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Sample records for high coronal intensity

  1. Relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams at L1: arrival times, durations, and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Bu, X.; Liu, S.; Gong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are sources of high-speed steams (HSS) of solar wind. When coronal holes appear at mid/low latitudes on the Sun, consequential HSSs may impact Earth and cause recurrent geospace environment disturbances, such as geomagnetic storms, relativistic electron enhancements at the geosynchronous orbit, and thermosphere density enhancements. Thus, it is of interests for space weather forecasters to predict when (arrival times), how long (time durations), and how severe (intensities) HSSs may impact Earth when they notice coronal holes on the sun and are anticipating their geoeffectiveness. In this study, relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams will be statistically investigated. Several coronal hole parameters, including passage times of solar central meridian, coronal hole longitudinal widths, intensities reflected by mean brightness, are derived using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images for years 2011 to 2016. These parameters will be correlated with in-situ solar wind measurements measured at the L1 point by the ACE spacecraft, which can give some results that are useful for space weather forecaster in predicting the arrival times, durations, and intensities of coronal hole high-speed streams in about 3 days advance.

  2. Automated coronal hole identification via multi-thermal intensity segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Tadhg M.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Murray, Sophie A.

    2018-01-01

    Coronal holes (CH) are regions of open magnetic fields that appear as dark areas in the solar corona due to their low density and temperature compared to the surrounding quiet corona. To date, accurate identification and segmentation of CHs has been a difficult task due to their comparable intensity to local quiet Sun regions. Current segmentation methods typically rely on the use of single Extreme Ultra-Violet passband and magnetogram images to extract CH information. Here, the coronal hole identification via multi-thermal emission recognition algorithm (CHIMERA) is described, which analyses multi-thermal images from the atmospheric image assembly (AIA) onboard the solar dynamics observatory (SDO) to segment coronal hole boundaries by their intensity ratio across three passbands (171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å). The algorithm allows accurate extraction of CH boundaries and many of their properties, such as area, position, latitudinal and longitudinal width, and magnetic polarity of segmented CHs. From these properties, a clear linear relationship was identified between the duration of geomagnetic storms and coronal hole areas. CHIMERA can therefore form the basis of more accurate forecasting of the start and duration of geomagnetic storms.

  3. Coronal holes and high-speed wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Coronal holes low have been identified as Bartel's M regions, i.e., sources of high-speed wind streams that produce recurrent geomagnetic variations. Throughout the Skylab period the polar caps of the Sun were coronal holes, and at lower latitudes the most persistent and recurrent holes were equatorial extensions of the polar caps. The holes rotated 'rigidly' at the equatorial synodic rate. They formed in regions of unipolar photospheric magnetic field, and their internal magnetic fields diverged rapidly with increasing distance from the sun. The geometry of the magnetic field in the inner corona seems to control both the physical properties of the holes and the global distribution of high-speed wind streams in the heliosphere. The latitude variation of the divergence of the coronal magnetic field lines produces corresponding variations in wind speed.During the years of declining solar activity the global field of the corona approximates a perturbed dipole. The divergence of field lines in each hemisphere produces a high-speed wind near the poles and low-speed wind in a narrow belt that coincides with the magnetic neutral sheet. The analysis of electron density measurements within a polar hole indicates that solar wind is accelerated principally in the region between 2 and 5 R/sub s/ and that mechanical wave pressure (possibly Alfven wave) may be responsible for the accleration of the wind. Phenomenological models for the birth and decay of coronal holes have been proposed. Attempts to explain the birth and rigid rotation of holes through dynamo action have been only partially successful. The 11-year variation of cosmic ray intensities at the earth may result from cyclic variation of open field regions associated with coronal holes

  4. Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary shocks in relation with forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Patel, Nand Kumar; Prajapati, Mateswari

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs} are the most energetic solar events in which large amount of solar plasma materials are ejected from the sun into heliosphere, causing major disturbances in solar wind plasma, Interplanetary shocks, Forbush decrease(Fds) in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms. We have studied Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms observed at Oulu super neutron monitor, during the period of May 1998-Dec 2006 with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), X-ray solar flares and interplanetary shocks. We have found that all the (100%) Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association rate between halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 96.00%and 04.00% respectively. Most of the Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms (96.29%) are associated with X-ray solar flares of different categories . The association rates for X-Class, M-Class, and C- Class X -ray solar flares are found 34.62%, 50.00% and 15.38% respectively .Further we have concluded that majority of the Forbush decrease associated with intense geomagnetic storms are related to interplanetary shocks (92.30 %) and the related shocks are forward shocks. We have found positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient .7025 between magnitudes of Forbush decreases associated with intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections. Positive co-relation with co-relation co-efficient 0.48 has also been found between magnitudes of intense geomagnetic storms and speed of associated coronal mass ejections.

  5. Long-period Intensity Pulsations in Coronal Loops Explained by Thermal Non-equilibrium Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froment, C.; Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Buchlin, E.; Solomon, J. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Aulanier, G. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Mikić, Z., E-mail: clara.froment@astro.uio.no [Predictive Science, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In solar coronal loops, thermal non-equilibrium (TNE) is a phenomenon that can occur when the heating is both highly stratified and quasi-constant. Unambiguous observational identification of TNE would thus permit us to strongly constrain heating scenarios. While TNE is currently the standard interpretation of coronal rain, the long-term periodic evolution predicted by simulations has never been observed. However, the detection of long-period intensity pulsations (periods of several hours) has been recently reported with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /EIT, and this phenomenon appears to be very common in loops. Moreover, the three intensity-pulsation events that we recently studied with the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) show strong evidence for TNE in warm loops. In this paper, a realistic loop geometry from linear force-free field (LFFF) extrapolations is used as input to 1D hydrodynamic simulations. Our simulations show that, for the present loop geometry, the heating has to be asymmetrical to produce TNE. We analyze in detail one particular simulation that reproduces the average thermal behavior of one of the pulsating loop bundle observed with AIA. We compare the properties of this simulation with those deduced from the observations. The magnetic topology of the LFFF extrapolations points to the presence of sites of preferred reconnection at one footpoint, supporting the presence of asymmetric heating. In addition, we can reproduce the temporal large-scale intensity properties of the pulsating loops. This simulation further strengthens the interpretation of the observed pulsations as signatures of TNE. This consequently provides important information on the heating localization and timescale for these loops.

  6. Periodic Variations in the Coronal Green Line Intensity and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    behaviour of data results as discussed by Tsubaki (1988) in the green corona line intensity. ... This work was partly supported by the Grant Agency (5017/98) of the Slovak. Academy of Sciences. One of us (M. M.) thanks IAU for travel support.

  7. MULTIFRACTAL SOLAR EUV INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Rivera, Y. J. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Jennings, P. J. [5174 S. Slauson Avenue, Culver City, CA 90230 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F., E-mail: ana.cadavid@csun.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/ Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15–45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  8. How to `Subtract' Spectrally Determined Intensities from a Coronal Loop on the Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Cirtain, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.

    2002-05-01

    There are two main problems in the determination of plasma emissions within a coronal loop. First, the line of sight adds the ambient background to the measurement. Second, scattering elevates the intensity for pixels close to a structure (i.e. a loop) by counting photons that actually are emitted from that structure. Here we have a possible solution for these two problems. We show that the intensities for the spectral lines are shown to have scale height dependence when the plasma is not confined to a structure. Accordingly, at any distance greater than its scale height, the ion will not have a statistically significant contribution to the measure of intensity. Additionally, an isolated coronal structure will have a maximum intensity value along an exposure and within a range of pixels that effectively slice a leg of the loop. The maximum is the location of the pixel that is most likely the one containing the loop. All other pixels are considered scatter until the point spread function can deconvolve the true value for intensity per pixel. The resulting values for intensity have then been reduced to approximate the value for intensity for the plasma within the loop. Now the intensity has been reduced to the intensity of the ion within the loop and the analysis of an accurate DEM is now possible. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783.

  9. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  10. Temperature and EUV Intensity in a Coronal Prominence Cavity and Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S.E.; Schmit, D. J.; Landi, E.; Tripathi, D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 Aug. 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model prediction of the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) MK4. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the line intensities by a factor of 4-10, while overestimating pB data by no more than a factor of 1.4. One possible explanation for this is that there may be a significant amount of material at temperatures outside of the range log T(K) approximately equals 5.8 - 6.7 in both the cavity and the streamer.

  11. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  12. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  13. Two-zone model of coronal hole structure in the high corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kundu, M.R.; Yoshimura, H.

    1988-01-01

    The two-zone coronal hole structure model presently proposed for the high corona at 1.5-1.7 solar radii emerges from a comparison of computation results for the potential magnetic fields of the corona and meter-decameter radio observations. The two zones of a coronal hole are defined by the configuration of magnetic field lines around a coronal hole: (1) the central hole of an open diverging magnetic field line system; and (2) the boundary zone between the central zone of the open field line system and the closed field line system or systems surrounding the open field line system. 19 references

  14. A novel technique to measure intensity fluctuations in EUV images and to detect coronal sound waves nearby active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Marsch, E.; Vourlidas, A.; Howard, R.; Baldwin, K.

    2011-02-01

    Context. In the past years, evidence for the existence of outward-moving (Doppler blue-shifted) plasma and slow-mode magneto-acoustic propagating waves in various magnetic field structures (loops in particular) in the solar corona has been found in ultraviolet images and spectra. Yet their origin and possible connection to and importance for the mass and energy supply to the corona and solar wind is still unclear. There has been increasing interest in this problem thanks to the high-resolution observations available from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElationships Observatory (STEREO) and the EUV spectrometer on the Hinode mission. Aims: Flows and waves exist in the corona, and their signatures appear in EUV imaging observations but are extremely difficult to analyse quantitatively because of their weak intensity. Hence, such information is currently available mostly from spectroscopic observations that are restricted in their spatial and temporal coverage. To understand the nature and origin of these fluctuations, imaging observations are essential. Here, we present measurements of the speed of intensity fluctuations observed along apparently open field lines with the Extreme UltraViolet Imagers (EUVI) onboard the STEREO mission. One aim of our paper is to demonstrate that we can make reliable kinematic measurements from these EUV images, thereby complementing and extending the spectroscopic measurements and opening up the full corona for such an analysis. Another aim is to examine the assumptions that lead to flow versus wave interpretation for these fluctuations. Methods: We have developed a novel image-processing method by fusing well established techniques for the kinematic analysis of coronal mass ejections (CME) with standard wavelet analysis. The power of our method lies with its ability to recover weak intensity fluctuations along individual magnetic structures at any orientation , anywhere within the full solar disk , and

  15. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  16. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Coronal Loops Using Seismology of Damped Kink Oscillations and Forward Modeling of EUV Intensity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2018-06-01

    The shape of the damping profile of kink oscillations in coronal loops has recently allowed the transverse density profile of the loop to be estimated. This requires accurate measurement of the damping profile that can distinguish the Gaussian and exponential damping regimes, otherwise there are more unknowns than observables. Forward modeling of the transverse intensity profile may also be used to estimate the width of the inhomogeneous layer of a loop, providing an independent estimate of one of these unknowns. We analyze an oscillating loop for which the seismological determination of the transverse structure is inconclusive except when supplemented by additional spatial information from the transverse intensity profile. Our temporal analysis describes the motion of a coronal loop as a kink oscillation damped by resonant absorption, and our spatial analysis is based on forward modeling the transverse EUV intensity profile of the loop under the isothermal and optically thin approximations. We use Bayesian analysis and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to apply our spatial and temporal models both individually and simultaneously to our data and compare the results with numerical simulations. Combining the two methods allows both the inhomogeneous layer width and density contrast to be calculated, which is not possible for the same data when each method is applied individually. We demonstrate that the assumption of an exponential damping profile leads to a significantly larger error in the inferred density contrast ratio compared with a Gaussian damping profile.

  17. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  18. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  19. Coronal temperature diagnostics from high-resolution soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Claflin, E. S.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of deriving the temperature of the coronal plasma from soft X-ray spectra is discussed. Spectral atlas scans of the soft X-ray spectrum from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are compared with theoretical predictions of the relative intensities of some of the brighter lines to determine which line intensity ratios give the most reliable temperature diagnostics. The techniques considered include line widths, He-like G ratios, intensity ratios, and ratios of lines formed by different elements. It is found that the best temperature diagnostics come from the ratios of lines formed by successive ionization stages of the same element.

  20. Comparison of the Scaling Properties of EUV Intensity Fluctuations in Coronal Holes to those in Regions of Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Ana Cristina; Lawrence, John K.; Jennings, Peter John

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of EUV intensity fluctuations seen in low-latitude coronal holes (CH) and in regions of Quiet Sun (QS), in signals obtained with the SDO/AIA instrument in the 193 Å waveband. Contemporaneous time series in the 171 and 211 Å wavebands are used for comparison among emissions at different heights in the transition region and low corona. Potential-field extrapolations of contemporaneous SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic fields provide a context in the physical environment. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) shows that the variance of the fluctuations obeys a power-law as a function of temporal scales with periods in the range ~15-60 min. This scaling is characterized by a generalized Hurst exponent α. In QS regions, and in regions within CHs that include magnetic bipoles, the scaling exponent lies in the range 1.0 anti-correlated, turbulent-like, dynamical processes. Regions inside the coronal holes primarily associated with magnetic field of a dominant single polarity, have a generalized exponent (0.5 correlated (“persistent”) processes. The results indicate the influence of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of the emission.

  1. Diagnostics of high-speed streams and coronal holes using geomagnetic pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakova, O.V.; Troitskaya, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the relations of high-speed solar wind streams and coronal holes analyzed are the parameters of geomagnetic pulsations of the Rs3 type and of high-speed streams at the decrease branch and in the minimum of solar activity. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation regime determined are the differences in characteristics of high-speed stream properties. Presented are the graphical distributions of a number of occurrances of high-speed streams, coronal holes and pure regimes of Rs3R pulsations in several sections of 1973 in the Sun rotations of N1903-1919 and of the change of solar wind velocity while passing through the high-speed streams. It is found that Rs3R occurrance can serve an indicator of the high-speed flux connection with the large equatorial coronal hole. On the basis of the analysis of exciting pulsation properties determined are the differences in the stream characteristics. However the preliminary estimates permit to adopt neither the first nor the second of the existing hypotheses on the sourse of formation of high-speed streams

  2. Chasing the Great American 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Coronal Results from NASA's WB-57F High-Altitude Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A.; Tsang, C.; DeForest, C. E.; Seaton, D. B.; Bryans, P.; Burkepile, J.; Casey, T. A.; Collier, J.; Darrow, D.; DeLuca, E.; Durda, D. D.; Gallagher, P.; Golub, L.; Judge, P. G.; Laurent, G. T.; Lewis, J.; Mallini, C.; Parent, T.; Propp, T.; Steffl, A.; Tomczyk, S.; Warner, J.; West, M. J.; Wiseman, J.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Total solar eclipses present rare opportunities to study the complex solar corona, down to altitudes of just a few percent of a solar radius above the surface, using ground-based and airborne observatories that would otherwise be dominated by the intense solar disk and high sky brightness. Studying the corona is critical to gaining a better understanding of physical processes that occur on other stars and astrophysical objects, as well as understanding the dominant driver of space weather that affects human assets at Earth and elsewhere. For example, it is still poorly understood how the corona is heated to temperatures of 1-2 MK globally and up to 5-10 MK above active regions, while the underlying chromosphere is 100 times cooler; numerous theories abound, but are difficult to constrain due to the limited sensitivities and cadences of prior measurements. The origins and stability of coronal fans, and the extent of their reach to the middle and outer corona, are also not well known, limited in large part by sensitivities and fields of view of existing observations. Airborne observations during the eclipse provide unique advantages; by flying in the stratosphere at altitudes of 50 kft or higher, they avoid all weather, the seeing quality is enormously improved, and additional wavelengths such as near- IR also become available due to significantly reduced water absorption. For an eclipse, an airborne observatory can also follow the shadow, increasing the total observing time by 50% or more. We present results of solar coronal measurements from airborne observations of the 2017 Great American Total Solar Eclipse using two of NASA's WB-57 high-altitude research aircraft, each equipped with two 8.7" telescopes feeding high-sensitivity visible (green-line) and medium-wave IR (3-5 μm) cameras operating at high cadence (30 Hz) with 3 arcsec/pixel platescale and ±3 R_sun fields of view. The aircraft flew along the eclipse path, separated by 110 km, to observe a summed 7

  3. High-intensity laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohideen, U.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the effect of high intensity lasers on atoms, free electrons and the generation of X-rays from solid density plasmas. The laser produced 50 milli Joule 180 femto sec pulses at 5 Hz. This translates to a maximum intensity of 5 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . At such high fields the AC stark shifts of atoms placed at the focus is much greater than the ionization energy. The characteristics of multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser fields was studied by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Free electrons placed in high intensity laser fields lead to harmonic generation. This phenomenon of Nonlinear Compton Scattering was theoretically investigated. Also, when these high intensity pulses are focused on solids a hot plasma is created. This plasma is a bright source of a short X-ray pulse. The pulse-width of X-rays from these solid density plasmas was measured by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy

  4. Spectral characteristics of aurorae connected with high-velocity flows of the solar wind from coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khviyuzova, T.A.; Leont'ev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Bright electron aurorae almost always followed by red lower edge occur when the Earth is being passed by high-velocity flows from coronal holes within the auroral range at the night meridian. In contrast to other types of the solar wind the high-velocity flows from coronal holes do not cause the occurrence of A type red polar aurorae, that is, the spectrum of electrons pouring into the Earth atmosphere in these cases is shifted towards higher energies

  5. High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL) is a laboratory facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by EG ampersand G, Energy Measurements (EG ampersand G/EM). This document is intended as an overview -- primarily for external users -- of the general purposes and capabilities of HISL; numerous technical details are beyond its scope. Moreover, systems at HISL are added, deleted, and modified to suit current needs, and upgraded with continuing development. Consequently, interested parties are invited to contact the HISL manager for detailed, current, technical, and administrative information. The HISL develops and operates pulsed radiation sources with energies, intensities, and pulse widths appropriate for several applications. Principal among these are development, characterization, and calibration of various high-bandwidth radiation detectors and diagnostic systems. Hardness/vulnerability of electronic or other sensitive components to radiation is also tested. In this connection, source development generally focuses on attending (1) the highest possible intensities with (2) reasonably short pulse widths and (3) comprehensive output characterization

  6. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  7. The first high resolution image of coronal gas in a starbursting cool core cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Galaxy clusters represent a unique laboratory for directly observing gas cooling and feedback due to their high masses and correspondingly high gas densities and temperatures. Cooling of X-ray gas observed in 1/3 of clusters, known as cool-core clusters, should fuel star formation at prodigious rates, but such high levels of star formation are rarely observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a leading explanation for the lack of star formation in most cool clusters, and AGN power is sufficient to offset gas cooling on average. Nevertheless, some cool core clusters exhibit massive starbursts indicating that our understanding of cooling and feedback is incomplete. Observations of 10^5 K coronal gas in cool core clusters through OVI emission offers a sensitive means of testing our understanding of cooling and feedback because OVI emission is a dominant coolant and sensitive tracer of shocked gas. Recently, Hayes et al. 2016 demonstrated that synthetic narrow-band imaging of OVI emission is possible through subtraction of long-pass filters with the ACS+SBC for targets at z=0.23-0.29. Here, we propose to use this exciting new technique to directly image coronal OVI emitting gas at high resolution in Abell 1835, a prototypical starbursting cool-core cluster at z=0.252. Abell 1835 hosts a strong cooling core, massive starburst, radio AGN, and at z=0.252, it offers a unique opportunity to directly image OVI at hi-res in the UV with ACS+SBC. With just 15 orbits of ACS+SBC imaging, the proposed observations will complete the existing rich multi-wavelength dataset available for Abell 1835 to provide new insights into cooling and feedback in clusters.

