% NaCl solution or ACTH (cosyntropin; Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). During the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately after defecation. Individual fecal samples were collected approximately at hourly intervals and assayed for corticosterone. We showed previously that serum corticosterone did not vary significantly following saline injection, but peaked significantly 60 min after ACTH injection. Maximal fecal corticosterone concentrations (ng/g) were greater (P cranes under controlled conditions, fecal corticosterone concentration reflects serum corticosterone levels, fecal corticosterone, Grus canadensis pratensis, sandhill cranes, serum corticosterone levels.

  11. Application of a naturalistic psychogenic stressor in periadolescent mice: effect on serum corticosterone levels differs by strain but not sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Laura C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a first step in determining whether psychogenic stressors might be incorporated into periadolescent mouse models of stress, we evaluated whether a commonly used psychogenic stressor, exposure to red fox urine, alters serum corticosterone levels in periadolescent C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Findings In a 1-day experiment, forty-eight 38-day-old C57BL/6J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females and DBA/2J (N = 12 males; N = 12 females mice were exposed to 10-min of red fox urine via cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice or to a non-saturated cotton ball (N = 12 C57BL/6J mice; N = 12 DBA/2J mice. All mice were sacrificed 15-min after cotton ball exposure and serum was collected for corticosterone assessment. Overall, there was a main effect for strain such that C57BL/6J male and female mice displayed higher corticosterone levels than did male and female DBA/2J mice. There were no main effects for sex or odor exposure. However, there was a significant strain by odor exposure interaction, whereby, within odor-exposed mice, DBA/2J mice displayed lower corticosterone levels (ng/mL compared to C57BL/6J mice, regardless of sex. Further, among DBA/2J mice, predator odor exposure reduced corticosterone levels compared to no odor exposure. Conclusions Findings indicate that mouse strain, but not sex, may play an important role in the efficacy of a predator odor among periadolescent mice.

  12. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2014-08-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions. Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species. Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females. The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition. The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal overlap and repeatability of feather corticosterone levels: practical considerations for use as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher M; Madliger, Christine L; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers has recently become an appealing tool for the conservation toolbox, potentially providing a non-invasive, integrated measure of stress activity throughout the time of feather growth. However, because the mechanism of CORT deposition, storage and stability in feathers is not fully understood, it is unclear how reliable this measure may be, especially when there is an extended interval between growth and feather collection. We compared CORT levels of naturally grown feathers from tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) that were moulted and regrown concurrently and therefore expected to have similar CORT levels. Specifically, we compared the same feather from the left and right wing (moulted symmetrically) and different types of feathers (wing, back and tail) expected to have been moulted within the same time period. We found that larger, heavier feathers held more CORT per unit length. In addition, we found a lack of concordance in CORT levels both within the same feather type and between different feather types, even after taking into account differences in feather density. Our results indicate that naturally grown feathers may not consistently provide an indication of stress status. Additionally, conflict in results may arise depending on the feather assayed, and total feather volume may be an important consideration when interpreting feather CORT levels. Future work is necessary to determine explicitly the mechanisms of CORT deposition, the effects of environmental exposure and feather wear on the permanence of the feather CORT signal, and the influence of responses to wild stressors on feather CORT levels, before feather CORT can be implemented effectively as a tool for ecological and conservation applications.

  14. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  16. Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Nucleus in Wistar Rats Alters Circulatory Levels of Corticosterone and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Castillo, Juan Manuel; De La Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Manjarrez, Joaquín; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Morales-Espinoza, Gabriel; Moreno-Aguilar, Julia; Hernández, Maria Eugenia; Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for several diseases, but its effects on HPA axis activity and systemic inflammation are unknown. This study aimed to detect circulatory variations of corticosterone and cytokines levels in Wistar rats, after 21 days of DBS-at the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), unilateral cervical vagotomy (UCVgX), or UCVgX plus DBS. We included the respective control (C) and sham (S) groups (n = 6 rats per group). DBS treated rats had higher levels of TNF-α (120%; P < 0.01) and IFN-γ (305%; P < 0.001) but lower corticosterone concentration (48%; P < 0.001) than C and S. UCVgX animals showed increased corticosterone levels (154%; P < 0.001) versus C and S. UCVgX plus DBS increased IL-1β (402%; P < 0.001), IL-6 (160%; P < 0.001), and corsticosterone (178%; P < 0.001 versus 48%; P < 0.001) compared with the C and S groups. Chronic DBS at VMHvl induced a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by a decrease of HPA axis function. UCVgX rats experienced HPA axis hyperactivity as result of vagus nerve injury; however, DBS was unable to block the HPA axis hyperactivity induced by unilateral cervical vagotomy. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and their clinical implication. PMID:24235973

  17. Benzodiazepine effect of {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: gzl13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Uchiyama, Mayuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Mori, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P<.05) than those of the D (0) group in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. The serum corticosterone level ratio in the D (10) group was significantly lower than that in the D (0) group (P<.05). From the change in serum corticosterone levels, diazepam attenuated the psychological stress produced by the physical stress to animals in adjacent compartments. From the reduced binding of {sup 125}I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which {sup 125}I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam.

  18. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  19. Delayed effects of elevated corticosterone level on volume of hippocampal formation in laboratory rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Mrzílková, J.; Řezáčová, Lenka; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2010), s. 985-990 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * hippocampus * lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  20. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual differences in pavlovian autoshaping of lever pressing in rats predict stress-induced corticosterone release and mesolimbic levels of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, A; Aguado, A S; Pohorecky, L A; Benjamin, D

    2000-03-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping CRs are directed and reflexive consummatory responses targeted at objects repeatedly paired with rewarding substances. To evaluate the hypothesis that autoshaping may provide an animal learning model of vulnerability to drug abuse, this study relates individual differences in lever-press autoshaping CR performance in rats to stress-induced corticosterone release and tissue monoamine levels in the mesolimbic dopamine tract. Long-Evans rats (n = 14) were given 20 sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of food US. Large between-subjects differences in lever-press autoshaping CR performance were observed, with group high CR frequency (n = 5) performing many more lever press CRs than group low CR frequency (n = 9). Tail-blood samples were obtained before and after the 20th autoshaping session, then 24 h later the rats were sacrificed and dissection yielded tissue samples of nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CP), and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Serum levels of postsession corticosterone were elevated in group high CR frequency. HPLC revealed that group high CR frequency had higher tissue levels of dopamine and DOPAC in NAC, lower levels of DOPAC/DA turnover in CP, and lower levels of 5-HIAA and lower 5-HIAA/5-HT turnover in VTA. The neurochemical profile of rats that perform more autoshaping CRs share some features of vulnerability to drug abuse.

  2. Stressful dieting: nutritional conditions but not compensatory growth elevate corticosterone levels in zebra finch nestlings and fledglings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Honarmand

    Full Text Available Unfavourable conditions throughout the period of parental care can severely affect growth, reproductive performance, and survival. Yet, individuals may be affected differently, depending on the developmental period during which constraints are experienced. Here we tested whether the nestling phase compared to the fledgling phase is more susceptible to nutritional stress by considering biometry, physiology, sexually selected male ornaments and survival using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata as a model species. As nestlings (day 0-17 or fledglings (day 17-35, subjects were raised either on low or high quality food. A low quality diet resulted in significantly elevated baseline corticosterone titres in both nestlings and fledglings. Subjects showed substantial compensatory growth after they had experienced low quality food as nestlings but catch-up growth did neither lead to elevated baseline corticosterone titres nor did we detect long term effects on biometry, male cheek patch, or survival. The compensation for temporally unfavourable environmental conditions reflects substantial phenotypic plasticity and the results show that costs of catch-up growth were not mediated via corticosterone as a physiological correlate of allostatic load. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms and plasticity with which animals respond to periods of constraints during development as they may occur in a mistiming of breeding.

  3. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  4. High corticosterone, not high energy cost, correlates with reproductive success in the burrow-nesting ancient murrelet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Shoji

    Full Text Available Theory and observations suggest that offspring abandonment in animals may occur when the costs to future reproductive output of current reproductive effort outweigh the fitness benefits of rearing the current brood. While hormonal cues (i.e. corticosterone or energy reserves are believed to be involved, few studies have directly focused on the proximate cues influencing behaviours directly related to reproductive success. To address this information gap, we determined the incubation metabolic rates and corticosterone (CORT levels of naturally fasting and freely incubating ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus. Respiratory quotient (RQ increased with date, suggesting that incubating ancient murrelets shifted from strictly lipid-based metabolism towards more protein-based metabolism as incubation progressed. Birds that hatched only one nestling had higher levels of circulating CORT than those which hatched two, suggesting that birds which laid only a single egg found incubation more stressful than those which laid two. However, CORT levels and incubation shift lengths were not correlated, suggesting that birds that undertook prolonged incubation shifts did so only when their energy stores were not jeopardized.

  5. {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi E-mail: GZL13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that {sup 125}I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p<0.05). Serum corticosterone level ratio appeared to be slightly elevated in 3-DAY and 5-DAY, although this elevation was not significant. These data suggest that {sup 125}I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress.

  6. Disruption of the HPA-axis through corticosterone-release pellets induces robust depressive-like behavior and reduced BDNF levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Deneyer, Lauren; Albertini, Giulia; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2016-07-28

    The corticosterone mouse model is widely used in preclinical research towards a better understanding of mechanisms of major depression. One particular administration procedure is the subcutaneous implantation of corticosterone slow-release pellets. In this report we want to provide basic evidence, regarding behavioral changes, neurotransmitter and -modulator levels and some other relevant biomolecules after hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis distortion. We show that three weeks of corticosterone pellet exposure robustly induces depressive-like but not anxiety-like behavior in mice, accompanied by a significant decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, at five weeks after the start of treatment. Furthermore there is an overall decrease in plasma corticosterone levels after three weeks of treatment that lasts up until the five weeks' time point. On the other hand, no differences are observed in total monoamine, glutamate or d-serine levels, nor in glucocorticoid receptor expression, in various depression-related brain areas. Altogether this characterization delivers vital information, supplementary to existing literature, regarding the phenotyping of pellet-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis disruption in mice following three weeks of continuous corticosterone exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Corticosterone levels and behavioral changes induced by simultaneous exposure to chronic social stress and enriched environments in NMRI male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Ramos-Campos, Marta; Redolat, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental model which is believed to counteract some of the effects induced by stressors, although few studies have exposed rodents simultaneously to EE and stress. Our aim was to compare the short- and long-term effects of different housing conditions in mice submitted to chronic stress. 128 NMRI male mice arrived at our laboratory on postnatal day (PND) 21. During Phase I (PND 28), animals were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions: 1) EE+STRESS: mice housed in EE and submitted to social stress (n=32); 2) EE+NO STRESS: mice housed in EE without stress (n=32); 3) SE+STRESS: mice maintained in standard conditions (SE) and submitted to social stress (n=32); and 4) SE+NO STRESS (n=32). At the end of Phase I (PND 77), one cohort of 32 animals was used for behavioral assessment whereas another cohort of 32 was sacrificed for corticosterone analysis. Results indicated that EE animals showed less body weight, higher water and food intake, diminished anxiety response and decreased motor and exploratory behavior than SE mice. Mice exposed to stress gained less body weight, showed higher food and fluid intake and displayed decreased exploratory behavior than non-stressed mice. Furthermore, EE+STRESS group displayed significantly higher corticosterone levels than EE+NO STRESS group whereas EE+NO STRESS group showed lower levels than SE+NO STRESS. On PND 83, Phase II of the study began. Animals (n=96) were assigned to two different housing conditions: EE (n=48) and SE (n=48). On PND 112, corticosterone analysis (n=32) and behavioral study (n=64) were done. The factor "Housing Phase II" reached statistical significance. Results indicated that EE animals showed lower body weight and higher fluid intake than SE group, as well as decreased anxiety. No clear effects on motor and exploratory behavior or learning were observed. When long-term effects were analyzed, results indicated that "Initial Housing" condition was significant

  8. Reproduction elevates the corticosterone stress response in common fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Stefan M; Smith, Carolynn L; Denzel, Andrea J; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2006-04-01

    Changes in reproductive state or the environment may affect the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-andrenal (HPA) axis. However, little is known about the dynamics of the resulting corticosteroid stress response, in particular in tropical mammals. In this study, we address the modulation of corticosterone release in response to different reproductive conditions and seasonality in 326 free-living common fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) on Barro Colorado Island in Panama during dry and wet seasons. We present strong evidence that stress sensitivity is primarily modulated by reproductive condition. In reproductively active females, corticosterone increases were more rapid and reached higher levels, but also decreased significantly faster than in inactive females. The corticosterone response was weaker in reproducing males than in females and delayed compared to non-reproductive males. Testes volume in reproductively active males was negatively correlated with corticosterone concentrations. Our findings suggest differentiated dynamics in the corticosterone stress response between sexes, potentially reflecting conflicting ecological demands. In females, a strong acute corticosterone response may represent high stress- and risk-sensitivity that facilitates escape and thus helps to protect reproduction. In males, suppression during reproductive activity could reflect lowered stress sensitivity to avoid chronically elevated corticosterone levels in times of frequent aggressive and therefore costly inter-male encounters.

  9. [The influence of application of a low-frequency magnetic field on the serum corticosterone level (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabovskiĭ, V V; Gotovskiĭ, M Iu; Vinokurov, A A; Maslov, O V

    2013-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature publications suggest the necessity of experimental studies aimed at investigation of modulating effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on endocrine organs. The present study was carried out using 200 outbred white male rats (body weight 200-220 g). Corticosterone was measured in blood sera following the application of a low-frequency magnetic field (20 and 53 Hz with induction from 0.4 to 6 mT) generated by a Mini-Expert-T apparatus for induction magnetic therapy during 30 minutes. It was shown that the application of the alternating magnetic field to the adrenal region of the rats in the selected frequency and induction ranges caused a significant increase in the serum corticosterone levels. The results of the present study on the hormonal activity of rat adrenals give reason to consider the influence of the alternating magnetic fields as being modulatory. Analysis of the data thus obtained has demonstrated the non-linear dependence of glucocorticoid activity of the rat adrenal glands on the induction strength of the alternating magnetic field.

  10. Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2011-04-01

    Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of β-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 125I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level during psychological stress in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that benzodiazepine receptor density decreases in response to stress, we correlated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding with serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups; control group (CON, 10 rats), no physical or psychological stress; and one-, three-, and five-day stress groups of 12 rats each (1-DAY, 3-DAY, and 5-DAY, respectively), receiving psychological stress for the given number of days. Psychological stress were given to rats with a communication box. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-iomazenil of the 3-DAY and 5-DAY showed that 125 I-iomazenil - benzodiazepine receptor binding was significantly reduced in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen (p 125 I-IMZ is a useful radioligand to reflect received stress and its binding in the cortices, accumbens nuclei, amygdala and caudate putamen is strongly affected by psychological stress

  12. Functional characterization of neotropical snakes peripheral blood leukocytes subsets: Linking flow cytometry cell features, microscopy images and serum corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Lourenço, Mariana Mathias; Levin, Gabriel; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-09-01

    Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images. Moreover, since corticosterone is an important immunomodulator in reptiles, hormone levels of all blood samples were measured. We provide novel and additional information which should contribute to better understanding of the development of the immune system of reptiles and vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benzodiazepine effect of 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ogi, Shigeyuki; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated 125 I-iomazenil ( 125 I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125 I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P 125 I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which 125 I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam

  14. Baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone in male and female Afrotropical and European temperate stonechats during breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Helm, Barbara; Illera, Juan Carlos; Mortega, Kim G; Smiddy, Patrick; Evans, Neil P

    2017-05-22

    Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions. Baseline and stress-induced CORT was measured across sequential stages of the breeding season in males and females of closely related taxa of stonechats (Saxicola spp) from a wide distribution area. We compared stonechats from 13 sites, representing Canary Islands, European temperate and East African tropical areas. Stonechats are highly seasonal breeders at all these sites, but vary between tropical and temperate regions with regard to reproductive investment and presumably also survival. In accordance with life-history theory, during parental stages, post-capture (baseline) CORT was overall lower in tropical than in temperate stonechats. However, during mating stages, tropical males had elevated post-capture (baseline) CORT concentrations, which did not differ from those of temperate males. Female and male mates of a pair showed correlated levels of post-capture CORT when sampled after simulated territorial intrusions. In contrast to the hypothesis that species with low reproduction and high annual survival should be more risk-sensitive, tropical stonechats had lower stress-induced CORT concentrations than temperate stonechats. We also found relatively high post-capture (baseline) and stress-induced CORT concentrations, in slow-paced Canary Islands stonechats. Our data support and refine the view that baseline CORT facilitates energetically

  15. Regulation of breeding behavior: do energy-demanding periods induce a change in prolactin or corticosterone baseline levels in the common tern (Sterna hirundo)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Hormones are involved in reproductive decisions, linking environmental cues and body condition and adapting behavior. Mass loss is often accompanied by decreased prolactin and increased corticosterone concentrations, influencing incubation and brooding behavior and ultimately triggering nest desertion. Using blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima), we measured baseline prolactin, corticosterone, and ketone body values in incubating common terns (Sterna hirundo) between 2006 and 2009 during energy-demanding periods: 50 pairs were sampled hungry (after an incubation bout) and again fed (after foraging). In a second approach, we sampled 57 other pairs (experienced and inexperienced birds) three times over their individual breeding period, because reproduction, especially chick rearing, is a very energy-demanding process. In line with the common physiological pattern of fasting, we found significantly lower baseline prolactin values in hungry terns, which were negatively related to mass loss over the incubation bout, whereas corticosterone and ketone body levels were marginally increased. Compared to that in the incubation phase, the prolactin level dropped after hatching of chicks in inexperienced birds, perhaps indicating lower parental expenditure. Corticosterone, on the other hand, increased after hatching in males, probably linked to higher foraging activity, as males mainly deliver food during the first days. These energy-demanding periods clearly influenced hormones and ketone bodies, maybe reinforced by the low energy margin of this small seabird species, but energy reserves were not depleted to a level affecting behavior or reproductive success.

  16. Sex and migratory strategy influence corticosterone levels in winter-grown feathers, with positive breeding effects in a migratory pelagic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P; Catry, Paulo

    2016-08-01

    To overcome unpredictable stressful transitory events, animals trigger an allostatic response involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex. This hormonal response, which involves the release of glucocorticoids which in turn mediate between the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the energetic demands and resource allocation trade-off with behavioural responses to environmental perturbations and may ultimately lead to variation in fitness. We have used the Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis, a sexually dimorphic pelagic seabird with a partial migratory strategy, as a model bird species to analyse a number of traits related to the stress response. We investigated whether the activation of a stressful response, mediated by corticosterone, during the wintering period (1) correlated with the previous breeding success, (2) was affected by the migratory behaviour of male birds and (3) had consequences in the fitness of the birds. Corticosterone levels in feathers grown overwinter were analysed in 61 adult birds during three consecutive migratory periods (2009-2012) and in 14 immature birds in the wintering period 2010-2011. Moreover, the levels of corticosterone were analysed in experimental birds which were freed from their reproductive duties and compared with control birds which raised fledglings to the end of the breeding period. The results show that the levels of corticosterone were sex dependent, differed between years and were affected by the migratory strategy performed by the birds. The activation of the stressful response over the wintering period generated residual carry-over effects that positively affected the reproductive output in the subsequent breeding stage, a phenomenon previously undescribed in a long-lived pelagic seabird. Our study provides evidence that the analysis of corticosterone from feathers is a useful tool to evaluate carry-over effects in birds far away from breeding sites, opening new possibilities for future studies in

  17. Individual variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin levels predicts parental effort by nesting mourning doves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Vleck, Carol M.; Otis, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine systems have an important mechanistic role in structuring life-history trade-offs. During breeding, individual variation in prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone (CORT) levels affects behavioral and physiological processes that drive trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance. We examined patterns in baseline (BL) and stress induced (SI; level following a standard capture-restraint protocol) levels of PRL and CORT for breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). We determined whether the relationship of adult condition and parental effort to hormone levels in wild birds was consistent with life-history predictions. Both BL PRL and BL CORT level in adults were positively related to nestling weight at early nestling ages, consistent with the prediction of a positive relationship of hormone levels to current parental effort of adults and associated increased energy demand. Results are consistent with the two hormones acting together at baseline levels to limit negative effects of CORT on reproduction while maintaining beneficial effects such as increased foraging for nestling feeding. Our data did not support predictions that SI responses would vary in response to nestling or adult condition. The magnitude of CORT response in the parents to our capture-restraint protocol was negatively correlated with subsequent parental effort. Average nestling weights for adults with the highest SI CORT response were on average 10–15% lighter than expected for their age in follow-up visits after the stress event. Our results demonstrated a relationship between individual hormone levels and within population variation in parental effort and suggested that hormonal control plays an important role in structuring reproductive decisions for mourning doves.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1200 - Corticosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to measure corticosterone (a steroid secreted by the adrenal gland) levels in plasma. Measurements of corticosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal disorders such as adrenal cortex disorders and...

  19. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily, chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight, mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone, or control treatment (without stress for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  20. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  1. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and buspirone on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in rats under basal and stress conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    The effects of the classical benzodiazepine (BDZ) anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the non-BDZ anxiolytic agent buspirone (BUSP) on basal and stress-induced plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) release were investigated. Male Wistar rats provided with a

  2. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  3. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  4. Cysteamine attenuates the decreases in TrkB protein levels and the anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice induced by corticosterone treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Kutiyanawalla

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Stress and glucocorticoid hormones, which are released into the circulation following stressful experiences, have been shown to contribute significantly to the manifestation of anxiety-like behaviors observed in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling through its receptor TrkB plays an important role in stress-mediated changes in structural as well as functional neuroplasticity. Studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby TrkB signaling is regulated in chronic stress might provide valuable information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for several stress-related psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to attenuate anxiety and depression like behaviors in a mouse model of anxiety/depression induced by chronic corticosterone exposure. RESULTS: Cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg/day, through drinking water for 21 days significantly ameliorated chronic corticosterone-induced decreases in TrkB protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, cysteamine treatment reversed the anxiety and depression like behavioral abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone treatment. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in behavioral tests, suggesting that TrkB signaling plays an important role in the antidepressant effects of cysteamine. CONCLUSIONS: The animal studies described here highlight the potential use of cysteamine as a novel therapeutic strategy for glucocorticoid-related symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  5. Variations in maternal care alter corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and stimulate the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the ovaries of UCh rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim João PA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in maternal care are associated with neonatal stress, hormonal disturbances and reproductive injuries during adulthood. However, the effects of these variations on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovary development remain undetermined. This study aimed to investigate whether variations in maternal care are able to influence the hormonal profile, follicular dynamics and expression of AR, ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of UCh rat offspring. Methods Twenty-four adult UCh rats, aged 120 days, were randomly divided into two groups (UChA and UChB and mated. Maternal care was assessed from birth (day 0 to the 10th postnatal day (PND. In adulthood, twenty adult female rats (UChA and UChB offspring; n = 10/group, aged 120 days, were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus. Results UChA females (providing high maternal care more frequently displayed the behaviors of carrying pups, as well as licking/grooming and arched back nursing cares. Also, mothers providing high care had elevated corticosterone levels. Additionally, offspring receiving low maternal care showed the highest estrous cycle duration, increased corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, overexpression of receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, increased numbers of primordial, antral and mature follicles and accentuated granulosa cell proliferation. Conclusions Our study suggests that low maternal care alters corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, disrupting the estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and differentially regulating the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of adult rats.

