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Sample records for high corn silage

  1. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  2. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN

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    Branislav Gálik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C, and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A and chemical (variant B additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into plastic bins with the capacity 50 dm3. In silage conserved by additives was lower content of crude fibre (significantly in both experimental variants and higher content of nitrogen free extract, starch and total sugars (significantly in variant A established. In silages form both experimental variants we found significantly lower content of lactic acid. The highest concent we detected in silage conserved without additives. In silage conserved by biological inoculant we found lower content of acetic acid and higher content of butyric acid, but their content was generally very low. Additives used in the experiment decreased content of amonia (0.074 g.kg-1 in variant A and 0.095 g.kg-1 of dry matter in variant B and alcohols too.

  3. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  4. Nutritional value of high moisture corn silage in the diet of Holstein cows

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    P. Persichetti Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five Holstein cows were distributed in a 5x5 latin square design to assess the effect of replacement levels of dry ground corn grain (DGCG by high moisture corn silage (HMCS on intake, total nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, according to the following treatments: 1 100% DGCG; 2 75% DGCG and 25% HMCS; 3 50% DGCG and 50% HMCS; 4 25% DGCG and 75% HMCS; 5 100% HMCS. The experiment lasted 70 days, divided into five phases of 14 days each. The digestibility was obtained using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the indicator. Fecal samples were collected twice daily and blood samples were collected on the last day of each period before the first meal (0h and 2h, 4h, 6h and 12h after the meal. There was no effect (P>0.05 on the intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch. The total apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF were not affected (P>0.05 by the treatments, as well as the plasma glucose concentration. However, there was a decreased linear effect (P<0.05 for the protein intake and increased linear effect (P<0.05 for starch digestibility, as the level of HMCS was increased in the diets.

  5. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

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    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  6. Identification of the major yeasts isolated from high moisture corn and corn silages in the United States using genetic and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Golt, C; Joerger, R D; Mechor, G D; Mourão, Gerson B; Kung, L

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify species of yeasts in samples of high moisture corn (HMC) and corn silage (CS) collected from farms throughout the United States. Samples were plated and colonies were isolated for identification using DNA analysis. Randomly selected colonies were also identified by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and by physiological substrate profiling (ID 32C). For CS, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomyces bulderi, Pichia anomala, Kazachstania unispora, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts. Pichia anomala, Issatchenkia orientalis, S. cerevisiae, and Pichia fermentans were the prevalent species in HMC. The 3 identification methods were in agreement at the species level for 16.6% of the isolates and showed no agreement for 25.7%. Agreement in species identification between ID 32C and DNA analysis, FAME and ID 32C, and FAME and DNA analysis was 41.1, 14.4, and 2.2%, respectively. Pichia anomala and I. orientalis were able to grow on lactic acid, whereas S. cerevisiae metabolized sugars (galactose, sucrose, and glucose) but failed to use lactic acid. The yeast diversity in CS and HMC varied due to type of feed and location. Differences in species assignments were seen among methods, but identification using substrate profiling generally corresponded with that based on DNA analysis. These findings provide information about the species that may be expected in silages, and this knowledge may lead to interventions that control unwanted yeasts. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

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    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  8. Effects of different corn silage: Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full fat extruded soybeans addition increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect on fat, protein and lactose content in milk. Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage in diets. Increasing alfalfa silage content in the diets increased ...

  9. Replacing conventional or brown-mid rib corn silage with brown-mid rib sudangrass silage in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages that use less water, but are high in digestibility, are sought as alternatives to traditional forages such as corn silage. Brown mid-rib (BMR) sudangrass is a possible alternative that can provide high-quality forage as a replacement for corn silage. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  10. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  11. Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate.

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    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Krempser, P M; Batista, L R; Pereira, M N; Schwan, R F

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

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    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  13. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

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    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  14. Effects of feeding corn silage, pelleted, ensiled, or pelleted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa (pelleted (AP), haylage (AH), or combination (APH)) on lamb growth and carcass characteristics. The objective of Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) was to compare AH to CS in lamb feedlot diets on lamb growth and carcass characteristics.

  15. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

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    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  16. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

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    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  17. Variability, stability, and resilience of fecal microbiota in dairy cows fed whole crop corn silage.

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    Tang, Minh Thuy; Han, Hongyan; Yu, Zhu; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    The microbiota of whole crop corn silage and feces of silage-fed dairy cows were examined. A total of 18 dairy cow feces were collected from six farms in Japan and China, and high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes was performed. Lactobacillaceae were dominant in all silages, followed by Acetobacteraceae, Bacillaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. In feces, the predominant families were Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Paraprevotellaceae. Therefore, Lactobacillaceae of corn silage appeared to be eliminated in the gastrointestinal tract. Although fecal microbiota composition was similar in most samples, relative abundances of several families, such as Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Succinivibrionaceae, varied between farms and countries. In addition to the geographical location, differences in feeding management between total mixed ration feeding and separate feeding appeared to be involved in the variations. Moreover, a cow-to-cow variation for concentrate-associated families was demonstrated at the same farm; two cows showed high abundance of Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae, whereas another had a high abundance of Porphyromonadaceae. There was a negative correlation between forage-associated Ruminococcaceae and concentrate-associated Succinivibrionaceae and Prevotellaceae in 18 feces samples. Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, p-2534-18B5, and Spirochaetaceae were regarded as highly variable taxa in this study. These findings help to improve our understanding of variation and similarity of the fecal microbiota of dairy cows with regard to individuals, farms, and countries. Microbiota of naturally fermented corn silage had no influence on the fecal microbiota of dairy cows.

  18. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

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    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  19. Comparison of Chemical and Degradability Characteristics of Green Forage and Silage of Sorghums Varieties with Corn Using In vitro

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    A. Hedayatipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and fermentative parameters of three fresh forages and silages of sorghum including Sweet, Pegah and Speedfeed varieties were compared with corn using in vitro method, also degradability coefficients of forages and silages were determined by in situ method. Forages were planted in the same condition and harvested in soft dough stage, then ensilaged in four replicates for each time of 30, 60 and 90 days of preservation in mini silos. Buffering capacity in green Sweet sorghum was lower than corn and Speedfeed, and acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrates respectively were significantly highest and lowest in fresh forage of Speedfeed sorghum. In time of 60 days, percent of acid detergent lignin of corn silage was lower than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghum silages; similarly, residual water soluble carbohydrate was lowest in corn silage. The lactate Concentration in corn and Pegah sorghums was higher than Sweet and Speedfeed silages. In corn and Sweet sorghum silages, Contents of acetic acid and ammonium nitrogen were highest and lowest, respectively. In nylon bag experiment, Degradation rate of corn and Pegah sorghum forages were significantly higher than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghums that cause to more effective degradability with passage rate of 0.08 in this forages. Also, the slowly degradation coefficient of corn silage was higher than sorghums silages. In conclusion, Speedfeed sorghum forage is not suitable for making silage in comparison others, and corn silage had more potential of degradability.

  20. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Laar, van H.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM;

  1. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencin...

  2. Trichoderma longibrachiatum acetyl xylan esterase 1 enhances hemicellulolytic preparations to degrade corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of a Trichoderma longibrachiatum preparation to an industrial Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii enzyme mixture demonstrated synergy for the saccharification of corn silage water-unextractable solids (WUS). Sub-fractions of the crude T. longibrachiatum preparation obtained after

  3. Comparação econômica da produção de grãos secos e silagem de grãos úmidos de milho cultivado em sistema de plantio direto Economical comparison of dried corn production and high moisture corn silage cultivated in no-till system

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    Samir Paulo Jasper

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho que foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, da Universidade Estadual Paulista em Botucatu, SP, objetivou-se avaliar os custos envolvidos na produção de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho, tendo como referência o processamento seco deste cereal, ambos cultivados em sistema de plantio direto. Para a avaliação foram determinados os custos envolvidos nas operações de máquinas agrícolas, insumos e na etapa de pós-colheita. Os resultados observados permitiram concluir que o custo por hectare para produção de silagem de grãos úmidos foi de R$1.398,06, sendo 8,8% menor do que os custos para produção de milho seco (R$ 1.533,78.This work was carried out at FCA-Botucatu/UNESP - São Paulo State University, with the aim to evaluate the costs involved in high moisture corn silage production, using the corn drying process as witness, both cultivated in no-tillage system. The costs involved in the operations of agricultural machines, inputs and post harvest phase were obtained for evaluation. The results allowed concluding that the cost per hectare for high moisture corn silage (US$ 607.85 was 8.8% smaller than the costs for dried corn (US$ 666.86.

  4. Corn yield for silage and grains in different integrated crop-livestock systems

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    Laíse da Silveira Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the objective was to assess the influence of two doses of N (90 and 180 kg N ha-1, added to the winter pastures, two integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, with and without trees and five positions between the tree rows, on the corn (Zea mays L. quality and productivity, for silage and grain. Adopting the complete randomized block design, the treatments included three replicates. In 2006, following the 14 x 3 m spacing (currently with 158 trees ha-1 the trees were planted in 6 out of the 12 paddocks. While the corn was implemented during summer of 2013/2014, cattle grazing on the annual pasture was done during the prior winter, in both ICLS. Corn for silage was reaped at the R5 phenological stage, whereas for grains it was done at 176 days post seeding. For silage, the corn plants were grinded and then stocked in the experimental mini PVC silos. The silage varied slightly in quality along the positions between the tree rows. The differences observed between N levels in the dry matter, crude protein (CP and grain productivity are expressions of the residual effects of the winter fertilization. Silage quality was improved by the shade effect which minimized the acid detergent fiber and raised the CP, although it reduced the corn production for silage and grains by 52%. Some feasible techniques to reduce these losses are discussed.

  5. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation.

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    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  6. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii ( P. kudriavzevii ) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica ( P. manshurica ), Candida ethanolica ( C. ethanolica ), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ( Z. bailii ) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii , probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast species during aerobic

  7. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  8. Occurrence and stability of masked fumonisins in corn silage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Alicia; Dagnac, Thierry; Lorenzo, Bruno Fernández; Llompart, María

    2015-12-15

    Corn plants contaminated with Fusarium verticilloides were harvested at two dates and ensiled in laboratory silos. The stability of Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1, FB2) was studied and the effects of inoculant use (Lactobacillus buchneri) and of the ensiling time were assessed. The occurrence of masked fumonisins was also investigated. After the extraction of the free forms (FB1, FB2), the residue was subjected to an alkaline hydrolysis resulting in the release of derivates subsequently detected by LC-HESI-MS/MS. The ensiling time has shown to be a significant factor for the evolution of free FB1 and FB2 at the 2nd harvest date. Moreover, the use of inoculant had a significant effect on the stability of hidden and total FB1 at the two harvest dates. Samples previously ensiled and exposed to aerobic conditions for 7days have shown higher fumonisin levels than those not exposed to air. Our results showed that 65% and 39% of the total FB1 and FB2 contents in silage were due to hidden fumonisins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

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    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  10. 'Shrink' losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M

    2016-01-15

    Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  12. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC; intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac; and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha; however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha. The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented

  13. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

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    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  14. Rumen volatile fatty acids and milk composition from cows fed hay, haylage, or urea-treated corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schingoethe, D J; Voelker, H H; Beardsley, G L; Parsons, J G

    1976-05-01

    Alfalfa-brome hay, haylage, .5% urea-treated corn silage, or .5% urea plus 1% dried whey-treated corn silage was fed as the only forage to one of four groups of 10 lactating cows per group for a lactation trial of 10 wk. Rumen samples were collected via stomach tube 3 to 4 h after the morning feeding. The pH of the rumen samples from cows fed hay was higher than for cows fed haylage, urea-treated corn silage, and urea-whey corn silage, 6.69 versus 6.36, 6.40, and 6.50. Total volatile fatty acids and propionate were highest from cows fed urea-whey corn silage and were higher on all three fermented forages than cows fed hay. Acetate/propionate ratio was highest from cows fed hay and lowest from cows fed corn silages. Butyrate was highest from cows fed haylage or hay. Milk protein composition was not affected by ration although nonprotein nitrogen of milk was highest from cows fed the urea-treated corn silages. Oleic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids were lowest in milk fat from cows fed hay while palmitic acid was highest from cows fed hay and haylage. These results suggest that type of forage fed may cause small changes in rumen fermentation and in milk composition. The importance of these changes is unknown but may affect properties of dairy products produced from this milk.

  15. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  16. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  17. Effects of various inulin levels on in vitro digestibility of corn silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... Effects of various inulin levels on in vitro digestibility of corn silage, perennial ... show the effects of various levels of inulin supplementation to support the IVTD ..... Canbolat, O., Filya, İ. .... 27, 2, 1-8(in Turkish, English abstract).

  18. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  19. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  20. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control, molasses (M, propionic acid (P, and molasses+propionic acid (PM, in laboratory silos (250 mL and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN, and high lactic acid (LA content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p105 cfu/g FM, however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM (p<0.05 and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage.

  1. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, UCCE Stanislaus, San Joaquin & Merced Counties, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  2. Effects of different fertilizers on quantity and quality of silage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Francia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Different fertilizers, ammonia sulfate and urea (MIN, Fertil 12.5 (ORG and Azoslow (ORG-MIN were compared in a silage corn crop. Total biomass yield was above 55.0 t ha-1 for all fertilizers. Azoslow showed the highest dry matter content (40.8%. No differences among the fertilizers were found in protein content (4.9% on average at waxy ripening, with the control showing the lowest value (3.9%. There were also no differences in silage quality among the fertilizers. The N budget was estimated in order to quantify the residual nitrogen amounts at harvest and the efficiency of fertilizers.

  3. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  4. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  5. Determination of the Use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii Application on Fermentation Profile and Chemical Composition of Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norafizah Abdul Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32–37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control, B1 (L. plantarum, B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp. and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g. The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.

  6. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  7. Effect of maturity and hybrid on ruminal and intestinal digestion of corn silage in dry cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, J; Baumont, R; Le Morvan, A; Nozière, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on extent of starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and protein digestion, and rumen fermentation in dry cows fed whole-plant corn silage from different hybrids. Four nonlactating Holstein cows cannulated at the rumen and proximal duodenum were fed 4 corn silages differing in hybrid (flint vs. flint-dent) and maturity stage (early vs. late) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. From early to late maturity, starch content increased (from 234.5 to 348.5 g/kg), whereas total-tract (99.7 to 94.5%) and ruminal starch digestibility (91.3 to 86.5%) decreased significantly. The decrease in ruminal starch digestibility with increasing maturity was similar between hybrids. No effects were found of maturity, hybrid, or maturity × hybrid interaction on total-tract NDF digestibility, ruminal NDF digestibility, true digestibility of N and organic matter in the rumen, or microbial synthesis. Harvesting at later maturity led to increased ruminal ammonia, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and acetate/propionate ratio but not pH. This study concludes that delaying date of harvest modifies the proportions of digestible starch and NDF supplied to cattle. Adjusting date of corn harvest to modulate amount of rumen-digested starch could be used as a strategy to control nutrient delivery to ruminants. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

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    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  9. Valor nutritivo e desempenho de leitões alimentados com rações contendo silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Nutritive value and performance of piglets fed rations containing high moisture corn silage

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    Ricardo Pinto de Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    high moisture corn silage (HMCS. Twelve crossbred (Landrace x Large-White x Duroc castrated males were allotted to metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design. The total feces and urine collection method was used. The values of digestible dry matter (DDM, digestible protein (DP, digestible starch (DS, digestible energy (DE, and metabolizable energy (ME of HMCS were 48.70, 3.77, 42.35%, and 2,389 and 3,327 kcal/kg, respectively, based on natural matter (60.18% DM. The experiment 2 was carried out to evaluate piglet performance and economic viability of diets with different substitution levels of dry yellow corn by HMCS. Forty-eight cross-breed (Landrace x Large-White x Duroc piglets were used. The piglets were divided into four treatments in a completely randomized design, with six experimental units and two piglets per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal corn-soybean meal diet and three diets with increasing dry yellow corn substitution by HMCS levels (33, 66 and 100%, based on the digestible energy content of dry yellow corn and HMCS. There was no effect of increasing levels of HMCS on daily weight gain and daily feed intake. Linear reduction on feed conversion and diet cost per kilogram of weight gain was observed. Data indicate that dry corn can be completely replaced by HMCS on piglets diets, with improvement on performance and economic index.

  10. Anti-Fusarium moniliforme activity and fumonisin biodegradation by corn and silage microflora

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    Simone B. Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to isolate microorganisms from corn and silage screened for their ability to inhibit F. moniliforme growth (strain 113F in association with fumonisin detoxification. Among 150 isolates four Gram-positive bacilli and one yeast with inhibitory activity were selected. The inhibition zone ranged from 50 to 72.5 mm using cultures, and from 25 to 52.5mm for crude alcoholic extract. The isolates S9, S10, S69 (sporulated bacilli and SE3071 (yeast degraded 43, 48, 83 and 57% of the initial FB1 concentration, respectively. The pH increased gradually in the medium during incubation for biodegradation process.

  11. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  12. Lining bunker walls with oxygen barrier film reduces nutrient losses in corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L M; Dos Santos, J P; Casagrande, D R; Ávila, C L S; Lara, M S; Bernardes, T F

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 systems for covering corn silage in bunker silos. The first system consisted of a sheet of 45-μm-thick oxygen barrier film (OB, polyethylene + ethylene-vinyl alcohol) placed along the length of the sidewall before filling. After filling, the excess film was pulled over the wall on top of the silage, and a sheet of polyethylene was placed on top. The second system involved using a standard sheet (ST) of 180-μm-thick polyethylene film. Eight commercial bunker silos were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that one-half of the silo was covered with OB and the other half with a ST system. During the filling, 3 net bags with chopped corn were buried in the central part (halfway between the top and bottom of the silo) of the bunkers (CCOR) in 3 sections 10 m apart. After filling, 18 net bags (9 per covering system) were buried 40 cm below the top surface of the 3 sections. These bags were placed at 3 distances from the bunker walls (0 to 50 cm, 51 to 100 cm, and 101 to 150 cm). During unloading, the bags were removed from the silos to determine the dry matter (DM) losses, fermentation end products, and nutritive value. The Milk2006 spreadsheet was used to estimate milk per tonne of DM. The model included the fixed effect of treatment (7 different locations in the bunker) and the random effect of the silo. Two contrasts were tested to compare silages in the top laterals (shoulders) with that in the CCOR (CCOR vs. OB and CCOR vs. ST). Three contrasts compared the corresponding distances of the silage covered by the 2 systems (OB50 vs. ST50, OB100 vs. ST100 and OB150 vs. ST150). Variables were analyzed with the PROC MIXED procedure of the SAS at the 5% level. The OB method produced well-fermented silages, which were similar to CCOR, whereas the OB system showed less lactic acid and greater pH and mold counts compared with CCOR. The ST method had 116.2 kg of milk/t less than the CCOR, as the OB system and the CCOR were similar

  13. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

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    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  14. Bromatological characteristics and ruminal digestibility of grain corn hybrids with different vitreousness in silage maturity

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    Evandrei Santos Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate vitreousness in commercial corn hybrids with flint and dent grains and to study the effect of this characteristic on agronomic behavior, nutritional value, and ruminal degradability of grains harvested in silage maturity. Twelve commercial corn hybrids were evaluated. They were divided in two groups (six with flint grains and six with dent grains. The experiments were conducted in two municipalities represented by Guarapuava and Laranjeiras do Sul, both in Paraná State. The harvest for the grain quality analysis was performed at ¾ of the milk line stage in the grain. The following characteristics were evaluated: grain yield, grain yield in silage maturity, vitreousness, ruminal digestibility of grain, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein. The grains in the group of dent hybrids exhibited better degradability associated with lower vitreousness than the group of flint hybrids. The group of dent hybrids exhibited better ruminal digestibility of the grains associated with lower vitreousness versus the group of flint hybrids. There is a negative correlation between vitreousness and the digestibility of the grain; thus, vitreousness can be a criterion for selecting genotypes for forage production.