  8. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  9. Influence of coronal mass ejections on parameters of high-speed solar wind: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Rodkin, Denis; Yermolaev, Yuri; Veselovsky, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the case of disagreement between predicted and observed in-situ parameters of the recurrent high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) existing for Carrington rotation (CR) 2118 (December 2011) in comparison with CRs 2117 and 2119. The HSSs originated at the Sun from a recurrent polar coronal hole (CH) expanding to mid-latitudes, and its area in the central part of the solar disk increased with the rotation number. This part of the CH was responsible for the equatorial flank of the HSS directed to the Earth. The time and speed of arrival for this part of the HSS to the Earth were predicted by the hierarchical empirical model based on EUV-imaging and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge ENLIL semi-empirical replace model and compared with the parameters measured in-situ by model. The predicted parameters were compared with those measured in-situ. It was found, that for CR 2117 and CR 2119, the predicted HSS speed values agreed with the measured ones within the typical accuracy of ±100 km s-1. During CR 2118, the measured speed was on 217 km s-1 less than the value predicted in accordance with the increased area of the CH. We suppose that at CR 2118, the HSS overtook and interacted with complex ejecta formed from three merged coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with a mean speed about 400 km s-1. According to simulations of the Drag-based model, this complex ejecta might be created by several CMEs starting from the Sun in the period between 25 and 27 December 2011 and arriving to the Earth simultaneously with the HSS. Due to its higher density and magnetic field strength, the complex ejecta became an obstacle for the equatorial flank of the HSS and slowed it down. During CR 2117 and CR 2119, the CMEs appeared before the arrival of the HSSs, so the CMEs did not influence on the HSSs kinematics.

  10. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  11. High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H. R.

    1996-02-01

    Two analytical methods for computing ionization by high-frequency fields are compared. Predicted ionization rates compare well, but energy predictions for the onset of ionization differ radically. The difference is shown to arise from the use of a transformation in one of the methods that alters the zero from which energy is measured. This alteration leads to an apparent energy threshold for ionization that can, especially in the stabilization regime, differ strongly from the laboratory measurement. It is concluded that channel closings in intense-field ionization can occur at high as well as low frequencies. It is also found that the stabilization phenomenon at high frequencies, very prominent for hydrogen, is absent in a short-range potential.

  12. Role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging in acute optic neuritis: a comparison with axial orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping [Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institution of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Sha, Yan; Wan, Hailin; Wang, Feng [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Tian, Guohong [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Through a comparison with the axial orientation, we aimed to evaluate the role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute optic neuritis based on diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Orbital DWI, using readout-segmented, parallel imaging, and 2D navigator-based reacquisition (RESOLVE-DWI), was performed on 49 patients with acute vision loss. The coronal (thickness = 3 mm) and axial (thickness = 2 mm) diffusion images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated through diagnostic test; the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were assessed with a weighted Cohen's kappa test. In addition, the agreement of ADC measurement among observers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and Bland-Altman plots. Comparison of ADC values was also performed by unpaired t test. Among the 49 patients, 47 clinically positive optic nerves and 51 clinically negative optic nerves were found. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.1/87.2%, 90.2/94.12%, and 87.8/90.8%, respectively, for coronal RESOLVE-DWI and 83.0/85.1%, 66.7/76.5%, and 75.5/79.6%, respectively, for axial RESOLVE-DWI. The inter-observer kappa values were 0.710 and 0.806 for axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, respectively, and the intra-observer kappa values were 0.822 and 0.909, respectively (each P < 0.0001). Regarding the reproducibility of ADC measurements on axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, the ICCs among observers were 0.846 and 0.941, respectively, and the CV values were 7.046 and 4.810%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed smaller inter-observer variability on coronal RESOLVE-DWI. ADC values were significantly lower in positive group (each P < 0.0001). Higher specificity and better reproducibility of ADC measurements were found for coronal RESOLVE-DWI, which demonstrated the

  13. Narrow CSF space at high convexity and high midline areas in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus detected by axial and coronal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Honda, Satoshi [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Iwamura, Akihide [Kohnodai Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Ichikawa (Japan); Shibata, Eri [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Ohba, Hideki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of axial and coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the narrowing of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at the high convexity and high midline areas, which is speculated to be one of the clinical characteristics of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We retrospectively examined axial and coronal T1-weighted images of 14 iNPH patients and 12 age-matched controls. The narrowness of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline was blindly evaluated by five raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Axial and coronal imaging accurately determined the presence of the narrow cisterns/sulci at the high convexity/midline and was capable of predicting probable/definite iNPH with a high degree of accuracy. there were also no significant differences in the detection of this finding between the axial and coronal images. Both axial and coronal T1-weighted MRI can detect the narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline accurately and may therefore facilitate clinicians in choosing a management strategy for iNPH patients. (orig.)

  14. Narrow CSF space at high convexity and high midline areas in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus detected by axial and coronal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Honda, Satoshi; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Iwamura, Akihide; Shibata, Eri; Ohba, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of axial and coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting the narrowing of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space at the high convexity and high midline areas, which is speculated to be one of the clinical characteristics of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). We retrospectively examined axial and coronal T1-weighted images of 14 iNPH patients and 12 age-matched controls. The narrowness of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline was blindly evaluated by five raters using a continuous confidence rating scale for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Axial and coronal imaging accurately determined the presence of the narrow cisterns/sulci at the high convexity/midline and was capable of predicting probable/definite iNPH with a high degree of accuracy. there were also no significant differences in the detection of this finding between the axial and coronal images. Both axial and coronal T1-weighted MRI can detect the narrow CSF space at the high convexity/midline accurately and may therefore facilitate clinicians in choosing a management strategy for iNPH patients. (orig.)

  15. Overexpanding coronal mass ejections at high heliographic latitudes: Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Riley, P.; McComas, D.J.; Pizzo, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ulysses observations reveal that most coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in the solar wind far from the Sun at high heliographic latitudes have large radial widths and are still expanding as they pass the spacecraft. CME radial widths ranging between 0.5 and 2.5 AU have been observed at heliocentric distances between 1.4 and 4.6 AU and at latitudes greater than 22 degree. A CME may expand simply because it is ejected from the Sun with a leading edge speed that is greater than its trailing edge speed. Rarefaction waves produced by relative motion between a CME and the surrounding wind also can cause a CME to expand. Finally, a CME may expand because it is ejected into the wind with an internal pressure that is greater than that of the surrounding wind. In the latter case, which we have called 'overexpansion', the expansion tends to drive compressive waves into the surrounding solar wind; these waves commonly steepen into shocks at large distances from the Sun. The relative importance of these various expansion processes differs from event to event depending upon initial conditions within the CME and the surrounding wind. Using Ulysses observations and a simple one-dimensional, gasdynamic code, we have explored how initial conditions affect the radial evolution of solar wind disturbances associated with overexpanding CMEs. We find good qualitative agreement between the results of our simulations and Ulysses observations of such disturbances. copyright 1998 American Geophysical Union

  16. Coronal magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research articles on the subject of the solar corona, and particularly, coronal magnetism. The book was motivated by the Workshop on Coronal Magnetism: Connecting Models to Data and the Corona to the Earth, which was held 21 - 23 May 2012 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. This workshop was attended by approximately 60 researchers. Articles from this meeting are contained in this topical issue, but the topical issue also contains contributions from researchers not present at the workshop. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics. Originally published in Solar Physics, Vol. 288, Issue 2, 2013 and Vol. 289, Issue 8, 2014.

  17. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  18. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  19. High intensity proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nishida, Takahiko

    1991-06-01

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  20. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive RandD devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source RandD. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  1. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Whaamdong, Yooseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S., E-mail: kscho@kasi.re.kr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  2. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  3. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M M [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A; Jovanovic, M

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  4. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  5. Very high intensity reaction chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    The problem of achieving very high intensity irradiation by light in minimal regions was studied. Three types of irradiation chamber are suggested: the common laser-reaction chamber, the folded concentric or near-concentric resonator, and the asymmetric confocal resonator. In all designs the ratio of high-intensity illuminated volume to other volume is highly dependent (to the 3 / 2 power) on the power and fluence tolerances of optical elements, primarily mirrors. Optimization of energy coupling is discussed for the common cavity. For the concentric cavities, optimization for both coherent and incoherent beams is treated. Formulae and numerical examples give the size of chambers, aspect ratios, maximum pass number, image sizes, fluences, and the like. Similarly for the asymmetric confocal chamber, formulae and numerical examples for fluences, dimensions, losses, and totally contained pass numbers are given

  6. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  7. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-latitude of Their Solar Source Coronal Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Heber, Bernd; Vršnak, Bojan

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time range from August 2010 to March 2017, the peak velocities of the corresponding high-speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1 AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geoeffectiveness. We find that the peak velocities of high-speed streams depend strongly on both the areas and the co-latitudes of their solar source coronal holes with regard to the heliospheric latitude of the satellites. Therefore, the co-latitude of their source coronal hole is an important parameter for the prediction of the high-speed stream properties near the Earth. We derive the largest solar wind peak velocities normalized to the coronal hole areas for coronal holes located near the solar equator and that they linearly decrease with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. For coronal holes located at latitudes ≳ 60°, they turn statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high-speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similarly, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret these results as an effect of the three-dimensional propagation of high-speed streams in the heliosphere; that is, high-speed streams arising from coronal holes near the solar equator propagate in direction toward and directly hit the Earth, whereas solar wind streams arising from coronal holes at higher solar latitudes only graze or even miss the Earth.

  8. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  9. High-resolution Laboratory Measurements of Coronal Lines near the Fe IX Line at 171 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2018-02-01

    We present high-resolution laboratory measurements in the spectral region between 165 and 175 Å that focus on the emission from various ions of C, O, F, Ne, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. This wavelength region is centered on the λ171 Fe IX channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and we place special emphasis on the weaker emission lines of Fe IX predicted in this region. In general, our measurements show a multitude of weak lines missing in the current databases, where the emission lines of Ni are probably most in need of further identification and reclassification. We also find that the wavelengths of some of the known lines need updating. Using the multi-reference Møller–Plesset method for wavelength predictions and collisional-radiative modeling of the line intensities, we have made tentative assignments of more than a dozen lines to the spectrum of Fe IX, some of which have formerly been identified as Fe VII, Fe XIV, or Fe XVI lines. Several Fe features remain unassigned, although they appear to be either Fe VII or Fe X lines. Further work will be needed to complete and correct the spectral line lists in this wavelength region.

  10. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  12. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  13. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-Latitude of their Solar Source Coronal Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time‐range from 2010/08 to 2017/03, the peak velocities of the corresponding high‐speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geo‐effectiveness. We find that the peak...... statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high‐speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similar, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret...

  14. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  15. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  16. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  17. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  18. A multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, D. A.; Orrall, F. Q.; Zane, R.

    1973-01-01

    We describe a new multi-channel coronal spectrophotometer system, presently being installed at Mees Solar Observatory, Mount Haleakala, Maui. The apparatus is designed to record and interpret intensities from many sections of the visible and near-visible spectral regions simultaneously, with relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. The detector, a thermoelectrically cooled silicon vidicon camera tube, has its central target area divided into a rectangular array of about 100,000 pixels and is read out in a slow-scan (about 2 sec/frame) mode. Instrument functioning is entirely under PDP 11/45 computer control, and interfacing is via the CAMAC system.

  19. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  20. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  1. A High Intensity Hadron Facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    We have present one of several possibilities for the evolution of the AGS complex into a high intensity hadron facility. One could consider other alternatives, such as using the AGS as the Collector and constructing a new 9-30 GeV machine. We believe the most responsible scenario must minimize the cost and downtime to the ongoing physics program. With a stepwise approach, starting with the Booster, the physics program can evolve without a single major commitment in funds. At each step an evaluation of the funds versus physics merit can be made. As a final aside, each upgrade at the AGS and Booster is presently being implemented to support an interleaved operation of both protons and ions. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  2. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  3. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  4. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  5. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  6. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  7. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  8. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  9. 'J-KAREN' - high intensity, high contrast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki; Okada, Hajime; Sasao, Hajime; Sagisaka, Akito; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Kondo, Kiminori; Tateno, Ryo; Sugiyama, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masato; Kawanishi, Syunichi; Shimomura, Takuya; Tanoue, Manabu; Wakai, Daisuke; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    We report on the high intensity, high contrast double chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system (named J-KAREN). By use of an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that is seeded by a cleaned high-energy pulse, a background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level of 10 -10 relative to the peak main femtosecond pulse on the picosecond timescales demonstrated with an output energy of 1.7 J and a pulse duration of 30 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 60TW at a 10 Hz repetition rate. This system which uses a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire final amplifier generates focused peak intensity in excess of 10 20 W/cm 2 at a 10 Hz repetition rate. (author)

  10. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franzotti Sant’Anna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. Methods: This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Conclusion: Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  11. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  12. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  13. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  14. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Laming, J. M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Taylor, B. D. [AFRL Eglin AFB, Pensacola, FL 32542 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  15. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K.; Laming, J. M.; Taylor, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  16. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  17. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  18. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10 6 K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O 8+ , is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe 12+ to Fe 7+ . A prominent peak in the usual Si 8+ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe 16+ . These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references

  19. High intensity hadron facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    There is a large and growing community of particle and nuclear physicists around the world who are actively lobbying for the construction of an accelerator that could provide 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in proton intensity above that of the present AGS. There have been a series of proposals from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the USA. They can all be characterized as machines varying in energy from 12-60 GeV and intensities of 30-100 μA. The community of physicists using the AGS are in a unique position however. The AGS is the only machine available that can provide the beams to execute the physics program that this large international community is interested in. The BNL approach to the communities interests involves a stepwise intensity upgrade program. At present the AGS slow extracted beam current is 1 μA. With the completion of the Booster in 1990 and the associated AGS modifications, the current will rise to 4-5 μA. With the subsequent addition of the Stretcher which is under design, the current will rise to 8-10 μA and approximately 100% duty factor. The possibility of a further enhancement to a current level of 40-50 μA CW is now being examined. 2 figures, 6 tables

  20. Exploring high-intensity QED at ELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, T. [Plymouth Univ., School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Ilderton, A. [School of Mathematics, Hamilton Building, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    We give a non-technical overview of quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects arising in the presence of ultra-strong electromagnetic fields highlighting the new prospects provided by a realisation of the ELI laser facility. Vacuum polarization is a genuine QED process describing the probability amplitude of a propagating photon fluctuating into a virtual electron-positron pair. It has measurable effects such as the Lamb shift and charge screening at short distances. Nonlinear Compton scattering that consists of processes of the type: e + ngamma{sub L} -> e' + gamma (where n counting the number of laser photons involved) is an intensity dependent effect that is accessible to experimental observation

  1. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  2. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  3. Development of high intensity beam handling system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed the new counter experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS) in order to handle high intensity primary proton beams of up to 1x10 3 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1x10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the construction of the new hall. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beams will be reported. (author)

  4. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. High-intensity sources for light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H + and H - beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented

  6. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Harish; Bhatt, Beena

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have selected 114 flare-CME events accompanied with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio burst chosen from 1996 to 2008 (i.e., solar cycle 23). Statistical analyses are performed to examine the relationship of flare-CME events accompanied with DH type II radio burst with Interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF), Geomagnetic storms (GSs) and Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI). The collected sample events are divided into two groups. In the first group, we considered 43 events which lie under the CME span and the second group consists of 71 events which are outside the CME span. Our analysis indicates that flare-CME accompanied with DH type II radio burst is inconsistent with CSHKP flare-CME model. We apply the Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method to both set of data to find the geo-effectiveness. We observed different fluctuations in IMF for arising and decay phase of solar cycle in both the cases. Maximum decrease in Dst during arising and decay phase of solar cycle is different for both the cases. It is noted that when flare lie outside the CME span CRI shows comparatively more variation than the flare lie under the CME span. Furthermore, we found that flare lying under the CME span is more geo effective than the flare outside of CME span. We noticed that the time leg between IMF Peak value and GSs, IMF and CRI is on average one day for both the cases. Also, the time leg between CRI and GSs is on average 0 to 1 day for both the cases. In case flare lie under the CME span we observed high correlation (0.64) between CRI and Dst whereas when flare lie outside the CME span a weak correlation (0.47) exists. Thus, flare position with respect to CME span play a key role for geo-effectiveness of CME.

  7. Observable Signatures of Energy Release in Braided Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, D. I. [University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Tiwari, S. K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, Geological Museum Østervoldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-03-10

    We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of energy release in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if energy release occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.

  8. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Carter, D.

    1999-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectroscopy

  9. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra

  10. High intensity TOF spectrometer for cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.; Abd El-Kawy, A.; Habib, N.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer developed specially for total neutron cross-section measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV and sample's temperature varying from the liquid nitrogen one and up to 500 0 K. The spectrometer is equipped by remote control unit, designed especially, in order to move the sample in and out of the beam during the experimental measurements. The spectrometer has proved to be useful for transmission measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV. It has a reasonable energy resolution (4.4%) and high effect to background ratio (11.1) at 5 MeV

  11. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Carter, D.

    1999-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world close-quote s highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectroscopy. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  12. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments

  13. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  14. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  15. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  16. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  17. PROJECTION EFFECTS IN CORONAL DIMMINGS AND ASSOCIATED EUV WAVE EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissauer, K.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Vanninathan, K. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Magdalenić, J., E-mail: karin.dissauer@uni-graz.at [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence-SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate the high-speed ( v > 1000 km s{sup −1}) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from NOAA active region 11283 on 2011 September 6 (SOL2011-09-06T22:12). This EUV wave features peculiar on-disk signatures; in particular, we observe an intermittent “disappearance” of the front for 120 s in Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA 171, 193, 211 Å data, whereas the 335 Å filter, sensitive to hotter plasmas ( T ∼ 2.5 MK), shows a continuous evolution of the wave front. The eruption was also accompanied by localized coronal dimming regions. We exploit the multi-point quadrature position of SDO and STEREO-A , to make a thorough analysis of the EUV wave evolution, with respect to its kinematics and amplitude evolution and reconstruct the SDO line-of-sight (LOS) direction of the identified coronal dimming regions in STEREO-A . We show that the observed intensities of the dimming regions in SDO /AIA depend on the structures that are lying along their LOS and are the combination of their individual intensities, e.g., the expanding CME body, the enhanced EUV wave, and the CME front. In this context, we conclude that the intermittent disappearance of the EUV wave in the AIA 171, 193, and 211 Å filters, which are channels sensitive to plasma with temperatures below ∼2 MK is also caused by such LOS integration effects. These observations clearly demonstrate that single-view image data provide us with limited insight to correctly interpret coronal features.

  18. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  19. Feasibility of high-intensity training in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Sørensen, E D; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high......-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response...... to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Design: We used data from the EFFORT Asthma Study. Of the 36 patients randomized to the 8-week exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity training three times per week, 29 patients (45...

  20. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  2. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.

  3. Image-based reconstruction of the Newtonian dynamics of solar coronal ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Thompson, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new methodology for analyzing rising and falling dynamics of unstable coronal material as represented by high-cadence SDO AIA images. The technique involves an adaptive spatiotemporal tracking of propagating intensity gradients and their characterization in terms of time-evolving areas swept out by the position vector originated from the Sun disk center. The measured values of the areal velocity and acceleration are used to obtain quantitative information on the angular momentum and acceleration along the paths of the rising and falling coronal plasma. In the absence of other forces, solar gravitation results in purely ballistic motions consistent with the Kepler's second law; non-central forces such as the Lorentz force introduce non-zero torques resulting in more complex motions. The developed algorithms enable direct evaluation of the line-of-sight component of the net torque applied to a unit mass of the ejected coronal material which is proportional to the image-plane projection of the observed areal acceleration. The current implementation of the method cannot reliably distinguish torque modulations caused by the coronal force field from those imposed by abrupt changes of plasma mass density and nontrivial projection effects. However, it can provide valid observational constraints on the evolution of large-scale unstable magnetic topologies driving major solar-coronal eruptions as demonstrated in the related talk by B. Thompson et al.