  6. Quantitative autoradiography of [3H]corticosterone receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S.; Rainbow, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have quantified corticosterone receptors in rat brain by optical density measurements of tritium-film autoradiograms. Rats were injected i.v. with 500 μCi [ 3 H]corticosterone to label brain receptors. Frozen sections of brain were cut with a cryostat and exposed for 2 months against tritium-sensitive sheet film (LKB Ultrofilm). Tritium standards were used to convert optical density readings into molar concentrations of receptor. High levels of corticosterone receptors were present throughout the pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus. Moderate levels of receptors were found in the neuropil of the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the cortical nucleus of the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex. All other brain regions had low levels of receptors. These results extend previous non-quantitative autoradigraphic studies of corticosterone receptors and provide a general procedure for the quantitative autoradiography of steroid hormone receptors in brain tissue. (Auth.)

  7. Differential effects of stable elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and systemic corticosterone on various types of rat learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Lenka; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 64-76 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * CRH * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011

  8. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Trathan, Phil N; Phillips, Richard A; Gorman, Kristen B; Dawson, Alistair; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Williams, Tony D

    2012-07-01

    Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort. There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care. Our results provide support for the corticosterone-adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort.

  9. The development of a radioimmunoassay for 18-hydroxy-corticosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.I.

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that 18-hydroxy-corticosterone (18-OH-B) is a precursor for aldosterone in the biosynthetic pathway. This steroid had not been measured in peripheral plasma and therefore to evaluate its clinical role a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was developed. The assay is described and was applied to measure the levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone in normal human subjects on (a) an ad libitum sodium intake whilst lying or standing, (b) on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent, (c) before and after treatment with either ACTH, metyrapone or dexamethasone on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent (d) after insulin induced hypoglycaemia and (e) after infusions of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone. The levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone were also measured in patients with (a) 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, (b) primary or secondary aldosteronism, (c) Bartter's syndrome, (d) Cushing's syndrome, (e) adrenalectomised patients or patient's with Addison's disease and (f) patients with essential hypertension. (author)

  10. Development of a radioimmunoassay for 18-hydroxy-corticosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V I

    1980-03-01

    It has been suggested that 18-hydroxy-corticosterone (18-OH-B) is a precursor for aldosterone in the biosynthetic pathway. This steroid had not been measured in peripheral plasma and therefore to evaluate its clinical role a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was developed. The assay is described and was applied to measure the levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone in normal human subjects on (a) an ad libitum sodium intake whilst lying or standing, (b) on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent, (c) before and after treatment with either ACTH, metyrapone or dexamethasone on a high or low sodium intake whilst recumbent (d) after insulin induced hypoglycaemia and (e) after infusions of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone. The levels of 18-hydroxy-corticosterone were also measured in patients with (a) 17chemically bond-hydroxylase deficiency, (b) primary or secondary aldosteronism, (c) Bartter's syndrome, (d) Cushing's syndrome, (e) adrenalectomised patients or patient's with Addison's disease and (f) patients with essential hypertension. (author).

  11. Effects of air transportation cause physiological and biochemical changes indicative of stress leading to regulation of chaperone expression levels and corticosterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, SunBo; Lee, SeHyun; Kim, ChuelKyu; Kim, ByoungGuk; Jee, SeungWan; Lee, SuHae; Sin, JiSoon; Bae, ChangJoon; Woo, Jong-Min; Cho, JungSik; Lee, EonPil; Choi, HaeWook; Kim, HongSung; Lee, JaeHo; Jung, YoungJin; Cho, ByungWook; Chae, KabRyong; Hwang, DaeYoun

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory animals generally experience numerous unfamiliar environmental and psychological influences such as noises, temperatures, handling, shaking, and smells during the process of air transportation. To investigate whether stress induced by air transportation affects stress-related factors in animals, the levels of hormone and chaperone protein were measured in several tissues of F344 rats transported for 13 h and not transported. Herein, we conclude that the levels of corticosterone, HSP70, and GRP78 were significantly increased in the transported group compare to not transported group, but they were rapidly restored to the not transported group level after a recovery period of one week. However, the magnitude of induction and restoration levels of these factors varied depending on the tissue type. Thus, these results suggest that air transportation should be considered for the improvement of laboratory animal health and to reduce the incidence of laboratory animal stress.

  12. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of growth pattern and dietary protein level during rearing on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing and laying period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of growth patterns (GP) and dietary crude protein levels (CP) during rearing (2–22 weeks of age) on feed intake, eating time, eating rate, behavior, plasma corticosterone concentration, and feather cover in broiler breeder females during the rearing

  14. Assessment of testicular corticosterone biosynthesis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Maeda

    Full Text Available Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs.

  15. Effects of Crocin on Learning and Memory in Rats Under Chronic Restraint Stress with Special Focus on the Hippocampal and Frontal Cortex Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgerdi, Azadehalsadat Hosseini; Radahmadi, Maryam; Pourshanazari, Ali Asghar; Dastgerdi, Hajaralsadat Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress adversely influences brain functions while crocin, as an effective component of saffron, exhibits positive effects on memory processes. This study investigated the effects of different doses of crocin on the improvement of learning and memory as well as corticosterone (CORT) levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats subjected to chronic stress. Forty male rats were randomly allocated to five different groups ( n = 8): Control, sham; stress (6 h/day for 21 days) groups, and two groups receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of one of two doses (30 and 60 mg/kg) of crocin accompanied by 21 days of restraint stress. Latency was evaluated as a brain function using the passive avoidance test before and one-day after a foot shock. CORT levels were measured in the homogenized hippocampus and frontal cortex. Results revealed that chronic stress had a significantly ( P effect on memory. Crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg), however, gave increase to significantly ( P effects than its higher (60 mg/kg) dose on learning and memory under chronic stress conditions. Moreover, it was speculated that different doses of crocin act on different neurotransmitters and biochemical factors in the brain.

  16. Early paternal deprivation alters levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor and serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in a sex-specific way in socially monogamous mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Wang, Siyang; Shui, Li; Tai, Fadao; Qiao, Xufeng; He, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, fathers play an important role in the development of the brain and typical behavior in offspring, but the exact nature of this process is not well understood. In particular, little research has addressed whether the presence or absence of paternal care alters levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basal levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Here, we explored this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a species in which fathers display high levels of paternal care toward their pups. Our immunohistochemical study shows that paternal deprivation (PD) significantly decreased levels of GR and BDNF protein in the CA1 and CA2/3 of the hippocampus. In the dental gyrus, decreases in GR and BDNF induced by PD were evident in females but not in males. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that PD significantly upregulated levels of serum CORT and ACTH in females, but not males. These findings demonstrate that PD alters HPA axis activity in a sex-specific way. The changes in stress hormones documented here may be associated with alteration in hippocampal BDNF and GR levels. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The effects of irradiation on the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Teruki; Mori, Masaki; Honke, Yoshifumi

    1983-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on both the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides in the rat liver were investigated. The liver concentrations of corticosterone and cyclic nucleotides were measured by radioimmunoassay before and after the irradiation of 1,000 rad/l fraction. The glucocorticoid receptor in the liver cytosol was determined by the measurement of the cytosol binding to 3 H-dexamethasone. The cytosol and nuclear corticosterone levels reached a peak 1 day after the irradiation of the rat liver and declined to the control levels after 2 days. The increase in corticosterone levels may be due to the direct stimulation of the right adrenal gland and/ or the stress induced by the irradiation. The binding capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in rat liver cytosol decreased to the minimum 1 day after the irradiation, and the recovery occurred at 4 days. The Kd value of the glucocorticoid receptor remained unchanged from 1 hour until 4 days but was high at 4 and 7 days. The distinctly increased levels of cyclic GMP in the rat liver were found from 1 hour through 7 days after the irradiation, while cyclic AMP did not change. The inversed relationship between the cytosol glucocorticoid receptor and corticosterone levels in cytosol and the nuclei indicates that the receptor-bound corticosterone in cytosol can be transferred to a nucleus and remain there in the presence of appropriate amounts of corticosterone in cytosol, after which the receptor is released from the nucleus into cytosol. The high Kd values observed 4 -- 7 days after the irradiation may be either due to the direct effect of irradiation or to the replenishment of the receptor with a low affinity. (author)

  18. Elevated Corticosterone Levels and Changes in Amphibian Behavior Are Associated with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd Infection and Bd Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin R Gabor

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the role hormones play in mediating clinical changes associated with infection by the parasite Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Glucocorticoid (GC hormones such as corticosteroids (CORT regulate homeostasis and likely play a key role in response to infection in amphibians. We explore the relationship between CORT release rates and Bd infection in tadpoles of the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricians, using a non-invasive water-borne hormone collection method across seven populations. We further examined whether tadpoles of A. muletensis infected with a hypervirulent lineage of Bd, BdGPL, had greater CORT release rates than those infected with a hypovirulent lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we examined the relationship between righting reflex and CORT release rates in infected metamorphic toads of A. obstetricans. We found an interaction between elevation and Bd infection status confirming that altitude is associated with the overall severity of infection. In tandem, increasing elevation was associated with increasing CORT release rates. Tadpoles infected with the hypervirulent BdGPL had significantly higher CORT release rates than tadpoles infected with BdCAPE showing that more aggressive infections lead to increased CORT release rates. Infected metamorphs with higher CORT levels had an impaired righting reflex, our defined experimental endpoint. These results provide evidence that CORT is associated with an amphibian's vulnerability to Bd infection, and that CORT is also affected by the aggressiveness of infection by Bd. Together these results indicate that CORT is a viable biomarker of amphibian stress.

  19. Experimentally reduced corticosterone release promotes early breeding in black-legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2011-06-15

    Breeding at the right time is important for successful reproduction. In birds, stressful environmental conditions are known to delay the timing of breeding but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The stress hormone corticosterone appears to be a good candidate for mediating egg-laying date according to early environmental conditions and physiological state. By experimentally reducing the release of corticosterone in black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-laying period, we tested whether egg-laying date was mechanistically linked to corticosterone levels. Male and female kittiwakes were implanted with a low dose of exogenous corticosterone to inhibit endogenous corticosterone production. According to our predictions, the experimental reduction of corticosterone release was paralleled by a significant advancement of egg laying in females (around 4 days earlier). In addition, females with experimentally reduced corticosterone release gained mass during the pre-laying period compared with controls. Ultimately, the advancement of egg laying in females with experimentally reduced corticosterone levels was associated with an enhanced breeding success. This effect was strongly sex specific. In corticosterone-treated male kittiwakes, egg-laying date and reproductive success were not affected, but breeding probability was lower than in controls. This corticosterone treatment did not influence immediate clutch size, or return rate and breeding decision the following year. Our results support the hypothesis that corticosterone secretion during the pre-laying period mediates the timing of breeding in this long-lived seabird, possibly through the dynamics of energy reserves.

  20. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (Plevels compared with the HFD (Plevels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (Plevels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  1. Depression-like behaviors in mice subjected to co-treatment of high-fat diet and corticosterone are ameliorated by AICAR and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Li, Haipeng; Ji, Liu

    2014-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly co-morbid, and there may be a bi-directional connection between the two. Herein, we have described a mouse model of a depression-like and insulin-resistant (DIR) state induced by the co-treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) and corticosterone (CORT). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d- ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was originally used to improve insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, our results show a clear potential for AICAR as a putative antidepressant with a chronic action on the DIR mice. In contrast to the traditional antidepressants, AICAR as a promising antidepressant avoids reducing insulin actions of skeletal muscle in the context of long-term HFD. Exercise also produced antidepressant effects. Our data suggest that the effects of AICAR and exercise on DIR may further increase our understanding on the link between depression and diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of long-term corticosterone implants on growth and immune function in juvenile alligators, Alligator mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, L A; Elsey, R M; Lance, V A

    1997-10-01

    Sixty juvenile alligators were implanted subcutaneously with slow release pellets of corticosterone or placebo. Alligators were divided into five different groups such that each group received a different dose. A blood sample was taken prior to and 4 days after the implants were in place to measure hormone levels. Additional blood samples were collected at 1 month and 3 months. At 4 days corticosterone levels ranged from 3,400 ng/ml in the group treated with the high dose to 40 ng/ml in the group implanted with the low dose. The extremely high dose caused 40% mortality within 4 weeks. It was evident that the pellets did not release the hormone for the expected 90 days. Circulating levels of corticosterone were back to baseline levels by 3 months. Hormone levels achieved at 4 days were a reliable predictor of subsequent growth. Rate of growth was negatively correlated with plasma corticosterone at 4 days (r2 = 0.711) and at 1 month (r2 = 0.544) posttreatment. Differential white blood cell counts performed after 1 month of treatment showed a clear effect of the implant. Alligators treated with corticosterone had decreased percentages of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils and had a higher heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio than the placebo group. Furthermore, histological examination of the spleen revealed a significant depletion of lymphoid cells in alligators treated with the highest dose of hormone. The results from this study demonstrate that exogenous corticosterone can mimic the effects of prolonged stress in juvenile alligators.

  3. Effect of Home Cage Bedding in the Induction Chamber on Serum Cortisol and Corticosterone Levels in Response to Isoflurane-induced Anesthesia in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Cara P; Christy, Amanda C; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2017-03-01

    Mice are routinely anesthetized with isoflurane in an induction chamber. The AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals states that distress should be minimized during euthanasia but does not address this point in regard to induction of anesthesia. Here we evaluated the potential for familiar surroundings to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane. However, adding bedding from the animals' home cage to the induction chamber failed to significantly reduce serum cortisol or corticosterone levels in male and female C57BL/6J mice. These results indicate that familiar surroundings do not appear sufficient to reduce the adrenocortical response of mice during anesthesia induction with isoflurane.

  4. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old.

  5. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  6. Corticosterone and thyroxine in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Innis, Charles; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2012-09-01

    Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), a critically endangered species, frequently strand on the shores of Cape Cod (Massachusetts, USA) in late autumn in a state of "cold-stunning" exhibiting low body temperature and related clinical issues. Stranded turtles are transported to the New England Aquarium (Boston, Massachusetts, USA) for treatment and rehabilitation. This study tested the hypothesis that cold-stunned sea turtles might exhibit high corticosterone ("stress hormone") or low thyroxine (which is often affected by temperature), or both, and that monitoring of both hormones may be useful for assessing recovery. In a retrospective analysis, 87 archived plasma samples were assayed from 56 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles for corticosterone and free thyroxine (fT4). Upon admission, mean corticosterone was the highest yet reported for a population of sea turtles (39.3 +/- 2.5 ng/ml; mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) and fT4 was usually undetectable. On admission, corticosterone was negatively correlated with white blood cell count but was not correlated with blood glucose. There were no differences in either hormone between survivors and nonsurvivors on admission. After 18+ days in recovery, surviving turtles' corticosterone dropped significantly to levels typical of baseline in other species (0.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) while fT4 increased significantly (1.3 +/- 1.5 pg/ml). During recovery, corticosterone was positively correlated with blood glucose and was not correlated with white blood cell count. Turtles that showed persistent deficits in feeding, activity, or both during recovery had significantly lower fT4 than did turtles with no such deficits. The "high corticosterone, low fT4" endocrine profile seen on admission may be a useful marker of cold-stunning in this and other species. Further studies are necessary to determine whether low thyroid hormones play a causal role in deficits in feeding and activity during recovery

  7. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Wingfield, J.C.; Piatt, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone, chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. In this study we examined temporal dynamics of corticosterone release in red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) chicks exposed to prolonged restrictions in energy content and/or nutritional quality (low versus high lipid content) of their food. Starting at the age of 15 days, chicks were fed either high- or low-lipid fish at 40%, 65%, and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically (during 2-3 weeks) elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. Low lipid content of food further exacerbated these effects. An increase in baseline levels of corticosterone was observed within a week after energy requirements of food-restricted chicks exceeded their daily energy intake. A tendency for suppression of adrenocortical activity was observed in treatments fed low-lipid diets only at the end of the experiment. We suggest that nest-bound chicks, if food-stressed, might suffer deleterious effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone.

  8. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  9. Circadian variation of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood in rats exposed to different light conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Kos-Kudla, B.

    1993-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the regulatory influence of a different light-dark cycle on 24-h rhythm of corticosterone in adrenal vein blood. The present findings suggest that exposure to 'short day' conditions has a suppressive effect on circadian secretion of corticosterone. In rats kept in 'long day' conditions the increase of the mean 24-h corticosterone levels in adrenal vein blood and the acrophase rhythm shift were observed. In rats kept in an inverted illumination cycle the phase reversal in the periodicity of corticosterone was found. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Physiological actions of corticosterone and its modulation by an immune challenge in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Sandrine; Haussy, Claudy; Voituron, Yann

    2010-11-01

    Hormones are an important interface between genome and environment, because of their ability to modulate the animal's phenotype. In particular, corticosterone, the stress hormone in lizards, is known to reallocate energy from non-essential functions to affect morphological, physiological and behavioral traits that help the organism to deal with acute or chronic stressors. However, the effects of corticosterone on life history stages are still unclear primarily because of the dependence of life history stages on both internal and external factors. Using a cross-design, we tested the effect of elevated levels of exogenous corticosterone on the physiology of pregnant females in different immune contexts in a wild population of common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). Immune challenge was induced by the injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and corticosterone levels were increased using a transdermal administration of corticosterone. Thereafter, reproductive traits, metabolism and cellular immune responses were measured. The elevation of corticosterone in pregnant females significantly altered reproductive and physiological performance. The corticosterone treatment decreased clutch success, juvenile size and body condition, but enhanced measures of physiological performance, such as metabolism and catalase activity. These first results reinforce the understanding of the physiological actions of corticosterone in reptiles. The data also demonstrated different direct impacts of immune challenge by SRBC on inflammatory response and antioxidant activity. The injection of SRBC stimulated the SOD activity in larger females. Finally, we demonstrated experimentally the modulation of the corticosterone action by the immune challenge on stamina and hatching date. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early social deprivation impairs pair bonding and alters serum corticosterone and the NAcc dopamine system in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Jianli; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Early life stress has a long-term negative impact on emotion, learning, memory and adult sexual behavior, and these deficits most likely impair pair bonding. Here, we investigated whether early social deprivation (ED) affects the formation of pair bonds in socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). In a partner preference test (PPT), ED-reared adult females and males did not show a preference for their partner, spent more time exploring the cage of an unfamiliar animal and directed high levels of aggression toward unfamiliar animals. In social interaction test, ED increased exploring behavior only in females, but increased movement around the partner and reduced inactivity in both males and females. Three days of cohabitation did not alter serum corticosterone levels in ED-reared males, but increased corticosterone levels in males that received bi-parental care (PC). Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels in ED- and PC-reared females declined after cohabitation. ED significantly increased basal serum corticosterone levels in males, but had no effect on females. ED significantly up-regulated the levels of dopamine and the mRNA expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in females and males. ED suppressed dopamine 2-type receptor mRNA (D2R) expression in females, but increased this in males. After three days of cohabitation, levels of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA expression changed in opposite directions in PC-reared voles, but in the same direction in ED-reared males, and only the expression of D2R mRNA increased in ED-reared females. Our results indicate that early social deprivation inhibits pair bonding at adulthood. This inhibition is possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in serum corticosterone, levels of dopamine and mRNA expression of two types of dopamine receptors in the NAcc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  13. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. The influence of short-time period of an adaptation to decreased ambient temperature on interleukin-6 and corticosterone levels in female Wistar strain rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been little research examining whether short-time changes of external environmental conditions exert any effects on immune responses. The activation of metabolic changes, release of hormones responsive for immunomodulation and the action of interleukins play an important role in interaction with hormones of an anterior pituitary gland in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of a short-time change of ambient temperature (30 minutes on interleukin-6 (IL-6 and corticosterone plasma concentration of female rats in the proestrous phase of the reproductive cycle. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal environmental parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used during the experiment. The estimation of the vaginal lavage using a microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. On the day of the experiment, animals were divided into 2 groups: the control group (ambient temperature 21 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 and the test group (ambient temperature 10 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C; normoxia 21% O2 stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes. The blood samples were collected before the experiment and after 30, 60, 90, 150 and 210 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. The concentrations of IL-6 and corticosterone were measured in blood plasma samples using ELISA method. There was a significant elevation of IL-6 levels after staying in 10 degrees C during the first 150 minutes from the beginning of the experiment, with the highest value occurring after 60 minutes (426.6 pg/ml; SE - 146.1 with comparison to the value at first sampling (108.5 pg/ml; SE - 29.5; p<0.05 and with comparison to the control group at the same time from the beginning of the experiment (87.6 pg/ml; SE - 2.3; p<0.05. The changed level of corticosterone in the test group in comparison to control group was observed but the differences were

  15. Involvement of high plasma corticosterone status and activation of brain regional serotonin metabolism in long-term erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyper activity in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Arindam; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2010-07-01

    Long-term consumption of artificial food color(s) can induce behavioral hyperactivity in human and experimental animals, but no neurobiochemical mechanism is defined. This study investigates the role of brain regional serotonin metabolism including its turnover, MAO-A activity, and plasma corticosterone status in relation to behavioral disturbances due to an artificial food color, erythrosine. Long-term (15 or 30 consecutive days) erythrosine administration with higher dosage (10 or 100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) produced optimal hyperactive state in exploratory behavior (rearing motor activity) after 2 h of last erythrosine administration, in young adult male albino rats. Erythrosine-induced stimulation in brain regional (medulla-pons, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and corpus striatum) serotonin metabolism (measuring steady state levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA, MAO-A activity), including its turnover (pargyline-induced 5-HT accumulation and 5-HIAA declination rate), as well as plasma corticosterone were also observed depending on dosage(s) and duration(s) of erythrosine administration under similar experimental conditions. The lower dosage of erythrosine (1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under similar conditions did not affect either of the above. These findings suggests (a) the induction as well as optimal effect of long-term erythrosine (artificial food color) on behavioral hyperactivity in parallel with increase in 5-HT level in brain regions, (b) the activation of brain regional serotonin biosynthesis in accordance with plasma corticosterone status under such behavioral hyperactivity, and (c) a possible inhibitory influence of the enhanced glucocorticoids-serotonin interaction on erythrosine-induced rearing motor hyperactivity in young adult mammals.