  15. Effects of potassium sorbate and Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 on production of ethanol and other volatile organic compounds in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Windle, Michelle; Merrill, Caitlyn

    2015-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect of additives on production of nine silage VOC in corn silage, including compounds thought to contribute to poor air quality or affect feed intake (alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol; esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate; and aldehydes: acetaldehyde, valeraldehyde....... These results provide additional evidence that potassium sorbate is an effective additive for reducing production of ethanol and ethyl esters in corn silage. Combining potassium sorbate with L. plantarum may provide additional benefits, although the persistence of this effect for silages with higher VOC...

  16. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

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    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silage is the most important preserved food for ruminants. The transgenic corn was inserted into the genetic code Bt gene (Bacillus thuringiensis that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillars pests of maize, reducing production costs. To evaluate the varieties of plant corn silage DKB and AG with or without the Bt gene on the voluntary intake of DM (g/day and apparent digestibility coefficients (CDA of nutrients in sheep, the experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used 20 sheep and the experimental design was randomized blocks in scheme factorial type 2x2 (two varieties of plant corn to silage, with the presence or absence of Bt gene, with five animals per treatment. These animals were housed in metabolism cages, with collector and separator feces and urine for 21 days, comprising 8 days for diet adaptation and 7 days for determination of intake, followed by 6 days of collection of feces, to measure DMI (g/day, CDA DM, CP and NDF. Samples of feed offered, leftovers and feces were identified and placed in a circulating air oven maintained at 55°C to constant weight. The analyses were performed in Bromatological Analysis Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Science. To CTMS (g/day was interaction effect (p<0.05 than in the variety AG (779.36 was greater than DKB (637.52, because the DM content of the sheet AG (31.09 was superior to DKB (29.17. The AG (779.36 was higher than your counterpart isogenic without the gene (575.15 p<0.05. The DKB without the gene (637.52 did not differ (p>0.05 from your counterpart DKBBt with the gene (590.78. The lowest total DM intake in g/day was observed for varieties with Bt gene insertion (genetically modified organism - GMO and a possible explanation is the higher value of NDF in the silages of variety with the Bt gene in relation to their isogenic counterparts without the gene. The CDA, DM and NDF no had interaction effect between varieties factors and GMO (p>0

  17. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat......Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage...... of alcohols will lead to high alcohol concentrations in peripheral bood for a considerable period. Increased hepatic NEFA uptake in the postpartum transition period may result in even further decreased hepatic capacity for alcohol metabolism making post-partum transition cows especially vulnerable to high...... alcohol intakes. In order to evaluate the impact of alcohol fermentation in corn silages on dairy cow performance, the main purpose of this thesis was first to investigate the concentrations and composition of alcohols in typical field corn silages, and second to study how transition and lactating dairy...

  18. Corn silage versus corn silage:alfalfa hay mixtures for dairy cows: effects of dietary potassium, calcium, and cation-anion difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, R A; Piperova, L S; Kohn, R A

    2011-10-01

    Corn silage (CS) has replaced alfalfa hay (AH) and haylage as the major forage fed to lactating dairy cows, yet many dairy producers believe that inclusion of small amounts of alfalfa hay or haylage improves feed intake and milk production. Alfalfa contains greater concentrations of K and Ca than corn silage and has an inherently higher dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). Supplemental dietary buffers such as NaHCO(3) and K(2)CO(3) increase DCAD and summaries of studies with these buffers showed improved performance in CS-based diets but not in AH-based diets. We speculated that improvements in performance with AH addition to CS-based diets could be due to differences in mineral and DCAD concentrations between the 2 forages. The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of forage (CS vs. AH) and mineral supplementation on production responses using 45 lactating Holstein cows during the first 20 wk postpartum. Dietary treatments included (1) 50:50 mixture of AH and CS as the forage (AHCS); (2) CS as the sole forage; and (3) CS fortified with mineral supplements (CaCO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) to match the Ca and K content of the AHCS diet (CS-DCAD). Feed intake and milk production were equivalent or greater for cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with those fed the AHCS diet. Fat percentage was greater in cows fed the CS compared with the AHCS diet. Fat-corrected milk (FCM; 3.5%) tended to be greater in cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with the AHCS diet. Feed efficiencies measured as FCM/dry matter intake were 1.76, 1.80, and 1.94 for the AHCS, CS, and CS-DCAD diets, respectively. The combined effects of reduced feed intake and increased FCM contributed to increased feed efficiency with the CS-DCAD diet, which contained 1.41% K compared with 1.18% K in the CS diet, and we speculate that this might be the result of added dietary K and DCAD effects on digestive efficiency. These results indicate no advantage to including AH in CS-based diets

  19. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  20. Potassium sorbate reduces production of ethanol and 2 esters in corn silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Sasha; Franco, Roberta B; Kung, Limin

    2014-01-01

    concentrations within silage were measured after ensiling and sample storage using a headspace gas chromatography method. The high dose of potassium sorbate was the only treatment that inhibited the production of multiple VOC. Compared with the control response, it reduced ethanol by 58%, ethyl acetate by 46...

  1. Impact of adding Saccharomyces strains on fermentation, aerobic stability, nutritive value, and select lactobacilli populations in corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniere, L; Jin, L; Smiley, B; Qi, M; Rutherford, W; Wang, Y; McAllister, T

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial inoculants can improve the conservation and nutritional quality of silages. Inclusion of the yeast Saccharomyces in the diet of dairy cattle has also been reported to be beneficial. The present study assessed the ability of silage to be used as a means of delivering Saccharomyces strains to ruminants. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 1 and 3)and 1 strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus (strain 2) were inoculated (10(3) cfu/g) individually onto corn forage that was ensiled in mini silos for 90 d. Fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of silages were determined and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify S. cerevisiae, S.paradoxus, total Saccharomyces, fungal, and bacterial populations. Fermentation characteristics of silage inoculated with S1 were similar to control silage. Although strain 3 inoculation increased ash and decreased OM contents of silage (P = 0.017), no differences were observed in nutrient composition or fermentation profiles after 90 d of ensiling. Inoculation with Saccharomyces had no detrimental effect on the aerobic stability of silage. In vitro DM disappearance, gas production, and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by yeast inoculation.Saccharomyces strain 1 was quantified throughout ensiling, whereas strain 2 was detected only immediately after inoculation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 3 was quantified until d 7 and detectable 90 d after ensiling. All inoculants were detected and quantified during aerobic exposure. Inoculation with Saccharomyces did not alter lactobacilli populations. Saccharomycetales were detected by RT-qPCR throughout ensiling in all silages. Both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus populations increased during aerobic exposure, demonstrating that the density of these yeast strains would increase between the time that silage was removed from storage and the time it was fed.

  2. Digestibilidade da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho com diferentes granulometrias para suínos Digestibility of high moisture corn grain silage with different particle size for swines

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    A.C. Lohmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição química e determinaram-se os valores de energia digestível (ED e metabolizável (EM, os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS, da proteína bruta (CDPB, da matéria mineral (CDMM; do extrato etéreo (CDEE; da fibra bruta (CDFB, da energia bruta (CDEB e do extrativo não nitrogenado (CDENN e os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CDEB e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta (CMEB da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM. Foram utilizados 20 suínos, com peso vivo inicial de 28,89±4,9kg, distribuídos em gaiolas de metabolismo. Foi utilizada uma única SGUM, com quatro diferentes granulometrias 513, 587, 717 e 1363µm, que substituiu em 30% a dieta-referência. Os CDMS, CDPB, CDEE, CDMM e CDENN diminuíram com o aumento da granulometria da SGUM. Os CDEB e CMEB também diminuíram de 89,0 para 94,3%, e de 82,9 para 88,5%, respectivamente. Os valores energéticos variaram de 4439 a 4493kcal EB/kg, de 3999 a 4194kcal ED/kg e de 3729 a 3939kcal EM/kg, na matéria seca. Os CDEB e CMEB se reduziram até os diâmetros geométricos médios de 754 e 831µm, respectivamente. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes da SGUM foi influenciada negativamente ao se aumentar o diâmetro geométrico médio das partículas.The chemical composition; the values of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy; the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter (CDDM, crude protein (CDCP, mineral matter (CDMM, ether extract (CDEE, crude fiber (CDFB, crude energy (CDCE, and non nitrogen extractive (CDENN; as well as the coefficient of metabolizability of gross energy (CMGE of high moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS were evaluated. Twenty swines, averaging 28.89±4.9kg of live weight, randomly allotted in metabolism cages were used. HMCGS with different particle sizes 513, 587, 717, and 1363µm, replacing 30% of basal diet was used. CDDM, CDCP, CDEE, CDMM, and CDENN decreased as the particle size of the HMCGS increased. CDGE and CMGE also

  3. Qualidade da silagem de grãos de milho com adição de soja crua e parâmetros de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos Quality of high moisture corn grain silage with addition of raw soybean grains and parameters of partial and total digestibility in cattle

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    C.C. Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho com adição de soja crua, por meio de medidas de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos. Foram utilizados três animais mestiços Nelore x Red Angus, implantados com cânulas ruminal e duodenal. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 3x3, com os seguintes tratamentos: SGM66= 60% de volumoso, 26,6% de silagem de grãos de milho e 13,4% de farelo de soja e milho moído; SGM33= 60% de volumoso, 13,4% de silagem de grãos de milho e 26,6% de farelo de soja e milho moído, e GMS= 60% de volumoso e 40% de farelo de soja e milho moído. A digestão e a digestibilidade da matéria seca não foram influenciadas pela inclusão de SGM na dieta. A dieta SGM66 aumentou a digestibilidade de matéria seca no intestino em relação à dieta GMS. Não houve efeito da inclusão da silagem de grãos na digestão e na digestibilidade das frações fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro da ração, bem como no fluxo ruminal e intestinal do amido. A SGM66 melhorou a digestibilidade total da proteína bruta, mas não mostrou efeito sobre a digestibilidade total da matéria seca, da fibra e do amido e sobre o ambiente ruminal no que se refere à acidez e à concentração de amônia.The quality of high moisture corn grain silage with addition of raw soybean grains was evaluated by measures of partial and total digestibilities in cattle. Three crossbred Nelore x Red Angus steers averaging 305kg of live weigth and fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used. The experimental design was a 3x3 Latin square, and the steers received the following treatments: HMGS66 = 60% roughage, 26.6% high moisture grain silage, and 13.4% soybean meal and ground corn; HMGS33 = 60% roughage, 13.4% high moisture grain silage, and 26.6% soybean meal and ground corn; and GC = 60% roughage and 40% soybean meal and ground corn. The digestion and digestibility of dry matter was not influenced by

  4. Identification and Antimicrobial Activity Detection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stover Silage

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    Dongxia Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 59 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from corn stover silage. According to phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequences and recA gene polymerase chain reaction amplification, these LAB isolates were identified as five species: Lactobacillus (L. plantarum subsp. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Enterococcus mundtii, Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, respectively. Those strains were also screened for antimicrobial activity using a dual-culture agar plate assay. Based on excluding the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide, two L. plantarum subsp. plantarum strains ZZU 203 and 204, which strongly inhibited Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971T, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698T and Escherichia coli ATCC 11775T were selected for further research on sensitivity of the antimicrobial substance to heat, pH and protease. Cell-free culture supernatants of the two strains exhibited strong heat stability (60 min at 100°C, but the antimicrobial activity was eliminated after treatment at 121°C for 15 min. The antimicrobial substance remained active under acidic condition (pH 2.0 to 6.0, but became inactive under neutral and alkaline condition (pH 7.0 to 9.0. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of these two strains decreased remarkably after digestion by protease K. These results preliminarily suggest that the desirable antimicrobial activity of strains ZZU 203 and 204 is the result of the production of a bacteriocin-like substance, and these two strains with antimicrobial activity could be used as silage additives to inhibit proliferation of unwanted microorganism during ensiling and preserve nutrients of silage. The nature of the antimicrobial substances is being investigated in our laboratory.

  5. Relationship between processing score and kernel-fraction particle size in whole-plant corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Junior, G S; Ferraretto, L F; Salvati, G G S; de Resende, L C; Hoffman, P C; Pereira, M N; Shaver, R D

    2016-04-01

    Kernel processing increases starch digestibility in whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Corn silage processing score (CSPS), the percentage of starch passing through a 4.75-mm sieve, is widely used to assess degree of kernel breakage in WPCS. However, the geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of the kernel-fraction that passes through the 4.75-mm sieve has not been well described. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate particle size distribution and digestibility of kernels cut in varied particle sizes; (2) to propose a method to measure GMPS in WPCS kernels; and (3) to evaluate the relationship between CSPS and GMPS of the kernel fraction in WPCS. Composite samples of unfermented, dried kernels from 110 corn hybrids commonly used for silage production were kept whole (WH) or manually cut in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 pieces (2P, 4P, 8P, 16P, 32P, and 64P, respectively). Dry sieving to determine GMPS, surface area, and particle size distribution using 9 sieves with nominal square apertures of 9.50, 6.70, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.70, 1.18, and 0.59 mm and pan, as well as ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) digestibilities were performed for each kernel particle number treatment. Incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The ruminal in situ DM disappearance of unfermented kernels increased with the reduction in particle size of corn kernels. Kernels kept whole had the lowest ruminal DM disappearance for all time points with maximum DM disappearance of 6.9% at 24 h and the greatest disappearance was observed for 64P, followed by 32P and 16P. Samples of WPCS (n=80) from 3 studies representing varied theoretical length of cut settings and processor types and settings were also evaluated. Each WPCS sample was divided in 2 and then dried at 60 °C for 48 h. The CSPS was determined in duplicate on 1 of the split samples, whereas on the other split sample the kernel and stover fractions were separated using a hydrodynamic separation procedure. After separation, the

  6. Nycterohemeral eating and ruminating patterns in heifers fed grass or corn silage: analysis by finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswysen, A G; Dutilleul, P; Godfrin, J P; Ellis, W C

    1993-10-01

    Average daily and within-day nycterohemeral patterns of eating and ruminating behavior were determined in six Holstein-Friesian heifers (average BW = 427 kg) given ad libitum access to either corn or grass silage in a two-period crossover design. Rhythm components (number of cycles/24 h) were characterized by finite Fourier transform of the 24-h mastication activities as measured during 4 d by continuous jaw movement recordings. Average daily voluntary intake of corn silage was 8.2% greater (P = .05) than that for grass silage and was associated (P finite Fourier transform was reparameterized to express the amplitude (as periodograms) and phase of each rhythm component. Rhythm Components 1, 3, and 4 contributed primarily to explaining the total dispersion of the 24-h series of time spent eating and ruminating, for both silage types and individual heifers. Relative importance of Rhythm Component 1 of time spent eating, indicative of a main circadian pattern, was related positively to pedigree value for milk production (P = .01) and negatively to milk protein concentration (P = .09).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of free-range broilers fed wet grain corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPB Saldanha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of total replacement of dry corn by wet grain corn silage (WGCS in the feed of label broilers older than 28 days of age on performance, mortality, carcass, parts, breast meat and thighs meat yields, and meat quality. A mixed-sex flock of 448 ISA S 757-N (naked-neck ISA JA Label day-old chicks was randomly distributed in to randomized block experimental design with four treatments (T1 - with no WGCS; T2 - WGCS between 28 and 83 days; T3 - WGCS between 42 and 83 days; and T4 - WGCS between 63 and 83 days and four replicates of 28 birds each. Birds were raised under the same management and feeding conditions until 28 days of age, when they started to have free access to paddock with pasture (at least 3m²/bird and to be fed the experimental diets. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the rearing period, which was divided in three stages: starter (1 to 28 days, grower (29 to 63 days, and finisher (64 to 83 days according to the feeding schedule. During the short periods of WGCS use (group T2 during grower stage and T4 during the finisher stage, performance and mortality results were similar as to those of the control group (T1. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that the extended use of WGCS (T2 and T3 determined a negative effect on feed conversion ratio. However, the best results of breast meat yield were observed with birds fed WGCS since 28 days (T2. It was concluded that WGCS can replace dry corn grain for short periods during the grower and finisher stages with no impairment of meat quality and yield in slow growth broilers.

  8. Short communication. Effects of adding different protein and carbohydrates sources on chemical composition and in vitro gas production of corn stover silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Mejía-Uribe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of protein-rich by-products based in swine manure (SM, poultry waste (PW or chemicals compounds as urea (U, as well as energy products like molasses (M and bakery by-product (BB, is a viable method to produce good quality silage. In addition, the use of a bacterial additive can improve the fermentation characteristics of silage. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition, in vitro gas production (GP and dry matter disappearance (DMd, using different sources of protein and energy in silage. The silages were made using SM, PW or U as protein sources and M or BB as energy source, with corn stover and with or without a bacterial additive. The organic matter (OM content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with UBB, UM and SMBB compared with the rest of the treatments; meanwhile crude protein content was higher (p < 0.001 in silages with U. The addition of a bacterial additive increased (p < 0.05 OM content and decreased (p < 0.05 fiber content. Total GP was higher (p < 0.05 in silages containing BB, but DMd was higher (p < 0.05 in silages with U and SMBB. The inclusion of a bacterial additive decreased (p < 0.05 GP and DMd. The use of alternative sources of protein such as poultry and swine manure or urea, and of by-products of sugar industry and bakery is an alternative for silages based on corn stover. The results show that when properly formulated, the silages can provide more than 16% of crude protein and have DMd values above 60%.