  4. Pulsed system for obtaining microdosimetric data with high intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.; Hiebert, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of heavy particle accelerators for radiation therapy requires high intensity beams in order to produce useful dose rates. The 800-MeV proton beam at LAMPF passes through different production targets to generate secondary pion beams. Conventional microdosimetric techniques are not applicable under these conditions because exceedingly high count rates result in detector damage, gas breakdown, and saturation effects in the electronics. We describe a new microdosimetric system developed at the Pion Biomedical Channel of LAMPF. The accelerator provides a variable low intensity pulse once every ten high intensity macropulses. The voltage on the detector is pulsed in coincidence with the low intensity pulse so that we were able to operate the detector under optimum data-taking conditions. A low noise two-stage preamplifier was built in connection with the pulsed mode operation. A comparison is made between data obtained in pulsed (high intensity beam) and unpulsed (low intensity beam) modes. The spectra obtained by the two methods agree within the experimental uncertainties

  5. High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-10

    intensity as the weighting function. The full refractive index associated with the laser plasma interaction having a parabolic density variation ...radiation in turn enhances the electron density wave further amplifying the radiation. Considering spatial variations in the z direction only the FEL...effL/ at the entrance to the wiggler where effL is the effective interaction length. This requirement can be expressed by the following inequality

  6. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  7. Cosmic ray nucleonic intensity in low-amplitude days during the passage of high-speed solar wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.; Mishra, R.K.; Tiwari, S.; or rm_jbp@yahoo.co.in

    2008-01-01

    One of the most striking features of solar wind is its organization into high- and low- speed streams. It is now well established that the passage over the Earth of high-speed solar wind streams leads to geomagnetic disturbances. The high-speed plasma streams are thus a key element in the complex chain of events that link geomagnetic activity to the solar activity and are therefore of great interest to the solar terrestrial physics. Two types of high-speed solar wind streams - coronal-hole-associated (or corotating) and flare-generated - were studied based on magnetic field and solar wind plasma parameters. In the work, the dependence was obtained for cosmic ray (CR) depressions due to high-speed solar wind streams during low-amplitude days. The CR nucleonic intensity data were subjected to the superposed epoch analysis with respect to the start time of high-speed solar wind streams. It was found that streams of both types produce significant deviations in the CR intensity during low-amplitude anisotropic wave train events. At the onset of such streams the CR intensity reaches its minimum during low-amplitude events and then increases statistically. (Authors)

  8. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  9. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  10. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  11. Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, L A; Bailey, M R; Kaczkowski, P; McAteer, J A; Pishchalnikov, Y A; Sapozhnikov, O A

    2004-01-01

    In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data

  12. Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico

    2018-04-01

    The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.

  13. A statistical study of high coronal densities from X-ray line-ratios of Mg XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray line-ratio density diagnostic was applied to 50 Mg XI spectra of flaring active regions on the sun recorded by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the SMM. The plasma density is derived from R, the flux ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines of the He-like ion, Mg XI. The R ratio for Mg XI is only density sensitive when the electron density exceeds a critical value (about 10 to the 12th/cu cm), the low-density limit (LDL). This theoretical value of the low-density limit is uncertain as it depends on complex atomic theory. Reported coronal densities above 10 to the 12th/cu cm are uncommon. In this study, the distribution of R ratio values about the LDL is estimated and the empirical values are derived for the 1st and 2nd moments of this distribution from 50 Mg XI spectra. From these derived parameters, the percentage of observations is derived which indicated densities above this limit.

  14. The Earth's passage of the April 11, 1997 coronal ejecta: geomagnetic field fluctuations at high and low latitude during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at an Antarctic (Terra Nova Bay and a low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy station during the Earth's passage of a coronal ejecta on April 11, 1997 shows that major solar wind pressure variations were followed at both stations by a high fluctuation level. During northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and when Terra Nova Bay is close to the local geomagnetic noon, coherent fluctuations, at the same frequency (3.6 mHz and with polarization characteristics indicating an antisunward propagation, were observed simultaneously at the two stations. An analysis of simultaneous measurements from geosynchronous satellites shows evidence for pulsations at approximately the same frequencies also in the magnetospheric field. The observed waves might then be interpreted as oscillation modes, triggered by an external stimulation, extending to a major portion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  15. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  16. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  17. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 {pi} mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  18. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 π mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  19. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Einaudi, G. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, I. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F. [Advanced Heliophysics, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Velli, M., E-mail: rdahlbur@lcp.nrl.navy.mil [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.

  1. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  2. DARK JETS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Peter R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    A new solar feature termed a dark jet is identified from observations of an extended solar coronal hole that was continuously monitored for over 44 hr by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft in 2011 February 8–10 as part of Hinode Operation Plan No. 177 (HOP 177). Line of sight (LOS) velocity maps derived from the coronal Fe xii λ195.12 emission line, formed at 1.5 MK, revealed a number of large-scale, jet-like structures that showed significant blueshifts. The structures had either weak or no intensity signal in 193 Å filter images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, suggesting that the jets are essentially invisible to imaging instruments. The dark jets are rooted in bright points and occur both within the coronal hole and at the quiet Sun–coronal hole boundary. They exhibit a wide range of shapes, from narrow columns to fan-shaped structures, and sometimes multiple jets are seen close together. A detailed study of one dark jet showed LOS speeds increasing along the jet axis from 52 to 107 km s{sup −1} and a temperature of 1.2–1.3 MK. The low intensity of the jet was due either to a small filling factor of 2% or to a curtain-like morphology. From the HOP 177 sample, dark jets are as common as regular coronal hole jets, but their low intensity suggests a mass flux around two orders of magnitude lower.

  3. Half-integer resonance crossing in high-intensity rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the influence of space charge on the crossing of second-order resonances is presented and associated with the space-charge limit of high-intensity rings. Two-dimensional simulation studies are compared with envelope models, which agree in the finding of an increased intensity limit due to the coherent frequency shift. This result is also found for realistic bunched beams with multiturn injection painting. Characteristic features such as the influence of tune splitting, structure resonances, and the role of envelope instabilities are discussed in detail. The theoretical limits are found to be in good agreement with the performance of high-intensity proton machines.

  4. High signal intensity of fat on fast spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Yamazaki, Masaru; Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    The fast spin echo (FSE) technique of producing T 2 -weighted images in greatly reduced imaging times has recently been used for routine clinical study. FSE images show contrast that is very similar in most tissues to that of conventional SE images. However, fat shows a high signal intensity that is influenced by j-coupling and the magnetization transfer effect. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the higher signal intensity of fat is different among MRI systems and to examine the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer on the high signal intensity of fat on FSE. The contrast in signal intensity between fat and water was measured for various echo train lengths (ETL) with and without multislicing on FSE using a contrast phantom. Measurements were obtained with four different MRI systems. In addition, the effective T 2 values of fat were calculated for the above conditions. Results indicated that contrast for fat and water was reduced with increased ETL and by using multislicing and was different among the four MRI systems. The effective T 2 values of fat were extended for increased ETL and were not dependent on multislicing. They also differed among the four MRI systems. The extent of effective T 2 values was affected by j-coupling. In this study, it was indicated that the degree of the high signal intensity of fat on FSE differed for different MRI systems. In addition, the reasons for the high signal intensity of fat on FSE were related to the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer. (author)

  5. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties of CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles; observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results

  6. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  7. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  8. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  9. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  10. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  11. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  12. The high intensity approximation applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1980-08-01

    It is shown that the most commonly used high intensity approximations as applied to ionization by strong electromagnetic fields are related. The applicability of the steepest descent method in these approximations, and the relation between them and first-order perturbation theory, are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  14. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases

  15. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to power athletes and other individuals wishing to improve performance in ... effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance. It has been reported that ... high-intensity work performance.1,2,5,16,31,36 Such activities as resistance ...

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  17. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  18. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the

  19. Tolerable Beam Loss at High-Intensity Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, Oleg E.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.

    2000-01-01

    Tolerable beam losses are estimated for high-intensity ring accelerators with proton energy of 3 to 16 GeV. Dependence on beam energy, lattice and magnet geometry is studied via full Monte Carlo MARS14 simulations in lattice elements, shielding, tunnel and surrounding dirt with realistic geometry, materials and magnetic fields

  20. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  1. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  2. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  3. Nuclear diagnostics of high intensity laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.; Santala, M.I.K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Tatarakis, M.; Watts, I.; Wei, M.S.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Spencer, I.; Clarke, R.J.; Norreys, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear activation has been observed in materials exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions generated from high intensity laser-solid interactions (at focused intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 ). The energy spectrum of the protons is determined through the use of these nuclear activation techniques and is found to be consistent with other ion diagnostics. Heavy ion fusion reactions and large neutron fluxes from the (p, n) reactions were also observed. The reduction of proton emission and increase in heavy ion energy using heated targets was also observed

  4. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition open-quotes jumpclose quotes, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle

  5. Applications of super - high intensity lasers in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, R.; Hakola, A.; Santala, M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-plasma interactions arising when a super intense ultrashort laser pulse impinges a solid target creates intense partly collimated and energy resolved photons, high energy electron and protons and neutrons. In addition the plasma plume can generate huge magnetic and electric fields. Also ultra short X-ray pulses are created. We have participated in some of such experiments at Rutherford and Max-Planck Institute and assessed the applications of such kind as laser-driven accelerators. This paper discusses applications in nuclear engineering (neutron sources, isotope separation, fast ignition and transmutation, etc). In particular the potential for extreme time resolution and to partial energy resolution are assessed

  6. Study of coronal and interplanetary propagation of solar particles following the E450 solar flare on July 29, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.; Somogyi, A.J.; Kolesov, G.Ya.; Kurt, V.G.; Kuzhevskii, B.M.; Logachev, Yu.I.; Savenko, I.A.; Shestopalov, I.P.

    1977-01-01

    Intensity profiles of protons and electrons of various energies measured onboard the high-apogee Prognos-3 satellite are analysed as well as the energy balance between the various flare produced phenomena. The general behaviour of the solar particle event following the 3B flare at E45 0 can be well described in terms of a simple model which takes into account coronal diffusion with a leakage time and a Krimigis' type interplanetary diffusion. The results suggest an inverse dependence of coronal diffusion coefficient on rigidity. (author)

  7. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  8. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  9. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  10. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm-2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm-2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  11. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of π 0 in the neutral beam, are converted to e + e - pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator

  12. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-01-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various 192 Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from 192 Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable

  13. Calcium K-line network in coronal holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, K A [Hale Observatories, Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1977-05-01

    Microphotometry of calcium K-line photographs in the regions of polar coronal holes shows that the chromospheric network exterior to a hole has a slightly broader intensity distribution than that inside the hole itself, a fact which can be attributed to a greater number of bright network elements outside the hole. These bright elements presumably represent the enhanced network resulting from the dispersal of magnetic flux from old active regions, a hypothesis which is consistent with current ideas of coronal hole formation.

  14. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... One of the fundamental questions in solar physics is how the solar corona maintains its high temperature of several million Kelvin above photosphere with a temperature of 6000 K. Observations show that solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different ...

  15. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating S. R. Verma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar ...

  16. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Graz (Austria); Vennerstrom, Susanne [National Space Institute, DTU Space (Denmark); Vršnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb (Croatia); Heber, Bernd, E-mail: stefan.hofmeister@uni-graz.at [Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO /AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO /AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 ± 1.6 G, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 ± 16%. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38% (81%) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1% (10%) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths >50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc>0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.

  17. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  18. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10 25 W/cm 2 can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers

  19. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  20. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  1. A high intensity positron beam at the Brookhaven reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Lynn, K.G.; Roellig, L.O.; Mills, A.P. Jr.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a high intensity, low energy positron beam utilizing high specific activity /sup 64/Cu sources (870 Ci/g) produced in a reactor with high thermal neutron flux. Fast-to-slow moderation can be performed in a self moderation mode or with a transmission moderator. Slow positron rates up to 1.6 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s with a half life of 12.8 h are calculated. Up to 1.0 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s have been observed. New developments including a Ne moderator and an on-line isotope separation process are discussed. 21 refs., 9 figs

  2. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  3. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  4. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  5. Chrome tannage using high-intensity ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysalo, E; Marjoniemi, M; Kilpeläinen, M

    1997-04-01

    The process time in chrome tannage in leather making, using an elastic compression cycle followed by irradiation by high-intensity ultrasound, is quite short lasting only a few minutes, compared with a process time of several hours in modern chrome tannage. After ultrasonic irradiation, samples were basified in 17 h in chrome liquor at a pH of 4.0 and the shrinkage temperature was measured. The determination of the efficiency for the chrome liquor penetrating into the hides can be based on the steepness of the shrinkage temperature-processing time curve. An approximate value of 20 degrees C min(-1) can be evaluated for the initial slope of the curve when elastic compression and high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation is used, and a processing time of 2 min is required in chrome liquor (plus 17 h basification and 24 h storage time) to obtain leather stable to boiling. Usually, hides are kept in chrome liquor for 2 h.

  6. Entrepreneurship in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Patrizia V.; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    development of new enterprises in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors are analysed in relation to the educational and professional background of the entrepreneur/entrepreneurial team, as well as the personal and professional social networks of the entrepreneurs. The analysis is based on a theoretical...... framework combining theories of human and social capital. Secondary aspects addressed in the research project are questions of male vs. female entrepreneurship, internationalisation-globalisation, and business success/failure.......The paper investigates key factors influencing the establishment and early growth of high-tech and knowledge-intensive new firms in Denmark. Particular attention is paid to the human and social variables affecting the creation, survival, and growth of such firms. The establishment and subsequent...

  7. High-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A high-intensity subkilovolt x-ray calibration source utilizing proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements is described. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray beams. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. Methods of reducing spectral contamination due to hydrocarbon build-up on the target are discussed. Typical x-ray spectra (Cu-L, C-K and B-K) are shown

  8. A contemporary view of coronal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Clare E; De Moortel, Ineke

    2012-07-13

    Determining the heating mechanism (or mechanisms) that causes the outer atmosphere of the Sun, and many other stars, to reach temperatures orders of magnitude higher than their surface temperatures has long been a key problem. For decades, the problem has been known as the coronal heating problem, but it is now clear that 'coronal heating' cannot be treated or explained in isolation and that the heating of the whole solar atmosphere must be studied as a highly coupled system. The magnetic field of the star is known to play a key role, but, despite significant advancements in solar telescopes, computing power and much greater understanding of theoretical mechanisms, the question of which mechanism or mechanisms are the dominant supplier of energy to the chromosphere and corona is still open. Following substantial recent progress, we consider the most likely contenders and discuss the key factors that have made, and still make, determining the actual (coronal) heating mechanism (or mechanisms) so difficult.

  9. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  10. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUCCIO, A.; D' IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-09-12

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  12. Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Ducimetière, Laurent; Fowler, Tony; Kawakubo, Tadamichi; Mertens, Volker; Sandberg, Jon; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  13. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  14. Gaussian representation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E; Myers, Matthew R

    2007-11-01

    A method for fast numerical simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams is derived. The method is based on the frequency-domain representation of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and assumes for each harmonic a Gaussian transverse pressure distribution at all distances from the transducer face. The beamwidths of the harmonics are constrained to vary inversely with the square root of the harmonic number, and as such this method may be viewed as an extension of a quasilinear approximation. The technique is capable of determining pressure or intensity fields of moderately nonlinear high-intensity focused ultrasound beams in water or biological tissue, usually requiring less than a minute of computer time on a modern workstation. Moreover, this method is particularly well suited to high-gain simulations since, unlike traditional finite-difference methods, it is not subject to resolution limitations in the transverse direction. Results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with numerical solutions of the full KZK equation in both tissue and water for moderately nonlinear beams.

  15. Solar Coronal Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Saba, Julia; Strong, Keith; Harvey, Karen

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is to study the physics of the solar corona through the analysis of the EUV and UV data produced by two flights (12 May 1992 and 25 April 1994) of the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment (SPDE) sounding rocket payload, in combination with Yohkoh and ground-based data. Each rocket flight produced both spectral and imaging data. These joint datasets are useful for understanding the physical state of various features in the solar atmosphere at different heights ranging from the photosphere to the corona at the time of the, rocket flights, which took place during the declining phase of a solar cycle, 2-4 years before the minimum. The investigation is narrowly focused on comparing the physics of small- and medium-scale strong-field structures with that of large-scale, weak fields. As we close th is investigation, we have to recall that our present position in the understanding of basic solar physics problems (such as coronal heating) is much different from that in 1995 (when we proposed this investigation), due largely to the great success of SOHO and TRACE. In other words, several topics and techniques we proposed can now be better realized with data from these missions. For this reason, at some point of our work, we started concentrating on the 1992 data, which are more unique and have more supporting data. As a result, we discontinued the investigation on small-scale structures, i.e., bright points, since high-resolution TRACE images have addressed more important physics than SPDE EUV images could do. In the final year, we still spent long time calibrating the 1992 data. The work was complicated because of the old-fashioned film, which had problems not encountered with more modern CCD detectors. After our considerable effort on calibration, we were able to focus on several scientific topics, relying heavily on the SPDE UV images. They include the relation between filaments and filament channels, the identification of hot

  16. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  17. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  18. Solar wind acceleration in coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Past attempts to explain the large solar wind velocities in high speed streams by theoretical models of the expansion have invoked either extended nonthermal heating of the corona, heat flux inhibition, or direct addition of momentum to the expanding coronal plasma. Several workers have shown that inhibiting the heat flux at low coronal densities is probably not adequate to explain quantitatively the observed plasma velocities in high speed streams. It stressed that, in order to account for both these large plasma velocities and the low densities found in coronal holes (from which most high speed streams are believed to emanate), extended heating by itself will not suffice. One needs a nonthermal mechanism to provide the bulk acceleration of the high wind plasma close to the sun, and the most likely candidate at present is direct addition of the momentum carried by outward-propagating waves to the expanding corona. Some form of momentum addition appears to be absolutely necessary if one hopes to build quantitatively self-consistent models of coronal holes and high speed solar wind streams

  19. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  20. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  1. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  2. Performance of GEM detectors in high intensity particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Ketzer, B; Deutel, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Buzulutskov, A F; Shekhtman, L I; Sokolov, A; Tatarinov, A A; Vasilev, A; Kappler, S; Schulte, E C

    2001-01-01

    We describe extensive tests of Double GEM and Triple GEM detectors, including full size prototypes for the COMPASS experiment, exposed to high intensity muon, proton and pion beams at the Paul~Scherrer Institute and at CERN. The measurements aim at detecting problems possible under these operation conditions, the main concern being the occurrence of discharges induced by beam particles. Results on the dependence of the probability for induced discharges on the experimental environment are presented and discussed. Implications for the application of GEM~detectors in experiments at high luminosity colliders are illustrated.

  3. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  4. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  5. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  6. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  7. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  8. High intensity region segmentation in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F; Filipuzzi, M; Graffigna, J P; Isoardi, R; Noceti, M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathologies are often manifest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as hyperintense or bright regions as compared to normal tissue. It is of particular interest to develop an algorithm to detect, identify and define those Regions of Interest (ROI) when analyzing MRI studies, particularly for lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to analyze those parameters which optimize segmentation of the areas of interest. To establish which areas should be considered as hyperintense regions, we developed a database (DB), with studies of patients diagnosed with MS. This disease causes axonal demyelination and it is expressed as bright regions in PD, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Thus, with more than 4300 hyperintense regions validated by an expert physician, an algorithm was developed to detect such spots, approximating the results the expert obtained. Alongside these hyperintense lesion regions, it also detected bone regions with high intensity levels, similar to the intensity of the lesions, but with other features that allow a good differentiation.The algorithm will then detect ROIs with similar intensity levels and performs classification through data mining techniques

  9. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  10. Summary for the WG4: physics with high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    There are many physics opportunities in laser-beam interactions and innovations in the laser- and the beam technologies expand them or even open new window in the field. Therefore, physics with high intense lasers is an attractive application of nanobeam technologies. The topics in the working group 4 covers fundamental physics based on technique related with nanobeam development aiming to encourage communication between physics and accelerator communities. Due to the limited time for the preparation, we did not try comprehensive coverage of the field but invited topics which are planed near future or can be studied at the ILC test facilities. (author)

  11. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  12. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 109-113 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-intensity laser * implantation * material modification Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  13. Overview of high intensity proton accelerator facility, J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The J-PARC project of high intensity proton accelerator research complex, conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK, has been completed with demonstration of all beam productions in 2009 as the facility construction phase, and the operation started to offer the secondary beams of neutron, muon, kaon, and neutrino, to the advanced scientific experimental research aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. This text describes the overview of the J-PARC present status with emphasis of a performance toward to 1MW power as user facilities. (author)

  14. Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) by Bade et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially no diffe......Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially...