  16. General Algorithm (High level)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  17. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  18. Progesterone regulates corticosterone elevation and alterations in spatial memory and exploratory behavior induced by stress in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Burke, Yolanda; Universidad de Guadalajara; Valencia-Alfonso, Carlos Eduardo; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience; González-Sandoval, Claudia Elena; Universidad de Guadalajara; Huerta, Miguel; Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Centro Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad de Colima; Diaz, Lourdes; Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco; García-Estrada, Joaquín; Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, IMSS-Jalisco; Luquín, Sonia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to high levels of glucocorticoids. During stress response, it suffers biochemical and cellular changes that affect functions such as spatial memory and exploratory behavior. In this study, we analyzed the influence of the neurosteroid progesterone (PROG), on stress-induced changes in urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels, spatial memory and exploratory behavior. Castrated adult male rats were implanted with PROG or vehicle (VEHI), and then exposed to chronic stres...

  19. Fear memory for cue and context: opposite and time-dependent effects of a physiological dose of corticosterone in male BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Oitzl, Melly S; Grauer, Ettie

    2012-07-23

    Highly emotional, stress reactive BALB/c mice secrete more corticosterone in response to fear conditioning than the low stress reactive C57BL/6J mice. Fear memory to cue and context differs between the strains. We injected corticosterone at physiological concentrations (250 μg/kg i.p.) 30 min before fear conditioning. Fear memory was tested 48 and 72 h later. Although corticosterone had little effect on acquisition, it differentially affected fear memories in strain dependent manner: while BALB/c mice decreased freezing during cue and context episodes, C57BL/6J mice showed an overall increase in freezing. BALB/c mice showed extinction over days while no such extinction was seen in C57BL/6J mice. Evaluation of these data in the perspective of previous studies using the same fear conditioning paradigm with corticosterone injections 5 min before or immediately after acquisition, revealed the impact of corticosterone during conditioning on the strength of fear memories. In C57BL/6J mice the overall increase in fear memories was higher if corticosterone was injected 30 min pre acquisition than if injected 5 min pre. In contrast, BALB/c mice showed reduced fear memories when injected 30 min pre compared to that seen 5 min pre acquisition. Both strains showed decreased fear memories compared to vehicle if corticosterone was administered immediately after acquisition. We conclude that the timing of physiologically relevant, stress levels increase in corticosterone is essential for the processing of aversive events and the formation of fear memories. However, the quality of the effect depends on the genetic background. These findings contribute to the understanding of the etiology of stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Baseline corticosterone peaks in shorebirds with maximal energy stores for migration : A general preparatory mechanism for rapid behavioral and metabolic transitions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Reneerkens, J; Ramenofsky, M

    2000-01-01

    In captive red knots (Calidris canutus, Scolopacidae) showing a regulated body mass increase of 50% related to their migration from temperate staging sites to tundra:breeding grounds, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased from less than 10 ng.ml(-1) to levels as high-as 30 ng.ml(-1) when

  2. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  3. Corticosterone and foraging behavior in a diving seabird: the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Bost, Charles-André; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bouteloup, Guillaume; Dano, Stéphanie; Chastel, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Because hormones mediate physiological or behavioral responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, they can help us understand how animals adapt their foraging decisions to energetic demands of reproduction. Thus, the hormone corticosterone deserves specific attention because of its influence on metabolism, food intake and locomotor activities. We examined the relationships between baseline corticosterone levels and foraging behavior or mass gain at sea in a diving seabird, the Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae. Data were obtained from free-ranging penguins during the brooding period (Adélie Land, Antarctica) by using satellite transmitters and time-depth-recorders. The birds were weighed and blood sampled before and after a foraging trip (pre-trip and post-trip corticosterone levels, respectively). Penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels spent less time at sea and stayed closer to the colony than penguins with low pre-trip corticosterone levels. These short trips were associated with a higher foraging effort in terms of diving activity and a lower mass gain at sea than long trips. According to previous studies conducted on seabird species, these results suggest that penguins with elevated pre-trip corticosterone levels might maximize the rate of energy delivery to the chicks at the expense of their body reserves. Moreover, in all birds, corticosterone levels were lower post-foraging than pre-foraging. This decrease could result from either the restoration of body reserves during the foraging trip or from a break in activity at the end of the foraging trip. This study demonstrates for the first time in a diving predator the close relationships linking foraging behavior and baseline corticosterone levels. We suggest that slight elevations in pre-trip corticosterone levels could play a major role in breeding effort by facilitating foraging activity in breeding seabirds.

  4. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticosterone mitigates the stress response in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Smerin, Stanley E; Zhang, Lei; Xing, Guoqiang; Li, Xiaoxia; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    corticosterone and high versus low dose of corticosterone on stress-induced exaggeration of innate fear response and stress-retarded body weight growth indicate that exogenous corticosterone administration within an appropriate time window and dosage are efficacious in diminishing traumatic stress induced pathophysiological processes. Clinical implications associated with the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic corticosterone therapy for mitigating symptoms of PTSD are discussed, particularly in relation to diminishing hyperarousal and exaggerated innate fear response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  8. Corticosterone and time-activity budget: an experiment with Black-legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    In vertebrates, the well established increase in plasma corticosterone in response to food shortage is thought to mediate adjustments of foraging behavior and energy allocation to environmental conditions. However, investigating the functional role of corticosterone is often constrained by the difficulty to track time-activity budget of free-ranging animals. To examine how an experimental increase in corticosterone affects the activity budget of male Black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), we used miniaturized activity loggers to record flying/foraging, presence on the sea surface and nest attendance. To investigate how corticosterone affects allocation processes between self-foraging and foraging devoted to the brood, we monitored body mass change of males from capture (day 0) to recapture (day 3). Among control birds, males in poor condition at day 0 spent significantly more time flying/foraging and less time attending the nest site than did males in good condition. Corticosterone treatment affected time spent flying/foraging in interaction with body condition at day 0: corticosterone-implanted males in good condition spent more time flying/foraging than control ones; this was not observed in poor condition males. In control birds, change in body mass was negatively correlated with body condition at day 0. This was reinforced by corticosterone treatment and, on average, corticosterone-implanted males gained much more mass than controls. These results suggest that in Black-legged kittiwakes, body condition and corticosterone levels can interact to mediate foraging decisions and possibly energy allocation: when facing stressful environmental conditions, birds in good body condition may afford to increase the time spent foraging probably to maintain brood provisioning, whereas poor body condition birds seemed rather to redirect available energy from reproduction to self-maintenance.

  9. ACTH, corticosterone, and beta-endorphin in rat blood plasma after prolonged immobilization stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyatkin, E.A.; Amiragova, M.G.; Kushlinskii, N.E.; Polyntsev, Yu. V.

    1986-01-01

    To assess functional relations between changes in ACTH, beta-endorphin (BE), and corticosterone (CS) levels, plasma concentrations of these hormones were studied in rats during the development of prolonged immobilization stress. Plasma hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were analyzed by standard statistical methods on a microcomputer. A particular feature about the kit used to determine BE was the presence of 50% cross-reactivity of the antiserum against beta-lipotrophin. To determine CS a highly specific antiserum produced by a laboratory was used.

  10. Effect of Corticosterone and Hen Body Mass on Primary Sex Ratio in Laying Hen (Gallusgallus), Using Unincubated Eggs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.; Smits, M.A.; Woelders, H.

    2014-01-01

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  11. Effect of corticosterone and hen body mass on primary sex ratio in laying hen (Gallus gallus), using unincubated eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Smits, Mari A.; Woelders, Henri

    In various studies, chronic elevation of corticosterone levels in female birds under natural or experimental conditions resulted in female biased offspring sex ratios. In chicken, one study with injected corticosterone resulted in a male sex ratio bias. In the current study, we chronically elevated

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of corticosterone and corticosterone binding globulin are driven by environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Michael Todd; Kitaysky, Alexander Stanislav

    2008-02-01

    The question of whether changes in glucocorticoid concentrations reflect consistent changes in physiology associated with transitions between different stages of reproduction, or whether they reflect responses to environmental conditions, is one the central issues in field endocrinology studies. We examined the temporal and spatial dynamics of corticosterone (CORT, baseline, and acute stress-induced) and corticosterone binding globulin (CBG) concentrations in blood of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) breeding at four major colonies in the Bering Sea, Alaska, during 1999-2005. We found that total CORT, free CORT, and CBG capacity varied inconsistently among reproductive stages, colonies, and years. Total CORT levels were positively correlated with CBG capacity. Variation in free CORT was largely driven by variation in total CORT. Results suggest that the adrenocortical function and CBG in breeding kittiwakes do not vary as a consequence of stage-specific modulation associated with a particular reproductive stage as in some short-lived passerine birds. Rather, in accord with predictions for a long-lived species, the lack of consistent colony, year, and reproductive stage patterns in baseline and maximum CORT, and CBG indicates that environmental factors, probably local dynamics of food availability, drive variation in these factors.

  13. Adrenal and plasma corticosterone changes in continuously irradiated rats. II. Dependence on additional stress factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1978-01-01

    Adrenal and plasma corticosterone levels were followed in continuously irradiated rats in dependence on additional stress factors - transport of animals, handling and overnight fasting. Rats were gamma irradiated on an open experimental field with a daily dose rate of 15.48x10/sup -3/ C/kg (60 R) continuously up to a total exposure of 387.0x10/sup -3/ C/kg (1500 R) and analyzed after irradiation. The continuous irradiation increased the adrenal and plasma corticosterone concentrations in all groups of animals. The transport and weighing increased mainly adrenal corticosterone in all three groups, irradiated, non-irradiated controls from the field and intact laboratory controls. The scatter of the results made reproducibility difficult. Overnight fasting increased the absolute values in all groups. The radiation effect was evident especially in adrenal corticosterone values of non-handled animals.

  14. Parental investment and its sensitivity to corticosterone is linked to melanin-based coloration in barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Jenni, Lukas

    2008-06-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses to unpredictable changes in environmental conditions are, in part, mediated by glucocorticoids (corticosterone in birds). In polymorphic species, individuals of the same sex and age display different heritable melanin-based color morphs, associated with physiological and reproductive parameters and possibly alternative strategies to cope with variation in environmental conditions. We examined whether the role of corticosterone in resolving the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproductive activities covaries with the size of melanin-based spots displayed on the ventral body side of male barn owls. Administration of corticosterone to simulate physiological stress in males revealed pronounced changes in their food-provisioning rates to nestlings compared to control males. Corticosterone-treated males with small eumelanic spots reduced nestling provisioning rates as compared to controls, and also to a greater degree than did corticosterone-treated males with large spots. Large-spotted males generally exhibited lower parental provisioning and appear insensitive to exogenous corticosterone suggesting that the size of the black spots on the breast feathers predicts the ability to cope with stressful situations. The reduced provisioning rate of corticosterone-treated males caused a temporary reduction in nestling growth rates but, did not affect fledgling success. This suggests that moderately elevated corticosterone levels are not inhibitory to current reproduction but rather trigger behavioral responses to maximize lifetime reproductive success.

  15. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Increased corticosterone in peripubertal rats leads to long-lasting alterations in social exploration and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana eVeenit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress during childhood and adolescence enhances the risk of psychopathology later in life. We have previously shown that subjecting male rats to stress during the peripubertal period induces long-lasting effects on emotion and social behaviors. As corticosterone is increased by stress and known to exert important programming effects, we reasoned that increasing corticosterone might mimic the effects of peripubertal stress. To this end, we injected corticosterone (5 mg/kg on 7 scattered days during the peripuberty period (P28-P30, P34, P36, P40 and P42, following the same experimental schedule as for stress administration in our peripubertal paradigm. We measured play behavior in the homecage and, at adulthood, the corticosterone response to novelty and behavioral responses in tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, aggression and social exploration. As compared to vehicle, corticosterone-treated animals exhibit more aggressive play behavior during adolescence, increased aggressive behavior in a resident-intruder test while reduced juvenile exploration and corticosterone reactivity at adulthood. Whereas the corticosterone treatment mimicked alterations induced by the peripuberty stress protocol in the social domain, it did not reproduce previously observed effects of peripuberty stress on increasing anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, respectively evaluated in the elevated plus maze and the forced swim tests. Our findings indicate that increasing corticosterone levels during peripuberty might be instrumental to program alterations in the social domain observed following stress, whereas other factors might need to be recruited for the programming of long-term changes in emotionality. Our study opens the possibility that individual differences on the degree of glucocorticoid activation during peripuberty might be central to defining differences in vulnerability to develop psychopathological disorders coursing with alterations in

  17. Corticosterone Facilitates Fluoxetine-Induced Neuronal Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsunori; Ikeda, Yumiko; Asada, Minoru; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus has been implicated in a neuronal basis of antidepressant action. We have recently shown a distinct form of neuronal plasticity induced by the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, that is, a reversal of maturation of the dentate granule cells in adult mice. This “dematuration” is induced in a large population of dentate neurons and maintained for at least one month after withdrawal of fluoxetine, suggesting long-lasting strong influence of dematuration on brain functioning. However, reliable induction of dematuration required doses of fluoxetine higher than suggested optimal doses for mice (10 to 18 mg/kg/day), which casts doubt on the clinical relevance of this effect. Since our previous studies were performed in naive mice, in the present study, we reexamined effects of fluoxetine using mice treated with chronic corticosterone that model neuroendocrine pathophysiology associated with depression. In corticosterone-treated mice, fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg/day downregulated expression of mature granule cell markers and attenuated strong frequency facilitation at the synapse formed by the granule cell axon mossy fiber, suggesting the induction of granule cell dematuration. In addition, fluoxetine caused marked enhancement of dopaminergic modulation at the mossy fiber synapse. In vehicle-treated mice, however, fluoxetine at this dose had no significant effects. The plasma level of fluoxetine was comparable to that in patients taking chronic fluoxetine, and corticosterone did not affect it. These results indicate that corticosterone facilitates fluoxetine-induced plastic changes in the dentate granule cells. Our finding may provide insight into neuronal mechanisms underlying enhanced responsiveness to antidepressant medication in certain pathological conditions. PMID:23675498

  18. Magellanic penguin telomeres do not shorten with age with increased reproductive effort, investment, and basal corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiara, Jack A; Risques, Rosa Ana; Prunkard, Donna; Smith, Jeffrey R; Kane, Olivia J; Boersma, P Dee

    2017-08-01

    All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus ). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival. High basal corticosterone is indicative of stressful conditions. Corticosterone, and stress, has been linked to telomere shortening in other species. Magellanic penguins are a particularly good model organism for this question as they are an unusually long-lived species, exceeding their mass-adjusted predicted lifespan by 26%. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found adults aged 5 years to over 24 years of age had similar telomere lengths. Telomeres of adults did not shorten over a 3-year period, regardless of the age of the individual. Neither telomere length, nor the rate at which the telomeres changed over these 3 years, correlated with breeding frequency or investment. Older females also produced larger volume clutches until approximately 15 years old and larger eggs produced heavier fledglings. Furthermore, reproductive success ( chicks fledged/eggs laid ) is maintained as females aged. Basal corticosterone, however, was not correlated with telomere length in adults and suggests that low basal corticosterone may play a role in the telomere maintenance we observed. Basal corticosterone also declined during the breeding season and was positively correlated with the age of adult penguins. This higher basal corticosterone in older individuals, and consistent reproductive success, supports the prediction that Magellanic penguins invest more in reproduction as they age. Our results

  19. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  20. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Harendt, H.; Vecsei, P.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS) [de

  1. Effects of acute temperature change, confinement and housing on plasma corticosterone in water snakes, Nerodia sipedon (Colubridae: Natricinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Kyle Lea; Klukowski, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    Body temperature affects many aspects of reptilian behavior and physiology, but its effect on hormonal secretion has been little studied, especially in snakes. Major objectives of this study were to determine if acute changes in body temperature during confinement influenced plasma corticosterone levels and if initial body temperatures upon capture in the field were related to baseline corticosterone levels in water snakes (Nerodia sipedon). Water snakes were bled upon capture in the field and after one hour of confinement in a cooled, control, or heated incubator. Since little is known about the potential metabolic changes in response to stress in reptiles, plasma triglyceride levels were also measured. Upon completion of the field study, snakes were housed for 5-8 days without food to determine the effect of chronic stress on both corticosterone and triglyceride levels. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and plasma triglycerides were determined enzymatically. In the field, experimental alterations of body temperature during confinement had no effect on corticosterone levels. Similarly, there was no correlation between initial body temperature and baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations. However, post-confinement corticosterone levels were approximately three-times greater in females than males. Plasma triglyceride levels were not affected by temperature treatment, confinement, or sex. Compared to field values, both baseline and post-confinement corticosterone levels were elevated after the chronic stress of short-term laboratory housing but triglyceride levels decreased. Overall, these results indicate that sex but not body temperature has a major influence on the adrenocortical stress response in Nerodia sipedon.

  2. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  3. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  4. The number of insults and the cerebral damage after hypoxia/ischemia are altered after acute pretreatment with corticosterone and metyrapone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knollema, S; Kemper, RHA; Korf, J; Wiersma, A; Ter Horst, GJ; Krugers, HJ

    1997-01-01

    The role of glucocorticoids in neuronal viability is controversial. Most studies which describe the effects of glucocorticoids on ischemic brain damage use surgical adrenalectomy to induce a reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. In the present study we used metyrapone, a corticosterone

  5. Serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in Florida sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludders, J W; Langenberg, J A; Czekala, N M; Erb, H N; McCormick, H

    1998-10-01

    Florida sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. On day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached IV line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. Using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; cosyntropin, Cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). At 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection, blood samples were collected and assayed for corticosterone. The cranes receiving ACTH increased their serum corticosterone concentrations as much as fivefold above baseline concentrations. Serum corticosterone concentrations remained significantly elevated for approximately 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Physical restraint and catheterization caused an increase in serum corticosterone almost comparable to that induced by ACTH stimulation. In cranes injected with saline, serum corticosterone decreased within 1 hr after physical restraint and catheterization, and remained at lower levels throughout the remaining 5 hr of confinement.

  6. Corticosterone response to gestational stress and postpartum memory function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Zahra; Mehla, Jogender; Afrashteh, Navvab; Kolb, Bryan E; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress is a common adversity during pregnancy. Gestational corticosterone alternations are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum behavioral disturbances. However, the impact of stress during pregnancy, in particular noise exposure, on gestational corticosterone fluctuations and spatial cognition in postpartum mice has not been fully understood yet. We hypothesized that noise exposure during pregnancy negatively affects gestational corticosterone levels and postpartum memory function in the dams similar to the physical stressors. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either one of two stress conditions or a control condition. The noise stress (NS) was induced by presenting a loud intermittent 3000 Hz frequency on gestational days (GDs) 12, 14, and 16 for 24 hours, whereas the physical stress (PS) consisted of restraint and exposure to an elevated platform on GDs 12-16. Plasma corticosterone level was collected on GDs 11 and 17, and Morris water task (MWT) was carried out 30 days after parturition. Compared to the control group, the level of corticosterone in the stressed groups was significantly increased on GD17 relative to GD11. Significantly longer swim time and lower swim speed were observed in both stressed groups relative to the control group. Probe time was significantly shorter in the NS group than the other groups. The delta corticosterone level was significantly correlated with the swim time as well as the probe time in the three groups. Given the results, the adverse effects of gestational noise exposure on the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and postpartum spatial learning and memory function were as large as/ or a bit stronger than the physical stresses. The findings suggest the significance of conservation against loud noise exposure in daily living, as well as need to further notice to the different aspects of gestational stress in mothers' behavior like offspring.

  7. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  8. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  9. Corticosterone primes the neuroinflammatory response to DFP in mice: potential animal model of Gulf War Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, James P; Kelly, Kimberly A; Locker, Alicia R; Miller, Diane B; Lasley, Steve M

    2015-06-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disorder with features characteristic of persistent sickness behavior. Among conditions encountered in the Gulf War (GW) theater were physiological stressors (e.g., heat/cold/physical activity/sleep deprivation), prophylactic treatment with the reversible AChE inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and potentially the nerve agent, sarin. Prior exposure to the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), at levels associated with high physiological stress, can paradoxically prime the CNS to produce a robust proinflammatory response to neurotoxicants and systemic inflammation; such neuroinflammatory effects can be associated with sickness behavior. Here, we examined whether CORT primed the CNS to mount neuroinflammatory responses to GW exposures as a potential model of GWI. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with chronic (14 days) PB/ DEET, subchronic (7-14 days) CORT, and acute exposure (day 15) to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin surrogate and irreversible AChE inhibitor. DFP alone caused marked brain-wide neuroinflammation assessed by qPCR of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, IL-1β, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M. Pre-treatment with high physiological levels of CORT greatly augmented (up to 300-fold) the neuroinflammatory responses to DFP. Anti-inflammatory pre-treatment with minocycline suppressed many proinflammatory responses to CORT+DFP. Our findings are suggestive of a possible critical, yet unrecognized interaction between the stressor/environment of the GW theater and agent exposure(s) unique to this war. Such exposures may in fact prime the CNS to amplify future neuroinflammatory responses to pathogens, injury, or toxicity. Such occurrences could potentially result in the prolonged episodes of sickness behavior observed in GWI. Gulf War (GW) veterans were exposed to stressors, prophylactic

  10. RPython high-level synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  11. Corticosterone binding to tissues of adrenalectomized lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, M M; Cabot, C; Balada, F; Virgili, J; Sanchis, D; Monserrat, C; Fernández-López, J A; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1998-12-01

    The binding of corticosterone, dexamethasone and aldosterone was investigated in plasma and in homogenates of liver, kidney, brain, brown adipose tissue and visceral (periovaric) and subcutaneous white adipose tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats: intact controls, adrenalectomized and sham-operated. Corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) accounted for most of the binding, whereas that of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors was much lower. Plasma corticosterone levels increased in sham-operated and obviously decreased in the adrenalectomized animals. Sham-operated and adrenalectomized lean rats showed decreased plasma CBG; in the obese, CBG levels were lower than in controls and were not affected by either surgery. No variation with obesity or surgery was observed either in dexamethasone or aldosterone binding, the latter being practically zero in most samples. When expressed per unit of tissue protein, CBG activity was maximal in adipose tissues, with lowest values in brain and liver. In lean rats, tissue CBG activity decreased with either surgical treatment; no changes were observed in the obese, which also had lower CBG tissue levels. The relative lack of changes in CBG of obese rats suggests that they have lost -- at least in part -- the ability to counter-modulate the changes in glucocorticoid levels through CBG modulation, thus relying only on the control of corticosterone levels. This interpretation agrees with the postulated role of CBG modulating the availability of glucocorticoids to target cells.