  9. Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those

  10. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1) were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i) 50% immediately after sowing, (ii) 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii) 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a so...

  11. Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats Utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho em substituição ao milho seco no consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produção e composição do leite de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.l.L. Canizares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primiparous and multiparous Alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. The treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (HMCS replacing corn dry grain (CDG. Average intake of DM (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % BW, CP (0.22 kg/day, NFC (0.76 kg/day and TDN (1.29 kg/day were not influenced by levels of HMCS. However, intake of NDF (0.53 kg/day was significant for the different level of HMCS. Daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (MP/DMI, fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of HMCS. Percentage of non fat solids (8.00% was affected by replacing levels of HMCS. The use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.Foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Alpina, primíparas e multíparas, com aproximadamente 80 dias em lactação, alojadas individualmente em gaiolas metálicas e distribuídas, de acordo com a produção de leite, em cinco quadrados latinos 4 × 4. As dietas experimentais utilizadas apresentaram relação concentrado:volumoso 65:35. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por níveis crescentes 0, 33, 67 e 100% de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em substituição ao grão seco de milho (GSM. As médias de consumo de MS (1,62 kg/dia, 3,90 %PV, proteína bruta (0,22 kg/dia, carboidratos não fibrosos (0,76 kg/dia e nutrientes digestíveis totais (1,29 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de SGUM

  12. Demonstrating the Effect of Forage Source on the Carbon Footprint of a Canadian Dairy Farm Using Whole-Systems Analysis and the Holos Model: Alfalfa Silage vs. Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannan M. Little

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Before recommending a feeding strategy for greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation, it is important to conduct a holistic assessment of all related emissions, including from those arising from feed production, digestion of these feeds, managing the resulting manure, and other on-farm production processes and inputs. Using a whole-systems approach, the Holos model, and experimentally measured data, this study compares the effects of alfalfa silage- versus corn silage-based diets on GHG estimates in a simulated Canadian dairy production system. When all emissions and sources are accounted for, the differences between the two forage systems in terms of overall net GHG emissions were minimal. Utilizing the functional units of milk, meat, and total energy in food products generated by the system, the comparison demonstrates very little difference between the two silage production systems. However, the corn silage system generated 8% fewer emissions per kg of protein in food products as compared to the alfalfa silage system. Exploratory analysis of the impact of the two silage systems on soil carbon showed alfalfa silage has greater potential to store carbon in the soil. This study reinforces the need to utilize a whole-systems approach to investigate the interrelated effects of management choices. Reported GHG reduction factors cannot be simply combined additively because the interwoven effects of management choices cascade through the entire system, sometimes with counter-intuitive outcomes. It is necessary to apply this whole-systems approach before implementing changes in management intended to reduce GHG emissions and improve sustainability.

  13. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a chemical additive based on sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Limin; Smith, Megan L; Benjamim da Silva, Erica; Windle, Michelle C; da Silva, Thiago C; Polukis, Stephanie A

    2018-04-11

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments. Treatments with all of the additives had numerically, but not statistically, fewer yeasts compared with untreated silage. Both application rates of SSL resulted in lower concentrations of ethanol compared with untreated and BPA silages. Treatment with BPA improved the aerobic stability of silages compared with untreated silage, but the effect from SSL was markedly greater. In experiment 2, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 or 3 L of SSL/t or a microbial inoculant containing Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072, and Lactobacillus buchneri LN1819 (final total lactic acid bacteria application rate of 150,000 cfu/g of fresh forage). Silages were air stressed for 24 h at 28 and 42 d of storage and ensiled for 49 d before opening. Inoculation had no effect on acid end products, ethanol, number of yeasts, or aerobic stability compared with other treatments. Treatment with SSL decreased the amount of ethanol, had no effect on number of yeasts, and improved aerobic stability in a dose-dependent manner compared with other treatments. In experiment 3, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 L of SSL/t and ensiled for 5, 15, and 30 d. Treatment with SSL resulted in silage with fewer yeasts and lower concentrations of ethanol after all times of ensiling compared with untreated silage. In addition, SSL improved aerobic stability after each period of ensiling, but the effect was more at 15 and 30 d

  14. Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. In vitro gas and methane production of silages from whole-plant corn harvested at 4 different stages of maturity and a comparison with in vivo methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macome, F. M.; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Hatew, B.; Schonewille, J T; Cone, John W

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between in vitro and in vivo CH4 production by cows fed corn silage (CS)-based rations. In vivo CH4 production was measured in climate respiration chambers using 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows. In vitro CH4 production was measured using

  16. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  17. Comparison of brown midrib-6 and -18 forage sorghum with conventional sorghum and corn silage in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A L; Grant, R J; Pedersen, J F; O'Rear, J

    2004-03-01

    Total mixed rations containing conventional forage sorghum, brown midrib (bmr)-6 forage sorghum, bmr-18 forage sorghum, or corn silage were fed to Holstein dairy cows to determine the effect on lactation, ruminal fermentation, and total tract nutrient digestion. Sixteen multiparous cows (4 ruminally fistulated; 124 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated Latin square design with 4-wk periods (21-d adaptation and 7 d of collection). Diets consisted of 40% test silage, 10% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate mix (dry basis). Acid detergent lignin concentration was reduced by 21 and 13%, respectively, for the bmr-6 and bmr-18 sorghum silages when compared with the conventional sorghum. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for cows fed bmr-6 (33.7 kg/d) and corn silage (33.3 kg/d), was least for cows fed the conventional sorghum (29.1 kg/d), and was intermediate for cows fed the bmr-18 sorghum (31.2 kg/d), which did not differ from any other diet. Total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (54.4%) and corn silage (54.1%) diets and was lower for the conventional (40.8%) and bmr-18 sorghum (47.9%) diets. In situ extent of NDF digestion was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (76.4%) and corn silage (79.0%) diets, least for the conventional sorghum diet (70.4%), and intermediate for the bmr-18 sorghum silage diet (73.1%), which was not different from the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the bmr-6 sorghum hybrid outperformed the conventional sorghum hybrid; the bmr-18 sorghum was intermediate between conventional and bmr-6 in most cases. Additionally, the bmr-6 hybrid resulted in lactational performance equivalent to the corn hybrid used in this study. There are important compositional differences among bmr forage sorghum hybrids that need to be characterized to predict animal response accurately.

  18. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Kurt D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS and matured whole corn plants (WCP as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan. Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading CS hydrolyzate (resulting

  19. Enzymatic digestibility and ethanol fermentability of AFEX-treated starch-rich lignocellulosics such as corn silage and whole corn plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Corn grain is an important renewable source for bioethanol production in the USA. Corn ethanol is currently produced by steam liquefaction of starch-rich grains followed by enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Corn stover (the non-grain parts of the plant) is a potential feedstock to produce cellulosic ethanol in second-generation biorefineries. At present, corn grain is harvested by removing the grain from the living plant while leaving the stover behind on the field. Alternatively, whole corn plants can be harvested to cohydrolyze both starch and cellulose after a suitable thermochemical pretreatment to produce fermentable monomeric sugars. In this study, we used physiologically immature corn silage (CS) and matured whole corn plants (WCP) as feedstocks to produce ethanol using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (at low enzyme loadings) and cofermentation (for both glucose and xylose) using a cellulase-amylase-based cocktail and a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain, respectively. The effect on hydrolysis yields of AFEX pretreatment conditions and a starch/cellulose-degrading enzyme addition sequence for both substrates was also studied. Results AFEX-pretreated starch-rich substrates (for example, corn grain, soluble starch) had a 1.5-3-fold higher enzymatic hydrolysis yield compared with the untreated substrates. Sequential addition of cellulases after hydrolysis of starch within WCP resulted in 15-20% higher hydrolysis yield compared with simultaneous addition of hydrolytic enzymes. AFEX-pretreated CS gave 70% glucan conversion after 72 h of hydrolysis for 6% glucan loading (at 8 mg total enzyme loading per gram glucan). Microbial inoculation of CS before ensilation yielded a 10-15% lower glucose hydrolysis yield for the pretreated substrate, due to loss in starch content. Ethanol fermentation of AFEX-treated (at 6% w/w glucan loading) CS hydrolyzate (resulting in 28 g/L ethanol

  20. Effects of dietary combination of corn and rice as whole crop silage and grain sources on carbohydrate digestion and nitrogen use in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongfu; Sugino, Toshihisa; Obitsu, Taketo; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2014-02-01

    Four Holstein steers were used to evaluate the combination effects of whole crop corn (Cs) or rice (Rs) silage with steam-flaked corn (Cg) or rice (Rg) grain (four dietary treatments) on ruminal carbohydrate digestion, duodenal nitrogen (N) flow and plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentration. The ruminal digestibility of starch and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) for Rs and Rg diets compared with Cs and Cg diets was greater, but that of neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) was less. Because the ruminal disappearance of NFC plus aNDFom was similar across four dietary treatments, microbial N flow was not affected by the diets. There was an interaction of methionine (Met) flow by silage and grain sources: greatest for CsRg and least for RsRg diet, and blood plasma concentration of Met after feeding was lower for Rg than Cg diets. Postprandial reduction degree of plasma EAA varied with the diets and individual EAA. The Cs diets compared with the Rs diets tended to be greater in N retention because of greater digestible organic matter (OM) intake. These results suggest that silage source combined with corn or rice grain affects N use in steers through the digestible OM intake, and the kinds of limiting AA may differ among the combination of silage and grain sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Energy inputs and outputs and sustainability of corn silage production; Balanco energetico e sutentabilidade na producao de silagem de milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Zanini, Agostinho; Prestes, Tania Maria Vicentini; Dalmolin, Maria Fatima da Silva [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana

    2004-07-01

    The agricultural ecosystem as way of converting solar energy in products, needs several energy sources, among that sources stand out fertilizers, agricultural defensives and others. These inputs are derived from fossils. In the present paper, it was studied the energy flows involved in corn silage production in a no tillage crop system, in Sao Miguel of Iguacu-Parana State/Brazil. In the direct energy flow, the fuels and lubricants were the largest consumers, representing 45.90% of the total, the agricultural defensives were responsible for the consumption of 24.12% of the total, while the fertilizers for 10.53% of the total consumption. By computing the fossil origin components, fuels, lubricants, defensive and fertilizers, the participation of the total consumption of energy was of 84.07%. (author)

  2. Perfil microbiológico e valores energéticos do milho e silagens de grãos úmidos de milho com adição de inoculantes para suínos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1005 Microbiological profile and energy values of corn grain and high-moisture corn grain silage with added inoculants for swine - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Oelke

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a contagem microbiana de fungos, bactérias lácticas e aeróbios mesófilos de silagens de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM com adição de inoculantes, e determinou-se os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável do milho e das SGUM para suínos. As SGUM utilizadas continham 0, 5 e 10 g de inoculante t-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, enzimas. Na determinação da contagem microbiana das SGUM, foram utilizados meios específicos, e avaliadas no dia da ensilagem, 50 e 100 dias. Na determinação dos valores energéticos foram utilizados 20 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das SGUM e do milho grão, que substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. O tratamento com 5 g de inoculante t-1 proporcionou maior contagem microbiana nos períodos. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, e os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável, do milho e das SGUM, variaram de 4094 a 4271 kcal kg-1; e 3826 a 3987 kcal kg-1, respectivamente. A adição de 5 g de inoculante t-1 proporcionou melhor perfil microbiológico durante o armazenamento, sem influenciar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia brutaThis study evaluated the counts of funghi, lactic bacteria and mesophilic aerobium microorganisms in high-moisture corn grain silage (HMCGS with added inoculants, and determined the digestible and metabolizable energy values of corn and the HMCGS for swine. The HMCGS contained 0, 5 and 10 g of inoculant t-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, enzymes. In order to determine the microbial counts of HMCGS, specific methods were used and evaluated on the day of ensilage, at 50 and 100 days. The energy values was determine using 20 swines, alloted in a randomized

  3. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  4. Corn silage in dairy cow diets to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: effects on the rumen metabolically active microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, A; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C

    2013-08-01

    Methane produced by the methanogenic Archaea that inhabit the rumen is a potent greenhouse gas and represents an energy loss for the animal. Although several strategies have been proposed to mitigate enteric CH4 production, little is known about the effects of dietary changes on the microbial consortia involved in ruminal methanogenesis. Thus, the current study aimed to examine how the metabolically active microbes are affected when dairy cows were fed diets with increasing proportions of corn silage (CS). For this purpose, 9 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and fed a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis) with the forage portion being either alfalfa silage (0% CS), corn silage (100% CS), or a 50:50 mixture (50% CS). Enteric CH4 production was determined using respiration chambers and total rumen content was sampled for the determination of fermentation characteristics and molecular biology analyses (cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR, quantitative PCR). The cDNA-based length heterogeneity PCR targeting active microbes revealed similar bacterial communities in cows fed 0% CS and 50% CS diets, whereas important differences were observed between 0% CS and 100% CS diets, including a reduction in the bacterial richness and diversity in cows fed 100% CS diet. As revealed by quantitative PCR, feeding the 100% CS diet increased the number of total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Archaea, and methanogenic activity, though it reduced protozoal number. Meanwhile, increasing the CS proportion in the diet increased propionate concentration but decreased ruminal pH, CH4 production (L/kg of dry matter intake), and concentrations of acetate and butyrate. Based on these microbial and fermentation changes, and because CH4 production was reduced by feeding 100% CS diet, this study shows that the use of cDNA-based quantitative PCR to estimate archaeal growth and activity is not reliable

  5. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  6. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

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    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P reproductive performance of heifers. Although oilseed additions increased total fatty acid flow to the duodenum, a high degree of biohydrogenation occurred, greatly increasing C18:0, with only marginal increases in unsaturated fatty acid flow. Depending on diet and feeding conditions, inclusion of whole oilseeds may not be an effective means of

  8. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

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    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  9. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silages based on desert wormwood (Artemisia desertorum Spreng.) combining with early stage corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guomei; Bai, Chunsheng; Sun, Juanjuan; Sun, Lin; Xue, Yanlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Heping; Yu, Zhu; Liu, Sibo; Zhang, Kewei

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight. As the proportion of DW decreased, the pH also decreased (P total nitrogen in the TMR silages with DW proportions of 0.75, 0.25 and 0 in the forage was more than 10%. These results indicated that the quality of the TMR silage containing DW alone as forage was poor, TMR silages containing DW proportions of 0.75 and 0.25, and ESC alone, in the forage were not well preserved. The optimum TMR silage formula contained a DW proportion of 0.5 in the forage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Valor nutritivo da silagem de dez híbridos de milho = Nutritional value of silage from ten corn hybrids

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    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e a digestibilidade aparente de dez híbridos de milho (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistache e Buxxil cultivados no INRA (Unité de Génétique et d’Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-France, em parcelas de 150 m2, com trêsrepetições. Para o estudo de digestibilidade in vivo, os ovinos foram alimentados com silagem da planta inteira dos híbridos de milho com três repetições. Os híbridos de milho foram avaliados antes de ensilados pelo método NIRS, em que se pode constatar que houve diferença (p The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the chemical-bromatological composition and apparent digestibility of ten hybrids of corn (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistachio and Buxxil planted at INRA (Unité of Génétique Amélioration des Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-France, in 150 m2 areas with three replications. The digestibility study was conducted using sheep fed corn hybrid whole plant silage with three replications. Corn hybrids were evaluated before ensilage using NIRS, and a significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed among treatments for chemical composition. DK265bm3 showed higher values than other hybrids for digestibility of DM, OM, cellulose, NDF and for IVDMD.

  11. Fate of Escherichia coli O26 in Corn Silage Experimentally Contaminated at Ensiling, at Silo Opening, or after Aerobic Exposure, and Protective Effect of Various Bacterial Inoculants▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunière, Lysiane; Gleizal, Audrey; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Chevallier, Isabelle; Thévenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for human illness. Ruminants are recognized as a major reservoir of STEC, and animal feeds, such as silages, have been pointed out as a possible vehicle for the spread of STEC. The present study aimed to monitor the fate of pathogenic E. coli O26 strains in corn material experimentally inoculated (105 CFU/g) during ensiling, just after silo opening, and after several days of aerobic exposure. The addition of 3 bacterial inoculants, Propionibacterium sp., Lactobacillus buchneri, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (106 CFU/g), was evaluated for their abilities to control these pathogens. The results showed that E. coli O26 could not survive in corn silage 5 days postensiling, and the 3 inoculants tested did not modify the fate of pathogen survival during ensiling. In the case of direct contamination at silo opening, E. coli O26 could be totally eradicated from corn silage previously inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The combination of proper ensiling techniques and the utilization of selected bacterial inoculants appears to represent a good strategy to guarantee nutritional qualities of cattle feed while at the same time limiting the entry of pathogenic E. coli into the epidemiological cycle to improve the microbial safety of the food chain. PMID:21984243

  12. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  13. Silage review: Recent advances and future uses of silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, R E; Nadeau, E M G; McAllister, T A; Contreras-Govea, F E; Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2018-05-01

    to apply a direct-fed microbial strain at ensiling, have it survive ensiling, and multiply during feed out. Chemical additives traditionally have fallen in 2 groups. Formic acid causes direct acidification, suppressing clostridia and other undesired bacteria and improving protein preservation during ensiling. On the other hand, sorbic, benzoic, propionic, and acetic acids improve silage aerobic stability at feed out through direct inhibition of yeasts and molds. Current research has focused on various combinations of these chemicals to improve both aerobic stability and animal productivity. Enzyme additives have been added to forage primarily to breakdown plant cell walls at ensiling to improve silage fermentation by providing sugars for the LAB and to enhance the nutritive value of silage by increasing the digestibility of cell walls. Cellulase or hemicellulase mixtures have been more successful at the former than the latter. A new approach focused on Lb. buchneri producing ferulic acid esterase has also had mixed success in improving the efficiency of silage digestion. Another new enzyme approach is the application of proteases to corn silage to improve starch digestibility, but more research is needed to determine the feasibility. Future silage additives are expected to directly inhibit clostridia and other detrimental microorganisms, mitigate high mycotoxin levels on harvested forages during ensiling, enhance aerobic stability, improve cell wall digestibility, increase the efficiency of utilization of silage nitrogen by cattle, and increase the availability of starch to cattle. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  15. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