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  17. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  18. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    prominences, have a significantly higher rate of occurrence in the vicinity of coronal .... coronal holes due to the birth of new holes or the growth of existing holes. .... Statistics of newly formed coronal hole areas (NFOCHA) associated with ...

  19. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  20. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  1. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Syresin, E.M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5x10 9 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production

  2. ORBIT : BEAM DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH - INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK the introduction of a treatment magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  3. Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.; Symon, K.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    1994-01-01

    The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming

  4. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  5. Application of a high-density gas laser target to the physics of x-ray lasers and coronal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronko, J.G.; Kohler, D.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment has been proposed to investigate a photopumped x-ray laser approach using a novel, high-density, laser heated supersonic gas jet plasma to prepare the lasant plasma. The scheme uses the He- like sodium 1.10027 nm line to pump the He-like neon 1s-4p transition at 1.10003 nm with the lasing transitions between the n=4 to n=2,3 states and the n=3 to n=2 state at 5.8 nm, 23.0 nm, and 8.2 nm, respectively. The experiment had been proposed in 1990 and funding began Jan. 1991; however circumstances made it impossible to pursue the research over the past 5 years, and it was decided not to pursue the research any further

  6. Overview of High Intensity Linac Programs in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a boost in the support by the European Union (EU) of accelerator research in Europe. Provided they coordinate their efforts and define common goals and strategies, laboratories and institutions from the member states can receive a financial support reaching 50% of the total project cost. In the field of High Intensity Linacs, the EU has already supported the EURISOL initiative for nuclear physics, which this year is applying for funding of a Design Study, and the development of linacs for Waste Transmutation. More recently, an initiative for high-energy physics has been approved, which includes a programme for the development of pulsed linac technologies. The coordination and synergy imposed by the EU rules increase the benefit of the allocated resources. Combined with the ongoing internal projects in the partner laboratories, these European initiatives represent a strong effort focussed towards the development of linac technologies. This paper summarises the requests from the various E...

  7. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered.

  8. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  9. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ 2 , where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  10. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  11. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  12. Relativistic Electron Response to the Combined Magnetospheric Impact of a Coronal Mass Ejection Overlapping with a High-Speed Stream: Van Allen Probes Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, W.; Fennell, J. F.; Zheng, Y.; Richardson, I. G.; Jones, A.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    During early November 2013, the magnetosphere experienced concurrent driving by a coronal mass ejection (CME) during an ongoing high-speed stream (HSS) event. The relativistic electron response to these two kinds of drivers, i.e., HSS and CME, is typically different, with the former often leading to a slower buildup of electrons at larger radial distances, while the latter energizing electrons rapidly with flux enhancements occurring closer to the Earth. We present a detailed analysis of the relativistic electron response including radial profiles of phase space density as observed by both Magnetic Electron and Ion Sensor (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope instruments on the Van Allen Probes mission. Data from the MagEIS instrument establish the behavior of lower energy (electrons which span both intermediary and seed populations during electron energization. Measurements characterizing the plasma waves and magnetospheric electric and magnetic fields during this period are obtained by the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science instrument on board Van Allen Probes, Search Coil Magnetometer and Flux Gate Magnetometer instruments on board Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, and the low-altitude Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites. These observations suggest that during this time period, both radial transport and local in situ processes are involved in the energization of electrons. The energization attributable to radial diffusion is most clearly evident for the lower energy (electrons, while the effects of in situ energization by interaction of chorus waves are prominent in the higher-energy electrons.

  13. High-Intensity Events in International Women's Team Handball Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2017-01-01

    International women's team handball is a physically demanding sport and is intermittent in nature. The aim of the study was to profile high-intensity events (HIEs) in international women's team handball matches with regard to playing positions. Twenty female national-team handball players were equipped with inertial movement units (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) in 9 official international matches. Players were categorized in 4 different playing positions: backs, wings, pivots, and goalkeepers (GKs). PlayerLoad™, accelerations (Acc), changes of direction (CoD), decelerations (Dec), and the sum of the latter 3, HIEs, were extracted from raw-data files using the manufacturer's software. All Acc, Dec, CoD, and HIEs >2.5 m/s were included. Data were log-transformed and differences were standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with effect-size statistics. Mean numbers of events were 0.7 ± 0.4 Acc/min, 2.3 ± 0.9 Dec/min, and 1.0 ± 0.4 CoD/min. Substantial differences between playing positions, ranging from small to very large, were found in the 3 parameters. Backs showed a most likely greater frequency for HIE/min (5.0 ± 1.1 HIE/min) than all other playing positions. Differences between playing positions were also apparent in PlayerLoad/min. HIEs in international women's team handball are position specific, and the overall intensity depends on the positional role within a team. Specific HIE and intensity profiles from match play provide useful information for a better understanding of the overall game demands and for each playing position.

  14. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1997-01-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs

  16. Critical Magnetic Field Strengths for Unipolar Solar Coronal Plumes In Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, Ellis; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Coronal plumes are bright magnetic funnels that are found in quiet regions and coronal holes that extend high into the solar corona whose lifetimes can last from hours to days. The heating processes that make plumes bright involve the magnetic field at the base of the plume, but their intricacies remain mysterious. Raouafi et al. (2014) infer from observation that plume heating is a consequence of magnetic reconnection at the base, whereas Wang et al. (2016) infer that plume heating is a result of convergence of the magnetic flux at the plume's base, or base flux. Both papers suggest that the base flux in their plumes is of mixed polarity, but do not quantitatively measure the base flux or consider whether a critical magnetic field strength is required for plume production. To investigate the magnetic origins of plume heating, we track plume luminosity in the 171 Å wavelength as well as the abundance and strength of the base flux over the lifetimes of six unipolar coronal plumes. Of these, three are in coronal holes and three are in quiet regions. For this sample, we find that plume heating is triggered when convergence of the base flux surpasses a field strength of approximately 300 - 500 Gauss, and that the luminosity of both quiet region and coronal hole plumes respond similarly to the strength of the magnetic field in the base.

  17. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  18. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  19. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  20. High intensity laser interactions with sub-micron droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-density source of liquid ethanol droplets has been developed, characterised and used in laser interaction studies for the first time. Mie Scattering and attenuation measurements show that droplets with a radius of (0.5 ± 0.1) μm and atomic densities of 10 19 atoms/cm 3 can be produced, bridging the gap between clusters and macroscopic solids. Lower density (10 16 cm -3 ) sprays can also be produced and these are electrostatically split into smaller droplets with a radius of (0.3 ± 0.1) μm. This work has been accepted for publication in Review of Scientific Instruments. A range of high intensity interaction experiments have been carried out with this unique sub-micron source. The absolute yield of keV x-rays, generated using 527 nm, 2 ps pulses focused to ∼10 17 W/cm 2 , was measured for the first time. ∼7 μJ of x-rays with photon energies above 1 keV were produced, comparable to yields obtained from much higher Z Xenon clusters. At intensities ≤10 16 W/cm 2 the yield from droplets exceeds that from solid targets of similar Z. The droplet medium is debris free and self-renewing, providing a suitable x-ray source for lithographic techniques. Due to the spacing between the droplets, it was expected that the droplet plasma temperature would exceed that of a solid target plasma, which is typically limited by rapid heat conduction to <1 keV. Analysis of the x-ray data shows this to be true with a mean droplet plasma temperature of (2 ± 0.8) keV, and a number of measurements exceeding 5 keV (to appear in Applied Physics Letters). The absorption of high intensity laser pulses in the dense spray has been measured for the first time and this was found to be wavelength and polarisation independent and in excess of 60%. These first interaction measurements clearly indicate that there are significant differences between the laser heating of droplet, solid and cluster targets. (author)

  1. Coronal heating via nanoflares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, G.; Kopp, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the coronae of single late-type main sequence stars represent the radiative output from a large number of tiny energy release events, the so-called nanoflares. Although this suggestion is attractive and order of magnitude estimates of the physical parameters involved in the process are consistent with available data, nanoflares have not yet been observed and theoretical descriptions of these phenomena are still very crude. In this paper we examine the temporal behavior of a magnetic flux tube subject to the repeated occurrence of energy release events, randomly distributed in time, and we show that an originally empty cool loop may, in fact, reach typical coronal density and temperature values via nanoflare heating. By choosing physical parameters appropriate to solar conditions we also explore the possibilities for observationally detecting nanoflares. Although the Sun is the only star where nanoflares might be observed, present instrumentation appears to be inadequate for this purpose

  2. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  3. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  4. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  5. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  6. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  7. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  8. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  9. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  10. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Harris, J.L.; Fuller, M.J.; Cremer, J.T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J.W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  11. What IAPT CBT High-Intensity Trainees Do After Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liness, Sheena; Lea, Susan; Nestler, Steffen; Parker, Hannah; Clark, David M

    2017-01-01

    The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK. Past trainees (n = 212) across 6 cohorts (2008-2014 intakes) were contacted and invited to participate in a follow-up survey. A response rate of 92.5% (n = 196) was achieved. The vast majority of IAPT trainees continue to work in IAPT services posttraining (79%) and to practise CBT as their main therapy modality (94%); 61% have become CBT supervisors. A minority (23%) have progressed to other senior roles in the services. Shortcomings are reported in the use of out-of-office CBT interventions, the use of disorder-specific outcome measures and therapy recordings to inform therapy and supervision. Past trainees stay working in IAPT services and continue to use CBT methods taught on the course. Some NICE recommended treatment procedures that are likely to facilitate patients' recovery are not being routinely implemented across IAPT services. The results have implications for the continued roll out of the IAPT programme, and other future large scale training initiatives.

  12. Material studies for pulsed high-intensity proton beam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W-T.; McDonald, K.; Yoshimura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intense beams for muon colliders and neutrino facilities require high-performance target stations of 1-4 MW proton beams. The physics requirements for such a system push the envelope of our current knowledge as to how materials behave under high-power beams for both short and long exposure. The success of an adopted scheme that generates, captures and guides secondary particles depends on the useful life expectancy of this critical system. This paper presents an overview of what has been achieved during the various phases of the experimental effort including a tentative plan to continue the effort by expanding the material matrix. The first phase of the project was to study the changes after irradiation in mechanical properties and specially in thermal expansion coefficient of various materials. During phase-I the study attention was primarily focused on Super-invar and in a lesser degree on Inconel-718. Invar is a metal alloy which predominantly consists of 62% Fe, 32% Ni and 5% Co. It is showed that this metal, whose non-irradiated properties held such promise, can only be considered a serious target candidate for an intense proton beam only if one can anneal the atomic displacements followed by the appropriate heat treatment to restore its favorable expansion coefficient. New materials that have been developed for various industrial needs by optimizing key properties, might be of value for the accelerator community. These materials like carbon-carbon composites, titanium alloys, the Toyota 'gum metal', the Vascomax material and the AlBeMet alloy will be explored and tested in the second phase of the project. (A.C.)

  13. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  14. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field at the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.

  15. Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1997-01-01

    During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that

  16. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO/AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic fie...

  17. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn; Alexander, Caroline; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  18. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  19. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  20. Density Fluctuations in a Polar Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; D’Huys, Elke; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2018-06-01

    We have measured the root-mean-square (rms) amplitude of intensity fluctuations, ΔI, in plume and interplume regions of a polar coronal hole. These intensity fluctuations correspond to density fluctuations. Using data from the Sun Watcher using the Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing on the Project for Onboard Autonomy (Proba2), our results extend up to a height of about 1.35 R ⊙. One advantage of the rms analysis is that it does not rely on a detailed evaluation of the power spectrum, which is limited by noise levels to low heights in the corona. The rms approach can be performed up to larger heights where the noise level is greater, provided that the noise itself can be quantified. At low heights, both the absolute ΔI, and the amplitude relative to the mean intensity, ΔI/I, decrease with height. However, starting at about 1.2 R ⊙, ΔI/I increases, reaching 20%–40% by 1.35 R ⊙. This corresponds to density fluctuations of Δn e/n e ≈ 10%–20%. The increasing relative amplitude implies that the density fluctuations are generated in the corona itself. One possibility is that the density fluctuations are generated by an instability of Alfvén waves. This generation mechanism is consistent with some theoretical models and with observations of Alfvén wave amplitudes in coronal holes. Although we find that the energy of the observed density fluctuations is small, these fluctuations are likely to play an important indirect role in coronal heating by promoting the reflection of Alfvén waves and driving turbulence.

  1. Coronal Fine Structure in Dynamic Events Observed by Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region 11520. We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11 s (two Hi-C frames) and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the photon and readout noise. We compare the Hi-C events with those determined from AIA. We find that HI-C detects shorter and smaller events than AIA. We also find that the intensity increase in the Hi-C events is approx. 3 times greater than the intensity increase in the AIA events we conclude the events are related to linear sub-structure that is unresolved by AIA

  2. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He + and mixed p, H 2+ , H 3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  3. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  4. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  5. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  6. Pulmonary Vein Isolation by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Antz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI using radiofrequency current (RFC ablation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. The shortcomings of the RFC technology (technically challenging, long procedure times, complications steadily kindle the interest in new energy sources and catheter designs. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has the ability to precisely focus ultrasound waves in a defined area with a high energy density. HIFU balloon catheters (BC positioned at the PV ostia appear to be an ideal tool to transmit the ablation energy in a circumferential manner to the PV ostia and may therefore bear substantial advantage over conventional ablation catheters in PVI procedures. In clinical trials the HIFU BC has shown promising success rates similar to RFC catheter ablation for PVI in patients with AF. However, procedure times are still long and serious complications have been observed. Therefore, it may be a valuable alternative to the conventional techniques in selected patients but further clinical trials have to be initiated.

  7. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation around the tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jun Yang; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been emerging as an effective and noninvasive modality in cancer treatment with very promising clinical results. However, a small vessel in the focal region could be ruptured, which is an important concern for the safety of HIFU ablation. In this study, lesion formation in the polyacrylamide gel phantom embedded with different tubing (inner diameters of 0.76 mm and 3 mm) at varied flow speeds (17-339 cm/s) by HIFU ablation was photographically recorded. Produced lesions have decreased length (~30%) but slightly increased width (~6%) in comparison to that without the embedded tubing. Meanwhile, bubble activities during the exposures were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) at the varied pulse repetition frequency (PRF, 10-30 Hz) and duty cycle (DC, 10%-20%) of the HIFU bursts. High DC and low flow speed were found to produce stronger bubble cavitation whereas no significant influence of the PRF. In addition, high-speed photography illustrated that the rupture of tubing was produced consistently after the first HIFU burst within 20 ms and then multiple bubbles would penetrate into the intraluminal space of tubing through the rupture site by the acoustic radiation force. Alignment of HIFU focus to the anterior surface, middle, and posterior surface of tubing led to different characteristics of vessel rupture and bubble introduction. In summary, HIFU-induced vessel rupture is possible as shown in this phantom study; produced lesion sizes and shapes are dependent on the focus alignment to the tubing, flow speed, and tubing properties; and bubble cavitation and the formation liquid jet may be one of the major mechanisms of tubing rupture as shown in the high-speed photography.

  9. ANALYSIS OF CORONAL RAIN OBSERVED BY IRIS , HINODE /SOT, AND SDO /AIA: TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS, KINEMATICS, AND THERMAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohutova, P.; Verwichte, E., E-mail: p.kohutova@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-10

    Coronal rain composed of cool plasma condensations falling from coronal heights along magnetic field lines is a phenomenon occurring mainly in active region coronal loops. Recent high-resolution observations have shown that coronal rain is much more common than previously thought, suggesting its important role in the chromosphere-corona mass cycle. We present the analysis of MHD oscillations and kinematics of the coronal rain observed in chromospheric and transition region lines by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) , the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), and the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). Two different regimes of transverse oscillations traced by the rain are detected: small-scale persistent oscillations driven by a continuously operating process and localized large-scale oscillations excited by a transient mechanism. The plasma condensations are found to move with speeds ranging from few km s{sup −1} up to 180 km s{sup −1} and with accelerations largely below the free-fall rate, likely explained by pressure effects and the ponderomotive force resulting from the loop oscillations. The observed evolution of the emission in individual SDO /AIA bandpasses is found to exhibit clear signatures of a gradual cooling of the plasma at the loop top. We determine the temperature evolution of the coronal loop plasma using regularized inversion to recover the differential emission measure (DEM) and by forward modeling the emission intensities in the SDO /AIA bandpasses using a two-component synthetic DEM model. The inferred evolution of the temperature and density of the plasma near the apex is consistent with the limit cycle model and suggests the loop is going through a sequence of periodically repeating heating-condensation cycles.

  10. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections detected by HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Alejandro

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC’s primary purpose is the study of both: galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. HAWC will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors (WCD), instrumented with 1200 photo-multipliers. The Data taking has already started while construction continues, with the completion projected for late 2014. The HAWC counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site (˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush Decreases. In this paper, we present a description of the instrument and its response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and other solar wind large scale structures, observed during the August-December 2013 period.

  11. Rainfall intensity characteristics at coastal and high altitude stations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a given amount of rain occurs is important because heavier rainfall leads to greater runoff, greater soil erosion and less infiltration into the water table. A knowledge of rainfall intensity therefore becomes. Keywords. Rainfall intensity; Kerala; cumulative distribution. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 116, No. 5, October 2007, pp. 451–463.

  12. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  13. Interpretation of coronal synoptic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, R.H.; Fisher, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction techniques used to determine coronal density distributions from synoptic data are complicated and time consuming to employ. Current techniques also assume time invariant structures and thus mix both temporal and spatial variations present in the coronal data. The observed distribution of polarized brightness, pB, and brightness, B, of coronal features observed either at eclipses or with coronagraphs depends upon both the three-dimensional distribution of electron density within the structure and the location of the feature with respect to the plane-of-the-sky. By theoretically studying the signature of various coronal structures as they would appear during a limb transit, it is possible to recognize these patterns in real synoptic data as well as estimate temporal evolutionary effects

  14. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  15. Evidence of thermal conduction depression in hot coronal loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Sun, Xudong; Provornikova, Elena; Davila, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Slow magnetoacoustic waves were first detected in hot (>6 MK) flare loops by the SOHO/SUMER spectrometer as Doppler shift oscillations in Fe XIX and Fe XXI lines. These oscillations are identified as standing slow-mode waves because the estimated phase speeds are close to the sound speed in the loop and some cases show a quarter period phase shift between velocity and intensity oscillations. The observed very rapid excitation and damping of standing slow mode waves have been studied by many authors using theories and numerical simulations, however, the exact mechanisms remain not well understood. Recently, flare-induced longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot post-flare loops have been detected by SDO/AIA. These oscillations have the similar physical properties as SUMER loop oscillations, and have been interpreted as the slow-mode waves. The multi-wavelength AIA observations with high spatio-temporal resolution and wide temperature coverage allow us to explore the wave excitation and damping mechanisms with an unprecedented detail to develope new coronal seismology. In this paper, we present accurate measurements of the effective adiabatic index (γeff) in the hot plasma from the electron temperature and density wave signals of a flare-induced longitudinal wave event using SDO/AIA data. Our results strikingly and clearly reveal that thermal conduction is highly depressed in hot (˜10 MK) post-flare loops and suggest that the compressive viscosity is the dominant wave damping mechanism which allows determination of the viscosity coefficient from the observables by coronal seismology. This new finding challenges our current understanding of thermal energy transport in solar and stellar flares, and may provide an alternative explanation of long-duration events and enhance our understand of coronal heating mechanism. We will discuss our results based on non-ideal MHD theory and simulations. We will also discuss the flare trigger mechanism based on magnetic topology

  16. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand

  17. High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Nes, Bjarne Martens; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Engstrøm, Morten; Støylen, Asbjørn; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Three hours per week of vigorous physical activity is found to be associated with reduced odds of sleep-disordered breathing. To investigate whether 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) reduced the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obese subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In a prospective randomised controlled exercise study, 30 (body mass index 37±6 kg/m 2 , age 51±9 years) patients with sleep apnoea (AHI 41.5±25.3 events/hour) were randomised 1:1 to control or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min of treadmill running or walking at 90%-95% of maximal heart rate two times per week). In the HIIT group, the AHI was reduced by 7.5±11.6 events/hour (within-group pHIIT improved the AHI and self-reported daytime sleepiness in subjects with obese sleep apnoea without any change in the desaturation index and body weight.