  12. Corticosterone Concentrations Reflect Parental Expenditure in Contrasting Mating Systems of Two Coucal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Goymann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The period of parental care can be a demanding life-history stage because parents need to find sufficient resources to feed themselves and their offspring. Often, this is reflected by elevated baseline levels of glucocorticoids—hormones that regulate metabolism and energy allocation. During 10 breeding seasons, we studied plasma corticosterone (the major avian glucocorticoid concentrations as a physiological correlate of parental expenditure in two closely related coucal species with fundamentally different mating systems: the sex-role reversed black coucal (Centropus grillii with female competition and male-only care and the socially monogamous and biparental white-browed coucal (C. superciliosus. The two species live in the same habitat and share a similar breeding biology. However, female black coucals aggressively defend a territory and produce many eggs for their various male partners, and male black coucals feed their offspring much more frequently and rest less often than female and male white-browed coucals. These differences were reflected in baseline and stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone: male black coucals had higher baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations when they were feeding young than outside a feeding context, and also the concentrations of female black coucals were higher during the main period of breeding when they defended territories and produced multiple clutches. In contrast, baseline and stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone in female and male white-browed coucals did not differ between periods when they were feeding young and periods without dependent offspring. Paradoxically, on an individual basis feeding effort was negatively related to baseline corticosterone in male black coucals and female white-browed coucals. In conclusion, corticosterone concentrations of coucals reflected differences in competition and parental roles and support the notion that a switch from

  13. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Mark David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Franson, J Christian [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; Mostl, Erich [UNIV OF VIENNA; Porter, Warren P [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Hofmeister, Erik K [US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  14. Adrenal and plasma corticosterone changes in continuously irradiated rats. I. The dynamics in the course of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1978-01-01

    Adrenal and plasma corticosterone concentration changes in the course of 25 day continuous irradiation of rats with a daily dose of 15.48x10/sup -3/ C/kg (60 R) of gamma radiation on an open experimental field were followed. The changes were evaluated by a comparison with control rats kept in the same conditions but protected against the radiation effect. The first increase in adrenal corticosterone occurred after one day of irradiation and the maximal increase occurred after 7 days of irradiation. The changes in plasma were insignificant within this period. After 14 days of irradiation the adrenal corticosterone concentration decreased to a minimum during the whole period but it remained increased as against controls. Plasma corticosterone, however, increased to the maximal values within this period. A second peak of elevated adrenal corticosterone concentration was evident after 21 days of irradiation; the plasma values decreased. Corticosterone tended to decrease down to the level of the control group 25 days after irradiation.

  15. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2008-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.

  17. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  19. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  20. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  1. Resveratrol ameliorates depressive-like behavior in repeated corticosterone-induced depression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Hamid; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; K V, Athira; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Pitta, Sathish; Mahareddy, Jalandhar Reddy; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-09-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone (CORT) administration, which has shown to mimic HPA-axis induced depression-like state in animals. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol of phytoalexin family, on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 40mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) chronically for 21days. Resveratrol and fluoxetine were administered 30min prior to the CORT injection. After 21-days treatment with respective drugs, behavioral and biochemical parameters were estimated. Since brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in antidepressant activity of many drugs, we also evaluated the effect of resveratrol on BDNF in the hippocampus. Three weeks of CORT injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant decrease in hippocampus BDNF level in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with resveratrol significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. These results suggest that resveratrol produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of hippocampal BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High level white noise generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Blalock, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application

  3. High level white noise generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  4. Concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites in dominant versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of fecal metabolites of corticosterone and to verify if there are differences between dominant and subordinate heifers. The feces of 18 buffalo heifers were collected in the estrous period, to quantify the corticosterone concentrations. The heifers were separated into ...

  5. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  6. Multi-year longitudinal profiles of cortisol and corticosterone recovered from baleen of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Moore, Michael; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-12-01

    Research into stress physiology of mysticete whales has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining repeated physiological samples from individuals over time. We investigated whether multi-year longitudinal records of glucocorticoids can be reconstructed from serial sampling along full-length baleen plates (representing ∼10years of baleen growth), using baleen recovered from two female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) of known reproductive history. Cortisol and corticosterone were quantified with immunoassay of subsamples taken every 4cm (representing ∼60d time intervals) along a full-length baleen plate from each female. In both whales, corticosterone was significantly elevated during known pregnancies (inferred from calf sightings and necropsy data) as compared to intercalving intervals; cortisol was significantly elevated during pregnancies in one female but not the other. Within intercalving intervals, corticosterone was significantly elevated during the first year (lactation year) and/or the second year (post-lactation year) as compared to later years of the intercalving interval, while cortisol showed more variable patterns. Cortisol occasionally showed brief high elevations ("spikes") not paralleled by corticosterone, suggesting that the two glucocorticoids might be differentially responsive to certain stressors. Generally, immunoreactive corticosterone was present in higher concentration in baleen than immunoreactive cortisol; corticosterone:cortisol ratio was usually >4 and was highly variable in both individuals. Further investigation of baleen cortisol and corticosterone profiles could prove fruitful for elucidating long-term, multi-year patterns in stress physiology of large whales, determined retrospectively from stranded or archived specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to coal combustion residues during metamorphosis elevates corticosterone content and adversely affects oral morphology, growth, and development in Rana sphenocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.D.; Peterson, V.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-01-15

    Coal combustion residues (CCRs) are documented to negatively impact oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. It is currently unclear what physiological mechanisms may mediate these effects. Corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, is a likely mediator because when administered exogenously it, like CCRs, also negatively influences oral morphology, growth, and development in larval amphibians. In an attempt to identify if corticosterone mediates these effects, we raised larval Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, on either sand or CCR substrate and documented effects of sediment type on whole body corticosterone, oral morphology, and time to and mass at key metamorphic stages. Coal combustion residue treated tadpoles contained significantly more corticosterone than controls throughout metamorphosis. However, significantly more oral abnormalities occurred early in metamorphosis when differences in corticosterone levels between treatments were minimal. Overall, CCR-treated tadpoles took significantly more time to transition between key stages and gained less mass between stages than controls, but these differences between treatments decreased during later stages when corticosterone differences between treatments were greatest. Our results suggest endogenous increase in corticosterone content and its influence on oral morphology, growth and development is more complex than previously thought.

  8. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  9. Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Joanna; Blasiak, Anna; Czerw, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Sowa, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. We also measured the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal cells and the protein levels of selected subunits of AMPA, NMDA, and GABAA receptors after repeated corticosterone administration. Repeatedly administered corticosterone induced an increase in the frequency but not in the amplitude of sEPSCs, while a single administration had no effect on the recorded excitatory currents. The frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs as well as the excitability of pyramidal cells were changed neither after single nor after repeated corticosterone administration. Treatment with corticosterone for 7 days did not modify the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone influenced neither the protein levels of GluA1, GluA2, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits of glutamate receptors nor those of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor. The increase in sEPSCs frequency induced by repeated corticosterone administration faded out within 7 days. These data indicate that prolonged administration of exogenous corticosterone selectively and reversibly enhances glutamatergic, but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex. Our results suggest that corticosterone treatment results in an enhancement of spontaneous glutamate release from presynaptic

  10. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  11. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  12. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, R; Hirsh, L; Yadid, G; Weizman, A

    2015-11-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. We have previously shown that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour, and also that DHEA decreases corticosterone (CORT) levels in plasma and the prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that rats demonstrate cocaine-seeking behaviour only when the level of CORT reaches a minimum threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of DHEA on cocaine seeking is a result of it reducing CORT levels rather than a result of any unique neurosteroid properties. Rats received either daily DHEA injections (2 mg/kg, i.p.) alone, daily DHEA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) with CORT infusion (to maintain stable basal levels of CORT; 15 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (i.p.) as control, throughout self-administration training and extinction sessions. We found that both DHEA-treated and DHEA + CORT-treated groups showed a significantly lower number of active lever presses compared to controls throughout training and extinction sessions, as well as at cocaine-primed reinstatement. DHEA-treated rats showed lower CORT levels throughout the experimental phases compared to DHEA + CORT-treated and control rats. Additionally, we show that DHEA administered to cocaine-trained rats throughout extinction sessions, or immediately before reinstatement, attenuated cocaine seeking. These findings indicate that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour independently of fluctuations in CORT levels. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  14. Corticosterone induces rapid spinogenesis via synaptic glucocorticoid receptors and kinase networks in hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Komatsuzaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modulation of dendritic spines under acute stress is attracting much attention. Exposure to acute stress induces corticosterone (CORT secretion from the adrenal cortex, resulting in rapid increase of CORT levels in plasma and the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrated the mechanisms of rapid effect (∼1 h of CORT on the density and morphology of spines by imaging neurons in adult male rat hippocampal slices. The application of CORT at 100-1000 nM induced a rapid increase in the density of spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The density of small-head spines (0.2-0.4 µm was increased even at low CORT levels (100-200 nM. The density of middle-head spines (0.4-0.5 µm was increased at high CORT levels between 400-1000 nM. The density of large-head spines (0.5-1.0 µm was increased only at 1000 nM CORT. Co-administration of RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR, abolished the effect of CORT. Blocking a single kinase, such as MAPK, PKA, PKC or PI3K, suppressed CORT-induced enhancement of spinogenesis. Blocking NMDA receptors suppressed the CORT effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply that stress levels of CORT (100-1000 nM drive the spinogenesis via synaptic GR and multiple kinase pathways.

  15. Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  17. Agmatine, by Improving Neuroplasticity Markers and Inducing Nrf2, Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendia, Izaskun; Gómez-Rangel, Vanessa; Parada, Esther; Navarro, Elisa; Casas, Ana Isabel; Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Cuadrado, Antonio; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Lopez, Manuela G

    2016-07-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is a potential candidate to constitute an adjuvant/monotherapy for the management of depression. A recent study by our group demonstrated that agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in a hippocampal neuronal cell line. The present study is an extension of this previous study by assessing the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone in mice. Swiss mice were treated simultaneously with agmatine or imipramine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (p.o.) and corticosterone for 21 days and the daily administrations of experimental drugs were given immediately prior to corticosterone (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administrations. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (Nrf2 (+/+)) and Nrf2 KO (Nrf2 (-/-)) were treated during 21 days with agmatine (0.1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle. Twenty-four hours after the last treatments, the behavioral tests and biochemical assays were performed. Agmatine treatment for 21 days was able to abolish the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior and the alterations in the immunocontent of mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I, and in the serotonin and glutamate levels. Agmatine also abolished the corticosterone-induced changes in the morphology of astrocytes and microglia in CA1 region of hippocampus. In addition, agmatine treatment in control mice increased noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels, CREB phosphorylation, mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I immunocontents, and reduced pro-BDNF immunocontent in the hippocampus. Agmatine's ability to produce an antidepressant-like effect was abolished in Nrf2 (-/-) mice. The present results reinforce the participation of Nrf2 in the antidepressant-like effect produced by agmatine and expand literature data concerning its mechanisms of action.

  18. Corticosterone mediates some but not other behavioural changes induced by prenatal stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, S; Bejar, C; Schorer-Apelbaum, D; Weinstock, M

    2011-02-01

    The effect of daily varied stress from days 13-21 of gestation in Wistar rats was investigated by tests of learning and memory and anxiogenic behaviour in the 60-day-old offspring of both sexes. Prenatal stress decreased the anogenital distance in males at 1 day of age. Anxiogenic behaviour in the elevated plus maze was seen in prenatally-stressed rats of both genders. There was no significant gender difference in the rate of spatial learning in the Morris water maze but prenatal stress only slowed that of males. In the object recognition test with an inter-trial interval of 40 min, females but not males, discriminated between a familiar and novel object. Prenatal stress did not affect object discrimination in females but feminised that in males. Maternal adrenalectomy with replacement of basal corticosterone levels in the drinking fluid prevented all of the above effects of prenatal stress in the offspring. To mimic the peak corticosterone levels and time course of elevation in response to stress, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) was injected twice (0 and 30 min) on days 13-16 and once on days 17-20 of gestation to adrenalectomised mothers. This treatment re-instated anxiogenic behaviour similar to that induced by prenatal stress, indicating that it is mediated by exposure of the foetal brain to raised levels of corticosterone. However, steroid administration to adrenalectomised dams did not decrease anogenital distance, feminise object recognition memory or slow spatial learning in their male offspring. The findings indicate that other adrenal hormones are necessary to induce these effects of prenatal stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Tissue distribution of 3H-corticosterone in response to stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolta, M.G.; Soliman, K.F.A.

    1981-01-01

    The level and distribution of 3 H-corticosterone ( 3 H-B) was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in response to diethyl ether stress, epinephrine (EP) and/or dexamethasone administration. Diethyl ether stress caused a significant increase in the 3 H-B counts by some of the body tissues and brain regions studied. Plasma 3 H-B counts in the stressed rats were found to be twice as much as in the control animals. When EP (1.0 mg/kg) was injected, the tissue-plasma ratios of 3 H-B were significantly lower (P 3 H-B count in the plasma in response to diethyl ether stress or EP may indicate a decline in rate of corticosterone metabolism. (author)

  20. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Corticosterone manipulation reveals differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional reproductive trade-offs in r-strategist and K-strategist females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, L T; Hazard, L C; Clobert, J; Sinervo, B R

    2008-03-01

    Life history trade-offs are often hierarchical with decisions at one level affecting lower level trade-offs. We investigated trade-off structure in female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana), which exhibit two evolved strategies: yellow-throated females are K-strategists and orange-throated are r-strategists. Corticosterone treatment was predicted to differentially organize these females' reproductive decisions. Corticosterone-treated yellow females suppressed reproduction but survived well, and augmented egg mass without decreasing clutch size. Conversely, corticosterone enhanced mortality and reproductive rates in orange females, and increased egg mass only after lengthy exposure. Corticosterone did not affect post-laying condition, suggesting that corticosterone increased egg mass through enhanced energy acquisition (income breeding). Corticosterone enhanced survival of lightweight females, but decreased survival of heavy females, introducing a foraging vs. predation trade-off. We conclude that rather than being a direct, functional relationship, observed trade-offs between offspring size and number represent evolved differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional trade-offs, particularly in response to stress.

  2. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels. PMID:19596019

  3. Long-term corticosterone exposure decreases insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6NCrl mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L van Donkelaar

    Full Text Available Chronic stress or long-term administration of glucocorticoids disrupts the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system leading to continuous high levels of glucocorticoids and insulin resistance (IR. This pre-diabetic state can eventually develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus and has been associated with a higher risk to develop depressive disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between chronic stress, IR and depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to establish a stress-depression model in mice to further study the effects of stress-induced changes upon insulin sensitivity and behavioural consequences. A pilot study was conducted to establish the optimal administration route and a pragmatic measurement of IR. Subsequently, 6-month-old C57BL/6NCrl mice were exposed to long-term oral corticosterone treatment via the drinking water. To evaluate insulin sensitivity changes, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured at different time-points throughout treatment and mice were behaviourally assessed in the elevated zero maze (EZM, forced swimming test (FST and open field test to reveal behavioural changes. Long-term corticosterone treatment increased body weight and decreased insulin sensitivity. The latter was revealed by a higher IR index and increased insulin in the plasma, whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged. Corticosterone treatment induced longer immobility times in the FST, reflecting depressive-like behaviour. No effects were observed upon anxiety as measured in the EZM. The effect of the higher body weight of the CORT treated animals at time of testing did not influence behaviour in the EZM or FST, as no differences were found in general locomotor activity. Long-term corticosterone treatment via the drinking water reduces insulin sensitivity and induces depressive-like behaviour in the C57BL/6 mouse. This mouse model could thus be used to further explore the underlying mechanisms of chronic stress-induced T2

  4. High-level language computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  5. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  6. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  7. Are birds stressed during long-term flights? A wind-tunnel study on circulating corticosterone in the red knot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindstrom, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis; Lindström, Åke

    2009-01-01

    During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood. the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes

  8. Corticosterone-responsive and -unresponsive metabolic characteristics of adrenalectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, C R; Currie, P J; Chambers, J W; Castonguay, T W; Coscina, D V

    1994-09-01

    Glucocorticoids are important in influencing substrate flux through the metabolic pathways. This study was designed to answer the question "Does adrenalectomy (ADX) cause a shift toward fat metabolism as measured by a decrease in respiratory quotient (RQ)?" Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, ADX, ADX + 20% corticosterone (Cort) (ADX-20%), ADX + 40% Cort (ADX-40%), or sham-operated controls (Sham). ADX-20% received 50 mg and ADX-40% 100 mg Cort dissolved in 250-mg cholesterol pellets and placed subcutaneously. Each rat was monitored for 90 min four times both during a preoperative period and again after a 1-wk postsurgical recovery period in an indirect calorimeter. Cort prevented ADX-induced suppression of weight gain and food intake. ADX decreased motoric activity in both the light and dark periods. Cort restored activity to Sham levels. ADX decreased RQ only in the dark (0.858 ADX vs. 0.891 Sham) and was reversed only in the ADX-40% group. Energy expenditure (EE) was depressed in both the light and dark by ADX; Cort partially restored EE to Sham values in the light period.

  9. Exposure to retrieval cues improves retention performance and induces changes in ACTH and corticosterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Botreau, Fanny; Venero, Cesar; Sandi, Carmen

    2004-05-01

    Memory retrieval can be facilitated by pretest exposure to cues associated with the original training. The present series of experiments was aimed at investigating whether the effectiveness of the retrieval cues might be due to their emotional value and thus be associated to a particular pattern of activation of stress systems. Therefore, the effects of exposing rats to different cueing conditions were investigated both on retention performance and on the level of different stress hormones (ACTH, corticosterone and glucose; the latter as an indirect index of adrenergic/sympathetic nervous system activation). Rats trained in a brightness avoidance discrimination task exhibited an enhancement of the retention performance following exposure to the light discriminative stimulus when delivered 1-day after training and not after 21 days, while exposure to contextual cues led to opposite effects on the retention performance, confirming our previous results. Analyses of the level of stress hormones at the time of testing indicated that when the retrieval cues were effective at the behavioral level, cued rats exhibited higher ACTH plasmatic levels than controls, but did not differ in their glucose or corticosterone levels. Further experiments showed that one day after training, both ACTH and corticosterone levels were elevated in light-cued rats if hormone samples were taken 15 min after cueing. These results show that exposure to an effective retrieval cue is accompanied by the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The possible involvement of the Corticotropin Releasing Factor at the level of the hypothalamus and amygdala (particularly the central nucleus) on the facilitating effect on retention performance following exposure to aversive training-associated cues is discussed. The present results strengthen the notion that emotion can interact with retrieval processes.

  10. Protective effects of peony glycosides against corticosterone-induced cell death in PC12 cells through antioxidant action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Tsai, Sam-Hip; Che, Chun-Tao

    2011-02-16

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that total glycosides of peony (TGP) produced antidepressant-like action in various mouse models of behavioral despair. However, the molecular mechanism by which TGP exerts antidepressant-like effect is not fully understood. This study examined the protective effects of TGP against corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and ts possible mechanisms. The direct antioxidant effect of TGP was investigated by using a 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation-scavenging assay in a cell-free system. PC12 cells were treated with 200 μM of corticosterone in the absence or presence of TGP in varying concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were then determined. TGP displayed antioxidant properties in the cell-free system, and the IC50 value in the ABTS radical cation-scavenging assay was 9.9 mg/L. TGP treatment at increasing doses (1-10 mg/L) protected against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The cytoprotection afforded by TGP treatment was associated with decreases in the intracellular ROS and MDA levels, and increases in the GSH level, SOD activity, and CAT activity in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. The results suggest that TGP has a neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, which may be related to its antioxidant action. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Possible roles for corticosterone and critical size in the fledging of nestling pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M; Bacon, W; Long, D; Cowie, R J

    2001-01-01

    Our study was designed to see whether corticosterone (B) rises abruptly in the blood of nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) at the time they fledge, as reported recently for kestrels, and if so, why. We measured the growth and blood levels of B and selected nutrients of nestlings in broods of five, seven, and nine chicks during 1998 and 1999. In half of the broods, we clipped selected wing and tail feathers of both parents with the intention of making it more difficult for them to provide their chicks with food. We collected blood samples when the chicks were six to 10 d old (period of rapid growth) and 15 d of age or older (0-5 d before fledging). B increased substantially several days before the chicks left the nest and then declined somewhat. We found no differences in rates of growth or blood levels of B, nutrients, and hematocrit as a function of either brood size or parental handicapping. Nestlings within a day of fledging appear to have been food deprived in 1998; their glucose was significantly reduced, and B, free fatty acids, and glycerol were significantly elevated compared to levels in chicks 1-4 d younger. Such changes did not occur in 1999. Blood levels of B were significantly correlated with brood size near the day of fledging, but not earlier, in both years of the study. It was possible to predict the day on which chicks would leave the nest, using their wing length when 12 d old. These results suggest that high blood levels of B associated with food restriction and sibling competition induce chicks to fledge, provided they have reached a critical size, and that the importance of fasting, sibling competition, and B may vary from year to year.