  16. Parâmetros bromatológicos e fermentativos das silagens de milho e girassol Bromatological and fermentative parameters of corn and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Possenti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido no Instituto de Zootecnia, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA, São Paulo um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar quimicamente a qualidade das silagens e a degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS, fibra detergente neutra (FDN e proteína bruta (PB das silagens de milho e girassol. Na avaliação químico-bromatológica das silagens, utilizou-se delineamento estatístico inteiramente ao acaso com nove repetições por tratamento (silagem de milho ou girassol e, para a degradação in situ, utilizou-se delineamento em parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. A silagem de girassol apresentou maiores concentrações de proteína bruta (11,6 vs 9,4%, extrato etéreo (10,1 vs 3,2%, fibra detergente ácida (42,7 vs 31,9%e lignina (9,4 vs 3,7%, e menores teores de MS (22,0 vs 34,6% que a silagem de milho, respectivamente. Apresentou também maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal (10,7 vs 5,8 % e ácido acético (3,0 vs 0,79% e menores concentrações de ácido lático (3,7 vs 11,3% que a silagem de milho. As taxas de degradação efetiva da MS, FDN e PB da silagem de girassol foram menores do que as da silagem de milho. A silagem de milho apresentou características mais favoráveis ao processo de ensilagem.At the Instituto de Zootecnia, APTA, São Paulo State-Brazil, it was carried out an experiment to evaluated the chemical quality and ruminal degradation for dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and protein (CP of sunflower and corn silages. For chemical evaluation of the silages, a total randomized design with nine replicates was used. For in situ degradability was used a split-plot design with three replicates, in which the plots were the times of incubation and the subplot the silage. Sunflower silage showed higher concentration of crude protein (11.6 vs 9.4%, ether extract (10.1 vs 3.2%, acid detergent fiber (42.7 vs 31.9% and lignin (9.4 vs 3.7%, and lower concentration of dry matter than

  17. Perdas e valor nutritivo de silagens de milho, sorgo-sudão, sorgo forrageiro e girassol Losses and nutritional value of corn, Sudan sorghum, forage sorghum and sunflower silages

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    Leandro Barbosa de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as perdas e o valor nutritivo de silagens de diferentes forrageiras (milho, sorgo-sudão, sorgo forrageiro e girassol ensiladas no momento ideal de cada cultura. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro forrageiras e cinco repetições. As forragens foram ensiladas em silos de PVC com 50 cm de altura e 10 cm de diâmetro, providos de válvula de Bunsen, que foram armazenados por 60 dias. As perdas por gases e por efluente foram avaliadas por diferença de peso antes e após a ensilagem. As perdas por gases foram relativamente pequenas em comparação às perdas por efluente. A silagem de milho se destacou por apresentar menores perdas, enquanto as de girassol e sorgo-sudão apresentaram maiores perdas por efluente. A silagem de sorgo-sudão possui menor valor nutritivo, em decorrência dos maiores teores das frações fibrosas, enquanto a de milho destaca-se positivamente pelo seu valor nutricional.The objective of this study was to assess the losses and nutritional value of silages of different forage crops (corn, Sudan sorghum, forage sorghum and sunflower ensiled at the ideal time for each crop. A randomized complete design was used, with four forage crops and five replications. The forages were ensiled in PVC silos, 50 cm high and 10 cm in diameter, equipped with a Bunsen valve, that were stored for 60 days. The losses through gases and effluent were assessed for difference in weight before and after ensilaging. The losses by gases were relatively small compared with the losses by effluent. The corn silage stood out because it presented smaller losses, while the sunflower and Sudan sorghum presented greater losses by effluent. The Sudan sorghum silage presents the lowest nutritional value, due to the greater contents of the fibrous fractions, while the corn silage stand out positively because of its nutritional value.

  18. Fracionamento dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages

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    Renius Mello

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracteriza e quantifica as frações dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol, com a finalidade de disponibilizar dados bromatológicos que possibilitem maximizar o aproveitamento desses alimentos e otimizar o desempenho animal. Foram avaliados dois híbridos de milho (Zea mays, DKB-215 e DKB-344, dois híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, Ambar e AG-2005 e dois híbridos de girassol (Helianthus annuus, Rumbosol e M-734. A silagem de girassol apresentou menor valor de carboidratos totais (CT e B2 (celulose e hemicelulose e maior de C (lignina e fibra associada à lignina. A silagem de milho apresentou maior valor de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, A+B1 (açúcares solúveis + amido e pectina e de CT juntamente com a silagem de sorgo, enquanto a de sorgo apresentou maior valor de B2 em função da maior contribuição de colmo. Houve diferença entre híbridos dentro da cultura do girassol para CT, sendo que o Rumbosol obteve maior valor que o M-734, em razão da aptidão dos mesmos, forrageiro e granífero respectivamente. A silagem de girassol apresentou maior valor de proteína bruta (PB e de suas frações. Não foi observada diferença entre híbridos nos valores de PB e de suas frações.This work evaluates and characterizes the carbohydrates and proteins fractions of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages. The purpose was to supply composition data that make it possible to maximize use of foods and optimize animal performance. Two corn (Zea mays hybrids, DKB-215 and DKB-344; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids, Ambar and AG-2005; and sunflower (Helianthus annuus hybrids, Rumbosol and M-734; were evaluated. Sunflower silage showed the lowest total carbohydrates (TC and B2 (cellulose and hemicelluloses values and the highest content of C (lignin and fiber associated lignin. Corn silages showed higher non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, A+B1 (soluble sugars + starch and pectin and TC together sorghum silage while

  19. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

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    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  20. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L. to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Drissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1 were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i 50% immediately after sowing, (ii 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a solution of Zn sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O. Zn deficiency symptoms appeared at an earlier stage (4–5 leaf stage as white stripes between the midrib and the margin of leaves for a Zn rate below or equal to 5 mg kg−1. Severity of these symptoms manifested more in container than in field. For both experiments, Zn supply induced a significant increase in stem height and leaf area. Furthermore, in both experiments, control plants showed a notable delay in achieving anthesis, silking, pollination and kernels maturity. The maximum shoot dry weight at harvest was recorded with Zn supply of 5 mg kg−1 in field experiment and 10 mg kg−1 in containers experiment. The shoot dry weight was especially linked to kernels dry weight. This latter was mainly enhanced through two compounds: 1000 kernels dry weight and pollination rate. On the other hand, outdoor container results can be used to help predict field plant responses to Zn except for control treatment.

  1. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  2. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Após o resfriamento, foram tomados nas meias-carcaças esquerdas os cortes da seção H&H para estimativa da composição tecidual da carcaça e os cortes no Longissimus dorsi à altura da 12ª e 13ª costelas para determinação da área de olho-de-lombo (AOL, da espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, da força de cisalhamento (FC e da composição química. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre a composição física e a relação entre tecidos na seção H&H, bem como para AOL, EGS e FC. A ração concentrada SGUM resultou em maiores teores de EE no Longissimus dorsi, mas não diferiu das rações SCTM e SSTM. A ração concentrada SGUM gerou maior deposição de gordura muscular em comparação à MM, no entanto, as rações SGUISCT e SGUISST não aumentaram essa deposição em comparação ao fornecimento dos grãos secos moídos. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem a composições física e química da carca��a e conferem resultados similares.The physical and chemical carcasses composition of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

  3. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  4. Herbicide on Weed Composition, Diversity and Density in Silage Corn (cv. Sc 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of plant density, planting pattern and herbicide dosage of nicosulfuron, a field experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot treatments based on RCBD with three replications in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi, in 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of a factorial plant density (100000, 120000 and 140000 plants ha-1 in the planting pattern (single and double row as main plot and herbicide dosage of nicousulforon in four levels (0, 1, 1/5 and 2, l.ha-1 as sub-plot. Samplings were made at in five stages (37days after the emergence of corn and it was repeated once per 20 days. The results indicated reducing the weed density and dry matter of weeds in the first stage after the herbicide treatment. Moreover, it was observed a significant interaction effect between plant density with planting pattern and between planting pattern with herbicides dosages during growth season on reducing weed density and dry matter. Also results indicated that in between of this experiment's treatments, nicosulfuron herbicide reduced weed density at the beginning of growth season and double row planting pattern suppressed weed density during growing season, and resulted in lowest Jacard similarity index (Sj of weed species. Results also indicated that with increasing of plant density and herbicide dosage especially in composition of double row planting pattern, according to Shannon- Wiener index, sensitive population such as common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculareL., black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and Johnson grass (Sorghum halepens L. was reduced in during growing season. Simpson dominance index, showed that some low populated weeds such as redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and Canada thistle (Circum arvensis L. persisted their growth up to the end of

  5. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  6. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  7. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  8. Organic Acid Salt from Complete Feed Silage Corn Based by Product as an Alternative to Substitute Antibiotic Function as a Growth Promotor for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Negara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of organic acid salt Zn from complete feed silage based on corn by product as an alternative to subtitute antibiotic function as a growth promotor for broiler. Ninety day old commercial Cobb broiler chickens were randomly distributed into six groups having three replicates of five birds in each group. Negative control (R0 birds were offered standard basal diet and no challenged, positive control (R1 birds were offered standard basal diet and challenged with 107 Salmonella typhimurium. Treatment R2, R3, R4 and R5 were challenged by 107 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium which added in feed with 0.1% flouroquinolone, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% of organic acid salts. The result showed that dietary of organic acid salts affect consumption, weight gain, and final body weight (P<0.05. Meanwhile, feed conversion (FCR was not affected by antibiotics nor organic acids. Our conclusion, Dietary organic acid salt from complete feed silage corn based by product until dose 0.2% can improve the performance of broiler chickens infected Salmonella typhimurium. (Animal Production 11(3: 170-175 (2009 Key Words: broiler, organic acid, Salmonella typhimurium

  9. Rumen Degradation Characteristics and Intestinal Digestibility of Whole Corn Silages from Different Areas%不同产地全株玉米青贮的瘤胃降解特性与小肠消化率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋; 李春雷; 赵洪波; 张永根

    2015-01-01

    ?gent fiber ( ADF) , and intestinal digestibility of DM, CP and amino acids ( AA) by nylon bag technique. The results showed that differences were found in common nutritional components, and rumen effective degradabili?ty of DM, CP, NDF and ADF among whole corn silages from different areas. Ranking of the rumen effective degradability of DM, CP, NDF and ADF of whole corn silages from 5 areas from high to low was B>E>A>D>C, C>A>D>B>E, B>A>D>C>E and D>A>C>B>E, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of DM, CP and each amino acid was different. Ranking of intestinal digestibility of DM, CP and total amino acids ( TAA) of whole corn silages from 5 areas from high to low was C>A>D>B>E, C>A>B>D>E and A>D>B>C>E, respectively. In conclusion, there were large differences in nutritional component contents, rumen degradation parameters and intestinal digestibility of whole corn silages from different areas. In order to use feed resources more effectively and avoid waste, so rapidly accurate methods should be used to measure the contents of nutri?tion components in whole corn silage.

  10. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  11. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Modelos para ajuste da produção de gases em silagens de girassol e milho Models for fit of gas production in sunflower and corn silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar entre os modelos Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, France, Logístico, Logístico modificado e Logístico bicompartimental, aquele que apresenta maior qualidade de ajuste à curva de produção cumulativa de gases em silagens de girassol e milho. Os critérios adotados foram: coeficiente de determinação, quadrado médio do resíduo, análise gráfica das curvas observadas e estimadas, análise gráfica de dispersão dos resíduos estudentizados, erro percentual médio, eficiência relativa e número de iterações para atingir a convergência. Os modelos Brody, France e Logístico bicompartimental apresentaram os maiores valores de coeficiente de determinação em ambos os substratos, e a diferença entre eles pode ser considerada desprezível. Estes modelos apresentaram, também, os menores valores de quadrado médio do resíduo em silagens de girassol, e a diferença entre eles foi considerada desprezível. Os modelos Brody e France apresentaram menor quadrado médio do resíduo em silagens de milho. Todos os modelos apresentaram dispersão positiva dos resíduos em ambos os substratos após 144 horas de incubação. O modelo Brody apresentou menor erro percentual médio e número de iterações em ambos os substratos. Os modelos Logístico bicompartimental e France apresentaram maior eficiência relativa, respectivamente, em silagens de girassol e milho. Assim, o modelo Logístico bicompartimental apresenta maior qualidade de ajuste à curva de produção de gases em silagens de girassol e milho.The aim of this work was to identify among the Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, France, Logistic, Modified logistic and Dual-pool logistic models, the one that presents the highest quality of fit for cumulative gas production curve in sunflower and corn silages. The quality of fit was evaluated by coefficient of determination, residual mean square, graphic analysis of the observed and estimated curves

  13. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sloth, Karen Helle; Højberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of dl-lactic acid, l-lactic acid relative to dl-lactic acid, free glucose, and dl-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh...... inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect...

  15. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  16. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  17. Silage extracts used to study the mode of action of silage inoculants in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage microbial inoculants can enhance animal performance, but the mechanisms involved in these effects are not clear. Our hypothesis was that an extractable factor from inoculated silage enhances rumen microbial activity. One alfalfa haylage (58% DM) and two corn silages (30% and 50% DM) were made...

  18. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  19. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  20. Blood constituents of holstein cows fed with corn or elephant-grass silages / Constituintes sangüíneos de vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com silagens de milho ou de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of corn (Zea mays L. silage and elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silage on the nutrition of cows during lactation, over some of the blood constituents (glucose, triglycerides and urea. The treatments were three silages (corn silage, elephant-grass silage with bacterial inoculating, elephant-grass silage with enzyme-bacterial inoculating. Nine Holstein cows, with a medium weight of 520 kg, were distributed in experimental delineation of simultaneous triple Latin square. The blood glucose rates were considered normal, independents of the silage used. Concerning the triglicerides levels, it was verified that they are below normal to the different silages. One of the reasons would be the low fat level on the diet. The blood levels of urea observed on the three treatments are considered normal. There was not significant difference among the different kinds of silage in relation to the blood levels of urea, glucose and triglycerides.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de milho (Zea mays L. e silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na alimentação de vacas em lactação, sobre alguns dos constituintes sangüíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos e uréia. Os tratamentos foram três silagens (silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante bacteriano, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas da raça holandesa, com peso médio de 520 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de triplo quadrado latino simultâneo. As taxas de glicose sangüínea das vacas foram consideradas normais, independente do volumoso utilizado. Em relação aos níveis de triglicerídeos, verificou-se que estão abaixo do normal para os diferentes volumosos. Uma das razões seria o baixo nível de gordura na dieta. Os níveis sangüíneos de uréia observados nos três tratamentos são considerados normais

  1. Desempenho animal e viabilidade econômica do uso da silagem de capim-Elefante em substituição a silagem de milho para vacas em lactação = Animal performance and economic return from replacing corn silage by elephant grass silage in Holstein cow diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa quanto à produção e composição do leite, assim como a eficiência econômica do uso de silagem de milho ou silagens de capim-elefante confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas multíparas no períodointermediário de lactação, e o delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (3 x 3; três silagens. Foram realizadas análises químico-bromatológicas, e a digestibilidade da MS e FDN das silagens. As análises químico-bromatológicas mostraram valores superiores para asilagem de milho. Entretanto, os resultados não mostraram diferenças (p>0,05 na ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite entre as silagens. O resultado da análise econômica mostrou-se superior para as silagens de capim-elefante, fato decorrente de seumenor custo de produção aliado ao bom resultado de desempenho. Tal fato pode ter sido favorecido pelo uso dos inoculantes e sua ação sobre a parede celular das silagens de capimelefante, pois a digestibilidade das rações totais foram semelhantes para as três silagens.The objectives of this study were to evaluate Holstein cow performance, considering milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency from replacing corn silage by elephant-grass silages treated with bacterial and enzymebacterial inoculants. Nine multiparous cows, in the middle of lactation were used. Theexperimental design was a Latin square (3 x 3; three silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis and DM and NDF digestibility were conducted for all the silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis showed higher values for corn silage. However, there was no difference(P > 0.05 for dry matter intake, milk yield and composition among the silages. Economic analysis showed higher return using elephant-grass silages, fact resulting from lower production costs and milk yield. This could be the result

  2. Growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality and oxidative stability of beef cattle offered alternative silages in a finishing ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Yang, J; Chen, W; Zhou, Z; Wu, H; Meng, Q

    2018-03-01

    As lack of forage resource, alternative roughage sources have been developed for ruminant production and their inclusion would exert a great effect on the dietary nutrition, consequently affecting animal performance. Four silages (corn silage (CS), corn stalk silage (SS), inoculated CS and inoculated SS) were separately offered to 60 Bohai Black cattle (15 cattle/group) during a 24-week finishing period, in which the growth performance, carcass trait, beef quality and oxidative stability of steers were determined. Neither silage material nor silage inoculant exerted a significant effect on the growth performance, carcass trait and oxidative stability of beef cattle (P>0.05). As to beef quality, cattle offered CS had higher (P0.05) on the proximate components and fatty acids profile of beef muscle. There was neither an interaction (P>0.05) between inoculated treatment and silage material. There were no differences (P>0.05) in cholesterol content and meat quality traits in animals fed alternative silages. The collective findings suggest that it is not economical to substitute high-quality forage for relative low-quality forage in a high-concentrate finishing ration of beef cattle and silage inoculant inclusion would not exert a direct effect on animal performance.

  3. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  4. Inclusion of brown midrib dwarf pearl millet silage in the diet of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Melgar, A; Oh, J; Nedelkov, K; Sanchez, G; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2018-06-01

    Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD). The effects of partial substitution of corn silage with pearl millet silage on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, N utilization, and enteric methane emissions were analyzed. The pearl millet silage was higher in crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and lower in lignin and starch than the corn silage. Diet did not affect dry matter intake or energy-corrected milk yield, which averaged 46.7 ± 1.92 kg/d. The PMD treatment tended to increase milk fat concentration, had no effect on milk fat yield, and increased milk urea N. Concentrations and yields of milk protein and lactose were not affected by diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter decreased from 66.5% in CSD to 64.5% in PMD. Similarly, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was decreased by PMD, whereas neutral- and acid-detergent fiber digestibility was increased. Total milk trans fatty acid concentration was decreased by PMD, with a particular decrease in trans-10 18:1. Urinary urea and fecal N excretion increased with PMD compared with CSD. Milk N efficiency decreased with PMD. Carbon dioxide emission was not different between the diets, but PMD increased enteric methane emission from 396 to 454 g/d and increased methane yield and intensity. Substituting corn silage with brown midrib dwarf

  5. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

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    M. A. Khodshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  6. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  7. Desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais de fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento alimentadas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar com concentrado Performance and nutritional parameters of growing heifers fed corn silage or sugar cane with concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2010-11-01

    ção à silagem de milho em sistemas de produção de leite com idade ao parto próxima dos 24 meses.This study evaluated the response of dairy heifers fed corn based silage with 1.3 kg/day of concentrated in comparison with three sugar cane-based diets corrected with 1% of urea + ammonium sulphate (9:1 (urea, with 1.3; 2.0 and 2.7 kg/day of concentrate. A total of 20 heifers were used (12 Holstein breed and 8 Brown Swiss breed heifers in a randomised block design, with 5 blocks formed on the basis of initial live weight and breed. The consumption of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between corn-silage based diet and sugar-cane based diet. Higher consumption of ether extract was found when diet based on corn silage was supplied in comparison to those based on sugar cane. Intakes of total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrates differed between corn silage diet and those based on sugarcane (1.3 and 2.0 kg concentrate. Total digestible nutrient intake observed with supply of the diet based on corn silage was lower than that obtained with sugar cane (2 kg concentrate. Diets had a significant effect on coefficients of digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, total carbohidrates and neutral detergent fiber. There was no significant difference on total weight gain neither on average daily gain between the corn-silage based diet and the sugar-cane diet with 2.7 kg of concentrate in relation to the sugar-cane diets. Ruminal pH did not differ at collection times among experimental diets. The lowest concentration of N-NH3 was observed in animals fed corn silage-based diet 3 hours after feeding compared to the sugar cane-based treatments. A milk production system with heifers calving at 24 months and fed a diet containing moderate to high concentrate levels (± 45:55, forage:concentrate, sugar cane forage added with 1% of a mixture of urea + ammonium sulfate (9:1, urea:ammonium sulphate can be a substitute for corn silage.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose... partial enzymatic conversion of glucose (dextrose) to fructose using an insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme...