  18. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP( ) summary.html

  19. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  20. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  1. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  2. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  3. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  4. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  5. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  6. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  7. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  8. [Development of electroforming apparatus for coronal restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Sawada, T; Ukiya, M

    1989-03-01

    As dental technologies become highly developed, techniques have been more diversified. From as aspect of prosthodontic practice, both esthetic and functional requirements are emphasized for coronal restoration and consequently, these should be considered in the routine procedure. In fabrication of coronal restorations, metal, porcelain and resin are commonly used, and there exists the various disadvantages for metal cast method due to complicated processes by using different dental materials. Therefore, an electroforming apparatus was developed by us to replace the conventional procedure by a cathode rotary system. It was applied for coronal restorations to allow an electroforming directly on a working model. An experiment was successfully conducted to apply for a veneer crown on abutment tooth of upper central incisor on plaster model. The results were obtained as follows, 1. It was become possible to construct a metal framework by the electroforming. 2. Metal framework can be constructed on the same working model without a duplication of it. 3. The combined system for cathode rotation and liquid circulation could shorten the electroposition time, and allows a high current density extending to 50 A/dm2.

  9. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James

    2009-01-01

    The growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has driven a need for reliable, reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. We have previously presented data on a reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features for improved bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility [Proc. 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1739-1742]. We now report on several design improvements which have increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, and potentially reduced the cost of implementation. For the scattering element, we now use an artificial sapphire material to provide a more uniform radiating surface. The receiver is a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10 cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. In the new design, a specialized backing material provides the stiffness required to maintain structural stability, while at the same time providing both electrical shielding and ultrasonic absorption. Compared with the previous version, the new receiver design has improved the noise performance by 8-12 dB; the new scattering sphere has reduced the scattering loss by another 14 dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -298 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa. The design trade-off still involves receiver sensitivity with effective spot size, and signal distortion from the scatter structure. However, the reduced cost and improved repeatability of the new scatter approach makes the overall design more robust for routine waveform measurements of HIFU systems.

  10. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  11. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  12. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  13. The High Luminosity Challenge: potential and limitations of High Intensity High Brightness in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Benedetto, E; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Hanke, K; Iadarola, G; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Sterbini, G; Todesco, E; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and high-brightness beams are key ingredients to maximize the LHC integrated luminosity and to exploit its full potential. This contribution describes the optimization of beam and machine parameters to maximize the integrated luminosity as seen by the LHC experiments, by taking into account the expected intensity and brightness reach of LHC itself and its injector chain as well as the capabilities of the detectors for next run and foreseen upgrade scenarios.

  14. Automated Identification of Coronal Holes from Synoptic EUV Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Amr; Asikainen, Timo; Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2018-04-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) are regions of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona and the source of the fast solar wind. Understanding the evolution of coronal holes is critical for solar magnetism as well as for accurate space weather forecasts. We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) synoptic maps at three wavelengths (195 Å/193 Å, 171 Å and 304 Å) measured by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) instruments. The two datasets are first homogenized by scaling the SDO/AIA data to the SOHO/EIT level by means of histogram equalization. We then develop a novel automated method to identify CHs from these homogenized maps by determining the intensity threshold of CH regions separately for each synoptic map. This is done by identifying the best location and size of an image segment, which optimally contains portions of coronal holes and the surrounding quiet Sun allowing us to detect the momentary intensity threshold. Our method is thus able to adjust itself to the changing scale size of coronal holes and to temporally varying intensities. To make full use of the information in the three wavelengths we construct a composite CH distribution, which is more robust than distributions based on one wavelength. Using the composite CH dataset we discuss the temporal evolution of CHs during the Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  15. High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Rare Gas Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚风; 钟钦; 曾淳; 陈哲

    2001-01-01

    With a 45 fs multiterawatt 790 nm laser system and jets of argon and krypton atomic clusters, a study of the interaction of fs intense laser pulses with large size rare gas dusters was conducted. The maximum laser intensity of about 7 × 1016 W/cm2 and dusters composed of thousands of atoms which were determined through Rayleigh scattering measurements were involved inthe experiments. On the one hand, the results indicate that the interaction is strongly cluster size dependent. The stronger the interaction, the larger the clusters are. On the other hand, a saturation followed by a drop of the energy of ions ejected from the interaction will occur when the laser intensity exceeds a definite value for clusters of a certain size.

  16. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  17. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  18. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  19. Resultados atuais da cirurgia coronária em pacientes de alto risco Currente results for coronary artery bypass for high risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro R Salerno

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available No período e 4 anos (1984 a 1987, 427 pacientes (313 homens e 114 mulheres, idade média 61,83 anos foram submetidos a cirurgia coronária de emergência. A indicação para cirurgia foi angina instável, que requeria uso intravenoso de nitroglicerina. Quanto à classe funcional, 369 (86,41% pacientes estavam em classe IV e 51,95% estavam em grau funcional III ou IV de ventrículo esquerdo, pelo estudo hemodinâmico e 30,44% tinham lesão de tronco. Foram realizadas 2,99 pontes/pacientes. A mortalidade total foi de 7,72% e 17,09% tiveram síndrome de baixo débito; déficit neurológico ocorreu em 2,85% e infarto do miocárdio, em 16,86% dos casos. Durante o mesmo período, 30 pacientes (16 do sexo masculino e 14 do feminino com idade média de 64,03 anos, com amgina instável e em choque cardiogênico, foram submetidos a revascularização de emergência. Quanto à classe funcional, 86,66% estavam em classe IV, 13,33% em classe III e 56,66% estavam em grau funcional IV de ventrículo esquerdo e 13,33% em grau III; 40% dos pacientes tinham lesão de tronco. O número médio de pontes foi de 2,76 pontes/pacientes. A mortalidade foi de 60%; déficit neurológico ocorreu em 16,66% e 43,33% sofreram infarto do miocárdio. Em conclusão, a mortalidade e a morbidade, para pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização, permanecem elevadas, principalmente, em pacientes com choque cardiogênico. Portanto, mais estudos futuros são requeridos em relação à proteção miocárdica, para melhores resultados.In a 4 year period (1984-1987 427 patients (313 males and 114 females, mean age 61.83 years underwent emergency aorto-coronary bypass procedures. Indications for surgery were unstable angina, requiring intravenous nitroglycerine. 369 patients (86.41% were class IV NYHA classification and 51.99% were grade III or IV ventricles. 30.44% had main left coronary stenosis. Mean number of grafts was 2.99%. Overall mortality was 7.72% and 17.09% had low

  20. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  1. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  2. High energy bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlessinger, L.; Wright, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The cross section for bremsstrahlung emission and absorption by electrons in an intense laser field has been calculated in the Born approximation for the electron-ion potential. Typical numerical results are presented as a function of the ratio of the electron guiver energy to its energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the electron energy. The intense field correction factor for the rate of bremsstrahlung emission and absorption for electrons with a Boltzmann distribution of energies has been calculated. Numerical results for the correction factor are presented for the Boltzmann case as a function of the ratio of the electron quiver energy to its thermal energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the thermal energy. For typical laser fusion parameters, this correction factor which is the ratio of the thermal bremsstrahlung emission rate in the intense laser field to the rate at zero field can be quite significant. For a laser of wavelength 1.06 μm at an intensity of 3 x 10 15 w/cm 2 and an electron temperature of 1 keV, the correction factor varies from 0.98 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 100 V to greater than 5 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 10 keV

  3. CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS DERIVED FROM SIMULTANEOUS MICROWAVE AND EUV OBSERVATIONS AND COMPARISON WITH THE POTENTIAL FIELD MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Shun; Nozawa, Satoshi [Department of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Iwai, Kazumasa; Shibasaki, Kiyoto [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Shiota, Daikou, E-mail: shunmi089@gmail.com [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-02-10

    We estimated the accuracy of coronal magnetic fields derived from radio observations by comparing them to potential field calculations and the differential emission measure measurements using EUV observations. We derived line-of-sight components of the coronal magnetic field from polarization observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung in the NOAA active region 11150, observed around 3:00 UT on 2011 February 3 using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. Because the thermal bremsstrahlung intensity at 17 GHz includes both chromospheric and coronal components, we extracted only the coronal component by measuring the coronal emission measure in EUV observations. In addition, we derived only the radio polarization component of the corona by selecting the region of coronal loops and weak magnetic field strength in the chromosphere along the line of sight. The upper limits of the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields were determined as 100–210 G. We also calculated the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields from the potential field extrapolation using the photospheric magnetic field obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. However, the calculated potential fields were certainly smaller than the observed coronal longitudinal magnetic field. This discrepancy between the potential and the observed magnetic field strengths can be explained consistently by two reasons: (1) the underestimation of the coronal emission measure resulting from the limitation of the temperature range of the EUV observations, and (2) the underestimation of the coronal magnetic field resulting from the potential field assumption.

  4. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coronal Mass Ejections An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    In times of growing technological sophistication and of our dependence on electronic technology, we are all affected by space weather. In its most extreme form, space weather can disrupt communications, damage and destroy spacecraft and power stations, and increase radiation exposure to astronauts and airline passengers. Major space weather events, called geomagnetic storms, are large disruptions in the Earth’s magnetic field brought about by the arrival of enormous magnetized plasma clouds from the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) contain billions of tons of plasma and hurtle through space at speeds of several million miles per hour. Understanding coronal mass ejections and their impact on the Earth is of great interest to both the scientific and technological communities. This book provides an introduction to coronal mass ejections, including a history of their observation and scientific revelations, instruments and theory behind their detection and measurement, and the status quo of theories describing...

  6. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  7. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-04-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

  8. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  9. Coronal ``Wave'': Magnetic Footprint of a Coronal Mass Ejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Gemma D. R.; Harra, Louise K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Démoulin, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the properties of two ``classical'' EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) coronal waves. The two source regions of the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) possess opposite helicities, and the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep core dimmings near the flare site and also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We also report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions and simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behavior is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME magnetic field and quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings and the widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process.

  10. A DATA-DRIVEN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR PROTON ACCELERATION BY LARGE-SCALE SOLAR CORONAL SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarev, Kamen A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (United States); Schwadron, Nathan A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona, using remote observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front’s surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model’s performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate that the results approach the expected DSA steady-state behavior. We then apply the model to the event of 2011 May 11 using the OCBF time-dependent parameters derived by Kozarev et al. We find that the compressive front likely produced energetic particles as low as 1.3 solar radii in the corona. Comparing the modeled and observed fluences near Earth, we also find that the bulk of the acceleration during this event must have occurred above 1.5 solar radii. With this study we have taken a first step in using direct observations of shocks and compressions in the innermost corona to predict the onsets and intensities of solar energetic particle events.

  11. Volumetric intensity dependence on the formation of molecular and atomic ions within a high intensity laser focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Lynne; Ledingham, Kenneth W D; McKenna, Paul; McCanny, Thomas; Shimizu, Seiji; Yang, Jiamin M; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Varju, Katalin; Johnsson, Per; Mauritsson, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of atomic and molecular ionization in intense, ultra-short laser fields is a subject which continues to receive considerable attention. An inherent difficulty with techniques involving the tight focus of a laser beam is the continuous distribution of intensities contained within the focus, which can vary over several orders of magnitude. The present study adopts time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with a high intensity (8 x 10(15) Wcm(-2)), ultra-short (20 fs) pulse laser in order to investigate the ionization and dissociation of the aromatic molecule benzene-d1 (C(6)H(5)D) as a function of intensity within a focused laser beam, by scanning the laser focus in the direction of propagation, while detecting ions produced only in a "thin" slice (400 and 800 microm) of the focus. The resultant TOF mass spectra varies significantly, highlighting the dependence on the range of specific intensities accessed and their volumetric weightings on the ionization/dissociation pathways accessed.

  12. Laser-matter interaction at high intensity and high temporal contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous progress in the development of laser installations has already lead to ultra-short pulses capable of achieving very high focalized intensities (I > 10 18 W/cm 2 ). At these intensities, matter presents new non-linear behaviours, due to the fact that the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. The experimental access to this interaction regime on solid targets has long been forbidden because of the presence, alongside the femtosecond pulse, of a pedestal (mainly due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which occurs in the laser chain) intense enough to modify the state of the target. In this thesis, we first characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, a device which allows an improvement of the temporal contrast of the pulse: the Plasma Mirror. It consists in adjusting the focusing of the pulse on a dielectric target, so that the pedestal is mainly transmitted, while the main pulse is reflected by the overcritical plasma that it forms at the surface. The implementation of such a device on the UHI 10 laser facility (CEA Saclay - 10 TW - 60 fs) then allowed us to study the interaction between ultra-intense, high contrast pulses with solid targets. In a first part, we managed to generate and characterize dense plasmas resulting directly from the interaction between the main pulse and very thin foils (100 nm). This characterization was realized by using an XUV source obtained by high order harmonics generation in a rare gas jet. In a second part, we studied experimentally the phenomenon of high order harmonics generation on solid targets, which is still badly understood, but could potentially lead to a new kind of energetic ultra-short XUV sources. (author)

  13. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  14. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  15. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  16. The dynamics of coronal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is made of the evolution of coronal magnetic fields due to the interaction with the solar wind. An analysis of the formation of coronal streamers, arising as a result of the stretching of bipolar fields, is given. Numerical simulations of the formation of coronal streamers are presented. Fast-mode shocks as triggers of microturbulence in the solar corona are discussed

  17. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  18. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  19. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  20. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  1. A deuteron linac for a high-intensity neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Lancaster, H.; Main, R.; Selph, F.; Smith, L.; Voelker, F.; Yourd, R.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an accelerator suitable to meet the flux and neutron energy requirements of a CTR materials test facility is presented. The specifications of such a facility call for a neutron flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -sec distributed over an area of about 10 2 cm 2 with a neutron spectrum similar to that anticipated from a fusion reactor. A 30 MeV deuteron linac producing a CW beam of 125 mA, upgradable to 40 MeV at 250 mA at a later date, would produce the relatively broad spectrum of neutrons at the required intensity. Attention to the low-energy beam intercept on the drift tubes and diffusive losses producing neutrons and attendant activation problems are discussed

  2. High intensity proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS -- An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS accelerator complex is into its third year of 60+ x 10 12 (teraproton = Tp) per cycle operation. The hardware making up the complex as configured in 1997 is briefly mentioned. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. This includes beam transfer efficiencies at each step in the acceleration process, i.e. losses; which are a serious issue at this intensity level. Progress made in understanding beam behavior at the Linac-to-Booster (LtB) injection, at the Booster-to-AGS (BtA) transfer as well as across the 450 ms AGS accumulation porch is presented. The state of transition crossing, with the gamma-tr jump is described. Coherent effects including those driven by space charge are important at all of these steps

  3. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  4. Two-dimensional computer simulation of high intensity proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lapostolle, Pierre M

    1972-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which simulates the two- dimensional transverse behaviour of a proton beam in a focusing channel. The model is represented by an assembly of a few thousand 'superparticles' acted upon by their own self-consistent electric field and an external focusing force. The evolution of the system is computed stepwise in time by successively solving Poisson's equation and Newton's law of motion. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used for speed in the solution of Poisson's equation, while extensive area weighting is utilized for the accurate evaluation of electric field components. A computer experiment has been performed on the CERN CDC 6600 computer to study the nonlinear behaviour of an intense beam in phase space, showing under certain circumstances a filamentation due to space charge and an apparent emittance growth. (14 refs).

  5. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang-Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sebastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential 'bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed

  6. Neurovascular Saturation Thresholds Under High Intensity Auditory Stimulation During Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Van Nortwick, Amy S.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical imaging techniques to increasing intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  7. Development and application of high power and high intensity ion beam sources at NPI, Tomsk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High - current ion beams have become a powerful tool for improving the surface properties of different materials. The prospects of wide commercial use of such beams for material treatment is not only due to the possibility of improving their properties, but, also for economic expediency. To achieve a high throughput and reduce the cost on ion beam material treatment, ion beams of high average and pulsed power are necessary. This paper gives an overview of work on generation of pulsed and repetitively pulsed beams of ion beams with currents ranging from fractions of an ampere to several tens of kA and with pulse duration from several tens of nanoseconds to several hundreds of microseconds. A number of different methods of materials surface properties modification using high power and intense ion beam and plasma are considered. (author)

  8. EUV and radio spectrum of coronal holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiuderi Drago, F [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Florence (Italy)

    1980-03-01

    From the intensity of 19 EUV lines whose formation temperature anti T ranges from 3 x 10/sup 4/ to 1.4 x 10/sup 6/, two different models of the transition region and corona for the cell-centre and the network are derived. It is shown that both these models give radio brightness temperatures systematically higher than the observed ones. An agreement with radio data can be found only with lines formed at low temperature (anti T < 8.5 x 10/sup 5/) by decreasing the coronal temperature and the emission measure. The possibility of resolving the discrepancy by using different ion abundances has also been investigated with negative results.

  9. The Coronal Place; Why is It Special?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Alkazwini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To prove the existence of arguments about the exact place that can bear the term ‘coronal’, it would be enough to check the explanatory dictionary’s entry. There are different arguments regarding the exact place of coronal. In this paper, some of the linguistic evidence regarding the coronal place shall be mentioned. Then, I shall discuss the classes of coronal that lend support to the fact that coronal place is believed to be special, and that is by discussing the different typologies of coronal consonants and giving their description.

  10. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  11. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  12. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  13. Coronal Seismology: The Search for Propagating Waves in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Seeley, D.; Keil, S. L.; Tomczyk, S.

    2007-05-01

    We report on Doppler observations of the solar corona obtained in the Fe XeXIII 1074.7nm coronal emission line with the HAO Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP) mounted on the NSO Coronal One Shot coronagraph located in the Hilltop Facility of NSO/Sacramento Peak. The COMP is a tunable filtergraph instrument that records the entire corona from the edge of the occulting disk at approximately 1.03 Rsun out to 1.4 Rsun with a spatial resolution of about 4” x 4”. COMP can be rapidly scanned through the spectral line while recording orthogonal states of linear and circular polarization. The two dimensional spatial resolution allows us to correlate temporal fluctuations observed in one part of the corona with those seen at other locations, in particular along coronal loops. Using cross spectral analysis we find that the observations reveal upward propagating waves that are characterized by Doppler shifts with rms velocities of 0.3 km/s, peak wave power in the 3-5 mHz frequency range, and phase speeds 1-3 Mm/s. The wave trajectories are consistent with the direction of the magnetic field inferred from the linear polarization measurements. We discuss the phase and coherence of these waves as a function of height in the corona and relate our findings to previous observations. The observed waves appear to be Alfvenic in character. "Thomas Schad was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program." Daniel Seeley was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experience for Teachers (RET) site program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation RET program.

  14. Probing the positron moderation process using high-intensity, highly polarized slow-positron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    A highly polarized (P = 0.48 + or - 0.02) intense (500,000/sec) beam of 'slow' (Delta E = about 2 eV) positrons (e+) is generated, and it is shown that it is possible to achieve polarization as high as P = 0.69 + or - 0.04 with reduced intensity. The measured polarization of the slow e+ emitted by five different positron moderators showed no dependence on the moderator atomic number (Z). It is concluded that only source positrons with final kinetic energy below 17 keV contribute to the slow-e+ beam, in disagreement with recent yield functions derived from low-energy measurements. Measurements of polarization and yield with absorbers of different Z between the source and moderator show the effects of the energy and angular distributions of the source positrons on P. The depolarization of fast e+ transmitted through high-Z absorbers has been measured. Applications of polarized slow-e+ beams are discussed.