  12. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  13. Studies into the anxiolytic actions of agomelatine in social isolation reared rats: Role of corticosterone and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenass, Wilmie; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H

    2018-02-01

    Anxiety disorders are severely disabling, while current pharmacological treatments are complicated by delayed onset, low remission rates and side-effects. Sex is also noted to contribute towards illness severity and treatment response. Agomelatine is a melatonin (MT 1 /MT 2 ) agonist and serotonin (5-HT 2C ) antagonist purported to be anxiolytic in clinical and some pre-clinical studies. We undertook a detailed analysis of agomelatine's anxiolytic activity in a neurodevelopmental model of anxiety, the social isolation reared rat. Rats received sub-chronic treatment with vehicle or agomelatine (40 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally at 16:00 h for 16 days), with behaviour analysed in the open field test, social interaction test and elevated plus maze. The contribution of corticosterone and sex was also studied. Social isolation rearing increased locomotor activity and reduced social interaction in the social interaction test, and was anxiogenic in the elevated plus maze in males and females. Agomelatine reversed these behaviours. Male and female social isolation reared rats developed anxiety-like behaviours to a similar degree, although response to agomelatine was superior in male rats. Social isolation rearing decreased plasma corticosterone in both sexes and tended to higher levels in females, although agomelatine did not affect corticosterone in either sex. Concluding, agomelatine is anxiolytic in SIR rats, although correcting altered corticosterone could not be implicated. Sex-related differences in the response to agomelatine are evident.

  14. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  15. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  16. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  17. Determination of adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood by ion pair reversed phase UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Marianne Skov-Skov; Bogen, Inger Lise; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Øiestad, Åse Marit Leere; Berg, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A novel ion pair reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the stress hormones adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was developed and fully validated. Separations were performed on an Acquity HSS T3 column (2.1mm i.d.×100mm, 1.8μm) with gradient elution and a runtime of 5.5min. The retention of adrenaline and noradrenaline was substantially increased by employing the ion pair reagent heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA). Ion pair reagents are usually added to the mobile phase only, but we demonstrate for the first time that including HFBA to the sample reconstitution solvent as well, has a major impact on the chromatography of these compounds. The stability of adrenaline and corticosterone in rodent blood was investigated using the surrogate analytes adrenaline-d 3 and corticosterone-d 8 . The applicability of the described method was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of stress hormones in rodent blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  19. Corticosterone and the transition from courtship behavior to dispersal in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal modulation of baseline glucocorticoid concentrations as well as the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events such as seasonal reproduction and migration. Despite numerous studies on adrenocortical modulation, little is known about the exact timing of this seasonal modulation with respect to critical life-history stages. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal modulation of the HPA axis during the spring mating season in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is temporally linked to the mechanisms regulating dispersal. We compared hormonal responses to capture stress in courting male red-sided garter snakes collected from the den site and den perimeter to those of dispersing snakes collected 0.6 km from the den. We also investigated possible changes in steroid hormones during the spring mating season. These studies support previous findings that plasma androgen and corticosterone concentrations significantly decline over the mating season. Our results demonstrate that males 0.6 km into a 15-20 km route to the feeding grounds have lower baseline corticosterone concentrations than male snakes actively courting at the den. Dispersing males also exhibit a typical stress response marked by a significant increase in corticosterone while actively courting males do not. Capture stress did not significantly influence androgen concentrations of either courting or dispersing male red-sided garter snakes. There were no significant differences in body composition indices among male snakes collected from the den, den perimeter, or 0.6 km away from the den. However, we did observe a significant negative correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and body composition indices. These data suggest that breeding is a distinct stage accompanied by specific physiological parameters that differ from those during dispersal to the feeding grounds. Our results

  20. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  1. A chronic increase of corticosterone age-dependently reduces systemic DNA damage from oxidation in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Kalliokoski, Otto; Forsberg, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Stress and depression are associated with an acceleration of brain and bodily aging; effects which have been attributed to chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. We tested the hypothesis that a three week administration of stress-associated levels of corticosterone (CORT, the principal rodent...... glucocorticoid) would increase systemic and CNS DNA and RNA damage from oxidation; a phenomenon known to be centrally involved in the aging process. We also hypothesized that older individuals would be more sensitive to this effect and that the chronic CORT administration would exacerbate age-related memory...

  2. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  3. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  5. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  6. Stimulation of corticosterone secretion in vitro by brief ACTH exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, L.D.; Tam, B.; Greer, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between ACTH concentration and exposure duration on stimulation of corticosterone (B) secretion in vitro using perifused enzymatically dispersed rat adrenocortical cells. A modular perifusion apparatus was used that permitted evaluation of 20-24 cell chambers per experimental session. In expt 1,20-1000 pg/ml concentrations of synthetic ACTH-(1-24) were presented to cells for 1 min. In expt 2, 100 pg ACTH-(1-24) was presented to adrenal cells in five dose-duration regimens ranging from 5 pg/min for 20 min to 100 pg/min for 1 min. Perifusal rate was 1 ml/min in all sessions. B was determined by radioimmunoassay. In expt 1 (constant-duration paradigm), 1-min presentation of ACTH-(1-24) produced log-linear dose-response effects across these concentrations. In expt 2 (constant-mass paradigm), identical masses administered in different dose-duration regimens had different steroidogenic efficacies: low-dose long-duration regimens provoked greater total release than high-dose short-duration regimens. Overall, every dose-duration regimen was associated with stimulation of B secretion. These results indicate that 1) very brief exposure to physiological concentrations of ACTH-(1-24) is a significant stimulus for corticosteroid secretion; 2) variations in the dose-duration regimen over the physiological range modifies both the maximum rate of secretion and the duration of secretion, but not the response latency; and 3) ACTH-(1-24) presentation mass is not the sole determinant of B secretion

  7. High spin levels in 151Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszinski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-02-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of 151 Ho. High spin levels in 151 Ho have been populated in the 141 Pr + 16 O and 144 Sm + 12 C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and particles determined up to 49/2 - . Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units

  8. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  9. Effects of a high fat or a balanced omega 3/omega 6 diet on cytokines levels and DNA damage in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Barros, Karina; Gomes de Abreu, Gilclay; Xavier, Roberta Araujo Navarro; Real Martinez, Carlos Augusto; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Silveira, Vera Lúcia Flor

    2011-02-01

    High-fat diets have been shown to be a risk factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to increase lipid peroxidation, while the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid exerts a chemopreventative effect. We evaluated the effect of high-fat diets (20%) enriched with fish or soybean oil on colonic inflammation and DNA damage in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Male Wistar rats (28-30 days) were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 diet for 47 days and divided into five groups: control normal fat non-colitic (C) or control colitis (CC), high soybean fat group (HS) colitis, high fish fat group colitis, or high-fat soybean plus fish oil colitis. UC was induced from day 35 until day 41 by 3% dextran sulfate sodium. On day 47, the rats were anesthetized; blood samples collected for corticosterone determination, and the distal colon was excised to quantify interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and interferon-gamma levels, myeloperoxidase activity, histological analyses, and DNA damage. The disease activity index was recorded daily. The disease activity index, histological analysis, myeloperoxidase activity, IL-4, interferon-gamma, and corticosterone levels did not differ among the colitic groups. IL-10 was significantly increased by the high fish fat group diet in relation to HS, but only the high soybean-fish fat diet increased the IL-10/IL-4 ratio (anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory) to levels closer to the C group and reduced DNA damage compared to the HS group (Pdiets did not exacerbate UC and suggest that the soybean and fish oil mixture, more than the fish oil alone, could be a complementary therapy to achieve a cytokine balance in UC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation and identification of corticosterone metabolites by liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksík, I; Vylitová, M; Pácha, J; Deyl, Z

    1999-04-16

    High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (API-ESI-MS) was investigated for the analysis of corticosterone metabolites; their characterization was obtained by combining the separation on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column (eluted with a methanol-water-acetic acid gradient) with identification using positive ion mode API-ESI-MS and selected ion analysis. The applicability of this method was verified by monitoring the activity of steroid converting enzymes (20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in avian intestines.

  11. Influence of corticosterone treatment on nestling begging in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderbrock, Emily K; Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2018-04-01

    Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior. One intrinsic factor of interest is corticosterone (CORT), a metabolic hormone hypothesized to play a role in regulating a nestling's begging behavior. We investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to CORT influences nestling begging behavior in an altricial species, the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens). We treated one nestling per treatment nest with a twice-daily dose of exogenous hormone via a CORT-injected waxworm, whereas a second individual received a vehicle-injected waxworm. We monitored individual nestling and adult behavior at all nests with the use of high-definition video cameras on several days during treatment. We found no difference in begging rate between CORT fed and vehicle fed nestlings within a treatment nest. Further, to determine whether CORT treatment had indirect effects on the entire brood, we monitored additional nests, in which nestlings were not manipulated. When treatment and controls were compared, overall begging rates of nestlings in treatment nests were greater than those in control nests. This result suggests that CORT treatment of an individual altered its behavior, as well as that of its siblings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  13. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  14. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  15. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  16. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  17. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2013-01-01

    consumption, and an animal welfare assessment (AWA) protocol revealed marked differences between control and cancer lines as the size of the tumor increased. However, only the AWA protocol was effective in predicting the tumor size and the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM). FCM levels were...

  18. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  19. Protecting embryos from stress: Corticosterone effects and the corticosterone response to capture and confinement during pregnancy in a live-bearing lizard (Hoplodactylus maculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, A.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Preest, M.R.; Thorburn, D.; Guillette, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones in the embryonic environment, including those of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have profound effects on development in eutherian mammals. However, little is known about their effects in reptiles that have independently evolved viviparity. We investigated whether exogenous corticosterone affected embryonic development in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus, and whether pregnant geckos have a corticosterone response to capture and confinement that is suppressed relative to that in non-pregnant (vitellogenic) females and males. Corticosterone implants (5 mg, slow-release) administered to females in mid-pregnancy caused a large elevation of corticosterone in maternal plasma (P<0.001), probable reductions in embryonic growth and development (P=0.069-0.073), developmental abnormalities and eventual abortions. Cool temperature produced similar reductions in embryonic growth and development (P???0.036 cf. warm controls), but pregnancies were eventually successful. Despite the potentially harmful effects of elevated plasma corticosterone, pregnant females did not suppress their corticosterone response to capture and confinement relative to vitellogenic females, and both groups of females had higher responses than males. Future research should address whether lower maternal doses of corticosterone produce non-lethal effects on development that could contribute to phenotypic plasticity. Corticosterone implants also led to increased basking in pregnant females (P<0.001), and basal corticosterone in wild geckos (independent of reproductive condition) was positively correlated with body temperature (P<0.001). Interactions between temperature and corticosterone may have broad significance to other terrestrial ectotherms, and body temperature should be considered as a variable influencing plasma corticosterone concentrations in all future studies on reptiles. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  1. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  2. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  3. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  4. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  5. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  6. EFFECT OF ROUTINE HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION ON BLOOD LEUKOCYTE CONCENTRATIONS AND PLASMA CORTICOSTERONE IN CAPTIVE HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS ( AMAZONA VENTRALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier G; Beaufrere, Hugues; Ammersbach, Melanie; Gaunt, Stephen D; Fuller, Rory G; Romero, L Michael

    2018-06-01

      Increased glucocorticoids cause a characteristic stress leukogram in mammalian taxa. It is assumed that avians exhibit a similar response, but to date, there have been no controlled studies to correlate serial endogenous corticosterone levels to hematologic values. An established flock of 18 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis) was used as a model in a crossover study. The treatment group was subjected to the stress of transport, restraint, and common clinical procedures with serial blood samples collected at 20-min intervals for hematology and corticosterone levels; the control group was sampled at the same intervals. Longitudinal data analysis was performed with linear mixed modeling. For all hematologic analytes, the baseline value had a significant positive effect on subsequent values (all P < 0.001). The white blood cell, heterophil, and eosinophil counts and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased over time in the treatment group, whereas it remained stable in the control group ( P = 0.016, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.02, respectively, for the time*treatment effect). Lymphocyte absolute counts decreased over time, although not significantly; the decrease was significant for the relative lymphocyte count in the treatment group. Monocytes and basophils were not significantly altered. The treatment group had a higher mean corticosterone level overall than the control group by approximately 60% ( P = 0.008). The mean corticosterone level also increased over time in both groups by three- to fourfold ( P < 0.001) by 20 min then plateaued. These results demonstrate that some significant hematologic changes may arise with routine handling and transportation of birds and should be accounted for in hematologic interpretation of cell counts.

  7. Effects of sex and time of day on metabolism and excretion of corticosterone in urine and feces of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Chadi; Sachser, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Palme, Rupert

    2003-02-15

    Non-invasive techniques to monitor stress hormones in small animals like mice offer several advantages and are highly demanded in laboratory as well as in field research. Since knowledge about the species-specific metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids is essential to develop such a technique, we conducted radiometabolism studies in mice (Mus musculus f. domesticus, strain C57BL/6J). Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 740 kBq of 3H-labelled corticosterone and all voided urine and fecal samples were collected for five days. In a first experiment 16 animals (eight of each sex) received the injection at 9 a.m., while eight mice (four of each sex) were injected at 9 p.m. in a second experiment. In both experiments radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the feces, although males excreted significantly higher proportions via the feces (about 73%) than females (about 53%). Peak radioactivity in the urine was detected within about 2h after injection, while in the feces peak concentrations were observed later (depending on the time of injection: about 10h postinjection in experiment 1 and about 4h postinjection in experiment 2, thus proving an effect of the time of day). The number and relative abundance of fecal [3H]corticosterone metabolites was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC separations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized mainly to more polar substances. Regarding the types of metabolites formed, significant differences were found between males and females, but not between the experiments. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of these metabolites was assessed by screening the HPLC fractions with four enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, only a newly established EIA for 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,11beta,21-triol-20-one (measuring corticosterone metabolites with a 5alpha-3beta,11beta-diol structure) detected several peaks of radioactive metabolites with high intensity in both sexes, while

  8. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  9. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  10. Enhanced susceptibility to seizures modulated by high interleukin-1β levels during early life malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Fabrício; Habekost Oliveira, Victória; Lahorgue Nunes, Magda

    2016-10-01

    Early malnutrition in life has permanent consequences on brain development and has been suggested to influence seizure susceptibility. Despite malnutrition is not a direct cause of seizures, we hypothesize that malnutrition may modulate inflammatory response and result in cerebral vulnerability to seizures. In this study, we provide evidence that malnutrition may increase susceptibility to seizures in the postnatal period by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampus. Malnourished rats were maintained on a nutritional deprivation regimen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P10. From P7 to P10, the threshold to seizures induced by flurothyl was used as an index of seizure susceptibility. ELISA and western blot was performed to evaluate levels of IL-1β, IL-1R1, PSD-95 and synapsin. The role of inflammation in the changes of seizure threshold was studied with inhibitors of IL-1β and IL-1R1. A significant decrease in body weight and seizure threshold was observed in postnatal malnourished rats. Early malnutrition modulates inflammation by high levels of IL-1β in hippocampus and in serum. Furthermore, our malnutrition paradigm induced an increase in corticosterone levels. Injection of IL-1β and IL-1R1 inhibitors before seizure induction augments seizure threshold in malnourished rats similar to nourished group. Malnutrition did not change PSD-95 and synapsin expression in the hippocampus. We suggest that malnutrition-induced inflammation might contribute to seizure susceptibility in the postnatal period. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1150-1159, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to

  12. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  13. Binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrieau, A.; Vial, M.; Dussaillant, M.; Rostene, W.; Philibert, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique which permits to study the specific binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rats is described. Under these conditions, the specific binding of the glucocorticoid represents 60 to 70% of the initial binding. The apparent dissociation constant and the number of binding sites, determined by Scatchard analysis, are in the range of 10 -8 M and 100 fmoles/mg of protein respectively [fr

  14. Effects of augmented corticosterone in painted turtle eggs on offspring development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polich, Rebecca L; Bodensteiner, Brooke L; Adams, Clare I M; Janzen, Fredric J

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta. We exposed C. picta eggs to biologically relevant amounts of the stress avoidance hormone, corticosterone, as a proxy for maternal stressors. We allowed the eggs to incubate in the field, then measured offspring phenotypes, conducted performance trials, and simulated nest emergence in a field experiment. Exogenous corticosterone reduced survivorship to hatch, but did not affect incubation duration, offspring size, overwinter survival, or size after hibernation. In performance trials, this hormone treatment reduced the frequency of righting, yet enhanced the righting speed of neonates. Regardless, these performance differences did not detectably alter survivorship in the nest emergence experiment. These results lend insight into the potential effects of maternal stress levels on offspring phenotypes, as well as the robustness of offspring fitness to altered levels of maternal stress in freshwater turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  16. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  17. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  18. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  19. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  20. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  1. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  2. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  3. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  4. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  5. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  6. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  7. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  8. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  9. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  10. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  11. Agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendía, Izaskun; Navarro, Elisa; Rada, Patricia; Cuadrado, Antonio; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; López, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a common finding in major depression; this may lead to increased levels of cortisol, which are known to cause oxidative stress imbalance and apoptotic neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, a key region implicated in mood regulation. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has been proposed for the treatment of major depression. Corticosterone induced apoptotic cell death and increased ROS production in cultured hippocampal neuronal cells, effects that were abolished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by agmatine. Interestingly, the combination of sub-effective concentrations of agmatine with fluoxetine or imipramine afforded synergic protection. The neuroprotective effect of agmatine was abolished by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SnPP (HO-1 inhibitor), and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor). Agmatine increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation and induced the transcription factor Nrf2 and the proteins HO-1 and GCLc; induction of these proteins was prevented by yohimbine, ketanserin, LY294002, and PD98059. In conclusion, agmatine affords neuroprotection against corticosterone effects by a mechanism that implicates Nrf2 induction via α2-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors, Akt and ERK pathways, and HO-1 and GCLc expression.

  12. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  14. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  15. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  16. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  17. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  18. Antidepressant-like activity of red wine phenolic extracts in repeated corticosterone-induced depression mice via BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of red wine phenolic extracts in mouse model exposed to exogenous corticosterone. The results showed that 3-week corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase immobility time in the forced swim test. Red wine phenolic extracts treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels. Moreover, it was found that red wine phenolic extract increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein (BNDF and Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB phosphorylation and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, K252a, an inhibitor of TrkB, completely abolished those antidepressant-like effects. These results suggested that the red wine phenolic extracts produce an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-treated mice, at least in part, which is possibly mediated by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, BDNF, TrkB and CREB phosphorylation levels in the brain region of mice.

  19. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  20. Validation of the long-term assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in rats using hair corticosterone as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorrano, Fabrizio; Carrasco, Javier; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Belda, Xavier; Rami-Bastante, Alicia; Bacci, Maria Laura; Armario, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The evaluation of chronic activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for determining the impact of chronic stressful situations. However, current methods have important limitations. The potential use of hair glucocorticoids as a noninvasive retrospective biomarker of long-term HPA activity is gaining acceptance in humans and wild animals. However, there is no study examining hair corticosterone (HC) in laboratory animals. The present study validates a method for measuring HC in rats and demonstrates that it properly reflects chronic HPA activity. The HC concentration was similar in male and female rats, despite higher total plasma corticosterone levels in females, tentatively suggesting that it reflects free rather than total plasma corticosterone. Exposure of male rats to 2 different chronic stress protocols (chronic immobilization and chronic unpredictable stress) resulted in similarly higher HC levels compared to controls (1.8-fold). HC also increased after a mild chronic stressor (30 min daily restraint). Chronic administration of 2 different doses of a long-acting ACTH preparation dramatically increased HC (3.1- and 21.5-fold, respectively), demonstrating that a ceiling effect in HC accumulation is unlikely under other more natural conditions. Finally, adrenalectomy significantly reduced HC. In conclusion, HC measurement in rats appears appropriate to evaluate integrated chronic changes in circulating corticosterone. © FASEB.

  1. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  4. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  5. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  6. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  7. Corticosterone metabolite concentrations in greater sage-grouse are positively associated with the presence of cattle grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Dusek, Robert J.; Hines, M.K.; Gregg, M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    The sagebrush biome in the western United States is home to the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and encompasses rangelands used for cattle production. Cattle grazing activities have been implicated in the range-wide decline of the sage-grouse, but no studies have investigated the relationship between the physiological condition of sage-grouse and the presence of grazing cattle. We sampled 329 sage-grouse across four sites (two grazed and two ungrazed) encompassing 13 600 km2 during the spring and late summer–early autumn of 2005 to evaluate whether demographic factors, breeding status, plasma protein levels, and residence in a cattle-grazed habitat were associated with the stress hormone corticosterone. Corticosterone was measured in feces as immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM). Males captured during the lekking season exhibited higher ICM levels than all others. Prenesting female sage-grouse captured in a grazed site had higher ICM levels than those in ungrazed sites and prenesting female plasma protein levels were negatively correlated with ICM concentrations. With the use of a small-scale spatial model, we identified a positive correlation between cattle pat count and sage-grouse ICM levels. Our model indicated that ICM levels increased by 2.60 ng · g-1 dry feces for every increase in the number of cow pats found in the vicinity. Management practices will benefit from future research regarding the consistency and mechanism(s) responsible for this association and, importantly, how ICM levels and demographic rates are related in this species of conservation concern.

  8. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  9. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infected and uninfected snakes. The monthly mean severity of SFD in the population was negatively related to population-wide estimates of body condition and temperature measured in the precedent month and positively correlated with corticosterone levels measured in the precedent month. Symptomatic females were less likely to enter reproductive bouts compared to asymptomatic females. We propose the hypothesis that the seasonal interplay among environment, host energetics, and HPA activity initiates trade-offs in the fall that drive the increase in SFD prevalence, symptom severity, and decline in condition observed in the population through winter.