  9. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

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    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  10. Corn

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Hawks, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    We have so much corn right now it's coming out of our ears (great pun, right?). And it's SO incredibly cheap! This is probably because the US produces 42% of the world's corn! Most of it is used for animal feed, but other uses include exporting to other countries, human food, seed, and industrial uses such as ethanol production. Because there is so much corn available here in the U.S. You can find it in a lot more foods than you think. It's in peanut butter, snack foods, soft drinks, multivit...

  11. Desempenho animal e viabilidade econômica do uso da silagem de capim-Elefante em substituição a silagem de milho para vacas em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849 Animal performance and economic return from replacing corn silage by elephant grass silage in Holstein cow diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ferriane Branco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa quanto à produção e composição do leite, assim como a eficiência econômica do uso de silagem de milho ou silagens de capim-elefante confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas multíparas no período intermediário de lactação, e o delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (3 x 3; três silagens. Foram realizadas análises químico-bromatológicas, e a digestibilidade da MS e FDN das silagens. As análises químico-bromatológicas mostraram valores superiores para a silagem de milho. Entretanto, os resultados não mostraram diferenças (p>0,05 na ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite entre as silagens. O resultado da análise econômica mostrou-se superior para as silagens de capim-elefante, fato decorrente de seu menor custo de produção aliado ao bom resultado de desempenho. Tal fato pode ter sido favorecido pelo uso dos inoculantes e sua ação sobre a parede celular das silagens de capim-elefante, pois a digestibilidade das rações totais foram semelhantes para as três silagensThe objectives of this study were to evaluate Holstein cow performance, considering milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency from replacing corn silage by elephant-grass silages treated with bacterial and enzyme-bacterial inoculants. Nine multiparous cows, in the middle of lactation were used. The experimental design was a Latin square (3 x 3; three silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis and DM and NDF digestibility were conducted for all the silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis showed higher values for corn silage. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05 for dry matter intake, milk yield and composition among the silages. Economic analysis showed higher return using elephant-grass silages, fact resulting from lower production costs and milk yield. This could be the

  12. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( intake, with the greatest intake for TS-CS treatment during the preweaning and overall periods. Regardless of the physical form of starter, starter intake, ADG, weaning BW, final BW, ruminal pH, the molar proportion of acetate, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio were greater ( calves compared with unsupplemented calves. No interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of

  13. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What Are the Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corn syrup is chemically similar to table sugar. Controversy exists, however, about whether the body handles high- ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  14. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 X 4, balanceados de acordo com o período de lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo. As dietas experimentais foram à base de silagem de milho com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40, com base na matéria seca, ou à base de cana-de-açúcar, com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 ou 50:50. As vacas foram submetidas à observação visual para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo. Os animais foram observados a cada dez minutos, durante 24 horas, para determinação do tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Não houve diferença para os tempos médios despendidos com alimentação e ruminação entre as dietas experimentais. Entretanto, na dieta à base de silagem de milho, os animais ficaram menos tempo no ócio, quando comparados àqueles alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficiência de alimentação, expressa em gFDN/h, não houve diferença entre as dietas experimentais. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h, foi semelhante para as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gFDN/h (ERU FDN foi maior para a dieta à base de silagem de milho. Não houve diferença na ERU FDN entre dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar. Vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram maior tempo despendido em ócio e menor consumo de MS, quando comparadas àquelas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milhoTwelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three Latin squares 4 X 4, balanced according to the lactating period, to evaluate the ingestive behavior parameters. The experimental diets were based on corn silage with 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio, in dry matter (DM basis, or based on sugar cane with 60:40 or 50:50 forage:concentrate. The cows were submitted to visual observation for ingestive behavior evaluation

  15. Microbial protein synthesis in young steers fed with grass silage and extruded corn Síntesis de proteína microbiana en novillos jóvenes alimentados con ensilaje de praderas y maíz extruido

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    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protein synthesis is essential to meet protein requirements in ruminants. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of incorporating extruded corn (Zea mays L. into the ration of young steers fed with grass silage on microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Twenty young steers in metabolic cages were used for supplying food. The treatments consisted of combinations of extruded corn (EC and ground corn (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC and EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. These foods constituted 40% of the ration (DM-based and the remaining 60% was grass silage. The MPS was calculated through the excretion of purine derivatives (PD in the urine, using total collection of urine. The inclusion of a higher percentage of extruded corn (EC-40 increased the PD excretion (51.85 mmol d-1, P La síntesis de proteína microbiana es fundamental para satisfacer los requerimientos proteicos en rumiantes. El objetivo de esta investigation fue evaluar el efecto de incluir maíz (Zea mays L. extruido en la ración de novillos alimentados con ensilaje de pradera, sobre la sintesis de proteina microbiana (MPS. Se emplearon 20 novillos jóvenes ubicados en jaulas metabólicas para suministro de los alimentos. Los tratamientos consistieron en combinaciones de maiz extruido (EC y maiz molido (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC y EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. Estos alimentos constituyeron el 40% de la ración (base MS y el restante 60% fue ensilaje de pradera. Se estimó la MPS a través de la excreción de derivados de purinas (PD en la orina, empleando colección total de orina. La inclusión de un mayor porcentaje de EC (EC-40 incrementó la excreción de PD (51.85 mmol d-1, P < 0,05. Los valores de excreción de PD fluctuaron entre 663 y 1078 μmol BW-075 d-1. La absorción de proteína microbiana y el flujo de N duodenal también se incrementaron por una mayor inclusión de EC (EC-40, P < 0,05. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos pueden

  16. Aerial spray deposition on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  17. Efeito do acipin sobre a degradabilidade e taxa de passagem de silagens de capim-elefante e de milho, em bovinos Holandês × Zebu Effect of acipin on the degradability and rate of passage of elephant-grass and corn silages in Holstein × Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Henriques

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de acipin nas silagens de capim-elefante e de milho sobre a taxa de passagem das fases sólida e líquida da digesta ruminal e sobre a degradabilidade da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, em quatro bovinos. Os animais, com média de peso de 550kg, foram confinados em baias individuais por 90 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro períodos experimentais, seguindo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas um esquema fatorial 2×2 (duas silagens combinadas com ausência e presença de acipin e nas subparcelas o tempo de coleta de líquido ruminal, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. A degradabilidade efetiva da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante sem adição de acipin foi menor do que a das silagens de capim-elefante com acipin, de milho sem acipin e de milho com acipin; estas foram semelhantes entre si. A taxa de passagem de sólidos ruminais foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de milho. A taxa de passagem de líquidos foi maior nos animais que consumiram silagem de capim-elefante. A inclusão de acipin melhorou a degradabilidade da MS, da PB e da FDN da silagem de capim-elefante.The effects of adding acipin to elephantgrass and corn silages on the passage rates of the solid and liquid phases of the ruminal digesta, and on degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF were evaluated. The animals with average live weight of 550kg, were kept in individual stalls for 90 days. The experiment was carried out in four experimental periods, according to a split plot arrangement, with 2×2 (two silages combined with absence or presence of acipin factorial treatment combination in the plot and the time of collection of ruminal liquid in the split plot, in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The degradabilities of DM, CP and NDF in the elephantgrass silage

  18. Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1, Its Impact on Silage and In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 on silage and in vitro rumen fermentation on alfalfa and corn silage. Four trials were conducted in alfalfa in second (35 and 32% DM) and third harvest (38 and 31% DM), and two in forage corn, hybrids Mycogen 797...

  19. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  20. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  1. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  2. Produtividade e qualidade da silagem de milho e sorgo em função da época de semeadura Productivity and quality of the silage of corn and sorghum influenced by the time of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Garcia Von Pinho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de diferentes épocas de semeadura na produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de milho e sorgo para silagem e também verificar a possibilidade de substituição do milho pelo sorgo para produção de silagem, foram instalados experimentos em três épocas de semeadura, em área do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, no ano agrícola 2002/2003. Foram avaliados três grupos de cultivares - três cultivares de sorgo duplo propósito, três de sorgo forrageiro e três de milho, em três épocas de semeadura - 19/11/2002, 19/12/2002 e 18/1/2003. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 (grupos de cultivares x 3 (épocas de semeadura, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se produtividade de matéria seca (MS, participação de panícula ou espiga na MS, e as porcentagens de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e lignina. Observou-se efeito significativo para cultivares e épocas de semeadura para todas as características avaliadas. Constatou-se a presença de interação cultivares*épocas para a produtividade de matéria seca (MS, participação de panícula ou espiga na MS e porcentagem de proteína bruta. Independentemente de época semeadura, com o milho se tem silagem com menor teor de fibra do que com qualquer tipo de sorgo e produtividade de matéria seca semelhante à do sorgo forrageiro e maior do que o sorgo duplo propósito. A maior produção de matéria seca de milho e sorgo, para forragem, é obtida na semeadura em novembro. Silagem de milho e sorgo de maior valor nutritivo é obtida na semeadura de janeiro. Do ponto de vista de produção e de qualidade nutricional da forragem, não é viável a substituição da silagem de milho pela de sorgo.With the objective to evaluate the influence of different times of sowing in the productivity and silage quality of corn and sorghum cultivars and

  3. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  4. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  5. Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes = Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Modesto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRMforam 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica(DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upperthird of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: drymatter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third ofcassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement were

  6. Efeito do Estádio Vegetativo do Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench sobre a Composição Química da Silagem, Consumo, Produção e Teor de Gordura do Leite para Vacas em lactação, em Comparação à Silagem de Milho (Zea mays (L. Effect of the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench Growth Stage on the Silage Chemical Composition, Intake, Milk Production and Fat on Dairy Cattle, Compared with Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argélia Maria Araújo Dias

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do estádio de maturação do sorgo sobre a composição química da silagem, o consumo, a produção e o teor de gordura do leite em vacas holandesas, em comparação à silagem de milho. O experimento foi realizado na estação experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, localizada em São Bento do Una-PE. Foram utilizadas nove vacas holandesas puras, em fase de lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos. Os quadrados foram formados de acordo com a produção de leite e a ordem de lactação e constavam de três vacas e três períodos. Cada período teve duração de 28 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de: SM - silagem de milho; SSE - silagem de sorgo fase de emborrachamento; SSL - silagem de sorgo grão leitoso. Foram ainda fornecidos 25 Kg de palma forrageira animal/dia e concentrado comercial de acordo com a produção de leite. A silagem de milho propiciou aos animais maior consumo médio de matéria seca da silagem e da dieta total. Não houve efeito significativo do estádio vegetativo do sorgo sobre o consumo de silagem. As produções de leite total e corrigida para 4% de gordura foram maiores nos animais que consumiram silagem de milho em relação aos que receberam silagem de sorgo no estádio de grão leitoso, todavia os que ingeriram silagem de sorgo na fase de emborrachamento não diferiram dos demais. Quanto ao teor de gordura do leite, não houve diferença significativa entre as silagens analisadas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the sorghum growth stage on the silage chemical composition, intake milk production and fat compared with corn silage to dairy cows. The experiment was carried out at the "São Bento do Una" research Stattion, from IPA, located in "São Bento do Una", Pernambuco, Brazil. Nine holstein lactating cows were distributed in three Latin squares design. The squares were formed according to milk yield

  7. Perfil microbiológico e valores energéticos do milho e silagens de grãos úmidos de milho com adição de inoculantes para suínos = Microbiological profile and energy values of corn grain and highmoisture corn grain silage with added inoculants for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneila Daniele Lenhardt Savaris

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a contagem microbiana de fungos, bactérias lácticas e aeróbios mesófilos de silagens de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM com adição de inoculantes, e determinou-se os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável do milho e das SGUM para suínos. As SGUM utilizadas continham 0, 5 e 10 g de inoculante t-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, enzimas. Na determinação da contagem microbiana das SGUM, foram utilizados meios específicos, e avaliadas no dia da ensilagem, 50 e 100 dias. Na determinação dos valores energéticosforam utilizados 20 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das SGUM e do milho grão, que substituíram em 20% a raçãoreferência.O tratamento com 5 g de inoculante t-1 proporcionou maior contagem microbiana nos períodos. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, e os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável, do milho e das SGUM, variaram de 4094 a 4271 kcal kg-1; e 3826 a 3987 kcal kg-1, respectivamente. A adição de 5 g de inoculante t-1 proporcionou melhor perfil microbiológico durante o armazenamento, sem influenciar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta.This study evaluated the counts of funghi, lactic bacteria and mesophilic aerobium microorganisms in high-moisture corngrain silage (HMCGS with added inoculants, and determined the digestible and metabolizable energy values of corn and the HMCGS for swine. The HMCGS contained 0, 5 and 10 g of inoculant t-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici, enzymes. In order to determine the microbial counts of HMCGS, specific methods were used and evaluated on theday of ensilage, at 50 and 100 days. The energy values was determine using 20 swines, alloted in a randomized

  8. High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziffer, J.; Iosif, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    High ethanol and stillage solids were achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (98.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% were obtained in 74-90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with A. oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization step was omitted. The implications of ethanol fermentation process modifications are explored.

  9. Estudo comparativo de diferentes tipos de silos sobre a composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo da silagem de milho Comparative studies on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Melotti

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Três diferentes tipos de silos de laboratório, confeccionados a partir de baldes plásticos, sacos plásticos e manilhas de concreto com revestimento plástico, em dois diferentes graus de compactação (400 ou 600 kg de silagem/m3, foram comparados com o silo comercial tipo trincheira amostrado a 0, 50 e 100 cm da sua superfície. A planta de milho (27,3% de MS e 8,4% de PB foi picada, homogeneizada e utilizada para encher quatro silos por tratamento. Depois de abertos, estes foram amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Os teores de MS e PB variaram entre os diferentes extratos do silo comercial e foram intermediários nos silos laboratoriais, indicando maior translocação de água e nutrientes naquele do que nestes. Os silos laboratoriais representaram bem os comerciais, quanto aos componentes da parede celular, amido, carboidratos solúveis e DIVMS. O pH foi menor na silagem obtida no extrato médio, intermediário no profundo e maior na superfície do silo comercial. Silagens obtidas no extrato médio também apresentaram maiores teores de nitrogênio amoniacal e ácido lático, enquanto que as obtidas no extrato profundo apresentaram as concentrações mais elevadas de ácido acético. De forma geral, os silos laboratoriais representaram bem o perfil de fermentação dos silos comerciais (pH, concentração de etanol, acético, propiônico, butírico, lático e N amoniacal, já que a maior variabilidade de resposta foi observada entre os extratos do silo comercialA commercial bunker silo and three types of experimental silos were used for determination of chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of corn silage (27.3% DM and 8.4% CP ensiled in two different densities (400 or 600kg of silage/m3: 1 commercial bunker silo sampled at 0, 50 and 100 cm from the top; 2 plastic silo with bulsen valve; 3 plastic bag; and 4 concrete pipe. Dry matter and CP concentration showed larger variation

  10. Avaliação nutricional do milho com maior teor de óleo, nas formas de grãos secos e silagens, para suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Nutritional evaluation of dry grain and silage of higher oil corn on growing - finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2006-06-01

    determine nutritive value and verify performance of growing and finishing swine feed high moisture corn silage (HMCS and reconstituted silage (RS of higher oil corn. The digestibility assay was carried twelve cross breed barrow, were allotted in metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design. The values of digestible dry matter (DDM, digestible protein (DP, digestible starch (DS, digestible ether extract (DEE, digestible organic matter (DOM, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME were for DG, HMCS and RS; 83.42, 7.54, 63.90, 4.40, 82.28%; 3,587 and 3,513 kcal/kg; 60.80, 4.85, 45.01, 3.10, 59.50%; 2,647 and 2,509 kcal/kg; 66.48, 6.16, 49.04, 3.41, 65.67%; 2,853 and 2,797 kcal/kg, respectively, based on natural matter. In the performance experiment thirty-two cross breed swine were distributed in four treatments in a completely randomized design, with four experimental units and two pigs per experimental units. The treatments consisted of a basal corn and soybean meal diet and three diets with total replacement of common corn by DG, HMCS and RS higher oil corn based on the digestible energy. No differences were found among the treatments in the growing phase. In finishing phase, daily feed intake increased for the HMCS when compared with the control diet. The price of the diet per kilogram gain of body weight for the HMCS had decreased, in growing phase and finishing phase. It was concluded that the DG, HMCS and RS, could totally replace the common corn on growing and finishing diet, without impairing performance. Diets with high moisture corn silage resulted in smaller cost per kilogram of produced animal.

  11. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  12. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Storm, A C; Nørgaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake, chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0.02). Particle size distributions were similar for digesta from the medial and ventral rumen regardless of NDF content of the silages (P > 0.13). The LP proportion was >30% of particles in the ventral and medial rumen, whereas in the feces, the LP proportion was content of the silages

  13. Digestibilidade da matéria seca de silagens de milho e de suplementos concentrados determinada por procedimentos in vitro Dry matter digestibility of corn silages and concentrates determined by in vitro procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS de quatro silagens de milho e de seis concentrados (três proteicos e três energéticos, determinados pelo método de dois estádios realizados em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação, e avaliou-se a ocorrência de efeito associativo na digestão de alimentos destas três classes incubadas em um mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora in vitro, ou em jarros diferentes contendo a mesma classe de alimentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (procedimentos in vitro x classes de alimentos. Os valores de DIVMS determinados pelo método dos tubos foram mais próximos dos relatados na literatura e menores (P0,05 nos valores de DIVMS dos concentrados e das silagens de milho incubados no mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora ou, separadamente por alimento, em jarros diferentes.The values of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of four corn silages and six concentrates (three proteic and three energetics were determined by the two-stage technique that utilizes individual digestion tubes and by an automatic equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique. It was also evaluated the associative effect on digestion of these three food classes when incubated in the same fermentation jar of the "in vitro incubator" and when in different vessels containing the same class of foods. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were closer to those found in the literature and lower (P0.05 in IVDMD of concentrates and silages when incubated together in the same fermentation jar or separated by food classes in separated jars.