  15. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  16. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  17. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  18. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug...

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY OF A CURRENT SHEET IN THE HIGH SOLAR CORONA: EVIDENCE FOR RECONNECTION IN THE LATE STAGE OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Webb, David, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [ISR, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Motivated by the standard flare model, ray-like structures in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been often interpreted as proxies of the reconnecting current sheet connecting the CME with the postflare arcade. We present the three-dimensional properties of a post-CME ray derived from white light images taken from three different viewing perspectives on 2013 September 21. By using a forward modeling method, the direction, cross section, and electron density are determined within the heliocentric distance range of 5–9 R {sub ⊙}. The width and depth of the ray are 0.42 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} and 1.24 ± 0.35 R {sub ⊙}, respectively, and the electron density is (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}, which seems to be constant with height. Successive blobs moving outward along the ray are observed around 13 hr after the parent CME onset. We model the three-dimensional geometry of the parent CME with the Gradual Cylindrical Shell model and find that the CME and ray are coaxial. We suggest that coaxial post-CME rays, seen in coronagraph images, with successive formation of blobs could be associated with current sheets undergoing magnetic reconnection in the late stage of CMEs.

  20. Ignition of mercury-free high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czichy, M; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hartmann, T

    2008-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the ignition behaviour of D4 lamps for automotive headlights the ignition of mercury-free metal iodide test lamps characterized by a high xenon pressure, a small electrode distance and small electrode-wall distances is investigated. The ignition of these lamps is dominated by a high voltage requirement. Nevertheless lamps are found that show a surprisingly low ignition voltage. Electrical measurements and simultaneous optical observations of the ultra-fast streamer processes show that the breakdown takes place in two different modes. One of the ignition modes which requires a high ignition voltage is characterized by a breakdown in the volume between the electrode tips. The other mode is characterized by streamer discharges along the wall. In this case the cathode, its base and the wall around is involved in the ignition process and the lamp breaks down at low voltages

  1. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  2. Development and Transition of the Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Zank, G.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs

  3. High harmonic generation in H and HD by intense femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... We have argued that for these conditions the harmonic generation due to the transitions in the electronic ... (XUV) or soft X-ray range and generation of very high-energy attosecond (as) pulses have been widely ..... [3] Y Liang, S Augst, S L Chin, Y Beaudoin and M Chaker, J. Phys. B 27, 5119 (1994).

  4. Impedance-match experiments using high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Anderson, R.A.; Veeser, L.R.; Reeves, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of impedance-match experiments using copper-aluminum targets irradiated using the Janus Laser Facility are discussed. The results are compared to extrapolations of data obtained at lower pressures using impact techniques. The sources of errors are described and evaluated. The potential of lasers for high accuracy equation of state investigations are discussed

  5. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  6. [Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect

  7. A Bayesian Approach to Period Searching in Solar Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, Bryan; McKenzie, David [Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840 Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We have applied a Bayesian generalized Lomb–Scargle period searching algorithm to movies of coronal loop images obtained with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) to search for evidence of periodicities that would indicate resonant heating of the loops. The algorithm makes as its only assumption that there is a single sinusoidal signal within each light curve of the data. Both the amplitudes and noise are taken as free parameters. It is argued that this procedure should be used alongside Fourier and wavelet analyses to more accurately extract periodic intensity modulations in coronal loops. The data analyzed are from XRT Observation Program 129C: “MHD Wave Heating (Thin Filters),” which occurred during 2006 November 13 and focused on active region 10293, which included coronal loops. The first data set spans approximately 10 min with an average cadence of 2 s, 2″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-mesh analysis filter. The second data set spans approximately 4 min with a 3 s average cadence, 1″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. The final data set spans approximately 22 min at a 6 s average cadence, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. In total, 55 periods of sinusoidal coronal loop oscillations between 5.5 and 59.6 s are discussed, supporting proposals in the literature that resonant absorption of magnetic waves is a viable mechanism for depositing energy in the corona.

  8. STATUS REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-SPEED HIGH-INTENSITY MOLECULAR BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L.

    1963-07-15

    Status of a high-speed high-intensity molecular beam under development is described. Bases for designs of the several components are presented. Using an arc-heated source and a hypersonic jet, molecular energies exceeding 1 ev and beam intensities of the order of 10/sup 16/ molecules/ cm/sup 2/ sec are anticipated. A two-disk beam chopper and speed selector provides a means for analyzing the speed distribution in the generated beam, for chopping the beam into bursts of nearly monoenergetic molecules suitable for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique, and for modulating the beam in order to facilitate detection. A through-flow ionization detector possesses the versatility required for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique. A sorption pump and a turbo pump serve as central components of alternative pumping systems for the collimating chamber. Using the arc-heated source, the converging nozzle, the conduction-radiation-cooled skimmer, the turbo pump (turning at 3400 rpm), the chopperselector (acting only as a chopper), and the detector, an arc-heated beam is generated and detected. (auth)

  9. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  10. High-Intensity Laser Diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Junquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP is a new high-energy petawatt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from <1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy petawatt laser at full energy

  11. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  12. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  13. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  14. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  15. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  16. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  17. Coronal Loop Evolution Observed with AIA and Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Korreck, K.; Golub, L.; Kuzin. S.; Walsh, R.; DeForest, C.; DePontieu, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Despite much progress toward understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, the physical properties of coronal loops are not yet fully understood. Recent investigations and observations from different instruments have yielded contradictory results about the true physical properties of coronal loops. In the past, the evolution of loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this poster we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data. We find signatures of cooling in a pixel selected along a loop structure in the AIA multi-filter observations. However, unlike previous studies, we find that the cooling time is much longer than the draining time. This is inconsistent with previous cooling models.

  18. The origin of coronal lines in Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korista, K.T.; Ferland, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility that the coronal line region in Seyfert galaxies may be the result of an interstellar medium (ISM) exposed to, and subsequently photoionized by, a 'bare' Seyfert nucleus. It is shown that a 'generic' AGN continuum illuminating the warm-phase of the ISM of a spiral galaxy can produce the observed emission. In this picture the same UV-radiation cone that is responsible for the high-excitation extended narrow-line emission clouds observed out to 1-2 kpc or farther from the nuclei of some Seyfert galaxies also produces the coronal lines. Soft X-rays originating in the nucleus are Compton-scattered off the ISM, thus producing extended soft X-ray emission, as observed in NGC 4151. The results of the calculations show a basic insensitivity to the ISM density, which explains why similar coronal line spectra are found in many Seyfert galaxies of varying physical environments. 60 refs

  19. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  20. Future of high intensity accelerators in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1977-08-01

    A possible application for a high mean current, intermediate-energy proton linear accelerator is the ''electrical breeding'' of fuel for nuclear electrical power stations. The possible role of the spallation breeder in the context of a Canadian nuclear power economy and its relationship to nuclear fuel resources are discussed. The production of fissile material using the spallation process in a target containing actinide elements appears desirable and feasible from engineering and economic considerations. Current development work in Canada and some of the outstanding problems are discussed. (author)

  1. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  2. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  3. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-01-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10 8 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion

  4. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  5. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  6. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  7. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W; Agarwal, A; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Sobie, R J; Vliet, M

    2012-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  8. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  9. Experimental study of a high intensity radio-frequency cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Boussaid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the DESIR/SPIRAL-2 project, a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler named SHIRaC has been studied. SHIRaC is a key device of SPIRAL-2, designed to enhance the beam quality required by DESIR. The preliminary study and development of this device has been carried out at Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de CAEN (LPC Caen, France. The goal of this paper is to present the experimental studies conducted on a SHIRaC prototype. The main peculiarity of this cooler is its efficient handling and cooling of ion beams with currents going up as high as 1  μA which has never before been achieved in any of the previous coolers. Much effort has been made lately into these studies for development of appropriate optics, vacuum and rf systems which allow cooling of beams of large emittance (∼80π  mm mrad and high current. The dependencies of SHIRaC’s transmission and the cooled beam parameters in terms of geometrical transverse emittance and the longitudinal energy spread have also been discussed. Investigation of beam purity at optimum cooling condition has also been done. Results from the experiments indicate that an emittance reduction of less than 2.5π  mm mrad and a longitudinal energy spread reduction of less than 4 eV are obtained with more than 70% of ion transmission. The emittance is at expected values whereas the energy spread is not.

  10. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...

  11. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm 2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  12. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  13. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  14. High Performance Data Transfer for Distributed Data Intensive Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chin [Zettar Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cottrell, R ' Les' A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hanushevsky, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kroeger, Wilko [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yang, Wei [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We report on the development of ZX software providing high performance data transfer and encryption. The design scales in: computation power, network interfaces, and IOPS while carefully balancing the available resources. Two U.S. patent-pending algorithms help tackle data sets containing lots of small files and very large files, and provide insensitivity to network latency. It has a cluster-oriented architecture, using peer-to-peer technologies to ease deployment, operation, usage, and resource discovery. Its unique optimizations enable effective use of flash memory. Using a pair of existing data transfer nodes at SLAC and NERSC, we compared its performance to that of bbcp and GridFTP and determined that they were comparable. With a proof of concept created using two four-node clusters with multiple distributed multi-core CPUs, network interfaces and flash memory, we achieved 155Gbps memory-to-memory over a 2x100Gbps link aggregated channel and 70Gbps file-to-file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  15. Computational aspects in high intensity ultrasonic surgery planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A; Hynynen, K

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound treatment planning is discussed and computational aspects regarding it are reviewed. Nonlinear ultrasound simulations were solved with a combined frequency domain Rayleigh and KZK model. Ultrasonic simulations were combined with thermal simulations and were used to compute heating of muscle tissue in vivo for four different focused ultrasound transducers. The simulations were compared with measurements and good agreement was found for large F-number transducers. However, at F# 1.9 the simulated rate of temperature rise was approximately a factor of 2 higher than the measured ones. The power levels used with the F# 1 transducer were too low to show any nonlinearity. The simulations were used to investigate the importance of nonlinarities generated in the coupling water, and also the importance of including skin in the simulations. Ignoring either of these in the model would lead to larger errors. Most notably, the nonlinearities generated in the water can enhance the focal temperature by more than 100%. The simulations also demonstrated that pulsed high power sonications may provide an opportunity to significantly (up to a factor of 3) reduce the treatment time. In conclusion, nonlinear propagation can play an important role in shaping the energy distribution during a focused ultrasound treatment and it should not be ignored in planning. However, the current simulation methods are accurate only with relatively large F-numbers and better models need to be developed for sharply focused transducers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Coronal and local thermodynamic equilibriums in a hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xutao

    2005-01-01

    A characteristic two-section profile of excited-state populations is observed in a hollow cathode discharge and is explained by coexistence of the coronal equilibrium (CE) and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). At helium pressure 0.1 Torr and cathode current 200-300 mA, vacuum ultraviolet radiations from He I 1snp 1 P (n=2-16) and He II np 2 P (n=2-14) are resolved with a 2.2-M McPherson spectrometer. Relative populations of these states are deduced from the discrete line intensities and are plotted against energy levels. For both the He I and He II series, as energy level increases, populations of high-n (n>10) states are found to decrease much more quickly than low-n (n<7) populations. While low-n populations are described with the CE dominated by direct electron-impact excitations, high-n populations are fitted with the LTE to calculate the population temperatures of gas atoms and ions. Validities of the CE and LTE in different n-ranges are considered on the competition between radiative decays of the excited states and their collisions with gas atoms. (author)

  18. Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the cloud size. I. INTRODUCTION High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), along with the associated cavitation , is used in a variety of fields. The...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012- May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused...in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  19. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  20. Optimisation of intense X-ray sources of Z-pinch type connected to the high intensity current generator SPHINX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new source of intense X-rays in the spectral range of the keV has been designed in the CEA facilities at Gramat (France). This Z-pinch source is based on the implosion of a cylinder of matter that has been ionized by the Lorentz force generated by the injection in the cylinder of an intense current pulse delivered by a HPP (High Pulsed Powers) generator named SPHINX. The cylinder of matter is made up of a few hundreds of thin metal wires (tungsten or aluminium) whose diameter is less than a few tenths of μm. The SPHINX generator is based on the LTD (Linear Transformer Driver) technology. SPHINX stores an energy of 2.2 MJ and delivers a current of 8 MA over a time of 1 μs. SPHINX does not use any technology of time compression, it is a robust, compact machine with reduced maintenance but the price to pay for this simplification is to maintain a high axial homogeneity of the implosion during the initiation phase, it means the pulse time of 1μs. The preliminary experiments that have been performed give the following results: -) for a tungsten cylinder (X ray 1 keV): 28 kJ, 0.6 TW and 25 ns

  1. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  2. Bremsstrahlung production with high-intensity laser matter interactions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galy, J.; Maucec, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Edwards, R.; Magill, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade an evolution of experimental relativistic laser-plasma physics has led to highly sophisticated lasers, which are now able to generate ultra short pulses and can be focused to intensities in excess of 10(21) W cm(-2), with more than 500 J on target. In the intense electric field of

  3. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  4. High or low intensity aerobic fitness training in fibromyalgia: does it matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Landewé, Robert; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; van der Kemp, Désirée; Houben, Harry; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of training in fibromyalgia (FM), we compared the effects of high intensity fitness training (HIF) and low intensity fitness training (LIF). Thirty-seven female patients with FM were randomly allocated to either a HIF group (n = 19) or a LIF group (n = 18). Four patients (1

  5. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  6. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  7. In vivo photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound imaging of mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Khalid; Hoogenboom, Martijn; den Brok, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; Adema, Gosse J; Fütterer, Jürgen J; de Korte, Chris L

    2017-04-01

    The thermal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically exploited over a decade, while the mechanical HIFU is still largely confined to laboratory investigations. This is in part due to the lack of adequate imaging techniques to better understand the in-vivo pathological and immunological effects caused by the mechanical treatment. In this work, we explore the use of high frequency ultrasound (US) and photoacoustics (PA) as a potential tool to evaluate the effect of mechanical ablation in-vivo , e.g. boiling histotripsy. Two mice bearing a neuroblastoma tumor in the right leg were ablated using an MRI-HIFU system conceived for small animals and monitored using MRI thermometry. High frequency US and PA imaging were performed before and after the HIFU treatment. Afterwards, the tumor was resected for further assessment and evaluation of the ablated region using histopathology. High frequency US imaging revealed the presence of liquefied regions in the treated area together with fragmentized tissue which appeared with different reflecting proprieties compared to the surrounding tissue. Photoacoustic imaging on the other hand revealed the presence of deoxygenated blood within the tumor after the ablation due to the destruction of blood vessel network while color Doppler imaging confirmed the blood vessel network destruction within the tumor. The treated area and the presence of red blood cells detected by photoacoustics were further confirmed by the histopathology. This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of high frequency US and PA approach for assessing in-vivo the effect of mechanical HIFU tumor ablation.

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  9. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described

  10. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  11. Photocathode fatigue of L-24 PM head due to high intensity light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of radiation detectors which utilizes photomultipliers was determined after exposing the multiplier phototubes to high intensity light pulses. Test results found that generally less than a 5% change was found

  12. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  13. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K.; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high intensity shoulder elevations can......BACKGROUND: Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary...... contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...

  14. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  15. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  16. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  17. Multidetector CT enteroclysis: comparison of the reading performance for axial and coronal views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Chalaron, Marc; Schnyder, Pierre; Denys, Alban; Chevallier, Patrick; Bessoud, Bertrand; Verdun, Francis R.; Frascarolo, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of axial and coronal views in multidetector CT enteroclysis (MDCTE). We retrospectively evaluated 48 patients with pathological correlation investigated by MDCTE for small bowel disorders. After nasojejunal administration of 2 l of 5% methylcellulose axial arterial and venous acquisition of MDCTE was followed by coronal reconstructions using equal slice thicknesses of 2.5 mm with 2 mm increments. Spatial resolution of both planes was evaluated by phantom. Three radiologists independently read axial and coronal images concerning 12 pathological features. The interobserver agreement and time of reading was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity resulted from comparison with histopathology (n=39) or follow-up (n=9). Phantom study revealed higher spatial resolution for axial than coronal views, whatever reconstruction interval was used. However, spatial frequency always remained high. Most pathological signs, such as bowel wall thickening (BWT), bowel wall enhancement (BWE) and intraperitoneal fluid (IPF), showed better interobserver agreement on axial than coronal views (BWT: 0.61 vs. 0.44; BWE: 0.56 vs. 0.5; IPF:0.53 vs. 0.43). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly higher sensitivity for axial than coronal views (P=0.0453); the time of reading was significantly shorter for the latter (P=0.0146). The diagnostic value of axial slices is superior to coronal reconstructions despite the reduced data volume and display of the physiological course of bowel loops on the coronal plane. (orig.)

  18. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  19. Experimental study of proton acceleration with ultra-high intensity, high contrast laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacco, A.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis reports experimental work in the domain of laser-matter interaction to study the production of energetic proton beams. The ion beams accelerated by laser have been increasing in quality, in energy and in repeatability as laser technology keeps improving. The presence of the pedestal before the high peak laser pulse introduces many unknowns in the accelerating conditions that are created on the front and on the rear surface of the target. The first part of the experimental activities is focused to a better comprehension and the experimental validation of the interaction of a 'pedestal-like', moderate intensity, laser pulse on Aluminum targets. The developed interferometric technique proved to be reliable and produced a complete set of maps of the early stages of the plasma expansion. The reflectometry experiment stresses the importance of the quality of the metallic targets and underlines some obscure points on the behaviour of the rear surface of the illuminated foil. For instance the reflectometry measurements on the thicker targets are significantly different from what is foreseen by the simulations about the timescale of the shock break out. In the second part, the XPW laser pulse is used in ion acceleration from thin metal foils. The laser and target parameters are varied to put in evidence the dependence of the ion beam to the experimental condition. In conclusion I can say that first, during the variation of the target thickness, an optimum is put in evidence. Secondly, the correlation between the laser pulse duration and the proton cutoff energy is qualitatively different between thicker (15 μm) and thinner (1.5 μm, 3 μm) targets. For the first, an optimal pulse duration exists while for the seconds, no variation is found - in the searched space - from the monotonic decreasing of the cutoff energy with the peak intensity. The experimental results put however in evidence some points that are not completely understood. (A.C.)

  20. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  1. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  2. Impact of a high intensity training program on glucose tolerance in people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patyn, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent research reported a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in MS patients than in healthy people. The influence of high intensity exercise on IGT in MS was never investigated before. Objective: To investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval (HIIT) or continuous endurance (CT) training, both in combination with resistance training, on glucose tolerance muscle strength and body composition. Methods: 34 subjects were randomly as...

  3. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  4. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  6. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  7. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. EFFECT OF A RADIATION COOLING AND HEATING FUNCTION ON STANDING LONGITUDINAL OSCILLATIONS IN CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Moon, Y.-J., E-mail: sanjaykumar@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-10

    Standing long-period (with periods longer than several minutes) oscillations in large, hot (with a temperature higher than 3 MK) coronal loops have been observed as the quasi-periodic modulation of the EUV and microwave intensity emission and the Doppler shift of coronal emission lines, and they have been interpreted as standing slow magnetoacoustic (longitudinal) oscillations. Quasi-periodic pulsations of shorter periods, detected in thermal and non-thermal emissions in solar flares could be produced by a similar mechanism. We present theoretical modeling of the standing slow magnetoacoustic mode, showing that this mode of oscillation is highly sensitive to peculiarities of the radiative cooling and heating function. We generalized the theoretical model of standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in a hot plasma, including the effects of the radiative losses and accounting for plasma heating. The heating mechanism is not specified and taken empirically to compensate the cooling by radiation and thermal conduction. It is shown that the evolution of the oscillations is described by a generalized Burgers equation. The numerical solution of an initial value problem for the evolutionary equation demonstrates that different dependences of the radiative cooling and plasma heating on the temperature lead to different regimes of the oscillations, including growing, quasi-stationary, and rapidly decaying. Our findings provide a theoretical foundation for probing the coronal heating function and may explain the observations of decayless long-period, quasi-periodic pulsations in flares. The hydrodynamic approach employed in this study should be considered with caution in the modeling of non-thermal emission associated with flares, because it misses potentially important non-hydrodynamic effects.