  10. Localization of aldosterone and corticosterone in the central nervous system, assessed by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, M.K.; Sar, M.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear localization of tritiated aldosterone in the CNS was studied in rats by numerical evaluation of silver grains, deposited over neuronal cell nuclei in thaw-mounted autoradiograms, and compared with the localization obtained after prior administration of a 100-fold excess of radioinert aldosterone, corticosterone or 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone (18-OH-DOC). Corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC completely prevented nuclear localization in most regions examined. However, in contrast to pretreatment with aldosterone, pretreatment with corticosterone and 18-OH-DOC did not completely prevent the concentration of radioactivity in the cell nuclei of the indusium griseum. Traces of radioactivity were, furthermore, retained in areas CA1 and CA2 and the dentate gyrus in rats exposed to corticosterone, but not to 18-OH-DOC, prior to [ 3 H]aldosterone. A similar profile of silver grain distribution to that noted with aldosterone was found for corticosterone except that with tritiated corticosterone the most intense concentration of radioactivity occurred in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2 and not in the indusium griseum. The authors conclude that (1) a receptor readily shared by aldosterone, corticosterone, 18-OH-DOC and DOC, but not by dihydrotestosterone, is widely distributed throughout the CNS, (2) a receptor shared by aldosterone and 18-OH-DOC, but not by corticosterone may be present in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA2, (3) that both these as well as the receptor accepting dihydrotestosterone can be located within the same cell

  11. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nova performance at ultra high fluence levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nova is a ten beam high power Nd:glass laser used for interial confinement fusion research. It was operated in the high power high energy regime following the completion of construction in December 1984. During this period several interesting nonlinear optical phenomena were observed. These phenomena are discussed in the text. 11 refs., 5 figs

  13. Circadian variations of serum thyrotropin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, corticosterone and lipids in starved rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Ostrowska, Z.; Kucharzewski, M.; Marek, B.; Kos-Kudla, B.; Buntner, B.; Swietochowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the circadian variation of serum thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), reverse triiodothyronine (rT 3 ), corticosterone (B) and lipids in male Wistar rats after one-week starvation. Starvation decreased the TSH level and eliminated its 24-h rhythm. The rhythmicity of oscillations of T 3 and B was maintained. Starvation led to a shift in the acrophase of 24-h T 3 and B oscillation and induced the circadian rhythm of T 4 . The T 3 , T 4 and mesor values were lower, while for rT 3 and B they increased. Lipid concentrations remained unchanged in both experimental and control rats. (author). 27 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  16. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  17. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  18. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  19. Plasma catecholamines and plasma corticosterone following restraint stress in juvenile alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1999-05-01

    Ten juvenile alligators, mean body mass 793 g, hatched from artificially incubated eggs and raised under controlled conditions, were held out of water with their jaws held closed for 48 hr. An initial blood sample was taken and further samples collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hr. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine were measured in plasma aliquots of 1.5 ml using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose was measured using the Trinder method and plasma calcium, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in an autoanalyzer. Epinephrine was about 4 ng/ml at the initial bleed, but declined steadily to blood cells showed changes indicating immune system suppression. By the end of the treatment the hetorophil/lymphocyte ratio increased to 4.7. These results suggest that handling alligators, taking multiple blood samples, and keeping them restrained for more than 8 hr is a severe stress to the animals.

  20. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Period analysis at high noise level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)

  2. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, G; Heath, J L; Wabeck, C J; Owens, S L; Mench, J A

    1998-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers (Arbor Acres) were either 1) fed a diet containing corticosterone (CORT) prior to processing, 2) transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3) processed without either of the above treatments. Six crates of birds (10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment) were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time (ST), Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen (IQF) in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice (AOI) for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides (R-value), cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses. The IQF Biceps femoris samples were used for pH, R-value, color, and heme pigment analysis. Mean (+/- SEM) CORT concentrations were 12.9+/-2.57, 11.7+/-1.38 and 7.9+/-0.79 ng/mL, respectively, in the CORT, transported, and control groups. There were significant treatment by ST (P < 0.05) and ST (P < 0.001) effects on the R-value of IQF P. superficialis samples. The CORT group had the highest L* value (P < 0.01) and the lowest a* value (P < 0.06). There was also a significant main effect of ST on shear values (P < 0.05) of AOI P. superficialis samples, with the means higher at 4 h than at 20 min post-mortem. The R-value of IQF B. femoris samples was markedly influenced by treatment (P < 0.001) and ST (P < 0.001). The results indicate that artificially elevating circulating CORT concentrations results in lighter meat color in broilers.

  3. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  4. High-lying 0+ and 3- levels in 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.S.; Feldman, W.; Suffert, M.; Kurath, D.

    1982-01-01

    The γ decays of the levels at 17.77 and 18.36 MeV in 12 C are studied by proton capture and the assignments of (0 + ,1) and (3 - ,1), respectively, are confirmed. The very great strength of the decay of the (0 + ,1) level to the lower (1 + ,0) level at 12.71 MeV is consistent with a spin- and isospin-flip deuteronlike transition. The strong decay of the (3 - ,1) level to the lower (3 - 0,) level at 9.64 MeV is fairly typical of an analog to antianalog transition. The γ-decay widths of these levels are compared with shell-model calculations

  5. Distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion in faeces and urine of female mice with varying systemic concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Jacobsen, Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    distribution and time course of corticosterone excretion, after intravenous injection of varying corticosterone concentrations, was investigated in female mice. Female BALB/c mice excreted 60% of all corticosterone in the urine with an approximate delay of 5h from tail vein administration. The remaining 40......% were excreted in faeces, with an approximate delay of 9h from administration. The faecal/urinary excretion ratio, as well as time course of excretion, remained unaltered by administration of various doses of corticosterone covering the entire physiological range of serum corticosterone. Although...

  6. Effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, corticosterone, and hippocampal tyrosine hydroxylase in adolescent and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struntz, Katelyn H; Siegel, Jessica A

    2018-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a psychomotor stimulant drug that can alter behavior, the stress response system, and the dopaminergic system. The effects of MA can be modulated by age, however relatively little research has examined the acute effects of MA in adolescents and how the effects compare to those found in adults. The hippocampal dopamine system is altered by MA exposure and can modulate anxiety-like behavior, but the effects of MA on the hippocampal dopamine system have not been well studied, especially in adolescent animals. In order to assess potential age differences in the effects of MA exposure, this research examined the effects of acute MA exposure on locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test, plasma corticosterone levels, and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6 J mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and was used as a marker of the hippocampal dopaminergic system. Mice were exposed to saline or 4 mg/kg MA and locomotor and anxiety-like behavior were measured in the open field test. Serum and brains were collected immediately after testing and plasma corticosterone and hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels measured. MA-exposed mice showed increased locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in the open field test compared with saline controls, regardless of age. There was no effect of MA on plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels in either adolescent or adult mice. These data suggest that acute MA exposure during adolescence and adulthood increases locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior but does not alter plasma corticosterone levels or hippocampal total tyrosine hydroxylase or phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase levels, and that these effects are not modulated by age

  7. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Energy levels of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the data reviewed here were derived from spectra photographed in the wavelength range from 600 A down to about 20 A (approx. 20 to 600 eV). Measurements with uncertainties less than 0.001 A relative to appropriate standard wavelengths can be made with high-resolution diffraction-grating spectroscopy over most of the vacuum-ultraviolet region. Although this uncertainty corresponds to relative errors of 1 part per million (ppM) at 1000 A and 20 ppM at 50 A, measurements with uncertainties smaller than 0.001 A would generally require more effort at the shorter wavelengths, mainly because of the sparsity of accurate standards. Even where sufficiently numerous and accurate standards are available, the accuracy of measurements of the spectra of very high temperature plasmas is limited by Doppler broadening and, in some cases, other plasma effects. Several sources of error combine to give total estimated errors ranging from 10 to 1000 ppM for the experimental wavelengths of interest here. It will be seen, however, that with the possible exception of a few fine-structure splittings the experimental errors are small compared to the errors of the relevant theoretical calculations

  9. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  10. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  11. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  12. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The article is a summary of issues raised during US Congress deliberations on nuclear waste policy legislation. It is suggested that, if history is not to repeat itself, and the current stalemate on nuclear waste is not to continue, a comprehensive policy is needed that addresses the near-term problems of interim storage as part of an explicit and credible program for dealing with the longer term problem of developing a final isolation system. Such a policy must: 1) adequately address the concerns and win the support of all the major interested parties, and 2) adopt a conservative technical and institutional approach - one that places high priority on avoiding the problems that have repeatedly beset the program in the past. It is concluded that a broadly supported comprehensive policy would contain three major elements, each designed to address one of the key questions concerning Federal credibility: commitment in law to the goals of a comprehensive policy; credible institutional mechanisms for meeting goals; and credible measures for addressing the specific concerns of the states and the various publics. Such a policy is described in detail. (Auth.)

  13. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  14. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  15. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  16. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  17. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  18. Neonatal corticosterone administration in rodents as a tool to investigate the maternal programming of emotional and immune domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Macrì

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels. Environmental influences have been traditionally addressed through experimental paradigms entailing the modification of the neonatal environment and the multifactorial (e.g. behaviour, endocrinology, cellular and molecular biology analysis of the developing individual's phenotype. These protocols suggested that the role of the mother in mediating the offspring's phenotype is often associated with the short-term effects of environmental manipulations on dam's physiology. Specifically, environmental manipulations may induce fluctuations in maternal corticosteroids (corticosterone in rodents which, in turn, are translated to the offspring through lactation. Herein, I propose that this mother-offspring transfer mechanism can be leveraged to devise experimental protocols based on the exogenous administration of corticosterone during lactation. To support this proposition, I refer to a series of studies in which these protocols have been adopted to investigate the neonatal programming of individual phenotype at the level of emotional and immune regulations. While these paradigms cannot replace traditional studies, I suggest that they can be considered a valid complement.

  19. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity

  20. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  1. Maternal corticosterone exposure has transgenerational effects on grand-offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nicola; Peters, Richard A; Richardson, Emily; Robert, Kylie A

    2016-11-01

    The hormone fluctuations that an animal experiences during ovulation can have lifelong effects on developing offspring. These hormones may act as an adaptive mechanism, allowing offspring to be 'pre-programmed' to survive in an unstable environment. Here, we used a transgenerational approach to examine the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT) on the future reproductive success of female offspring. We show that female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) exposed to embryonic CORT produce daughters that have equal reproductive success (clutch sizes, fertility, hatching success) compared with the daughters produced from untreated mothers, but their offspring had accelerated post-hatching growth rates and were significantly heavier by nutritional independence. Although there was no significant effect on primary offspring sex ratio, females from CORT-treated mothers produced significantly female-biased clutches by nutritional independence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of a transgenerational sex ratio bias in response to elevated maternal CORT in any avian species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Peony glycosides reverse the effects of corticosterone on behavior and brain BDNF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yan-Fang; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Repeated injections of corticosterone (CORT) induce the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in depressive-like behavior. This study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of total glycosides of peony (TGP) in the CORT-induced depression model in rats. The results showed that the 3-week CORT injections induced the significant increase in serum CORT levels in rats. Repeated CORT injections also caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were significantly decreased in CORT-treated rats. Treatment of the rats with TGP significantly suppressed the depression-like behavior and increased brain BDNF levels in CORT-treated rats. The results suggest that TGP produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-treated rats, which is possibly mediated by increasing BDNF expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (Phens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (Pfeeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  6. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  7. Corticosterone regulates fear memory via Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ping; Ding, Ze-Yang; Gan, Cheng; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Lin; Zhou, Qi-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Stressful events can generate enduring memories, which may induce certain psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms in these processes remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the active form of the small G protein Rac1, Rac1-GTP, is involved in fear memory. Firstly, we detected the time course changes of Rac1-GTP after foot shocks (a strong stressor) and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) treatment. The data showed that stress and CORT induced the downregulation of Rac1-GTP in the hippocampus. Changes in the serum CORT level were negatively correlated with the level of Rac1-GTP. Additionally, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, not only recovered the expression of Rac1-GTP but also impaired fear memory. Furthermore, systemic administration of NSC23766, an inhibitor of Rac1-GTP, improved fear memory at 1.5 and 24h. Therefore, Rac1 activity plays a critical role in stress-related cognition and may be a potential target in stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  9. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  10. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  11. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  12. Immune responses of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) to repeated acute elevation of corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Langkilde, Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged elevations of glucocorticoids due to long-duration (chronic) stress can suppress immune function. It is unclear, however, how natural stressors that result in repeated short-duration (acute) stress, such as frequent agonistic social encounters or predator attacks, fit into our current understanding of the immune consequences of stress. Since these types of stressors may activate the immune system due to increased risk of injury, immune suppression may be reduced at sites where individuals are repeatedly exposed to potentially damaging stressors. We tested whether repeated acute elevation of corticosterone (CORT, a glucocorticoid) suppresses immune function in eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus), and whether this effect varies between lizards from high-stress (high baseline CORT, invaded by predatory fire ants) and low-stress (low baseline CORT, uninvaded) sites. Lizards treated daily with exogenous CORT showed higher hemagglutination of novel proteins by their plasma (a test of constitutive humoral immunity) than control lizards, a pattern that was consistent across sites. There was no significant effect of CORT treatment on bacterial killing ability of plasma. These results suggest that repeated elevations of CORT, which are common in nature, produce immune effects more typical of those expected at the acute end of the acute-chronic spectrum and provide no evidence of modulated consequences of elevated CORT in animals from high-stress sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Corticosterone release in oxytocin gene deletion mice following exposure to psychogenic versus non-psychogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Janet A; Cai, Hou-ming; Vollmer, Regis R

    2008-09-19

    Both anxiety-related behavior [J.A. Amico, R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, Anxiety and stress responses in female oxytocin deficient mice, J. Neuroendocrinol. 16 (2004) 1-6; R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, J.A. Amico, Female oxytocin-deficient mice display enhanced anxiety-related behavior, Endocrinology 144 (2003) 2291-2296] and the release of corticosterone following a psychogenic stress such as exposure to platform shaker was greater in female [J.A. Amico, R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, X. Li, Anxiety and stress responses in female oxytocin deficient mice, J. Neuroendocrinol. 16 (2004) 1-6; R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, L. Rinaman, X. Li, J.A. Amico, Enhanced corticosterone concentrations and attenuated Fos expression in the medial amygdala of female oxytocin knockout mice exposed to psychogenic stress, Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 287 (2004) R1494-R1504], but not male [R.C. Mantella, R.R. Vollmer, J.A. Amico, Corticosterone release is heightened in food or water deprived oxytocin deficient male mice, Brain Res. 1058 (2005) 56-61], oxytocin gene deletion (OTKO) mice compared to wild type (WT) cohorts. In the present study we exposed OTKO and WT female mice to another psychogenic stress, inserting a rectal probe to record body temperature followed by brief confinement in a metabolic cage, and measured plasma corticosterone following the stress. OTKO mice released more corticosterone than WT mice (Pstress. In contrast, if OTKO and WT female and male mice were administered insulin-induced hypoglycemia, an acute physical stress, corticosterone release was not different between genotypes. The absence of central OT signaling pathways in female mice heightens the neuroendocrine (e.g., corticosterone) response to psychogenic stress, but not to the physical stress of insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  14. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  15. Peripheral mechanisms contributing to the glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in proopiomelanocortin null mice treated with corticosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Zoi; Coll, Anthony P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Morton, Nicholas M; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency causes severe obesity through hyperphagia of hypothalamic origin. However, low glucocorticoid levels caused by adrenal insufficiency mitigate against insulin resistance, hyperphagia and fat accretion in Pomc−/− mice. Upon exogenous glucocorticoid replacement, corticosterone-supplemented (CORT) Pomc−/− mice show exaggerated responses, including excessive fat accumulation, hyperleptinaemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the peripheral mechanisms underlying this glucocorticoid hypersensitivity, we examined the expression levels of key determinants and targets of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue and liver. Despite lower basal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which generates active glucocorticoids within cells, CORT-mediated induction of 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels was more pronounced in adipose tissues of Pomc−/− mice. Similarly, CORT treatment increased lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels in all fat depots in Pomc−/− mice, consistent with exaggerated fat accumulation. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels were selectively elevated in liver and retroperitoneal fat of Pomc−/− mice but were corrected by CORT in the latter depot. In liver, CORT increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels specifically in Pomc−/− mice, consistent with their insulin-resistant phenotype. Furthermore, CORT induced hypertension in Pomc−/− mice, independently of adipose or liver renin–angiotensin system activation. These data suggest that CORT-inducible 11β-HSD1 expression in fat contributes to the adverse cardiometabolic effects of CORT in POMC deficiency, whereas higher GR levels may be more important in liver. PMID:17592030

  16. Sex differences in reinstatement of alcohol seeking in response to cues and yohimbine in rats with and without a history of adolescent corticosterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholomey, M L; Nagarajan, V; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Women represent a vulnerable and growing population with respect to alcohol abuse. Elevated glucocorticoid exposure in adolescence increases addiction risk and stress sensitivity in adulthood. However, little is known about sex differences in ethanol craving-like behavior. This study characterized sex differences in ethanol-motivated behavior following ethanol-paired cues and/or acute stimulation of the HPA axis in male and female rats with or without exposure to chronically elevated glucocorticoids in adolescence. Adolescent corticosterone-treated (Experiment 1) or naïve (Experiment 2) male and female rats were trained as adults to self-administer ethanol paired with a cue, and tested for the effects of this cue, alone or in combination with yohimbine, on the reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Females showed elevated ethanol self-administration and seeking compared to males. In Experiment 1, corticosterone exposure in adolescence augmented cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in females only, and females were more sensitive to yohimbine in promoting reinstatement. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed that exposure to both yohimbine and alcohol-related cues enhanced the reinstatement of alcohol seeking, producing additive effects in females. Corticosterone levels were higher in females and in yohimbine-treated rats, and corticosterone and estradiol correlated with responding during reinstatement. Chronic manipulations in adolescence and acute manipulations in adulthood of the HPA axis increase cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking to a greater degree in females than in males. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie these effects may lead to the development of sex-specific interventions aimed at mitigating alcohol relapse risk in females.

  17. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jane Harms, N.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  18. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  19. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  20. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  1. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  2. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  3. Corticosterone and decision-making in male Wistar rats: the effect of corticosterone application in the infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, Susanne; Koukou, Magdalini; Baars, Annemarie; Hesseling, Peter; van 't Klooster, José; Joëls, Marian; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones, released after stress, are known to influence neuronal activity and produce a wide range of effects upon the brain. They affect cognitive tasks including decision-making. Recently it was shown that systemic injections of corticosterone (CORT) disrupt reward-based decision-making in rats when tested in a rat model of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT), i.e., rats do not learn across trial blocks to avoid the long-term disadvantageous option. This effect was associated with a change in neuronal activity in prefrontal brain areas, i.e., the infralimbic (IL), lateral orbitofrontal (lOFC) and insular cortex, as assessed by changes in c-Fos expression. Here, we studied whether injections of CORT directly into the IL and lOFC lead to similar changes in decision-making. As in our earlier study, CORT was injected during the final 3 days of the behavioral paradigm, 25 min prior to behavioral testing. Infusions of vehicle into the IL led to a decreased number of visits to the disadvantageous arm across trial blocks, while infusion with CORT did not. Infusions into the lOFC did not lead to differences in the number of visits to the disadvantageous arm between vehicle treated and CORT treated rats. However, compared to vehicle treated rats of the IL group, performance of vehicle treated rats of the lOFC group was impaired, possibly due to cannulation/infusion-related damage of the lOFC affecting decision-making. Overall, these results show that infusions with CORT into the IL are sufficient to disrupt decision-making performance, pointing to a critical role of the IL in corticosteroid effects on reward-based decision-making. The data do not directly support that the same holds true for infusions into the lOFC.

  4. Effects of different timing of stress on corticosterone, BDNF and memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    Learning and memory seem to be affected by chronic stress. Previous reports have considered chronic stress as a precipitating factor of different neuropsychological disorders, while others reported neurobiological adaptations following stress. The present study investigated the effects of chronic stress before, after, and during learning on the changes of learning and memory, on serum and hippocampal levels of corticosterone (CORT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and body weight in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) including Control (Co), Stress-Learning-Rest (St-L-Re), Rest-Learning-Stress (Re-L-St), and Stress-Learning-Stress (St-L-St) groups. The chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21 days. Moreover, the passive avoidance test was used to assess memory deficit, 1, 7, and 21 days after training. At the end of experiments, CORT and BDNF levels were measured. The findings did not support adaptation in chronic stress conditions. The acquisition time as well as the short and mid-term memories was significantly impaired in the St-L-Re group. Short, mid, and long-term memories were significantly impaired in the Re-L-St and St-L-St groups compared with the Co group, as a result of the enhancement of CORT and reduction of BDNF levels. In the St-L-St group, changes in memory functions were less pronounced than in the Re-L-St group. Also, body weight declined following the chronic stress, while recovery period enhanced the body weight gain in stressed rats. It can be concluded that a potential time-dependent involvement of stress and recovery period on the level of BDNF. Longer duration time of chronic stress might promote adaptive effects on memory and CORT level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects

  6. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  7. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  8. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  9. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  10. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  11. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  12. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  13. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  14. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  15. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  16. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  17. Anxiogenic-like effect of chronic corticosterone in the light-dark emergence task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardayfio, Paul; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2006-04-01

    Chronic hypercortisolemia is a hallmark of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disorders, such as Cushing's disease and depression. Whether cortisol directly contributes to the altered mood and anxiety symptoms seen in these diseases remains unclear. To address this, the authors have modeled hypercortisolemia by administering corticosterone in the drinking water of female Swiss Webster mice for 17 or 18 days (13 mg/kg). Light-dark emergence, startle habituation, and startle reactivity were measured. Chronic but not acute treatment with corticosterone increased the latency to emerge into the light compartment, an anxiogenic-like effect. Chronic corticosterone treatment did not affect startle habituation, but did reduce startle reactivity. This study suggests that chronic hypercortisolemia may contribute to anxiety-related behavior in patients with Cushing's disease and depression. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An acute injection of corticosterone increases thyrotrophin-releasing hormone expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus but interferes with the rapid hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis response to cold in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Rivera, I; Jaimes-Hoy, L; Cote-Vélez, A; Espinoza-Ayala, C; Charli, J-L; Joseph-Bravo, P

    2014-12-01

    The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is rapidly adjusted by energy balance alterations. Glucocorticoids can interfere with this activity, although the timing of this interaction is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that, albeit incubation with either glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists or protein kinase A (PKA) activators enhances pro-thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (pro-TRH) transcription, co-incubation with both stimuli reduces this enhancement. In the present study, we used primary cultures of hypothalamic cells to test whether the order of these stimuli alters the cross-talk. We observed that a simultaneous or 1-h prior (but not later) activation of GR is necessary to inhibit the stimulatory effect of PKA activation on pro-TRH expression. We tested these in vitro results in the context of a physiological stimulus on the HPT axis in adult male rats. Cold exposure for 1 h enhanced pro-TRH mRNA expression in neurones of the hypophysiotrophic and rostral subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thyrotrophin (TSH) serum levels and deiodinase 2 (D2) activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). An i.p. injection of corticosterone stimulated pro-TRH expression in the PVN of rats kept at ambient temperature, more pronouncedly in hypophysiotrophic neurones that no longer responded to cold exposure. In corticosterone-pretreated rats, the cold-induced increase in pro-TRH expression was detected only in the rostral PVN. Corticosterone blunted the increase in serum TSH levels and D2 activity in BAT produced by cold in vehicle-injected animals. Thus, increased serum corticosterone levels rapidly restrain cold stress-induced activation of TRH hypophysiotrophic neurones, which may contribute to changing energy expenditure. Interestingly, TRH neurones of the rostral PVN responded to both corticosterone and cold exposure with an amplified expression of pro-TRH mRNA, suggesting that these neurones integrate stress and temperature

  19. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice H Chin

    Full Text Available Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

  20. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... A cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd with high level ... mechanisms to repair UV-induced damages via repairing ... for treatment or prevention of solar radiation. ..... working as both UV-B absorbing compounds and.