  14. Effects of Different Combinations of Oat Hay and Whole Corn Silage on Ruminal Fermentation of Sheep%燕麦干草与全株玉米青贮不同组合对绵羊瘤胃发酵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毕阳; 赵桂琴; 焦婷; 柴继宽; 苟智强; 许兴泽; 闫车太

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different combinations of oat hay and whole corn silage on ruminal fermentation of sheep. Nine cross breed ( Merino×Mongolian) rams with similar body condition, body weight of (70.24±2.03) kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas were selected and divided into three groups with three sheep per group according to the weighting result of transitional period, and their diets were grouped as three according to the ratio of oat hay and whole corn silage in the roughage ( dry matter basis) , i. e. , A1 ( 100% whole corn silage ) , A2 ( 50% oat hay+50% whole corn silage ) and A3 (100% oat hay), and the concentrate?to?forage ratio of three diets was 35:65. A 3×3 Latin square design was used. Three trial periods were conducted with 22 days for each period ( 15 days for pretest and 7 days for for?mal test) . Samples were taken at the last 3 days of the formal test. The results showed as follows:1) compared with 100% whole corn silage, taking 50% oat hay+50% whole corn silage or 100% oat hay as roughage had no significant effects on pH and total nitrogen concentration in ruminal fluid, but significantly reduced the means of ruminal fluid urea nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen ( NH3?N) , and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations ( P0.05) . The mean of ruminal fluid NH3?N concentration in A2 group was significantly lower than that in A3 group (P0.05),但显著降低了瘤胃液氨态氮(NH3?N)、尿素氮和血浆尿素氮浓度平均值(P0.05),而瘤胃液NH3?N浓度平均值则显著低于A3组(P0.05),升高了瘤胃液乙酸、丁酸摩尔比以及乙酸/丙酸平均值,且A3组与A1组差异显著(P<0.05).由此可知,在精料相同、精粗比为35:65的条件下,用50%全贮玉米青贮和50%燕麦干草混合作为粗饲料可以改善绵羊的瘤胃内环境而适宜瘤胃微生物生长,提高瘤胃微生物活性及其对氨(NH3)的利用率,有助于微生物蛋白的合成,升高瘤胃乙酸的摩尔比及乙酸/丙酸.

  15. Dietas contendo silagem de milho (Zea maiz L. e feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em diferentes proporções para bovinos Corn silage and tifton 85 bermudagrass hay-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e concentração de amônia ruminais e a taxa de passagem em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 (TIF e silagem de milho (SM em diferentes proporções. Utilizaram-se quatro animais castrados, com peso médio de 523kg, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, na base da matéria seca. O volumoso consistiu das seguintes proporções (%: 100 TIF:0 SM; 67 TIF:33 SM; 33 TIF:67 SM e 0 TIF:100 SM. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, de matéria orgânica (MO e de matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos totais (CHOT e digeríveis (CHOD não foram influenciados pelas diferentes proporções de feno de capim-tifton 85: silagem de milho nas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 9,2; 8,7; 6,4; 1,1; 3,7; 7,3 e 5,4 kg/dia, respectivamente. O consumo de extrato etéreo (EE elevou linearmente com o aumento da silagem de milho nas dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes da MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO também não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes proporções de silagem de milho, obtendo-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 71,8; 73,0; 69,5; 69,2 e 73,9%. Para a digestibilidade da FDN, observou-se efeito quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 65,2% para dietas contendo 30,98% de silagem de milho. Estimou-se concentração máxima de amônia de 12,0 mg/100 ml e valor mínimo de pH de 5,98 às 2,44 e 6,82 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem não foi influenciada pelas diferentes proporções de feno:silagem, no volumoso, apresentando valor médio de 4,2%/hora.The intake, digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations and passage rate were evaluated in steers fed corn silage (CS and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85H-based diets, at different forage proportions. Four rumen fistulated steers with 523 kg of live

  16. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  17. Rapid recovery of high content phytosterols from corn silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Cao, Xiaowan; Liu, Yong; Shang, Fude

    2017-10-18

    Phytosterols have important physiological and officinal function. An efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction, purification and crystallization procedure of phytosterols was established from corn silk for the first time. The orthogonal test was applied to optimize the process parameters and a maximum phytosterols recovery as high as 10.5886 mg/g was achieved by ultrasonic treatment for 55 min with liquid-solid ratio of 12:1 at 35 °C, 220 w. The ultrasonic extraction temperature (T, °C) has the most significant effect on extraction yield of phytosterols. An orthogonal crystallization test was performed and the optimal conditions [crystallization temperature of 8 °C, time of 12 h and solid-liquid ratio of 1:1 (g/ml)] afforded maximum phytosterols purity of 92.76 ± 0.43%. An efficient extraction and crystallization procedure was established.

  18. High-fructose corn syrup, energy intake, and appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James M

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of ghrelin. However, when HFCS is compared with sucrose, the more commonly consumed sweetener, such differences are not apparent, and appetite and energy intake do not differ in the short-term. Longer-term studies on connections between HFCS, potential mechanisms, and body weight have not been conducted. The main objective of this review was to examine collective data on associations between consumption of HFCS and energy balance, with particular focus on energy intake and its regulation.

  19. Consumo de nutrientes e desempenho de cordeiros em confinamento alimentados com dietas com polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho Nutrient intake and performance of lambs in feedlot fed diets with different levels of pressed citrus pulp in substitution of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykel Stefanni Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP no desempenho de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro cordeiros com 90 dias de idade e 18,44 kg PV inicial médio foram confinados durante 67 dias e alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50 e 75% MS. Não houve diferença para ingestão de MS (IMS. Os valores médios de IMS em g, %PV e g/kgPV0,75 foram respectivamente, 1.180, 4,74 e 126. Houve redução linear na ingestão de FDN, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, com o aumento dos níveis de substituição. A ingestão de PB não foi afetada pela dieta. Verificou-se aumento linear para a ingestão de EE, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, e para a FDA, em %PV. A ingestão de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF apresentou comportamento quadrático, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, e linear em g/animal.dia, à medida que houve a substituição da silagem de milho pela PCUP. A substituição da silagem de milho pela PCUP não afetou a conversão alimentar (4,33 kg MS/ kg de ganho, no entanto, o ganho de peso médio apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do nível de substituição; o nível de substituição de 48% promoveu o maior ganho médio diário. Os resultados sugerem que a PCUP pode substituir a silagem de milho em dietas para cordeiros em confinamento.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the substitution of corn silage by fresh pressed citrus pulp (FPCP on the performance of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs, with average age of 90 days and initial average body weight of 18.44 kg, were feedlot during 67 days and fed with increasing levels of FPCP in substitution of corn silage (0, 25, 50, and 75 % DM. There was no difference for DM intake (DMI. The average values for DMI in g, %BW and g/kgBW0.75 were, respectively, 1,180, 4.74 and 126. There was a linear decreased in NDF intake, in %BW and g/kgBW0

  20. Effect of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition to whole-plant corn silage of various hybrids, maturities, and chop lengths on nitrogen fractions and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Crump, P M; Shaver, R D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ensiling time and exogenous protease addition on soluble CP (% of CP), ammonia-N (% of N), and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) from 3 hybrids, 2 maturities, and 2 chop lengths. Samples from 3 nonisogenic hybrids [brown midrib containing the bm3 gene mutation (BM3), dual-purpose (DP), or floury-leafy (LFY)] at 2 harvest maturities [2/3 kernel milk line (early) or 7d later (late)] with 2 theoretical lengths of cut settings (0.64 or 1.95cm) on a forage harvester were collected at harvest, treated with or without exogenous protease, and ensiled in triplicate in vacuum heat-sealed plastic bags for 0, 30, 60, 120, and 240d. Thus, the experiment consisted of 120 treatments (3 hybrids × 2 maturities × 2 chop lengths × 2 protease treatments × 5 time points) and 360 mini-silos (3 replications per treatment). Vitreousness, measured by dissection on unfermented kernels on the day of harvest, averaged 66.8, 65.0, and 59.0% for BM3, DP, and LFY, respectively. A protease × maturity interaction was observed with protease increasing ivSD in late but not early maturity. Ensiling time × hybrid interactions were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP concentrations with greater values for FLY than other hybrids only after 120d of ensiling. Ensiling time × hybrid or protease × hybrid interactions were not observed for ivSD. Measurements of ivSD were greatest for FLY and lowest for BM3. Length of the ensiling period did not attenuate negative effects of kernel vitreousness or maturity on ivSD in WPCS. Results suggest that the dosage of exogenous protease addition used in the present study may reduce but not overcome the negative effects of maturity on ivSD in WPCS. No interactions between chop length and ensiling time or exogenous protease addition were observed for ivSD. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.......31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0...

  2. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SILAGE FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. LÁD

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed the influence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at clover-grass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classification and categorization to quality classes according to fermentative process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentative class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effect has been more considerable at the classification to the fermentative classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fibre decreased fermentative results and total silage quality at test clovergrass silages. The greatest (deterioration influence for clasification to total quality class has crude fibre content. It is see from correlation coefficient at clover-grass silages r = 0.75 (P < 0.05. The weak dependence r = 0.37 (P < 0.05 was detected between fermentative class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentative class and butyric acid content r = 0.73 (P < 0.05. The silages with additives had better degree of proteolysis and higher value of lactic acid. The additive improved fermentative quality. The result of better fermentative process was reduction of crude fibre values with maintainance of energy content.

  4. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Food & Bioengineering Department, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003 ... Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. ... In food industry, starch phosphate.

  5. Degradabilidade in situ de silagens de milho confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e/ou enzimático - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.658 In situ degradability of corn silages prepared with bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.658

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes bacterianos e/ou enzimáticos sobre a degradabilidade ruminal da silagem de milho. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ, em quatro bovinos adultos, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: SC (silagem controle, SIB (silagem com inoculante bacteriano, SIBE (silagem com inoculante bacteriano e enzimático e SIE (silagem com inoculante enzimático. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos nas frações solúvel (a, potencialmente degradável (b, taxa de degradação da fração b (c, degradabilidade potencial (DP e degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS e MO. A DE da PB foi maior para o tratamento SIE (63,13% e menor para o tratamento SIBE (53,69%. A fração b da FDN apresentou maior valor para SIBE (74,13% e menor para SIB (64,07%. O resíduo indigerido (I da FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos. As frações b e I e a taxa c da FDA não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Palavras-chave: degradação, fibra, matéria orgânica, matéria seca, proteína bruta.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the bacterial and/or enzymatic inoculants on corn silage degradation. The in situ technique was used in four adult steers in a 4x4 latin square design. The evaluated treatments were: CS (control silage, SBI (silage with bacterial inoculant, SBEI (silage with bacterial and enzymatic inoculant and SEI (silage with enzymatic inoculant. There was no difference among treatments in soluble fraction (a, potential degradable fraction (b, fraction b rate of degradation (c, potential degradability (PD and effective degradability (ED of DM and OM. The ED of CP was higher in SEI treatment (63.13% and lower in SBEI treatment (53.69%. The b fraction of NDF was higher for SBEI (74.13% and lower for SBI (64.07%. The NDF indigestible residue (I did not show any difference among treatments. The ADF b and I fraction and the c rate values did not show any difference among

  6. Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990 Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Damasceno

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRM foram 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upper third of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third of cassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement

  7. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

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    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  8. Carcaça e não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros recebendo polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho = Carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed with pressed citrus pulp replacing corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykel Stefanni Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP sobre as características de carcaça e dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte quatro cordeiros com idade média de 90 dias e peso vivo inicial médio de 18 kg foram confinados durante 67 dias, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50, 75% da MS. Não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05 para peso vivo ao abate (32,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (44,7%, rendimento verdadeiro (50,3% e não-componentes da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, apenas o rendimento de lombo foi afetado (pThe objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by pressed citrus pulp (PCP on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs with average age of 90 days and initial weight of 18 kg were maintainedin feedlot for 67 days, fed with increasing levels of PCP replacing corn silage (0, 25, 50, 75%, DM basis. There was no difference (p>0.05 for live weight at slaughter (32.8 kg, hot carcass yield(44.7%, true yield (50.3% and non-carcass components. In relation to cut yields, only loin yield was affected (p<0.05 by the diet, which showed quadratic response. For the carcass measurements, only the arm length was affected by the diet, showing quadratic behavior. The percentage of fat and muscle showed quadratic behavior according to replacement levels. The results suggest that pressed citrus pulp can substitute corn silage for lambs in feedlot without affecting the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components.

  9. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  10. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  11. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  12. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  13. Cinética ruminal da degradação de nutrientes da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos Ruminal degradation kinetics of corn silage in bulls inoculated with different additives in the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrade Katsuki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a cinética ruminal da degradação de MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com diferentes aditivos. Utilizou-se um delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com quatro bovinos holandeses e quatro períodos de incubação, em ambiente ruminal adaptado ou não com diferentes aditivos alimentares. Foram testados os seguintes tratamentos: SCL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal sem inoculação de aditivo; SBL - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 5 g de produto comercial contendo bactérias ruminais e intestinais liofilizadas (Ruminobacter amylophilum: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Fibrobacter succinogenes: 3,0 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Succinovibrio dextrinsolvens: 4,4 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Bacillus cereus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; Lactobacillus acidophilus: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg e Streptococcus faecium: 3,5 x 10(11 ufc/kg; SEC - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 15 g de produto comercial contendo enzimas celulolíticas (xilanase 10%; e SMS - silagem de milho em ambiente ruminal inoculado com 3 g de produto comercial contendo monensina sódica. Os tratamentos SBL e SEC não afetaram a fração potencialmente degradável (b dos nutrientes avaliados da silagem de milho. A monensina sódica reduziu a fração (b da MS (51,01% e a degradabilidade potencial da silagem de milho (72,33%. Entre os aditivos estudados, a monensina sódica proporcionou a maior fração não-degradável da FDN (45,57%, reduzindo o desaparecimento desta fração a partir de 48 horas de incubação intra-ruminal. Os diferentes aditivos, nas concentrações estudadas, não proporcionaram melhora na degradabilidade efetiva da MS, PB e FDN da silagem de milho.Four bulls fitted with ruminal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of different ruminally inoculated additives on the degradation kinetics of DM, CP, and NDF of corn silage (CS. The treatments were: control CS incubated in rumen with no

  14. Silagem de milho e grão de sorgo como suplementos para vacas de descarte terminadas em pastagem cultivada de estação fria Corn silage and sorghum grain supplementation to cull cows finished on cultivated winter pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.G. Menezes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação com silagem de milho ou grão de sorgo no desempenho e características da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte, submetidas ao pastejo restrito em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa + azevém (Lolium multiflorum. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas mestiças Charolês-Nelore, com idade média de oito anos, distribuídas em igual número e ao acaso em três tratamentos: silagem de milho (TSI ou grão de sorgo moído (TSO como suplemento, e não suplementação (TPH. A suplementação com silagem de milho proporcionou aos animais maior escore corporal ao final do experimento (4,35 pontos contra 4,15 do TPH e 4,22 pontos para o TSO. Não houve efeito do volumoso ou concentrado suplementar sobre o peso corporal, ganho de peso diário e ganho em escore corporal. Não houve efeito de tratamento (P>0,05 sobre pesos e rendimentos quentes e frios da carcaça, espessura de gordura subcutânea, conformação, espessura de coxão, área de Longissimus dorsi e percentagem de cortes comerciais. A suplementação resultou em maior percentagem de gordura na carcaça e influenciou a cor e o marmoreio da carne. A silagem de milho e o grão de sorgo servem como alternativa para a suplementação de vacas de descarte em pastagem de aveia e azevém, uma vez que melhora as características da carcaça, embora sem efeito sobre o desempenho quando comparado à pastagem exclusiva.The effect of supplementation with corn silage or sorghum grain on the performance and characteristics of carcass and meat of cull cows, under temporary grazing on oats (Avena strigosa + ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum pasture was evaluated. Thirty crossbred Charolais-Nellore cull cows, with averaging eight-yearold,were randomly distributed in three treatments. The animals received corn silage (TSI or sorghum grain (TSO as supplement, while another lot did not receive supplementation (TPH. Animals supplemented with corn silage showed higher final body condition

  15. Estratificação de ambientes, adaptabilidade e estabilidade de híbridos comerciais de milho para silagem no sul do Brasil Environmental stratification, adaptability and stability of commercial hybrids of corn for silage utilization in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Silva e Oliveira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar a estratificação dos ambientes utilizados para a avaliação de híbridos de milho para silagem na Região Sul do Brasil e identificar os materiais de comportamento mais adaptado e estável. Foram utilizados 21 híbridos de milho, de diferentes empresas produtoras de sementes, avaliados em sete locais da Região Sul do Brasil. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Empregaram-se as metodologias de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966 e ANNICCHIARICO (1992 para o estudo da adaptabilidade e estabilidade da produtividade de matéria seca da silagem (t ha-1 e do potencial de produção de leite (kg ha-1 dos híbridos de milho. Observou-se ampla variação na adaptação e estabilidade dos híbridos estudados, evidenciando a possibilidade de identificação de híbridos adaptados às diferentes condições ambientais de cultivo para a silagem na Região Sul do Brasil e com comportamento estável. O híbrido DAS766 apresentou boa adaptação e estabilidade para a produtividade de matéria seca de silagem em ambientes favoráveis. Para o potencial de produção de leite, os híbridos mais adaptados e estáveis foram DAS766, P3021 e P3041. Os ambientes de Urussanga e Ijuí apresentaram-se semelhantes para a avaliação do potencial de produção de leite da silagem dos híbridos de milho na região Sul do Brasil.The objective of this work was to study the stratification of those environments used for corn hybrids evaluation for silage in the Southern Region of Brazil and identify those materials with the best adaptation and stability. Twenty-one corn hybrids from different seed companies were evaluated in seven locations in the Southern Region of Brazil. Trials were conducted using a randomized block design with three replications. The methodology used to study adaptability and stability of silage dry matter productivity (t ha-1 and potential for milk production (kg ha-1 of the corn

  16. Production of high fructose corn syrup Streptomyces sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, M; Prabhu, K A

    1978-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain exhibiting considerable glucose isomerase activity was isolated from soil. The cell free extract of the culture was able to convert glucose to fructose in a period of 48 ha and gave 40% conversion. With acid hydrolyzates of corn and bagasse as substrates, the cell-free extract gave glucose to fructose conversions of 39.8 and 29%, respectively.