  9. High contrast high intensity petawatt J-KAREN-P laser facility at QST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Sakaki, Hironao; Dover, Nicholas P.; Kondo, Kotaro; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Sagisaka, Akito; Fukuda, Yuji; Nishitani, Keita; Miyahara, Takumi; Ogura, Koichi; Alkhimova, Mariya A.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Faenov, Anatoly Y.; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Koga, James; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-05-01

    We report on the J-KAREN-P laser facility at QST, which can provide PW peak power at 0.1 Hz on target. The system can deliver short pulses with an energy of 30 J and pulse duration of 30 fs after compression with a contrast level of better than 1012. Such performance in high field science will give rise to the birth of new applications and breakthroughs, which include relativistic particle acceleration, bright x-ray source generation, and nuclear activation. The current achieved laser intensity on target is up to > 9x1021 Wcm-2 with an energy of 9 J on target. The interaction with a 3 to 5- μm stainless steel tape target provides us electrons with a typical temperature of more than 10 MeV and energetic proton beams with typical maximum energies of > 40 MeV with good reproducibility. The protons are accelerated in the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime, which is suitable for many applications including as an injector into a beamline for medical use, which is one of our objectives.

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  12. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  13. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  14. Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

    1993-04-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence

  15. NO TRACE LEFT BEHIND: STEREO OBSERVATION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION WITHOUT LOW CORONAL SIGNATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbrecht, Eva; Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    The availability of high-quality synoptic observations of the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and visible corona during the SOHO mission has advanced our understanding of the low corona manifestations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The EUV imager/white light coronagraph connection has been proven so powerful, it is routinely assumed that if no EUV signatures are present when a CME is observed by a coronagraph, then the event must originate behind the visible limb. This assumption carries strong implications for space weather forecasting but has not been put to the test. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of a frontside, large-scale CME that has no obvious counterparts in the low corona as observed in EUV and Hα wavelengths. The event was observed by the SECCHI instruments onboard the STEREO mission. The COR2A coronagraph observed a slow flux-rope-type CME, while an extremely faint partial halo was observed in COR2B. The event evolved very slowly and is typical of the streamer-blowout CME class. EUVI A 171 A images show a concave feature above the east limb, relatively stable for about two days before the eruption, when it rises into the coronagraphic fields and develops into the core of the CME. None of the typical low corona signatures of a CME (flaring, EUV dimming, filament eruption, waves) were observed in the EUVI B images, which we attribute to the unusually large height from which the flux rope lifted off. This interpretation is supported by the CME mass measurements and estimates of the expected EUV dimming intensity. Only thanks to the availability of the two viewpoints we were able to identify the likely source region. The event originated along a neutral line over the quiet-Sun. No active regions were present anywhere on the visible (from STEREO B) face of the disk. Leaving no trace behind on the solar disk, this observation shows unambiguously that a CME eruption does not need to have clear on-disk signatures. Also it sheds light on the

  16. Producing High Intense Attosecond Pulse Train by Interaction of Three-Color Pulse and Overdense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Mirzanejad, S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying the attosecond pulse by the chirp pulse amplification method is impossible. Furthermore, the intensity of attosecond pulse is low in the interaction of laser pulse and underdense plasma. This motivates us to propose using a multi-color pulse to produce the high intense attosecond pulse. In the present study, the relativistic interaction of a three-color linearly-polarized laser-pulse with highly overdense plasma is studied. We show that the combination of {{ω }}1, {{ω }}2 and {{ω }}3 frequencies decreases the instance full width at half maximum reflected attosecond pulse train from the overdense plasma surface. Moreover, we show that the three-color pulse increases the intensity of generated harmonics, which is explained by the relativistic oscillating mirror model. The obtained results demonstrate that if the three-color laser pulse interacts with overdense plasma, it will enhance two orders of magnitude of intensity of ultra short attosecond pulses in comparison with monochromatic pulse.

  17. Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions

  18. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  19. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF THE CORONAL KINK INSTABILITY WITH THERMAL CONDUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, G. J. J.; Arber, T. D.; Srivastava, Abhishek K.

    2012-01-01

    It is known from numerical simulations that thermal conduction along magnetic field lines plays an important role in the evolution of the kink instability in coronal loops. This study presents the observational signatures of the kink instability in long coronal loops when parallel thermal conduction is included. The three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic equations are solved numerically to simulate the evolution of a coronal loop that is initially in an unstable equilibrium. The loop has length 80 Mm, width 8 Mm, and an initial maximum twist of Φ = 11.5π, where Φ is a function of the radius. The initial loop parameters are obtained from a highly twisted loop observed in the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 171 Å wave band. Synthetic observables are generated from the data. These observables include spatial and temporal averaging to account for the resolution and exposure times of TRACE images. Parallel thermal conduction reduces the maximum local temperature by up to an order of magnitude. This means that different spectral lines are formed and different internal loop structures are visible with or without the inclusion of thermal conduction. However, the response functions sample a broad range of temperatures. The result is that the inclusion of parallel thermal conductivity does not have as large an impact on observational signatures as the order of magnitude reduction in the maximum temperature would suggest; the net effect is a blurring of internal features of the loop structure.

  20. Analysis of Solar Coronal Holes with Synoptic Magnetogram Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canner, A.; Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N.; Yalim, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are regions in which the magnetic field of the Sun is open with high magnetic flux and low plasma density. Because of the low plasma beta in these regions, the open field lines transport plasma from the Sun throughout the heliosphere. Coronal hole area is closely related to the expansion factor of the magnetic flux tube, as demonstrated by Tokumaru et al. (2017). Following the approach of Tokumaru et al. (2017), we employ a potential field source surface model to identify the open field regions on the photosphere and estimate the area and expansion factor for each coronal hole. While Tokumaru et al. (2017) analyzed synoptic maps from Kitt Peak National Observatory for the period 1995-2011, we use different magnetograph observations with higher spatial resolution (e.g., SOHO-MDI) for the same time period. We compare the coronal hole area - expansion factor relationship with the original results of Tokumaru et al (2017). This work was supported by the NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates program "Solar and Heliospheric Physics at UAH and MSFC" run by the University of Alabama in Huntsville in partnership with the Marshall Space Flight Center through grant AGS-1460767.

  1. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Leanna M.; Porter, Ryan R.; Durstine, J. Larry

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared t...

  2. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  3. Enhanced high harmonic generation driven by high-intensity laser in argon gas-filled hollow core waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, Kevin; Daboussi, Sameh; Hort, Ondrej; Descamps, Dominique; Petit, Stephane; Mevel, Eric; Constant, Eric; Guilbaud, Oilvier; Kazamias, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    We show that a significant enhancement of the photon flux produced by high harmonic generation can be obtained through guided configuration at high laser intensity largely above the saturation intensity. We identify two regimes. At low pressure, we observe an intense second plateau in the high harmonic spectrum in argon. At relatively high pressure, complex interplay between strongly time-dependent ionization processes and propagation effects leads to important spectral broadening without loss of spectral brightness. We show that the relevant parameter for this physical process is the product of laser peak power by gas pressure. We compare source performances with high harmonic generation using a gas jet in loose focusing geometry and conclude that the source developed is a good candidate for injection devices such as seeded soft x-ray lasers or free electron lasers in the soft x-ray range. (authors)

  4. High-intensity discharge lamp and Duffing oscillator—Similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Stein, Ulrich; Hallerberg, Sarah; Wolff, Marcus

    2017-12-01

    The processes inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps are investigated using finite element simulations. The behavior of the gas mixture inside the arc tube is governed by differential equations describing mass, energy, and charge conservation, as well as the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure and the Reynolds equations for the flow driven by buoyancy and Reynolds stresses. The model is highly nonlinear and requires a recursion procedure to account for the impact of acoustic streaming on the temperature and other fields. The investigations reveal the presence of a hysteresis and the corresponding jump phenomenon, quite similar to a Duffing oscillator. The similarities and, in particular, the differences of the nonlinear behavior of the high-intensity discharge lamp to that of a Duffing oscillator are discussed. For large amplitudes, the high-intensity discharge lamp exhibits a stiffening effect in contrast to the Duffing oscillator. It is speculated on how the stiffening might affect hysteresis suppression.

  5. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  7. Comparison of Two Intensities of Aerobic Training (low intensity and High Intensity on Expression of Perlipin 2 Skeletal Muscle, Serum Glucose and Insulin levels in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Lipid metabolism disorder plays an important role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and lipid drop proteins such as perlipine 2 (PLIN2 are effective in regulating intracellular fat metabolism. One of the suggested pathways for the effects of endurance activity in metabolic diseases is the effect of physical activity on intramuscular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was compare the intensity of aerobic exercise intensity (low intensity and high intensity on expression of PLIN2 skeletal muscle, serum glucose and insulin levels in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.   Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8, including two intervention groups (low intensity endurance training group and high intensity continuous exercise group and one control group. After induction of diabetic rats by injection streptozotocin (55 mg / kg body weight, Intraperitoneally, endurance training was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week in diabetic rats. Exercise intensity in the low-intensity group was equal to 5-8 m / min (equivalent to 50-60% Vo2max, the intensity of training in a high intensity training group was equivalent to a speed of 22-25 m / min (equivalent to 80% Vo2max and the control group did not receive intervene in this time. Relative protein expression of PLIN2 was performed using western blot technique. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test.   Results: The results of the intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference among three groups in the PLIN2 variables (p = 0.037. The results of post hoc test showed a significant increase in PLIN2 in high intensity training diabetic group compared to the control group (p = 0.033 However, there was no significant difference in PLIN2 level in the low exercise group compared to the control group (p = 0.18. Also, there was no significant difference between the low intensity and

  8. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum at MR imaging; Significance in hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Ha; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Chang Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of high signal intensity of the septum pellucidum in hydrocephalus on proton density-weighted brain MR images. Authors reviewed the MR images of 418 cases of patients with normal (175 case), hydrocephalic(35 cases), atrophic(58 cases), and other groups(150 cases) retrospectively. We analyzed the signal intensity of the septum pellucidum in the normal group and the incidences of high signal intensities of periventricular area of frontal horn of lateral ventricle(area 1), periventricular area except area 1 (area 2), callososeptal area(area 3), and septum pellucidum(area 4) in the normal and abnormal groups. In the normal group, the septum pellucidum was isointense to the head of caudate nucleus on proton density-weighted image. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum was seen in 31 cases (22 cases of hydrocephalus, 5 cases of brain atrophy, and 4 cases of others), and showed high specificity(91.4%) for hydrocephalus in spite of low sensitivity(62.9%), as compared with periventricular hyperintensities of other areas. High signal intensity of the septum pellucidum on proton density- weighted image may be caused by transependymal CSF migration in the patients with hydrocephalus, and considered as an additional finding of hydrocephalus in the cases of ventriculomegaly

  9. SIMULATIONS OF THE KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE TURBULENT CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Daniel O.; DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mininni, Pablo D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-20

    Recent high-resolution Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory images show evidence of the development of the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) expand in the ambient corona. A large-scale magnetic field mostly tangential to the interface is inferred, both on the CME and on the background sides. However, the magnetic field component along the shear flow is not strong enough to quench the instability. There is also observational evidence that the ambient corona is in a turbulent regime, and therefore the criteria for the development of the instability are a priori expected to differ from the laminar case. To study the evolution of the KH instability with a turbulent background, we perform three-dimensional simulations of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. The instability is driven by a velocity profile tangential to the CME–corona interface, which we simulate through a hyperbolic tangent profile. The turbulent background is generated by the application of a stationary stirring force. We compute the instability growth rate for different values of the turbulence intensity, and find that the role of turbulence is to attenuate the growth. The fact that KH instability is observed sets an upper limit on the correlation length of the coronal background turbulence.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  11. Characterization of a proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Mori, Michiaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Kado, Masataka; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Shu

    2007-01-01

    High-energy protons are observed with a 3 μm thick tantalum target irradiated with a high intensity laser. The maximum proton energy is ∼900 keV. The half angle of the generated proton beam (>500 keV) is about 10deg. Characterization of the proton beam will significantly contribute to the proton applications. (author)

  12. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to...

  13. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of National Drug Control Policy Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to...

  14. Axial segregation in high intensity discharge lamps measured by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Groothuis, C.H.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps have a high efficiency. These lamps contain rare-earth additives (in our case dysprosium iodide) which radiate very efficiently. A problem is color separation in the lamp because of axial segregation of the rare-earth additives, caused by diffusion and convection. Here

  15. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontieu, B. De; Martinez-Sykora, J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moortel, I. De [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); McIntosh, S. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  16. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  17. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  18. Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-04-01

    Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

  19. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  20. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  1. Real-Time Analysis of Global Waves Accompanying Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This allows the intensity variation of the pulse to be measured as a percentage increase in intensity relative to the background corona. To mitigate... intensity of the wave relative to the background chromosphere. Upon completion of the code, it was applied to a series of solar flares observed by both...wave-like features seen in H observations of the solar chromosphere. They are strongly associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and can cover a

  2. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. (author)

  3. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  4. The high intensity solar cell - Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems associated with conventional solar cells at high intensities and presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell which appears to eliminate the major problems. Test data obtained at greater than 250 AM1 suns gave a peak output power density of 2 W per sq cm at an efficiency exceeding 6% with an unoptimized cell operating at over 100 C. It appears that operation at 1000 AM1 suns at efficiencies greater than 10% is possible. At 1000 AM1 suns and 10% efficiency, the HI cell manufacturing cost is estimated to be $0.25/watt, with multi-megawatt annual production capability already existing within the industrial sector. A high intensity solar system was also analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency.

  5. Automated system for the determination of patterns of high-intensity LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baly, L.; Bolaño, L.; Arteche, R.; Broco, Y.; Quesada, I.; Rodríguez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of high-intensity LEDs lighting patterns is an important step for the simulation and planning of arrays of these devices configurations. Currently there are systems based on CCD cameras able to efficiently solve this problem, however the high cost of these is a limiting factor for use. Another limitation of CCD cameras, is that they are designed for light levels much lower than those produced by a high-intensity LED. In this paper we present an automated system for the determination of the intensity of LEDs based on the scan point to point patterns. The results of the analysis of a type of LED based on arrays of bars with built-in optical system is presented.

  6. The clinical study on high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging using Scolopendrid Aquacupuncture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-a Lim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out the effect of scolopendrid aquacupuncture on low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging. Methods : The 30 patients who had a diagnosis of high intensity zone by lumbar-MRI and admitted to Gwangju oriental medical hospital in wonkwang university from January 2005 to August 2004 were observed. The symptom of inpatients is low back pain with or without sciatica. We treated 30 patients by scolopendrid aquacupuncture besides the general conservative treatment of oriental medicine. Results and Conclusion : The scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment led to improvement in the pain and symptom of disability as determined by all efficacy measures. After scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment, there was improvement in VAS, ROM and SLRT. This results suggest that scolopendrid aquacupuncture is good method for treatment of low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Characteristics of polar coronal hole jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, K.; Bemporad, A.; Banerjee, D.; Gupta, G. R.; Teriaca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. High spatial- and temporal-resolution images of coronal hole regions show a dynamical environment where mass flows and jets are frequently observed. These jets are believed to be important for the coronal heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Aims: We studied the dynamics of two jets seen in a polar coronal hole with a combination of imaging from EIS and XRT onboard Hinode. We observed drift motions related to the evolution and formation of these small-scale jets, which we tried to model as well. Methods: Stack plots were used to find the drift and flow speeds of the jets. A toymodel was developed by assuming that the observed jet is generated by a sequence of single reconnection events where single unresolved blobs of plasma are ejected along open field lines, then expand and fall back along the same path, following a simple ballistic motion. Results: We found observational evidence that supports the idea that polar jets are very likely produced by multiple small-scale reconnections occurring at different times in different locations. These eject plasma blobs that flow up and down with a motion very similar to a simple ballistic motion. The associated drift speed of the first jet is estimated to be ≈27 km s-1. The average outward speed of the first jet is ≈171 km s-1, well below the escape speed, hence if simple ballistic motion is considered, the plasma will not escape the Sun. The second jet was observed in the south polar coronal hole with three XRT filters, namely, C-poly, Al-poly, and Al-mesh filters. Many small-scale (≈3″-5″) fast (≈200-300 km s-1) ejections of plasma were observed on the same day; they propagated outwards. We observed that the stronger jet drifted at all altitudes along the jet with the same drift speed of ≃7 km s-1. We also observed that the bright point associated with the first jet is a part of sigmoid structure. The time of appearance of the sigmoid and that of the ejection of plasma from the bright

  8. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  9. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. Specific technical qualities of fluorescent and HID lamps have been critically reviewed. I will direct my remarks to fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers, growth rooms, and greenhouses. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses.

  10. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  11. US evaluation of volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, R.V.; Chua, G.T.; Fry, F.J.; Franklin, T.D.; Wills, E.R.; Hastings, J.S.; Sanghui, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US in the right cerebral hemispheres of research canines were evaluated by diagnostic US from immediately after ablation up to 62 days later. Animals were killed and perfused for whole-brain recovery. US evaluation of whole-brain specimens was performed. Histologic analysis of brain sections verified lesion placement, size, and tissue response to US. These sections were compared with US studies for correlation data. Correlation data suggest that US visualization may aid in accurate placement of volume brain lesions and in evaluation of effects of high-intensity focuses US in normal brain

  12. The effect of high intensity laser propagation instabilities on channel formation in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmudin, Z.; Krushelnick, K.; Tatarakis, M.; Clark, E.L.; Danson, C.N.; Malka, V.; Neely, D.; Santala, M.I.K.; Dangor, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using high power laser pulses (up to 50 TW) focused into underdense helium plasmas (n e ≤5x10 19 cm -3 ). Using shadowgraphy, it is observed that the laser pulse can produce irregular density channels, which exhibit features such as long wavelength hosing and 'sausage-like' self-focusing instabilities. This phenomenon is a high intensity effect and the characteristic period of oscillation of these instabilities is typically found to correspond to the time required for ions to move radially out of the region of highest intensity

  13. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  14. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  15. Approach to a very high intensity beam at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The high-intensity, high-energy proton accelerator project, J-PARC, comprises the 400-MeV proton linac, the 3-GeV, 1-MW Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV Marin Ring (MR) Synchrotron. The secondary particles such as neutrons, muons, Kaons, neutrinos and so forth will be fully made use of for materials science, life science, nuclear physics, and particle physics. Even the industrial use of the neutrons and the nuclear energy application are incorporated in the project. The rationale for choosing the accelerator schemes are presented together with the present status of the project and research and development for the high-intensity, high-energy proton accelerators J-PARC. The development of the high-field gradient RF cavity system making use of the magnetic alloy (MA), which is really necessary for the future development of the high-power proton accelerators, is reported in detail. (author)

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  17. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  18. Fracture morphology of AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures: A 3D CT study with an emphasis on coronal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Woo; Kent, William T; Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Youngwoo; Kim, Hyungon; Jha, Ashutosh; Durai, Senthil Kumar; Oh, Jong-Keon

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the incidence and morphology of coronal plane fragments in AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures. 156 cases of AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures were retrospectively evaluated. Lateral radiographs were analyzed for the presence of coronal plane fragments followed by analysis of 3D CT reconstructions in these fractures. The incidence of coronal fragments identified on the lateral radiograph and 3D CT reconstructions were both calculated. Coronal fragment morphology was described based upon the origin and exit points of fracture lines and the number of fragments. On plain radiographs, a coronal plane fracture was identified in 59 cases, an incidence of 37.8% (59/156). In comparison, 3D CT reconstructions identified coronal plane fractures in 138 cases for an incidence of 88.4% (138/156). 3D CT reconstructions identified coronal fracture fragments in 81.9% (50/61) of AO/OTA 31-A1 cases, 94.5% (69/73) of 31-A2 cases, and 86.3% (19/22) of 31-A3 cases. Incidence of coronal fractures identified on plain radiographs of 3 AO/OTA 31-A1,A2,A3 groups was lower when compared to the incidence of coronal fractures identified on 3D CT. Of the 138 cases that had coronal plane fracture, 82 cases (59.4%) had a single coronal fragment (GT fragment 35 cases, GLT fragment 19 cases, GLPC fragment 28 cases). The remaining 56 cases (40.5%) had two coronal fragments. There is a high incidence of coronal fragments in intertrochanteric femur fractures when analyzed with 3D CT reconstructions. Our study suggests that these coronal fragments are difficult to identify on plain radiographs. Knowledge of the incidence and morphology of coronal fragments helps to avoid potential intraoperative pitfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  20. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cabral-Santos, José Gerosa-Neto, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Luís Alberto Gobbo, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Fábio Santos Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p 0.05. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05, however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05, and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05. In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different.