  1. High level of CA 125 due to large endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phupong, Vorapong; Chen, Orawan; Ultchaswadi, Pornthip

    2004-09-01

    CA 125 is a tumor-associated antigen. Its high levels are usually associated with ovarian malignancies, whereas smaller increases in the levels were associated with benign gynecologic conditions. The authors report a high level of CA 125 in a case of large ovarian endometrioma. A 45-year-old nulliparous Thai woman, presented with an increase of her abdominal girth for 7 months. Transabdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated a large ovarian cyst and multiple small leiomyoma uteri, and serum CA 125 level was 1,006 U/ml. The preoperative diagnosis was ovarian cancer with leiomyoma uteri. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. There were a large right ovarian endometrioma, small left ovarian endometrioma and multiple small leiomyoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioma and leiomyoma. The serum CA 125 level declined to non-detectable at the 4th week. She was well at discharge and throughout her 4th week follow-up period Although a very high level of CA 125 is associated with a malignant process, it can also be found in benign conditions such as a large endometrioma. The case emphasizes the association of high levels of CA 125 with benign gynecologic conditions.

  2. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  3. Treatment of High-Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.A.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Osipenko, A.G.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    JSC “SSC RIAR” has been performing research and development activities in support of closed fuel cycle of fast reactor since the middle of 1960s. Fuel cycle involves fabrication and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) using pyrochemical methods of reprocessing in molten alkali metal chlorides. At present pyrochemical methods of SNF reprocessing in molten chlorides has reached such a level in their development that makes it possible to compare their competitiveness with classic aqueous methods. Their comparative advantage lies in high safety, compactness, high protectability as to nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and reduction of high level waste volume

  4. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  5. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  6. Towards a better preclinical model of PTSD: characterizing animals with weak extinction, maladaptive stress responses and low plasma corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Roman; Diwan, Mustansir; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement

    2015-02-01

    Most of the available preclinical models of PTSD have focused on isolated behavioural aspects and have not considered individual variations in response to stress. We employed behavioural criteria to identify and characterize a subpopulation of rats that present several features analogous to PTSD-like states after exposure to classical fear conditioning. Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into weak- and strong-extinction groups on the basis of behavioural scores during extinction of conditioned fear responses. Animals were subsequently tested for anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field test (OFT), novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) and elevated plus maze (EPM). Baseline plasma corticosterone was measured prior to any behavioural manipulation. In a second experiment, rats underwent OFT, NSF and EPM prior to being subjected to fear conditioning to ascertain whether or not pre-stress levels of anxiety-like behaviours could predict extinction scores. We found that 25% of rats exhibit low extinction rates of conditioned fear, a feature that was associated with increased anxiety-like behaviour across multiple tests in comparison to rats showing strong extinction. In addition, weak-extinction animals showed low levels of corticosterone prior to fear conditioning, a variable that seemed to predict extinction recall scores. In a separate experiment, anxiety measures taken prior to fear conditioning were not predictive of a weak-extinction phenotype, suggesting that weak-extinction animals do not show detectable traits of anxiety in the absence of a stressful experience. These findings suggest that extinction impairment may be used to identify stress-vulnerable rats, thus providing a useful model for elucidating mechanisms and investigating potential treatments for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  8. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  9. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  10. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  11. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  12. Translation of a High-Level Temporal Model into Lower Level Models: Impact of Modelling at Different Description Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    2001-01-01

    given types of properties, and examine how descriptions on higher levels translate into descriptions on lower levels. Our example looks at temporal properties where the information is concerned with the existence in time. In a high level temporal model with information kept in a three-dimensional space...... the existences in time can be mapped precisely and consistently securing a consistent handling of the temporal properties. We translate the high level temporal model into an entity-relationship model, with the information in a two-dimensional graph, and finally we look at the translations into relational...... and other textual models. We also consider the aptness of models that include procedural mechanisms such as active and object databases...

  13. Research on high level radioactive waste repository seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Review seismic hazard analysis principle and method in site suitable assessment process of Yucca Mountain Project, and seismic design criteria and seismic design basis in primary design process. Demonstrated spatial character of seismic hazard by calculated regional seismic hazard map. Contrasted different level seismic design basis to show their differences and relation. Discussed seismic design criteria for preclosure phrase of high level waste repository and preference goal under beyond design basis ground motion. (author)

  14. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding

  15. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  16. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  17. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  18. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  19. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  20. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  2. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  3. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Parity dependence of the nuclear level density at high excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.V.; Agrawal, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The basic underlying assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) in the level density function ρ(U, J, π) has been checked on the basis of high quality data available on individual resonance parameters (E 0 , Γ n , J π ) for s- and p-wave neutrons in contrast to the earlier analysis where information about p-wave resonance parameters was meagre. The missing level estimator based on the partial integration over a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron reduced widths and the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic for the level spacing have been used to ascertain that the s- and p-wave resonance level spacings D(0) and D(1) are not in error because of spurious and missing levels. The present work does not validate the tacit assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) and confirms that the level density depends upon parity at high excitation. The possible implications of the parity dependence of the level density on the results of statistical model calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections as well as on pre-compound emission have been emphasized. (orig.)

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  6. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  7. Leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi

    1987-03-01

    The author's work in the study on the leaching behavior of simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were summarized. The subjects described are (1) leach rates at high temperatures, (2) effects of cracks on leach rates, (3) effects of flow rate on leach rates, and (4) an in-situ burial test in natural groundwater. In the following section, the leach rates obtained by various experiments were summarized and discussed. (author)

  8. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  9. The american high school graduation rate : trends and levels

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multiple data sources and a unified methodology to estimate the trends and levels of the U.S. high school graduation rate. Correcting for important biases that plague previous calculations, we establish that (a) the true high school graduation rate is substantially lower than the official rate issued by the National Center for Educational Statistics; (b) it has been declining over the past 40 years; (c) majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have n...

  10. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1979-06-01

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240 Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  11. Development of cermets for high-level radioactive waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    A method is currently under development for the solidification and fixation of commercial and defense high-level radioactive wastes in the form of ceramic particles encapsulated by metal, i.e., a cermet. The chemical and physical processing techniques which have been developed and the properties of the resulting cermet bodies are described in this paper. These cermets have the advantages of high thermal conductivity and low leach rates

  12. The tracking of high level waste shipments - TRANSCOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.; Thomas, T.M.; Lester, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY 1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users

  13. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a

  14. Corticosterone infused into the dorsal striatum selectively enhances memory consolidation of cued water-maze training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirarte, Gina L.; Sofia Ledesma de la Teja, I.; Casillas, Miriam; Serafin, Norma; Prado-Alcala, Roberto A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones enhance memory consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual learning, but little is known about their possible influence on the consolidation of procedural/implicit memory. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of corticosterone (2, 5, or 10 ng) infused

  15. Vasopressin-related peptides increase the hippocampal corticosterone receptor capacity of diabetes insipidus (Brattleboro) rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, H D; de Kloet, E R

    The binding of [3H]corticosterone to receptors in cytosol of several brain regions and of [3H]dexamethasone to receptors in pituitary cytosol was measured after chronic treatment of homozygous diabetes insipidus rats (Ho-Di) with various neuropeptides. All rats were adrenalectomized 24 h before

  16. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  17. Delayed behavioral effects of postnatal exposure to corticosterone in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spencer, K. A.; Verhulst, S.

    Early developmental conditions can significantly influence the growth and survival of many animal species. We studied the consequences of exposure to corticosterone (CORT), a stress hormone, during the nestling stage on two behavioral traits (neophobia, social dominance) measured when the birds had

  18. Partitioning of high level liquid waste: experiences in plant level adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Wastes are presently vitrified in borosilicate matrices in all our back end facilities in our country. This is in accordance with internationally endorsed methodology for the safe management of high level radioactive wastes. Recent advancements in the field of partitioning technology in our group, has presented us with an opportunity to have a fresh perspective on management of high level liquid radioactive wastes streams, that emanate from reprocessing operations. This paper will highlight our experiences with respect to both partitioning studies and vitrification practices, with a focus on waste volume reduction for final disposal. Incorporation of this technique has led to the implementation of the concept of recovering wealth from waste, a marked decrease on the load of disposal in deep geological repositories and serve as a step towards the vision of transmutation of long lived radionuclides

  19. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  20. Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2014-04-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10μg and 20μg) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10μg CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10μg dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  2. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  3. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  4. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  5. Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program...

  6. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  7. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  8. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  9. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  10. High-Level Development of Multiserver Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Glinka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplayer online games with support for high user numbers must provide mechanisms to support an increasing amount of players by using additional resources. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the practically proven multiserver distribution mechanisms, zoning, instancing, and replication, and the tasks for the game developer implied by them. We propose a novel, high-level development approach which integrates the three distribution mechanisms seamlessly in today's online games. As a possible base for this high-level approach, we describe the real-time framework (RTF middleware system which liberates the developer from low-level tasks and allows him to stay at high level of design abstraction. We explain how RTF supports the implementation of single-server online games and how RTF allows to incorporate the three multiserver distribution mechanisms during the development process. Finally, we describe briefly how RTF provides manageability and maintenance functionality for online games in a grid context with dynamic resource allocation scenarios.

  11. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  12. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  13. An emergency management demonstrator using the high level architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the issues of simulation interoperability within the emergency management training context. A prototype implementation in Java of a subset of the High Level Architecture (HLA) is described. The use of Web Browsers to provide graphical user interfaces to HLA is also investigated. (au)

  14. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." excerpt

  15. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  16. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  17. Observation of high spin levels in Cs from Ba decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1157–1162. Observation of high spin levels in. 131. Cs from. 131. Ba decay. M SAINATH, DWARAKA RANI RAO*, K VENKATARAMANIAH and P C SOOD. Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam 515 134, India. £Permanent address: Department of Physics, ...

  18. The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Non- Communicable Diseases: The Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach. ... The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs).

  19. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  20. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  1. Continuous corticosterone delivery via the drinking water or pellet implantation: A comparative study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Sylvia J; Weber, Marie-Christin; Henneicke, Holger; Kim, Sarah; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid excess in rodent models, reliable methods of continuous glucocorticoid delivery are essential. The current study compares two methods of corticosterone (CS) delivery in regards to their ability to induce typical adverse outcomes such as fat accrual, insulin resistance, sarcopenia and bone loss. Eight-week-old mice received CS for 4weeks either via the drinking water (25-100μgCS/mL) or through weekly surgical implantation of slow release pellets containing 1.5mg CS. Both methods induced abnormal fat mass accrual, inhibited lean mass accretion and bone expansion, suppressed serum osteocalcin levels and induced severe insulin resistance. There was a clear dose dependant relationship between the CS concentrations in the drinking water and the severity of the phenotype, with a concentration of 50μg CS/mL drinking water most closely matching the metabolic changes induced by weekly pellet implantations. In contrast to pellets, however, delivery of CS via the drinking water resulted in a consistent diurnal exposure pattern, closely mimicking the kinetics of clinical glucocorticoid therapy. In addition, the method is safe, inexpensive, easily adjustable, non-invasive and avoids operative stress to the animals. Our data demonstrate that delivery of CS via the drinking water has advantages over weekly implantations of slow-release pellets. A dose of 50μg CS/mL drinking water is appropriate for the investigation of chronic glucocorticoid excess in mice. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Forced swimming-induced oxytocin release into blood and brain: Effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Luz; Plotsky, Paul M; Neumann, Inga D; de Jong, Trynke R

    2017-03-01

    The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood samples and dialysates were collected before and after forced swimming (FS) and analyzed for CORT, ACTH and AVP concentrations (in plasma) and OXT concentrations (in plasma and dialysates). Experimental treatments included acute infusion of CORT (70 or 175μg/kg i.v.) 5min prior to FS, or subcutaneous placement of 40% CORT pellets resulting in stable CORT levels in the normal basal range. Although ADX did not alter basal OXT concentrations either in plasma or in microdialysates from the PVN, it did cause an exaggerated peripheral secretion of OXT and a blunted intra-PVN release of OXT in response to FS. CORT pellets did not influence either of these ADX-induced effects, while acute infusion of 175μg/kg CORT rescued the stress-induced rise in OXT release within the PVN and modestly increased peripheral OXT secretion. In conclusion, these results indicate that CORT regulates both peripheral and intracerebral OXT release, but in an independent manner. Whereas the peripheral secretion of OXT occurs simultaneously to HPA axis activation in response to FS and is modestly influenced by CORT, HPA axis activation and circulating CORT strongly contribute to the stress-induced stimulation of OXT release within the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  4. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  5. The measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jie.

    1986-01-01

    The various error factors in measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels are anslysed. The measuring method of error self compensation and its simplification for land use are shown

  6. Development of high-level waste solidification technology 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Hwan Young; Kim, In Tae [and others

    1999-02-01

    Spent nuclear fuel contains useful nuclides as valuable resource materials for energy, heat and catalyst. High-level wastes (HLW) are expected to be generated from the R and D activities and reuse processes. It is necessary to develop vitrification or advanced solidification technologies for the safe long-term management of high level wastes. As a first step to establish HLW vitrification technology, characterization of HLWs that would arise at KAERI site, glass melting experiments with a lab-scale high frequency induction melter, and fabrication and property evaluation of base-glass made of used HEPA filter media and additives were performed. Basic study on the fabrication and characterization of candidate ceramic waste form (Synroc) was also carried out. These HLW solidification technologies would be directly useful for carrying out the R and Ds on the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. (author). 70 refs., 29 tabs., 35 figs.

  7. A high Tc superconducting liquid nitrogen level sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J. X.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.; Grantham, C.; Beer, J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The dramatic resistance change in the superconducting-normal transition temperature range enables a high T c superconductor to be considered for designing a liquid nitrogen level sensor. A (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire is selected and tested as a continuous liquid nitrogen level sensor to investigate the possibility for this application. The (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+x Ag clad superconducting wire has approximately 110 K critical temperature, with more flexible and stable properties compared with bulk shape ceramic high T c superconductors. The voltage drops across the sensor are tested with different immersion lengths in liquid nitrogen. The accuracy of the HTS sensor is analysed with its dR/dT in the superconducting-normal transition range. The voltage signal is sensitive to liquid nitrogen level change, and this signal can be optimized by controlling the transport current. The problems of the Ag clad superconductor are that the Ag sheath thermal conductivity is very high, and the sensor normal resistance is low. These are the main disadvantages for using such a wire as a continuous level sensor. However, a satisfactory accuracy can be achieved by control of the transport current. A different configuration of the wire sensor is also designed to avoid this thermal influence

  8. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik

    1999-01-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low

  9. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  10. Cermet high level waste forms: a pregress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-06-01

    The fixation of high level radioactive waste from both commercial and DOE defense sources as cermets is currently under study. This waste form consists of a continuous iron-nickel base metal matrix containing small particles of fission product oxides. Preliminary evaluations of cermets fabricated from a variety of simulated wastes indicate they possess properties providing advantages over other waste forms presently being considered, namely thermal conductivity, waste loading levels, and leach resistance. This report describes the progress of this effort, to date, since its initiation in 1977

  11. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  12. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning

  13. Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin; Sadaj, Witold; Rachwalska, Paulina; Gądek-Michalska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST). The obtained results showed that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not change the active behavior of rats in the FST. However, co-treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an antidepressant-like effect in that test because it significantly increased the swimming time and decreased the immobility time, while combined treatment with mirtazapine at 5 and 10 mg/kg and risperidone at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg evoked a significant increase in the swimming time and also climbing, and decreased the immobility time. WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST (but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats), and that 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in these effects.

  14. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Berreth, J.R.; Freeby, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  15. Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Fokidis, H Bobby

    2016-09-01

    Perturbations in an organism's environment can induce significant shifts in hormone secretory patterns. In this context, the glucocorticoid (GC) steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex have received much attention from ecologists and behaviorists due to their role in the vertebrate stress response. Adrenal GCs, such as corticosterone (CORT), are highly responsive to instability in environmental and social conditions. However, little is understood about how adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is influenced by changing conditions. We conducted field experiments to determine how circulating CORT and DHEA vary during restraint stress in the male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Specifically, we examined how four different changes in the physical (urbanization and food availability) and social (territorial conflict, distress of a mate) environment affect CORT and DHEA levels. The majority of cardinals responded to restraint stress by increasing and decreasing CORT and DHEA, respectively, however this depended on sampling context. Cardinals sampled from urban habitats had both lower initial and restraint stress CORT concentrations, but a comparable DHEA pattern to those sampled from a forest. Supplementing food to territorial males did not alter circulating initial DHEA or CORT concentrations nor did it change the response to restraint stress when compared to unsupplemented controls. Exposing cardinals to varying durations of song playback, which mimics a territorial intrusion, did not affect CORT levels, but did attenuate the DHEA response to restraint stress. Examining a larger dataset of males captured before, after or at the same time as their female mate, allowed us to address how the stress of a captured mate affected the male's CORT and DHEA response. Males showed elevated initial and restraint CORT and DHEA when their female mate was captured first. Taken together, these data demonstrate that both CORT and DHEA secretion patterns depends on

  16. Conceptual process for conversion of high level waste to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    During a ten-year period highly radioactive wastes amounting to 22 million gallons of salt cake and 5 million gallons of wet sludge are to be converted to 1.2 million gallons of glass and 24 million gallons of decontaminated salt cake and placed in the new storage facilities which will provide high assurance of containment with minimal reliance on maintenance and surveillance. The glass will contain nearly all of the radioactivity in a form that is highly resistant to leaching and dispersion. The salt cake will contain a small amount of residual radioactivity. The process is shown in Figure 1 and the facilities may be arranged in seven modules to accomplish seven tasks, (1) remove wastes from tanks, (2) separate sludge and salt, (3) decontaminate salt, (4) solidify and package sludge and 137 Cs, (5) solidify and package decontaminated salt, (6) store high level waste, and (7) store decontaminated salt cake

  17. High level trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, U.; Roehrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Vestabo, A.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Schulz, M.; Steinbeck, T.; Wiebalck, A.; Skaali, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will detect up to 20,000 particles in a single Pb-Pb event resulting in a data rate of ∼75 MByte/event. The event rate is limited by the bandwidth of the data storage system. Higher rates are possible by selecting interesting events and subevents (High Level trigger) or compressing the data efficiently with modeling techniques. Both require a fast parallel pattern recognition. One possible solution to process the detector data at such rates is a farm of clustered SMP nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, and connected by a high bandwidth, low latency network

  18. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed

  19. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  20. Glass-solidification method for high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Masayuki; Sasage, Ken-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    High level liquid wastes are removed with precipitates mainly comprising Mo and Zr, thereafter, the high level liquid wastes are mixed with a glass raw material comprising a composition having a B 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ratio of not less than 0.41, a ZnO/Li 2 O ratio of not less than 1.00, and an Al 2 O 3 /Li 2 O ratio of not less than 2.58, and they are melted and solidified into glass-solidification products. The liquid waste content in the glass-solidification products can be increased up to about 45% by using the glass raw material having such a predetermined composition. In addition, deposition of a yellow phase does not occur, and a leaching rate identical with that in a conventional case can be maintained. (T.M.)

  1. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  2. Exploring Self - Confidence Level of High School Students Doing Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Emir Ekinci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.

  3. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  4. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  5. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  6. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W; Gilardi, C; Kirschner, D; Lang, J; Lange, S; Liu, M; Perez, T; Yang, S; Schmitt, L; Jin, D; Li, L; Liu, Z; Lu, Y; Wang, Q; Wei, S; Xu, H; Zhao, D; Korcyl, K; Otwinowski, J T; Salabura, P

    2008-01-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 10 7 /s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware

  7. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  8. QSPIN: A High Level Java API for Quantum Computing Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Tim

    2017-01-01

    QSPIN is a high level Java language API for experimentation in QC models used in the calculation of Ising spin glass ground states and related quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. The Java API is intended to facilitate research in advanced QC algorithms such as hybrid quantum-classical solvers, automatic selection of constraint and optimization parameters, and techniques for the correction and mitigation of model and solution errors. QSPIN includes high level solver objects tailored to the D-Wave quantum annealing architecture that implement hybrid quantum-classical algorithms [Booth et al.] for solving large problems on small quantum devices, elimination of variables via roof duality, and classical computing optimization methods such as GPU accelerated simulated annealing and tabu search for comparison. A test suite of documented NP-complete applications ranging from graph coloring, covering, and partitioning to integer programming and scheduling are provided to demonstrate current capabilities.

  9. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  10. High-level waste management technology program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  11. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  13. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments

  14. Status of the French nuclear high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1985-09-01

    French research on high level waste processing has led to the development of industrial vitrification facilities. Borosilicate glass is still being investigated for its long-term storage properties, since it is itself a component of the containment system. The other constituents of this system, the engineered barriers, are also being actively investigated. The geological barrier is now being assessed using a methodology applicable to various types of geological formations, and final site qualification should be possible before the end of 1992

  15. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfeld, E.