  17. High-fructose corn syrup: is this what's for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2008-12-01

    Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the United States has largely focused on calorically sweetened beverages and ignored other sources. We aimed to examine US consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. We used 2 estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar both overall and within certain food and beverage groups. Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared with total added sugar of 377 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1), accounting for 17% of total energy intake. Although food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of added sugar was consumed compared with 505 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1) of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (>100 kcal x person(-1) x d(-1)). Although increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health effect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked.

  18. Produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com fenos de alfafa e de tifton-85 e silagem de milho Milk production and composition of Holstein cows fed with alfafa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da ingestão dos fenos de alfafa e tifton-85 e da silagem de milho na produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com peso vivo médio de 460 kg, em início de lactação, num experimento em triplo quadrado latino, simultâneo, com três linhas (vacas e três colunas (volumoso. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 dos diferentes volumosos na produção e na composição do leite, nem nas porcentagens e produções de gordura, de proteína, de lactose e de sólidos totais. Também a contagem de células somáticas não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. Os resultados da análise econômica mostraram que a silagem de milho proporcionou maior margem líquida por litro de leite/dia produzido.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intake of alfalfa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage on the milk production and composition of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, at the beginning of lactation, using a triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (cows and three columns (forages. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of the different types of forage on the milk production and composition, or on the percentage the production of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and somatic cell count. The results of the economic analysis showed that the corn silage provided a larger liquid margin for liters of milk produced per day.

  19. Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinun or Kikuyuocloa clandestina silage fermented with three additives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of kikuyu grass silage with high humidity and the bromatologic quality when adding three different additives. These were added at three levels: molasses: 0, 2, and 4%, ground corn and citrus pulp: 5, 7 and 9% on a dry basis on the whole forage, fresh chopped and compacted in plastic bags. The experiment was conducted in 2010 at the El Pizote dairy farm, located in San Ramón, Tres Ríos, Cartago, Costa Rica. The experimental period lasted 77 days. Averages of 14.10%, 13.75%, 13.71% DM, 8.20%, 7.38%, 7.36% CP, 77.48%, 79.51%, 79.07% NDF, 39.22%, 40.12%, 39.68 % of FAD, 38.26%, 39.39%, 39.39% hemicellulose, 32.79%, 33.47%, 33.26% cellulose, 6.43%, 6.66%, 6.42% lignin, 2.23%, 1.89%, 2.04% EE and 11.53%, 11,74% , 11, 65% of total ash for silage with molasses, ground corn and citrus pulp respectively were obtained. Differences (p<0.05 were found in the amount of effluent according to the additive and the addition level. High humidity of kikuyu grass can cause that the effluents produce since the beginning until obtaining the maximum accumulation inside the bag, after 60 to 80 días of silage. That is why the bag has to be checked periodically and, if possible, drain the liquid effluents generated to avoid the process of deterioration.

  20. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources...... was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous......% if feeds were delivered as four feedings per day rather than as one. Reducing the exposed face of storage can also be useful. Simulated use of silage bags resulted in 90% and 18% reductions in emissions from the storage face and whole farm, respectively....

  1. Comparison of methods for estimating production of methane from whole plant maize silage

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Podkówka; Witold Podkówka

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory methods to measure the amount of methane gas evolved in the fermentation process require specialized equipment and are long-lasting and expensive. Therefore a number of methods are developed to estimate the efficiency of biogas and methane from the chemical composition of the substrate. The aim of this study was to compare different methods to estimate the efficiency of methane from the silages made from whole plant corn. The study was based on test results of silage from whole pla...

  2. A survey of silage management practices on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguy, J M; Meyer, D; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to gather baseline information on corn silage-management practices to develop an outreach curriculum for dairy producers and growers. In spring 2013, dairy producers in the San Joaquin Valley (California) were surveyed on their silage-management practices. Response rate was 14.5% (n=160) and herd size averaged 1,512 milking cows. Harvest date was set solely by the dairy producer (53.4%) or with the assistance of the crop manager, custom chopper, or nutritionist (23.3%). On some dairies (23.3%), the dairy producer delegated the harvest date decision. Most dairies (75.0%) estimated crop dry matter before harvest, and the preferred method was milk line evaluation. Dairy producers were mostly unfamiliar with harvest rate but the number [1 (35.9%), 2 (50.3%), or 3 to 5 (13.8%)] and size [6-row (17.7%), 8-row (67.3%), or 10-row (15.0%)] of choppers working simultaneously was reported. Most dairies used a single packing tractor (68.8%) and weighed every load of fresh chopped corn delivered to the silage pit (62%). During harvest, dry matter (66.9%), particle length (80.4%), and kernel processing (92.5%) were monitored. Most dairies completed filling their largest silage structure in less than 3 d (48.5%) or in 4 to 7 d (30.9%). Silage covering was completed no later than 7 2h after structure completion in all dairies, and was often completed within 24 h (68.8%). Packed forage was covered as filled in 19.6% of dairies. Temporary covers were used on some dairies (51.0%), with filling durations of 1 to 60 d. When temporary covers were not used, structures were filled in no more than 15 d. After structure closure, silage feedout started in 1 to 3 wk (44.4%), 4 to 5 wk (31.4%), or 8 or more wk (24.2%). Future considerations included increasing the silage storage area (55.9%), increasing the number of packing tractors (37.0%), planting brown mid-rib varieties (34.4%), buying a defacer to remove silage (33.1%), and creating drive-over piles (32

  3. Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR with small grains (SG, the warm-season annual (WA grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively. The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

  4. Cana-de-açúcar em substituição à silagem de milho em dietas para vacas em lactação: parâmetros digestivos e ruminais Effects of replacing corn silage with sugarcane on production and ruminal metabolism of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Magalhães

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho por cana-de-açúcar em dietas para vacas leiteiras. Foram avaliados quatro níveis de substituição (0; 33,3; 66,6 e 100% de silagem de milho por cana-de-açúcar para o estudo do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e a determinação do pH e da concentração de compostos nitrogenados amoniacais (N-NH3 do líquido ruminal e da taxa de passagem ruminal da digesta. Doze vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, com potencial para produção de 5.000 a 7.000 kg de leite por lactação, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4 balanceados, conforme o período de lactação. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais, onde receberam as dietas (ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia, com relação volumoso:concentrado 60:40, durante 84 dias experimentais. O aumento do nível de substituição de silagem de milho por cana-de-açúcar promoveu redução linear do consumo de todos os nutrientes, exceto lignina e carboidratos não-fibrosos. A substituição não afetou as digestibilidades da matéria seca, da matéria orgânica e da proteína bruta. A digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro apresentou redução acentuada, enquanto a dos carboidratos não-fibrosos aumentou. O pH ruminal não foi influenciado pelas dietas, apresentando comportamento quadrático conforme o tempo após alimentação. As concentrações de amônia ruminal apresentaram comportamento quadrático de acordo com as dietas e o tempo de alimentação. A taxa de passagem ruminal da digesta diminuiu e o tempo médio de retenção total aumentou com a substituição, o que pode explicar a redução no consumo. A silagem de milho pode ser substituída em até 33% pela cana-de-açúcar para vacas com produções médias diárias de 24 kg de leite.This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing corn silage with sugarcane on intake, apparent

  5. Avaliação da queima e da adição de milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar Effect of burning and addition of dehydrated corn cob and straw on sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fernandes Bernardes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a fermentação da cana-de-açúcar queimada, ensilada com ou sem uso de aditivo seco. Os tratamentos (seis no total consistiram da silagem de cana crua ou queimada, adicionada de 0, 50 ou 100 g/kg de milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, com base no peso verde da forragem. Foram determinados os teores de MS, PB, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, FDN, FDA, celulose, hemicelulose e lignina. Na avaliação das características fermentativas, foram determinados os valores de carboidratos solúveis, o poder tamponante, o pH e as concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal e etanol. Como características microbiológicas, avaliou-se o desenvolvimento de leveduras. A inclusão de MDPS elevou os teores de MS e reduziu discretamente os teores de N-NH3 e etanol das silagens, não ocasionando efeito nos valores de pH e na população de leveduras. A presença do fogo reduziu a concentração de MS das silagens, elevou os teores de etanol e leveduras e diminuiu os teores de N-NH3. A fermentação etanólica durante a ensilagem não foi controlada com a inclusão de aditivo seco ou com o uso do fogo.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of burning and the use of dry additive on the sugar cane silage fermentative pattern. Six treatments were tested: natural or burned sugarcane, associated to three supplementation levels: 0, 50 or 100 g/kg of dehydrated corn grain, cob, and straw (CGCS based on forage fresh mater. The following response variables were determined in the forage: DM, CP, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin concentrations. Considering the fermentative traits, soluble carbohydrate levels, buffering capacity, pH, ammonia nitrogen and ethanol levels were measured. The CGCS inclusion increased DM concentration and slightly reduced ethanol and N-NH3 levels in silages, but did not affect pH or yeast growth. Burning reduced DM and N-NH3 concentration

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF ACID-SOIL TOLERANT CORN (Zea mays L. WITH HIGH-QUALITY PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Halimi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is an important food crop in Indonesia. Plant expansion has been hampered by soil-acidity problem and the protein content of many corn varieties was low. This research initiates development of soil-acid-tolerant corn with high-quality-protein content. Research was done on 12 factorial treatments and 3 replications as blocks in RCBD. The first factor was corn populations: Toray-1(G1, Toray-2(G2, GS-5(G3 and GS-10(G4. The second factor was fertilizations: P1(69 kg N+36 kg P2O5+15 kg K2O per ha; P2(115 kg N+54 kg P2O5+30 kg K2O per ha; and P3(161 kg N+72 kg P2O5+45 kg K2O per ha. The observed variables consisted of several agronomic traits, including the protein content. Results indicated that the corn populations, in general, showed good agronomic traits. The differences were mostly between populations, not between fertilizations, and no interaction was observed. The yield potential ranged from 4.25 to 6.47 ton dry seeds per ha. The protein content of seed resulted from cross ranged from 9.84% to 11.30%, as compared to the parents of 9.11% and 12.62%. This research concludes that genetic factors play an important role as confirmed by heritability estimate (h2=0.75.

  7. Desempenho produtivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com diferentes proporções de cana-de-açúcar e concentrado ou silagem de milho na dieta Effects of feeding corn silage or different dietary ratios of sugarcane and concentrate on production of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Geraldo Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e a variação do peso corporal de vacas lactantes alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de cana-de-açúcar e concentrado ou silagem de milho. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, balanceados. As dietas experimentais foram formuladas à base de silagem de milho, na proporção de 60%, ou cana-de-açúcar corrigida com 1 % da mistura uréia+sulfato de amônio (9:1, nas proporções de 60, 50 e 40%. Não houve diferenças entre a dieta com 60% de silagem de milho e aquela com 40% de cana-de-açúcar para produção de leite (20,81 e 19,78 kg/dia, consumo de matéria seca e da maior parte dos nutrientes, digestibilidade aparente da maioria dos nutrientes e variação de peso. Entre as dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar, aquela com 60% foi a que promoveu o pior desempenho quanto à produção de leite (16,90 kg/dia, ao consumo de matéria seca e de nutrientes e à variação de peso, seguida da dieta com 50% de cana-de-açúcar, que apresentou resultados intermediários. A dieta com 40% foi a que proporcionou melhores resultados para estes parâmetros. As vacas alimentadas com a dieta contendo 50% de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram resultados semelhantes para consumo de FDN em comparação à dieta na proporção de 40%. As dietas com 60 e 50% de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram valores semelhantes para digestibilidades aparentes da FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos para nenhum dos parâmetros de composição do leite.Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to three 4x4 Latin squares to evaluate the effects of feeding corn silage or different dietary ratios of sugarcane and concentrate on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk composition and yield, and body weight change. The diets contained 60

  8. High Fructose Corn Syrup, Mercury, and Autism--Is There a Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review relevant background literature and research regarding the evidence linking high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), mercury, and the increased incidence of autism among the population in the United States. Results of review suggest that rigorous scientific studies need to be performed to conclusively identify the…

  9. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  10. High fructose corn syrup use in beverages: Composition, manufacturing, properties, consumption, and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been used in beverages for more than 30 years. Technology to produce it was developed in the 1960s, it was introduced to the food and beverage industry as a liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (sugar) in the 1970s, and it fully replaced sucrose in the USA in m...

  11. Finger millet: An alternative crop for the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently, corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are the two major crops grown in the region to meet silage demands for the expanding dairy industry, but they have rel...

  12. Ensiling characteristics and feeding value of silage made from cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, silage made from cattle waste being ensiled with maize residues (ECW), was evaluated ... high concentrate ration tended to be of a better quality and scored 8,9 points out of 13in comparison ..... reclaimed fecal residue.

  13. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  14. Substituição parcial de silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho desidratado na alimentação de vacas holandesas em lactação Partial replacement of corn silage by corn gluten feed in the feeding of dairy Holstein cows in lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina do Nascimento Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito da substituição de parte da silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho (FGM-21 desidratado na produção e composição do leite e nos parâmetros sangüíneos de vacas em lactação e avaliar economicamente essa substituição. Foram avaliados os níveis 0, 8 e 16% de inclusão de FGM-21 (% MS nas dietas. Trinta vacas foram utilizadas no estudo da produção e composição do leite e 15 vacas no estudo dos parâmetros sangüíneos. O delineamento experimental foi quadrado latino 3 ´ 3 com dez replicações. Houve diferença entre as dietas para a produção de leite e a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. As demais características estudadas não diferiram entre as dietas. Para produção de leite, foram obtidos os valores de 22,44; 23,69 e 23,88 kg/vaca/dia; para produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, 23,25; 24,71 e 24,44 kg/vaca/dia; para porcentagem de gordura, 3,69; 3,76 e 3,65%; para proteína no leite, 3,22; 3,20 e 3,25%; lactose, 4,29; 4,32 e 4,31%; sólidos totais, 12,12; 12,23 e 12,14%; N-uréico no leite, 16,57; 16,50 e 14,96 mg/dL; N-uréico plasmático, 19,92; 21,17 e 20,21 mg/dL; e para glicose sérica, 55,69; 56,50 e 54,78 mg/dL nos níveis 0, 8 e 16% de FGM-21, respectivamente. A dieta com 16% de FGM-21 resultou em maior lucro.The objective was to study the effects of partial replacing of corn silage by corn gluten feed (CGF-21 dehydrated on milk production and composition of milk and in the blood parameters of dairy cows, beyond the economic evaluation. Inclusion levels of 0, 8 and 16% of CGF-21 (% DM to the diets were evaluated. Thirty cows were used for study of milk production and composition and fifteen cows for blood parameters study. A 3 x 3 Latin Square experimental design with ten replications was used. There was difference among diets for milk yield and for 3.5% fat correct milk. No difference among diets was observed for the other studied

  15. Silage review: Foodborne pathogens in silage and their mitigation by silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O C M; Ogunade, I M; Weinberg, Z; Adesogan, A T

    2018-05-01

    Silage is one of the main ingredients in dairy cattle diets and it is an important source of nutrients, particularly energy and digestible fiber. Unlike properly made and managed silage, poorly made or contaminated silage can also be a source of pathogenic bacteria that may decrease dairy cow performance, reduce the safety and quality dairy products, and compromise animal and human health. Some of the pathogenic bacteria that are frequently or occasionally associated with silage are enterobacteria, Listeria, Bacillus spp., Clostridium spp., and Salmonella. The symptoms caused by these bacteria in dairy cows vary from mild diarrhea and reduced feed intake by Clostridium spp. to death and abortion by Listeria. Contamination of food products with pathogenic bacteria can cause losses of millions of dollars due to recalls of unsafe foods and decreases in the shelf life of dairy products. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in silage is usually due to contamination or poor management during the fermentation, aerobic exposure, or feed-out stages. Silage additives and inoculants can improve the safety of silage as well as the fermentation, nutrient recovery, quality, and shelf life. This review summarizes the literature on the main foodborne pathogens that occasionally infest silage and how additives can improve silage safety. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, 130 Creelman Street, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Womac, A.R. [Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, 2506 E. J. Chapman Drive, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sokhansanj, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, P. O. Box 2008, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Company, 100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, British Columbia, V7T 1A2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force-displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4-5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths {>=} 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks. (author)

  17. Carcaça e não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros recebendo polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252 Carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed with pressed citrus pulp replacing corn silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yumi Noro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP sobre as características de carcaça e dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte quatro cordeiros com idade média de 90 dias e peso vivo inicial médio de 18 kg foram confinados durante 67 dias, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50, 75% da MS. Não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05 para peso vivo ao abate (32,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (44,7%, rendimento verdadeiro (50,3% e não-componentes da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, apenas o rendimento de lombo foi afetado (pThe objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by pressed citrus pulp (PCP on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs with average age of 90 days and initial weight of 18 kg were maintained in feedlot for 67 days, fed with increasing levels of PCP replacing corn silage (0, 25, 50, 75%, DM basis. There was no difference (p>0.05 for live weight at slaughter (32.8 kg, hot carcass yield (44.7%, true yield (50.3% and non-carcass components. In relation to cut yields, only loin yield was affected (p<0.05 by the diet, which showed quadratic response. For the carcass measurements, only the arm length was affected by the diet, showing quadratic behavior. The percentage of fat and muscle showed quadratic behavior according to replacement levels. The results suggest that pressed citrus pulp can substitute corn silage for lambs in feedlot without affecting the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components.

  18. Preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde from high fructose corn syrup and other carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmant, H H; Chundury, D D

    1981-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) was prepared from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), or crystalline D-fructose, in high yield and purity. A 95%-97% conversion of fructose to HMF was achieved using 25 mol% (based on fructose) boron trifluoride etherate catalyst in dimethyl sulphoxide, under a nitrogen atmosphere, a reaction temperature of 273 K, and 30 minutes reaction time. Inferior yields of HMF were obtained from glucose and starch.