  1. Photolysis of phosphodiester bonds in plasmid DNA by high intensity UV laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croke, D.T.; Blau, Werner; OhUigin, Colm; Kelly, J.M.; McConnell, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in DNA exposed to high intensity UV laser pulses in aerated aqueous solution has been investigated using a krypton fluoride excimer laser (248 nm) and bacterial plasmid DNA. The dependence of strand breakage on fluence and intensity has been studied in detail and shows that the process is non-linear with respect to intensity. The relationship between the quantum yield for strand breakage and intensity shows that the strand breakage reaction involves two-photon excitation of DNA bases. The quantum yield rises with intensity from a lower value of 7 x 10 -5 until a maximum value of 4.5 x 10 -4 is attained at intensities of 10 11 W m -2 and above. This value is approximately fifty-fold higher than the quantum yield for strand breakage induced by exposure to low density UV irradiation (254 nm, 12 W m -2 ). DNA sequencing experiments have shown that strand breakage occurs by the specific cleavage of the phosphodiester bond which lies immediately 3' to guanine residues in the DNA, leaving some alkali-labile remnant attached to the terminal phosphate. A mechanism for DNA strand breakage which involves the generation of guanine radical cations is proposed. (author)

  2. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV: A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S H Wingenbach

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV. A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu hit rates were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the

  3. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author.

  4. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set – Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author

  5. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  6. High intensity metallic ion beam from an ecr ion source using the Mivoc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    The MIVOC method has been successfully used at GANIL to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 μA 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. Experimental setup, handling and off-line preparation using a residual gas analyzer are described in this report. The ion source behavior, performances and limitations are presented in the case of nickel and iron. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared to the oven method usually used at GANIL. (author)

  7. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  8. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  9. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enoch C.Chow; Jennifer L.Etnier

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dissociative attentional stimuli (e.g.,music,video) are effective in decreasing ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during low-to-moderate intensity exercise,but have inconsistent results during exercise at higher intensity.The purpose of this study was to assess attentional focus and RPE during high-intensity exercise as a function of being exposed to music,video,both (music and video),or a no-treatment control condition.Methods:During the first session,healthy men (n =15) completed a maximal fitness test to determine the workload necessary for high-intensity exercise (operationalized as 125% ventilatory threshold) to be performed during subsequent sessions.On 4 subsequent days,they completed 20 min of high-intensity exercise in a no-treatment control condition or while listening to music,watching a video,or both.Attentional focus,RPE,heart rate,and distance covered were measured every 4 min during the exercise.Results:Music and video in combination resulted in significantly lower RPE across time (partial η2 =0.36) and the size of the effect increased over time (partial η2 =0.14).Additionally,music and video in combination resulted in a significantly more dissociative focus than the other conditions (partial η2 =0.29).Conclusion:Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation.Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  10. Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Pinto, Stephanie S; Silva, Mariana R; Dolinski, Davi B; Alberton, Cristine L

    2018-05-07

    Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore, our aim was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of whole-body HIIT (HIIT-WB), HIIT-T, and MICT on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and running economy (RE) outcomes. Fifty-five healthy men (23.7 ± 0.7 years, 1.79 ± 0.01 m, 78.5 ± 1.7 kg) were randomized into 3 training groups (HIIT-T = 17; HIIT-WB = 19; MICT = 19) for 16 weeks (3× per week). The HIIT-T group performed eight 20-second bouts at 130% of the velocity associated to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) interspersed by 10-second passive recovery on a treadmill, whereas HIIT-WB group performed the same protocol but used calisthenics exercises at an all-out intensity instead of treadmill running. Finally, MICT group exercised for 30 minutes at 90-95% of the heart rate (HR) associated to VT2. After the intervention, all groups improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, time to exhaustion (Tmax), VT2, velocity associated with VT2 (vVT2), and time to reach VT2 (tVT2) significantly (p HIIT-T compared with HIIT-WB (p HIIT-WB can be as effective as traditional HIIT while also being time-efficient compared with MICT to improve health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of training. However, HIIT-T and MICT seem preferable to enhance performance-related outcomes compared with HIIT-WB.

  11. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  12. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  13. Ultrafast photoionization dynamics at high laser intensities in the xuv regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, B.; Vagov, A.; Axt, V. M.; Pietsch, U. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    We study the ionization dynamics in the soft-x-ray regime for high intensities and short pulses for excitations near the ionization threshold. Using a one-dimensional helium atom model, we compare exact numerical solutions with time-dependent Hartree-Fock results in order to identify the role of electron-electron correlations. At moderate intensities but still in the x-ray and short-pulse regime, we find that the Hartree-Fock theory reproduces well the dynamics of the ground-state occupation, while at high intensities strong correlation effects occur for excitations close to the threshold. From their characteristic momentum distributions, we can identify contributions to the double ionization from sequential three-photon and nonsequential or sequential two-photon processes. At elevated intensities these contributions deviate from their usual intensity scaling due to saturation effects, even though the total double-ionization probability stays below 10%. Furthermore, analysis of the time evolution of the momentum distribution reveals signatures of the energy-time uncertainty which indicate a coherent regime of the dynamics.

  14. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  15. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  16. Efficient coupling of high intensity short laser pulses into snow clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchan, T.; Pecker, S.; Henis, Z.; Eisenmann, S.; Zigler, A.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of energy absorption of high intensity laser pulses in snow clusters are reported. Targets consisting of sapphire coated with snow nanoparticles were found to absorb more than 95% of the incident light compared to 50% absorption in flat sapphire targets.

  17. High intensity metallic ion beams from an ecr ion source at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leherissier, P.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Jaffres, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the recent years, progress concerning the production of high intensity of metallic ions beams ( 58 Ni, 48 Ca, 76 Ge) at Ganil have been performed. The MIV0C method has been successfully used to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 eμA of 58 Ni 11+ at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 pμA on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic 48 Ni isotope. The oven method has been first tested with natural metallic calcium on the ECR4 ion source, then used to produce a high power beam (740 W on target i.e. 0.13 pμA accelerated up to 60 MeV/u) of 48 Ca still keeping a low consumption (0.09 mg/h). A germanium beam is now under development, using the oven method with germanium oxide. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared. (authors)

  18. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...... women volleyball players....

  19. SOLVING BY PARALLEL COMPUTATION THE POISSON PROBLEM FOR HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS IN CIRCULAR ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCCIO, A.U.; DIMPERIO, N.L.; SAMULYAK, R.; BEEB-WANG, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulation of high intensity accelerators leads to the solution of the Poisson Equation, to calculate space charge forces in the presence of acceleration chamber walls. We reduced the problem to ''two-and-a-half'' dimensions for long particle bunches, characteristic of large circular accelerators, and applied the results to the tracking code Orbit

  20. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  1. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

  2. Moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Sobol, Nanna A.; Frederiksen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of physical exercise in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are few and results have been inconsistent. Objective: To assess the effects of a moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise program in patients with mild AD. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, we recruited...

  3. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...

  4. High-resolution stochastic generation of extreme rainfall intensity for urban drainage modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Blumensaat, Frank; Molnar, Peter; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Urban drainage response is highly dependent on the spatial and temporal structure of rainfall. Therefore, measuring and simulating rainfall at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a fundamental step to fully assess urban drainage system reliability and related uncertainties. This is even more relevant when considering extreme rainfall events. However, the current space-time rainfall models have limitations in capturing extreme rainfall intensity statistics for short durations. Here, we use the STREAP (Space-Time Realizations of Areal Precipitation) model, which is a novel stochastic rainfall generator for simulating high-resolution rainfall fields that preserve the spatio-temporal structure of rainfall and its statistical characteristics. The model enables a generation of rain fields at 102 m and minute scales in a fast and computer-efficient way matching the requirements for hydrological analysis of urban drainage systems. The STREAP model was applied successfully in the past to generate high-resolution extreme rainfall intensities over a small domain. A sub-catchment in the city of Luzern (Switzerland) was chosen as a case study to: (i) evaluate the ability of STREAP to disaggregate extreme rainfall intensities for urban drainage applications; (ii) assessing the role of stochastic climate variability of rainfall in flow response and (iii) evaluate the degree of non-linearity between extreme rainfall intensity and system response (i.e. flow) for a small urban catchment. The channel flow at the catchment outlet is simulated by means of a calibrated hydrodynamic sewer model.

  5. Amide proton transfer imaging of high intensity focused ultrasound-treated tumor tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Jacobs, I.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. Methods: APT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  6. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Jacobs, Igor; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    PurposeIn this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. MethodsAPT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  7. Spatial and spectral coherence in propagating high-intensity twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.; Peřina ml., Jan; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, Sep (2015), s. 14365 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spatial and spectral coherence * high-intensity twin beams Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  8. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  9. Fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korenev, S.A.; Orelovich, O.L.; Puzynin, I.V.; Chernik, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of scanning electron microscopy of surfaces of the solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion beam treatment. The appearance of fractal structures on the modified surfaces is shown. The fractal dimensions of these structures were estimated by box-counting algorithm

  10. High-level fusion of depth and intensity for pedestrian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrbach, M.; Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classification which involves a high-level fusion of depth and intensity cues. Instead of utilizing depth information only in a pre-processing step, we propose to extract discriminative spatial features (gradient orientation histograms and local

  11. Inhibition of enteric pathogens using integrated high intensity 405 nm LED on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogates inoculated onto the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic light was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light emitting diodes (LED). Al...

  12. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  13. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. T1 ρ mapping for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation on tumor T1ρ . In vivo T1ρ measurements of murine tumors at various spin-lock amplitudes (B1 = 0-2000 Hz) were performed before (n = 13), directly after (n = 13) and 3 days (n = 7) after HIFU

  15. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Comet assay reveals DNA strand breaks induced by ultrasonic cavitation in vitro, Ultrasound in medicine & biology 1995; 21: 841-8. 3. Dalecki D...doxorubicin, focused ultrasound , HIFU, prostate cancer I. INTRODUCTION Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pFUS) is able to create acoustic cavitation ... ultrasound for breast cancer therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chang Ming (Charlie) Ma, Ph.D

  16. Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Hughes, Tonda L; Russell, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    To estimate sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking. Cross-sectional US adult health survey from 2014 and 2015. US adults aged 18 and older (n = 215 684; n = 203 562 heterosexual, n = 2784 lesbian/gay, n = 2892 bisexual, n = 686 'other' and n = 1947 don't know/unsure). Self-reported past 30-day standard binge and high-intensity binge drinking. Standard binge drinking cut-off values were 4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively. High-intensity binge drinking was measured as two and three times the standard level (8+ and 12+ drinks for women and 10+ and 15+ drinks for men). Lesbian and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to report consuming 4+ drinks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.57, confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.09 and aOR = 1.83, CI = 1.45, 2.30 for lesbian and bisexual women, respectively); 8+ drinks (aOR = 3.86, CI = 2.39, 6.24, aOR = 2.07, CI = 1.39, 3.07); and 12+ drinks (aOR = 3.81, CI = 1.77, 8.19, aOR = 2.54, CI = 1.25, 5.14) on a single occasion in the past 30 days. Generally, gay and bisexual men were no more likely than heterosexual men to report standard or high-intensity binge drinking. However, bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to consume 15+ drinks (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.01, 3.06). Rates of standard and high-intensity binge drinking were similar between heterosexual and unsure men and women. Men and women who indicated 'other' sexual identities were generally less likely than heterosexuals to report standard and high-intensity binge drinking, with the exception of 4+ drinks for women and 10+ drinks for men. In the United States, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  18. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki

    2002-12-01

    We investigate a mechanism of nonlinear phenomena in laser-plasma interaction, a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. We need to understand and further employ some of these phenomena for our purposes. We measure self-focusing, filamentation, and the anomalous blueshift of the laser pulse. The ionization of gas with the self-focusing causes a broad continuous spectrum with blueshift. The normal blueshift depends on the laser intensity and the plasma density. We, however, have found different phenomenon. The laser spectrum shifts to fixed wavelength independent of the laser power and gas pressure above some critical power. We call the phenomenon 'anomalous blueshift'. The results are explained by the formation of filaments. An intense laser pulse can excite a laser wakefield in plasma. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 10 18 cm -3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The density distribution of the helium gas is measured with a time-resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer to search for the optimum laser focus position and timing in the gas-jet. The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency, which is useful for ultrahigh gradient particle acceleration in a compact system. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results are compared with a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI and the anomalous blueshift will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D PIC simulation we obtain the results of high quality intense electron beam acceleration. These results illuminate the possibility of a high energy and a high quality electron beam acceleration. (author)

  19. Plasma Irisin Modestly Increases during Moderate and High-Intensity Afternoon Exercise in Obese Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Nathan C.; Grunewald, Zachary I.; Liu, Ying; Heden, Timothy D.; Nyhoff, Lauren M.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. Methods Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate (whole-blood), and insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, and irisin (plasma) throughout 190 min of testing. Results Plasma irisin increased above baseline during ModEx and IntEx (P0.05). Peak irisin levels during ModEx and IntEx exercise were 11.9± 3.4% and 12.3 ± 4.1% relative to baseline (Pexercise intensities (P>0.05). Irisin levels remained elevated above resting for 125 minutes post-exercise during ModEx, whereas levels returned to baseline within 15 minutes post-exercise during IntEx. Similarly, no associations were found between plasma irisin levels and circulating lactate, glucose, insulin, c-peptide, or glucagon among study days (P>0.05). However, there was an inverse association between basal irisin and lean mass (r = -0.70, P = 0.01). Conclusion A single bout of moderate and high intensity afternoon exercise induces modest increases in circulating irisin concentrations during exercise; however the regulation post-exercise appears to be dimorphic between exercise intensity in obese females. Future studies are needed to compare morning and afternoon exercise on irisin secretion. PMID:28125733

  20. Do coronal holes influence cosmic ray daily harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    Coronal holes are identified by their low emissivity in either EUV (Munro and Withrobe, 1973) or in X-rays (Krieger et al, 1973). They are seats of unidirectional magnetic fields. Also, high speed solar wind streams originate in them. Also, high speed solar wind streams originate in then (Krieger et al, 1973; Neupert and Pizzo, 1974; Nolte et al, 1976). Coronal holes often extend over a wide range of heliolatitudes (Timothy et al, 1975). Elsewhere in the Proceedings we have presented results on the long term changes observed in the amplitudes and the times of maximum of the diurnal, the semidiurnal and the tridiurnal variations of cosmic rays, at low (neutrons) and at high (underground muons) primary rigidities (Ahluwalia, 1977). We have shown that a dramatic shift to early hours is noticeable in the times of maxima of the harmonics during 1971-72 period. In this paper we examine the nature of the contributions of off-ecliptic cosmic rays of high enough rigidity, streaming under the influence of large scale ordered interplanetary magnetic field set up by the coronal holes, to the cosmic ray daily harmonics. Some models are presented and discussed in a preliminary fashion. (author)

  1. Recovery of a soil under different vegetation one year after a high intensity wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on soil recovery in fragile ecosystems following high intensity wildfires are scarce. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the impact of a high intensity wildfire in an ecosystem under different vegetation (shrubland and pinewood located at Vilardevós (Galicia, NW Spain and highly susceptible to suffer soil erosion due to the steep relief and high erositivity of the rainfall. Soil samples were collected from the A horizon (0-5 cm 1 year after the fire and soil quality was evaluated by analysis of several physical, chemical and biochemical properties measured in the fraction chemical properties > physical properties. The data also showed that the fire impact was different depending on the soil vegetation considered (shrubland and pinewood. Moreover, the data confirmed the slow soil recovery in this fragile ecosystem and, therefore, the need of adopting post-fire stabilisation and rehabilitation treatments in order to minimize the post-fire erosion and soil degradation.

  2. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  3. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  4. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R

    2018-03-01

    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  5. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  7. COMPOSITION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; Lepri, S. T. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Von Steiger, R. [International Space Science Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q {sub Fe} > 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70% over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  8. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  9. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop.

  10. Status of spallation neutron source program in High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Organization are jointly designing a 1 MW spallation neutron source as one of the research facilities planned in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. The spallation neutron source is driven by 3 GeV proton beam with a mercury target and liquid hydrogen moderators. The present status of design for these spallation source and relevant facility is overviewed. (author)

  11. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  12. Report from the NSLS workshop: Sources and applications of high intensity uv-vuv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to evaluate sources and applications of high intensity, ultra violet (UV) radiation for biological, chemical, and materials sciences. The proposed sources are a UV free electron laser (FEL) driven by a high brightness linac and undulators in long, straight sections of a specially designed low energy (400 MeV) storage ring. These two distinct types of sources will provide a broad range of scientific opportunities that were discussed in detail during the workshop

  13. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  14. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  15. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-10

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  17. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  18. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  19. Tune measurements with high intensity ion beams at GSI SIS-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Forck, Peter; Kowina, Piotr; Kaufmann, Wolfgang [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A precise tune measurement during a full accelerating cycle is required to achieve stable high current operation. A new system has been commissioned at GSI for position, orbit and tune measurements. It consists of three distinct parts; an exciter which provides power to excite coherent betatron oscillations in the bunched beam; Fast ADCs to digitize the BPM signals at 125 MSa/s; the post processing electronics uses digitized BPM signals to acquire one position value per bunch. Subsequently the baseband tune is determined by Fourier transformation of the position data. Experiments were conducted to understand the effects of high beam intensity on tune at injection plateau (11.4 MeV/u) and during acceleration ramp (11.4-600 MeV/u). These experiments were performed with U{sup 73+} and Ar{sup 18+} ion beam at highest achievable intensities of 2.10{sup 9} and 2.5.10{sup 10} respectively. Tune shift with increased intensity was observed. The working principle of the tune measurement system and observed high intensity effects on tune will be reported in this contribution.

  20. High-Intensity Exercise as a Dishabituating Stimulus Restores Counterregulatory Responses in Recurrently Hypoglycemic Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Gallagher, Jennifer R; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Ashford, Michael L J; McCrimmon, Rory J

    2017-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect of insulin therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Profound defects in the normal counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia explain the frequency of hypoglycemia occurrence in T1D. Defective counterregulation results to a large extent from prior exposure to hypoglycemia per se, leading to a condition called impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. In the current study, we investigate the hypothesis that IAH develops through a special type of adaptive memory referred to as habituation. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel intense stimulus (high-intensity exercise) to demonstrate two classic features of a habituated response, namely dishabituation and response recovery. We demonstrate that after recurrent hypoglycemia the introduction of a novel dishabituating stimulus (a single burst of high-intensity exercise) in male Sprague-Dawley rats restores the defective hypoglycemia counterregulatory response. In addition, the rats showed an enhanced response to the novel stimulus (response recovery). We make the further observation using proteomic analysis of hypothalamic extracts that high-intensity exercise in recurrently hypoglycemic rats increases levels of a number of proteins linked with brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for individuals with T1D and IAH. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.