    1991-01-01

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  16. A High Level Model of a Conscious Embodied Agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2010), s. 62-78 ISSN 1942-9045 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : embodied agent * internal world models * higher cognitive function Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.igi-global.com/article/high-level-model-conscious-embodied/46147

  17. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  18. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  19. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  20. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  1. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  2. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Kelley, J.A.; Zeyfang, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Authorization for construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is expected in FY 83. The optimum time for stage 2 authorization is about three years later. Detailed design and construction will require approximately five years for stage 1, with stage 2 construction completed about two to three years later. Production of canisters of waste glass would begin in 1988, and the existing backlog of high level waste sludge stored at SRP would be worked off by about the year 2000. Stage 2 operation could begin in 1990. The technology and engineering are ready for construction and eventual operation of the DWPF for immobilizing high level radioactive waste at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Proceeding with this project will provide the public, and the leadership of this country, with a crucial demonstration that a major quantity of existing high level nuclear wastes can be safely and permanently immobilized. Early demonstration will both expedite and facilitate rational decision making on this aspect of the nuclear program. Delay in providing these facilities will result in significant DOE expenditures at SRP for new tanks just for continued temporary storage of wastes, and would probably result in dissipation of the intellectual and planning momentum that has built up in developing the project

  3. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  4. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  5. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  6. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  7. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  8. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  9. The immobilization of High Level Waste Into Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Martono, H.

    1998-01-01

    High level liquid waste is generated from the first step extraction in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The waste is immobilized with boro-silicate glass. A certain composition of glass is needed for a certain type of waste, so that the properties of waste glass would meet the requirement either for further process or for disposal. The effect of waste loading on either density, thermal expansion, softening point and leaching rate has been studied. The composition of the high level liquid waste has been determined by ORIGEN 2 and the result has been used to prepare simulated high level waste. The waste loading in the waste glass has been set to be 19.48; 22.32; 25.27; and 26.59 weight percent. The result shows that increasing the waste loading has resulted in the higher density with no thermal expansion and softening point significant change. The increase in the waste loading increase that leaching rate. The properties of the waste glass in this research have not shown any deviation from the standard waste glass properties

  10. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  11. The development of a high level radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.

    1979-11-01

    The management of high level radioactive waste, from the removal of spent fuel from reactors to final disposal of vitrified waste, involves a complex choice of operational variables which interact one with another. If the various operations are designed and developed in isolation it will almost certainly lead to suboptimal choice. Management of highly active waste should therefore be viewed as a complete system and analysed in such a way that account is taken of the interactions between the various operations. This system must have clearly defined and agreed objectives as well as criteria against which performance can be judged. A thorough analysis of the system will provide a framework within which the necessary research and development can be carried out in a co-ordinated fashion and lead to an optimised strategy for managing highly active wastes. (author)

  12. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  13. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  14. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  15. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  16. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  18. Interaction between High-Level and Low-Level Image Analysis for Semantic Video Object Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of extracting a semantic video object is split into two subproblems, namely, object segmentation and region segmentation. Object segmentation relies on a priori assumptions, whereas region segmentation is data-driven and can be solved in an automatic manner. These two subproblems are not mutually independent, and they can benefit from interactions with each other. In this paper, a framework for such interaction is formulated. This representation scheme based on region segmentation and semantic segmentation is compatible with the view that image analysis and scene understanding problems can be decomposed into low-level and high-level tasks. Low-level tasks pertain to region-oriented processing, whereas the high-level tasks are closely related to object-level processing. This approach emulates the human visual system: what one “sees” in a scene depends on the scene itself (region segmentation as well as on the cognitive task (semantic segmentation at hand. The higher-level segmentation results in a partition corresponding to semantic video objects. Semantic video objects do not usually have invariant physical properties and the definition depends on the application. Hence, the definition incorporates complex domain-specific knowledge and is not easy to generalize. For the specific implementation used in this paper, motion is used as a clue to semantic information. In this framework, an automatic algorithm is presented for computing the semantic partition based on color change detection. The change detection strategy is designed to be immune to the sensor noise and local illumination variations. The lower-level segmentation identifies the partition corresponding to perceptually uniform regions. These regions are derived by clustering in an N-dimensional feature space, composed of static as well as dynamic image attributes. We propose an interaction mechanism between the semantic and the region partitions which allows to

  19. Reduction in (/sup 3/H)-corticosterone binding to cytoplasmic receptors in the brain of diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridman, O; Foglia, V G; de Nicola, A F [Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Esteroides

    1978-07-01

    The binding of (1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H)-corticosterone was studied in brain cytosol from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic male rats. The experiments were performed under conditions of incubation time (4h), temperature (0-4/sup 0/C), time after adrenalectomy (6 days) and corticosterone concentrations (1.2 x 10/sup -8/ and 1.15 x 10/sup -9/M) previously established for determining binding activity in the brain of normal rats. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-corticosterone was found invariably lower in cytosol of the brain from diabetic rats, studied under three different conditions in non-adrenalectomized animals, in adrenalectomized using a non-saturating corticosterone concentration, and in adrenalectomized plus a saturating steroid concentration. These results support previous contentions that the diminished sensitivity to the negative feedback for steroids which is present in diabetics, may be related to a reduction in binding capacity for corticoids in the central nervous system.

  20. The effect of isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy on circulating corticosterone and ACTH in BALB/c mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    compared to anaesthetised mice not treated with dexamethasone. Thus, dexamethasone effectively inhibited the corticosterone response in the anaesthetised-only mice, but not in the mice subjected to surgery. In conclusion, both isoflurane anaesthesia and vasectomy during isoflurane anaesthesia resulted...

  1. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 μg/L; range uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  2. High level waste forms: glass marbles and thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Oma, K.H.; Slate, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process that converts high-level waste to glass marbles and then coats the marbles has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The process consists of a joule-heated glass melter, a marble-making device based on a patent issued to Corning Glass Works, and a coating system that includes a plasma spray coater and a marble tumbler. The process was developed under the Alternative Waste Forms Program which strived to improve upon monolithic glass for immobilizing high-level wastes. Coated glass marbles were found to be more leach-resistant, and the marbles, before coating were found to be very homogeneous, highly impact resistant, and conductive to encapsulation in a metal matric for improved heat transfer and containment. Marbles are also ideally suited for quality assurance and recycling. However, the marble process is more complex, and marbles require a larger number of canisters for waste containment and have a higher surface area than do glass monoliths

  3. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  4. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  5. FADO 2. 0: A high level tagging language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.M.L. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div.); Pimenta, M.; Varela, J. (LIP, Lisbon (Portugal)); Souza, J. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia)

    1989-12-01

    FADO 2.0 is a high level language, developed in the context of the 4th level trigger of the DELPHI data acquisition project at CERN, that provides a simple and concise way to define physics criteria for event tagging. Its syntax is based on mathematical logic and set theory, as it was found the most appropriate framework to describe the properties of single HEP events. The language is one of the components of the FADO tagging system. The system also implements implicitly a mechanism to selectively reconstruct the event data that are needed to fulfil the physics criteria, following the speed requirements of the online data-acquisition system. A complete programming environment is now under development, which will include a syntax directed editor, and incremental compiler, a debugger and a configurer. This last tool can be used to transport the system into the context of other HEP applications, namely offline event selection and filtering. (orig.).

  6. Intermittent Testing and Training for High-Level Football Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    Football is the most popular sport in the world, played by over 400 million men and women. In addition to the wide range of sport-specific technical and tactical skills needed, several physical components have been shown to be necessary to perform at a high level. The present PhD thesis is based...... on four articles that focus on physical testing and training for elite and sub-elite football players.The first article (Study I) aims to identify and establish aerobic capacities and anthropometric characteristics of elite female football players with the use of laboratory tests, and to examine whether...... systematic differences between the playing positions can be detected. Lately, field tests have become more frequently used in football than the laboratory tests used in Study I. Study II therefore aims to assess the validity of one of them, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Along...

  7. High-level waste description, inventory and hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.; Hennelly, E.J.; McElroy, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste (HLW), including its origin, is described and the current differences in definitions discussed. Quantities of defense and commercial radioactive HLW, both volume and curie content, are given. Current waste handling, which is interimin nature, is described for the several sites. The HLW hazard is defined by the times during which various radionuclides are the dominant contributors. The hazard is also compared to that of the ore. Using ICRP-2, which is the legal reference in the US, the hazard of the waste reduces to a level equal to the ore in about 300 years. The disposal plans are summarized and it is shown that regulatory requirements will probably govern disposal operations in such a conservative manner that the risk (product of hazard times probability of release) may well be lower than for any other wastes in existence or perhaps lower than those for any other human endeavor

  8. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  9. EPISTEMOLOGICAL PERCEPTION AND SCIENTIFIC LITERACY IN LEVEL HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Álvarez-Valenzuela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research in science education has helped to find some difficulties that hinder the teaching-learning process. These problems include conceptual content of school subjects, the influence of prior knowledge of the student and the teachers have not been trained in their university education epistemologically. This research presents the epistemological conceptions of a sample of 114 high school teachers university science area, which refer the ideas about the role of observation in scientific knowledge development and the work of scientists in the process of knowledge generation. It also includes the level of scientific literacy from the literature that is used as a source of information on the teaching. The result also identifies the level of scientific literacy in students and their influence on learning.

  10. High-level, but not low-level, motion perception is impaired in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Farid I; Pedersen, Anya; Wehnes, Jana; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are compromised in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Although research has demonstrated that the motor components of smooth pursuit eye movements are intact, motion perception has been shown to be impaired. In particular, studies have consistently revealed deficits in performance on tasks specific to the high-order motion area V5 (middle temporal area, MT) in patients with schizophrenia. In contrast, data from low-level motion detectors in the primary visual cortex (V1) have been inconsistent. To differentiate between low-level and high-level visual motion processing, we applied a temporal-order judgment task for motion events and a motion-defined figure-ground segregation task using patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Successful judgments in both tasks rely on the same low-level motion detectors in the V1; however, the first task is further processed in the higher-order motion area MT in the magnocellular (dorsal) pathway, whereas the second task requires subsequent computations in the parvocellular (ventral) pathway in visual area V4 and the inferotemporal cortex (IT). These latter structures are supposed to be intact in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia revealed a significantly impaired temporal resolution on the motion-based temporal-order judgment task but only mild impairment in the motion-based segregation task. These results imply that low-level motion detection in V1 is not, or is only slightly, compromised; furthermore, our data restrain the locus of the well-known deficit in motion detection to areas beyond the primary visual cortex.

  11. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  12. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, R [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab.

  13. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  14. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  15. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  16. Role of sex steroids in progesterone and corticosterone response to acute restraint stress in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, B; Leite, C M; Carvalho-Lima, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal progesterone secretion increases along with corticosterone in response to stress in male and female rats to modulate some stress responses. Here we investigated the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the progesterone response to 60 min of restraint stress in adult male and female rats. Comparisons between males and females in the progesterone response were evaluated in parallel with corticosterone responses. From day 5 to 7 after gonadectomy, female and male rats were treated with estradiol or testosterone, respectively (OVX-E and ORCH-T groups), or oil (OVX and ORCH groups). Female rats in proestrus, intact and 7 d adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats were also studied. At 10:00 h, blood samples were withdrawn via an implanted jugular cannula before (-5 min), during (15, 30, 45, 60 min) and after (90 and 120 min) restraint stress to measure plasma progesterone and corticosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Intact male and proestrus female rats exhibited similar progesterone responses to stress. Gonadectomy did not alter the amount of progesterone secreted during stress in female rats but decreased secretion in male rats. Unlike corticosterone, the progesterone response to stress in females was not influenced by estradiol. In males, testosterone replacement attenuated the progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress. Basal secretion of progesterone among intact, ORCH and ADX males was similar, but ADX-stressed rats secreted little progesterone. Hence, the gonads differently modulate adrenal progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress in female and male rats. The ovaries enhance corticosterone but not progesterone secretion, while the testes stimulate progesterone but not corticosterone secretion.

  17. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah K; Painter, Danika L; Moore, Michael C; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-06-15

    In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system. Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We measured baseline plasma B levels in free-living iguanas over several 24-h periods that varied in the timing of low tide/foraging activity. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide. Whether the baseline B rhythm (including the drop during foraging) is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Together, these data suggest that the baseline B rhythm in marine iguanas is influenced by the tidal cycle/food intake as well as the light:dark cycle.

  18. Creatine, Similar to Ketamine, Counteracts Depressive-Like Behavior Induced by Corticosterone via PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazini, Francis L; Cunha, Mauricio P; Rosa, Julia M; Colla, André R S; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Oliveira, Ágatha; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-12-01

    Ketamine has emerged as a novel strategy to treat refractory depression, producing rapid remission, but elicits some side effects that limit its use. In an attempt to investigate a safer compound that may afford an antidepressant effect similar to ketamine, this study examined the effects of the ergogenic compound creatine in a model of depression, and the involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway in its effect. In order to induce a depressive-like behavior, mice were administered with corticosterone (20 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) for 21 days. This treatment increased immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST), an effect abolished by a single administration of creatine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or ketamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o., conventional antidepressant). Treatment of mice with wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor, 0.1 μg/site, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) or rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, 0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v.) abolished the anti-immobility effect of creatine and ketamine. None of the treatments affected locomotor activity of mice. The immunocontents of p-mTOR, p-p70S6 kinase (p70S6K), and postsynaptic density-95 protein (PSD95) were increased by creatine and ketamine in corticosterone or vehicle-treated mice. Moreover, corticosterone-treated mice presented a decreased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level, an effect abolished by creatine or ketamine. Altogether, the results indicate that creatine shares with ketamine the ability to acutely reverse the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior by a mechanism dependent on PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and modulation of the synaptic protein PSD95 as well as BDNF in the hippocampus, indicating the relevance of targeting these proteins for the management of depressive disorders. Moreover, we suggest that creatine should be further investigated as a possible fast-acting antidepressant.

  19. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  20. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  1. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  2. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted

  3. Global tracker for the ALICE high level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vik, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. The first is the implementation and testing of a Kalman filter algorithm in the HLT (High Level Trigger) reconstruction code. This will perform the global tracking in the HLT, that is merging tracklets and hits from the different sub-detectors in the central barrel detector. The second topic is a trigger mode of the HLT which uses the global tracking of particles through the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector), TPC (Time Projection Chamber) and the ITS (Inner Tracking System): The dielectron trigger. Global tracking: The Kalman filter algorithm has been introduced to the HLT tracking scheme. (Author)

  4. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  5. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  6. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  7. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  8. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Lafontaine, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps.

  9. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures

  10. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  11. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  12. High-level waste canister envelope study: structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The structural integrity of waste canisters, fabricated from standard weight Type 304L stainless steel pipe, was analyzed for sizes ranging from 8 to 24 in. diameter and 10 to 16 feet long under normal, abnormal, and improbable life cycle loading conditions. The canisters are assumed to be filled with vitrified high-level nuclear waste, stored temporarily at a fuel reprocessing plant, and then transported for storage in an underground salt bed or other geologic storage. In each of the three impact conditions studies, the resulting impact force is far greater than the elastic limit capacity of the material. Recommendations are made for further study

  13. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  14. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included

  15. FPGA Co-processor for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Grastveit, G.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2003-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ALICE experiment requires massive parallel computing. One of the main tasks of the HLT system is two-dimensional cluster finding on raw data of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main data source of ALICE. To reduce the number of computing nodes needed in the HLT farm, FPGAs, which are an intrinsic part of the system, will be utilized for this task. VHDL code implementing the Fast Cluster Finder algorithm, has been written, a testbed for functional verification of the code has been developed, and the code has been synthesized

  16. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, J.M.; Beceiro, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) has been limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kind of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high - level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international cooperation are also included

  17. Spanish high level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, A.; Veganzones, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuous Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 as a state-owned limited liability company to be responsible for the management of all kinds of radioactive wastes in Spain. This paper provides an overview of the strategy and main lines of action stated in the third General Radioactive Waste Plan, currently in force, for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level wastes, as well as an outline of the main related projects, either being developed or foreseen. Aspects concerning the organizational structure, the economic and financing system and the international co-operational are also included

  18. A high-level product representation for automatic design reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, E.; Qamar, Z.; Mohammad, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    A high-level product representation has been developed and implemented, using features for part description and mating conditions between features for the relationships among parts. The underlying ideas are that features are necessary for effective design representation; that spatial and functional relationships among parts of an assembly are best expressed through mating conditions; that assembly features of a part may, at times, be different from its manufacturing features; and that a good representation should be natural, intelligent, comprehensive, and integrated with a visual display. Some new mating conditions have been defined and classified. Several problems concerning the use of features with mating conditions are discussed.

  19. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  20. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options

  1. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  2. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-10-01

    Current strategies in most countries favour the immobilisation of high-level radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses, and their burial in large, centralised, mined repositories. Strong public opposition has been encountered because of concerns over safety and socio-political issues. The author develops a new disposal strategy, based on immobilisation of wastes in an extremely resistant ceramic, SYNROC, combined with burial in an array of widely dispersed, very deep drill holes. It is demonstrated that the difficulties encountered by conventional disposal strategies can be overcome by this new approach.

  3. High pretransplantation soluble CD30 levels: impact in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoli, C; Bonnet, M C; Perrat, G; Houillon, A; Reydet, S; Pouteil-Noble, C; Villar, E; Lefrançois, N; Morelon, E; Dubois, V

    2007-10-01

    In a retrospective study, the impact of the level of pretransplantation soluble CD30 molecule (sCD30) was evaluated on 3 year transplant survival, as well as the number and grade of acute rejection episodes among kidney recipients engrafted between 2000 and 2002. One hundred and ninety sera of 190 patients sampled on the cross-match day were tested for sCD30 concentrations using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Biotest). For the analysis, a sCD30 cutoff level of 100 U/mL was chosen: 87 (46%) recipients had a level >100, and 103 (54%) sCD30 level. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was 26% in the sCD30 >100 group versus 22% in the sCD30 sCD30 >100 versus 20% for the lower level. The difference was more important for grade II acute rejection (Banff criteria): 6/87 (7%) showed high sCD30 versus 2/103 (2%) with sCD30 sCD30 >100) versus 1 (1%) in the second group (sCD30 sCD30 was not a significant risk factor for an acute rejection episode, but it seemed to be more predictive for antibody-mediated acute rejection and immunological graft loss. However, many recipients showed an increased pretransplantation concentration without any rejection episode or graft loss. Consequently, sCD30 pregraft measurements cannot be used as a predictor for acute kidney rejection among our transplant center, nor as an aid to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen.

  4. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  5. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846

  6. Conductivity of alanine solution for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Figel, M.; Regulla, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    The amino acid alanine is well known as a dosimetric detector material for high level dosimetry. Its application is based on the formation of radicals by ionising radiation. The free radicals are earlier detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or chemically after dissolving the irradiated samples. Of all these methods the ESR/alanine system is the most advanced and is suggested for reference dosimetry. At present, however, the high cost of the system is a serious handicap for a large scale routine application in radiation plants. In this study the variation of electrical conductivity of L-alanine solution with applied dose is investigated in the range from 0.5-200 kGy. The conductivity was measured with a 50 MHz RF oscillator. This readout method is uncomplicated and may be suitable for routine application. The experiments were performed with L-alanine solution in glass ampoules. (Author)

  7. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  8. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone responses to predictable and unpredictable noise stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Gugten, J; Slangen, J L; de Boer, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) increases were determined in individual rats subjected to either 20 regularly or irregularly scheduled white-noise stimulations (4 min, 100 dBA). Blood was frequently sampled during the first and twentieth noise exposure, and during a reexposure after 24 hr. During the sampling periods, behavioral activities of the rats were recorded. The initial noise-induced CS release was partially reduced following the regular noise present...

  9. Corticotropine-releasing hormone and/or corticosterone differentially affect behavior of rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Řezáčová, Lenka; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 118-118 ISSN 1461-1457. [CINP Congress /26./. 13.07.2008-17.07.2008, Munich] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * corticotropine-releasing hormone * corticosterone * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Differential abundance of egg white proteins in laying hens treated with corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2014-12-24

    Stressful environments can affect not only egg production and quality but also gene and protein abundance in the ovary and oviduct in laying hens. The oviductal magnum of laying hens is the organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of egg white proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone as a stress model on the abundance of proteins in the egg white and of mRNA and proteins in the magnum in laying hens. After a 14-day acclimation, 40 laying hens were divided into two groups which were provided for the next 14 days with either control (Control) or corticosterone (Stress) diet containing at 30 mg/kg. Corticosterone treatment resulted in increased feed intake (P ≤ 0.05) and decreased egg production. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS using eggs obtained on days 0 and 5 revealed differential abundance of egg white proteins by Stress: transiently expressed in neural precursors (TENP), hemopexin (HPX), IgY-Fcυ3-4, and extracellular fatty acid-binding protein (Ex-FABP) were decreased while ovoinhibitor and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX) were increased on days 5 vs 0 (P ≤ 0.05). Expression of mRNAs and proteins was also significantly modulated in the magnum of hens in Stress on day 14 (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence showing that dietary corticosterone modulates protein abundance in the egg white in laying hens, and it suggests that environmental stress can differentially modify expression of egg white proteins in laying hens.

  11. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  12. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  13. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  14. High levels of uranium in groundwater of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, Jerome, E-mail: stoten@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dinh, Hau [College of Literature, Science and Arts, University of Michigan (United States); Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren [Department Of Preventive Medicine, School Of Public Health, Health Science University, Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush [Central Water Laboratory of Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (USUG), Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (< 0.1-7.9) {mu}g/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) {mu}g/L for Mn; 0.2 (< 0.05-1.9) {mu}g/L for Co; 16 (< 0.1-686) {mu}g/L for Zn; 0.7 (< 0.1-1.8) {mu}g/L for Se; < 0.1 (< 0.02-0.69) {mu}g/L for Cd; and 1.3 (< 0.02-32) {mu}g/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 {mu}g/L; range < 0.01-57 {mu}g/L), with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 {mu}g/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyzed water samples from wells across the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for total uranium along with arsenic, manganese, cobalt, zinc, selenium, cadmium and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that compared to other trace metals and metalloids, the levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline for drinking water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The health risk associated with drinking the groundwater

  15. Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3β-CREB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg−1 d−1, intragastrically were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg−1 d−1, subcutaneously injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurofilament light chain (NF-L. Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism. The GTS treatments reversed the corticosterone-induced changes in mRNA levels of BDNF and NF-L, and protein levels of BDNF NF-L, phosphor-cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133, and phosphor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9 in the hippocampus. These findings imply that the effect of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through interfering with hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and reversing decrease of some plasticity-related proteins.

  16. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  18. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  19. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  20. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)