  19. Biogas production from undiluted chicken manure and maize silage: A study of ammonia inhibition in high solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Banks, Charles J; Heaven, Sonia; Liu, Ronghou

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of chicken manure (CM) and maize silage (MS) without water dilution was investigated in 5-L digesters. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.309LCH4g(-1) volatile solids (VS) was achieved but only at lower %CM. Above a critical threshold for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), estimated at 7gNL(-1), VFA accumulated with a characteristic increase in acetic acid followed by its reduction and an increase in propionic acid. During this transition the predominant methanogenic pathway was hydrogenotrophic. Methanogenesis was completely inhibited at TAN of 9gNL(-1). The low digestibility of the mixed feedstock led to a rise in digestate TS and a reduction in SMP over the 297-day experimental period. Methanogenesis appeared to be failing in one digester but was recovered by reducing the %CM. Co-digestion was feasible with CM ⩽20% of feedstock VS, and the main limiting factor was ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    20 mg copper; 20 mg iodine; 189 g calcium; 50 g phosphorus; 6000 000 I.U. ..... of corn silage by pineapple by-products on ruminal degradability in beef cattle. .... between the herbage and the course of fermentation in ensiling green fodder.

  1. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  2. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  3. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity of fungi spoiling maize silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium paneum, Monascus ruber, Alternaria tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum, Byssochlamys nivea and Aspergillus fumigatus have previously been identified as major fungal contaminants of Danish maize silage. In the present study their metabolite....... roqueforti metabolites roquefortine C (48μg/mL), andrastin A (>50μg/mL), mycophenolic acid (>100μg/mL) and 1-hydroxyeremophil-7(11),9(10)-dien-8-one (>280μg/mL) were high. Fractionating of agar extracts identified PR-toxin as an important cytotoxic P. roqueforti metabolite, also detectable in maize silage....... The strongly cytotoxic B. nivea and P. paneum agar extracts contained patulin above the IC50 of 0.6μg/mL, however inoculated onto maize silage B. nivea and P. paneum did not produce patulin (>371μg/kg). Still B. nivea infected maize silage containing mycophenolic acid (∼50mg/kg), byssochlamic acid and other...

  5. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  6. Mechanical dewatering of silage; Mechanische Entwaesserung von Silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Daries, Werner [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam (Germany). Abteilung Technik der Aufbereitung, Lagerung und Konservierung; Rinder, Ralf [Anhydro GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The use of screw presses for dewatering of silage is energetically more efficient than thermal drying. Tests with two types of screw presses show that on dry matter flow rates of more than 1.0 tDM/h the specific energy consumption is less than 30 kWh/tDM. The water content of the silage is decreased by 5 to 20 % and the share of undesired ingredients by 2 to 30 %. Besides press design and plant species, in particular moisture content, chip size and density of silage are essentially for the dewatering success. (orig.)

  7. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    In 2008, corn grain prices rose $115/t of DM above the 2005 average. Such an increase creates tight marginal profits for small (profit losses by growing more corn silage and reducing corn grain purchases. This study applies the Integrated Farm Systems Model to 1 small and 1 medium-sized New York State dairy farm to predict 1) sediment and P loss impacts from expanding corn fields, 2) benefits of no-till or cover cropping on corn fields, and 3) alternatives to the economic challenge of the current farming system as the price ratio of milk to corn grain continues to decline. Based on the simulation results, expanding corn silage production by 3% of the cultivated farm area increased sediment and sediment-bound P losses by 41 and 18%, respectively. Implementing no-till controlled about 84% of the erosion and about 75% of the sediment-bound P that would have occurred from the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario. Implementing a conventionally tilled cover crop with the conventionally tilled, expanded corn production scenario controlled both erosion and sediment-bound P, but to a lesser extent than no-till corn with no cover crop. However, annual farm net return using cover crops was slightly less than when using no-till. Increasing on-farm grass productivity while feeding cows a high-quality, high-forage diet and precise dietary P levels offered dual benefits: 1) improved farm profitability from reduced purchases of dietary protein and P supplements, and 2) decreased runoff P losses from reduced P-levels in applied manure. Moreover, alternatives such as growing additional small grains on marginal lands and increasing milk production levels demonstrated great potential in increasing farm profitability. Overall, it is crucial that conservation measures such as no-till and cover cropping be implemented on new or existing corn lands as these areas often pose the highest threat for P losses through runoff. Although alternatives that would likely provide

  8. Verteerbaarheid en voederwaarde van diverse kwaliteiten graskuil en van CCM bij biologische zeugen = Digestibility and nutritive value of several qualities of grass silage and of CCM in organic housed gestating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility and energy value of five qualities of grass silage and of CCM (Corn cob mix) were investigated in organic housed gestating sows. The dry matter content of the five grass silages varied between 21.3 and 24.9%. The energy value per kg dry matter varied between

  9. Starch degradability of dry and ensiled high-moisture grains of corn hybrids with different textures at different grinding degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Simony Alves Mendonça; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated corn grains with flint and dent texture (ensiled high-moisture or dried), submitted to grinding degrees, using the in situ ruminal degradation technique. Three rumen canulated adult sheeps were used in a complete randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, with two corn hybrids (flint and dent texture), two conservation methods (ensiled high-moisture and dry) and three grinding degress (whole, coarsely and finely ground, corresponding to the sieve of 12; 10...

  10. Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Lock, A L; Mechor, G D; Kung, L

    2015-04-01

    Feeding silages with high concentrations of yeasts from aerobic spoilage is often implicated as a cause of poor animal performance on dairies. Our objective was to determine if a commonly found spoilage yeast, isolated from silage, had the potential to alter in vitro ruminal fermentations. A single colony of Issatchenkia orientalis, isolated from high-moisture corn, was grown in selective medium. The yeast culture was purified and added to in vitro culture tubes containing a total mixed ration (43% concentrate, 43% corn silage, 11% alfalfa haylage, and 3% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis), buffer, and ruminal fluid to achieve added theoretical final concentrations of 0 (CTR), 4.40 (low yeast; LY), 6.40 (medium yeast; MY), and 8.40 (high yeast; HY) log10 cfu of yeast/mL of in vitro fluid. Seven separate tubes were prepared for each treatment and each time point and incubated for 12 and 24h at 39 °C. At the end of the incubation period, samples were analyzed for pH, yeast number, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and fatty acids (FA). We found that total viable yeast counts decreased for all treatments in in vitro incubations but were still relatively high (5.3 log10 cfu of yeasts/mL) for HY after 24h of incubation. Addition of HY resulted in a lower pH and higher concentration of total VFA in culture fluid compared with other treatments. Moreover, additions of MY and HY decreased in vitro NDF digestibility compared with CTR, and the effect was greatest for HY. Overall, the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA was not altered by addition of I. orientalis and decreased over time with an increase in the accumulation of saturated FA, especially palmitic and stearic acids. We conclude that addition of I. orientalis, especially at high levels, has the potential to reduce in vitro NDF digestion and alter other aspects of ruminal fermentations. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Allison M.; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A.

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study ...

  12. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

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    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  13. Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production

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    S. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silage fermentation quality and type of supplementation on milk production. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and 4 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Silage fermentation was modified with formic acid (FA, which was applied at the rates equivalent to 0 (FA0, 2 (FA2, 4 (FA4 or 6 (FA6 litres t-1 grass of pure formic acid (as 100% FA. Dietary treatments consisted of four silages, a protein supplementation (no supplement or rapeseed meal 1.8 kg d-1 and a glucogenic substrate (no supplement or propylene glycol 225 g d-1. Increasing the application rate of FA restricted silage fermentation curvilinearly, as evidenced by higher concentrations of ammonia N and butyric acid in FA4 than FA2 silage. Similarly the use of FA resulted in curvilinear changes in the silage dry matter intake and milk yield. The highest milk and protein yields were achieved with FA6, while the milk yield with FA2 was higher than with FA4. Interactions were observed between silage type and supplementation. Rapeseed meal increased milk yield irrespective of the extent of silage fermentation, but the magnitude of response was variable. Propylene glycol was most beneficial with restrictively fermented silages FA4 and FA6. In conclusion, restriction of silage fermentation with a high rate of formic acid is beneficial in milk production. Interactions between silage composition and concentrate types suggest that the responses to supplementary feeding depend on silage fermentation characteristics.;

  14. An in vitro model to study interactions between Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacterial inoculants for silage in rumen fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Ogunade, I M; Adesogan, A

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants enhance ruminants' performance. The objective of the current experiments was to develop an in vitro model to study interactions between LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages and Escherichia coli (EC) in rumen fluid (RF). Our hypothesis was that some inoculants inhibit EC in RF. For that purpose buffered RF was incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C with commercial strains of LAB silage inoculants or with laboratory corn and wheat silages treated with these LAB, an EC strain and with various ruminant feed ingredients. The EC strain was originally isolated from cattle manure and tagged with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescence protein and kanamycin and streptomycin resistance. Results indicate that the LAB or the treated silages did not suppress EC numbers in the RF. When the pH of the RF decreased below 5·0 the EC disappeared. We conclude that both LAB inoculants for silage and EC survived in RF for several days; however, the inoculants and silages treated with such inoculants did not inhibit EC in RF in vitro. Forage crops, silage and hay are initial stages of the food chain for humans. Cattle harbours and sheds enterobacteria regularly, some strains of which are pathogens. These can contaminate forage crops through field fertilization with cattle manure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model to test whether lactic acid bacteria, which are used in silage inoculants, alone or in treated silages can inhibit Escherichia coli in rumen fluid. This study presents safety aspects and it is also part of a broad research effort aimed at finding out how LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages enhance ruminant performance or exert probiotic effects in ruminants. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Análise do consumo de energia na produção de silagem de milho em plantio direto - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1980 Energy consumption analysis of corn silage production in non-tillage crop system- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Torres de Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O agroecossistema, como um meio de converter a energia solar em produtos, necessita de várias fontes de energia, dentre as quais destacam-se a dos fertilizantes, a dos defensivos agrícolas e outras. No presente trabalho, realizou-se um estudo do consumo energético envolvido na produção de milho para silagem em sistema de plantio direto, na região de São Miguel do Iguaçu, Estado do Paraná. No consumo de energia direta, os combustíveis e lubrificantes foram os maiores consumidores, representando 45,90% do total, os defensivos agrícolas foram responsáveis pelo consumo de 24,12%, enquanto que os fertilizantes, por 10,53%. Ao computar os componentes de origem fóssil, os combustíveis, os lubrificantes, os defensivos e os fertilizantes, a participação do consumo total de energia foi de 84,07%.The agricultural ecosystem as a way of converting solar energy in products needs several energy sources, among those sources stood out fertilizers, agricultural defensives and others. These inputs are derived from fossils. In the present paper, the energy consumption involved in corn silage production in a non-tillage crop system, in São Miguel do Iguaçu, State of Paraná, Brazil, was studied. In the direct energy input, fuels and lubricants were the largest consumers, representing 45.90% of the total, agricultural defensives were responsible for the consumption of 24.12% of the total, while fertilizers for 10.53% of the total consumption. By computing the fossil origin components, fuels, lubricants, defensive and fertilizers, the participation of the total consumption of energy was of 84.07%.

  16. Rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Non-carcass components yield of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane under two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2011-12-01

    with corn silage or sugarcane under two levels of concentrate. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France lambs fed on corn silage or sugar cane with two roughage:concentrate ratios: 60:40 or 40:60. Lambs were confined until they reached 32 kg of body weight (BW, when they were slaughtered. After the bleeding, all non-carcass components (blood, skin, head, feet, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, heart, lung with trachea, pancreas, kidneys with perirenal fat, omental and mesenteric fat were separated and weighed, and their percentages were calculated in relation to the BW. The content of gastrointestinal tract was greater in lambs which fed on sugar cane (15.17% and 60% of roughage (14.55%; while omental and kidney fats were greater in lambs that received corn silage, 0.53 and 0.63%, respectively. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage affected the proportions of rumen, omasum and small intestine in relation to the total weight of gastrointestinal tract. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage influence the content of the gastrointestinal tract of lambs, indirectly affecting the carcass yields. The type of food has greater influence on the proportions of the organs responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The factors that influence the non-carcass components of lambs are varied and contradictory, requiring more research that might encourage their use and, consequently, add more value to the production systems of sheep meat.

  17. Desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane based diets with two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em duas relações volumoso:concentrado (60:40 ou 40:60. Os animais foram mantidos confinados individualmente com controle do alimento fornecido e das sobras e pesados semanalmente para determinação do ganho de peso diário e da conversão alimentar. Simultaneamente, foram realizados ensaios de digestibilidade e metabolismo para determinação do consumo e da digestibilidade dos nutrientes e do balanço de nitrogênio das dietas experimentais. O ganho de peso foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho, de 294,6 g/dia, e com a relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60, de 314,3 g/dia. A relação volumoso:concentrado influenciou apenas os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA digestíveis, cujos maiores valores, de 125,26 e 48,97 g/dia, foram obtidos com a relação volumoso:concentrado 60:40. Os cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram maior consumo de todos os nutrientes digestíveis, exceto proteína bruta (162,00 g/dia e carboidratos não-fibrosos (471,42 g/dia. As maiores digestibilidades de matéria orgânica (80,34% e carboidratos totais (80,71% foram obtidas com a relação 40:60 e as de matéria seca (78,91%, proteína bruta (81,30% e energia bruta (78,77%, nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Os maiores valores de nitrogênio ingerido, absorvido e retido, de 32,6; 20,5 e 13,7 g/dia, respectivamente, foram observados com o fornecimento das dietas com 40% de volumoso. O tipo de volumoso influencia mais a digestibilidade dos nutrientes que sua proporção na dieta.Thirty-two non castrated Ile de France lambs fed corn silage or sugar-cane based diets with two roughage:concentrate ratios (60:40 or 40:60 were used. The animals were kept individually confined with control of the supplied food and leftovers, weekly weighted for determination of

  18. Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern Africa: A review

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    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace expensive feed sources (pellets, fruits and farm produce currently offered in southern African zoos, game farms and reserves, especially during the cold-dry season. Considerable leaf biomass from the indigenous browse trees can be produced for silage making. High nutrient content and minerals from indigenous browsable trees are highly recognised. Indigenous browse trees have low water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC that render them undesirable for fermentation. Techniques such as wilting browse leaves, mixing cereal crops with browse leaves, and use of additives such as urea and enzymes have been studied extensively to increase WSC of silage from the indigenous browse trees. Anti-nutritional factors from the indigenous browse preferred by the wild ungulates have also been studied extensively. Indigenous browse silages are a potential feed resource for the captive wild ungulates. If the browse trees are used to make silage, they are likely to improve performance of wild ungulates in captivity, especially during the cold-dry season when browse is scarce. Research is needed to assess the feasibility of sustainable production and the effective use of silage from indigenous browse trees in southern Africa. Improving intake and nutrient utilisation and reducing the concentrations of anti-nutritional compounds in silage from the indigenous browse trees of southern Africa should be the focus for animal nutrition research that need further investigation. Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors

  19. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

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    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  20. Impact of silage additives on aerobic stability and characteristics of high-moisture maize during exposure to air, and on fermented liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2014-01-01

    during aeration- and impact of additives on the aerobic stability of HMM depended on the characteristics of the samples. No blooming of Enterobacteriaceae was observed in FLF containing c. 20 g HMM 100 g−1. Significance and Impact of the Study The impact of silage additives on aerobic stability of HMM...

  1. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

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    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  2. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage. T.J. Dugmere, A.M. Breden and K.P. Walsh. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Natal Region, Pietermaritzburg. Maize silage is relatively high in energy but low in protein for the normal lactational requirements of dairy cows. Three trials were ...

  3. Results of mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of corn-based feed for dairy cow diet

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    Škrinjar Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fungal contamination was determined as well as total aflatoxin B1(AB1, ochratoxin A (OTA and zearalenon (ZEA levels in corn-based feed samples obtained from four different farms in Serbia (n=35 during one year. Mycotoxins were detected in feed using the VICAM fluorometric method. It was determined that 97.14% of all samples were contaminated with moulds which belonged to following genera: Absidia, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Mortierella, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Wallrothiella. A total of 58 different species were identified. Total mould count per 1 g ranged from 1.00 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - autumn, fresh corn silage - summer and corn grain silage - spring to 7.32 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - winter. Mycotoxins were isolated from 28.5% of samples: ZEA was found in summer (220-240 μg/kg and in spring (240 μg/kg in concentrate samples; OTA was detected in winter in dried corn silage (16 μg/kg and in spring (12 μg/kg; all samples were AB1 free.

  4. Avaliação da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. por meio do desempenho de bezerros confinados em fase de crescimento Evaluation of silages of different corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. by feedlot performance of calves, during the growing phase

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    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2004-08-01

    weight of 252 kg, were used. The animals were fed during 84 days, divided in four periods of 21 days. The hybrids silages tested represented 70% of the dry matter offered. No significant interaction of corn hybrids with evaluation period was observed for the different parameters. The diet that included the AG-5011, resulted in higher voluntary dry matter intake expressed per 100 kg of live weight and metabolic size, and higher average daily intake of ADF expressed in the different forms, in relation to XL-344 and C-806, which were similar to each other. The diets that included the AG-5011, XL-344 and C-806 silages showed similar dry matter intakes expressed as kg/animal/day (6.73; 6.05; and 6.19, NDF expressed as kg/animal/day (3.054; 2.837; and 2.836 and digestible energy expressed in the different forms, average daily weight gain (1.283; 1.219; and 1.249 kg, gain in body condition, feed conversion (5.26; 4.98; and 4.97 and energy efficiency (14.02; 13.68; and 13.21. The three hybrids are indicated as very good genetic materials for silage production, resulting in weight gain above 1.2 kg/animal/day when fed diets with roughage:concentrate ratio of 70:30.

  5. REPLACEMENT OF CORN SILAGE BY CHOPPED SUGARCANE PLUS WHOLE COTTONSEED ON RUMINAL PARAMETERS, MICROBIAL PROTEIN PRODUCTION, AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY IN LACTATING COWS SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE SILAGEM DE MILHO POR CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR E CAROÇO DE ALGODÃO NOS PARÂMETROS RUMINAIS, SÍNTESE DE PROTEÍNA MICROBIANA E UTILIZAÇÃO DOS NUTRIENTES EM VACAS LACTANTES

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    Alexandre Vaz Pires

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 525.91 kg BW and 85 days in milk were assigned in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate the effects of corn silage replacement by sugarcane plus whole cottonseed. Cows were cannulated in the rumen and proximal duodenum and were fed a 50:50 concentrate:forage diet (DM basis. Treatments were defined by the replacement of corn silage by chopped sugarcane (whole plant plus whole cottonseed in the following proportions: 100:0 (control; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100 in the DM basis. Dry matter intake (DMI of cows fed 100, 75, and 50% corn silage diets was higher (P<0.05 than DMI of cows fed 25 and 0% corn silage. Ruminal degradability and total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were not affected (P>0.05 by treatment diets. Total digestibilities of crude protein in diets containing up to 50% of sugarcane were lower than in diets containing 75 or 100% of sugarcane. Ruminal ammonia concentration decreased (P<0.05 with sugarcane and whole cottonseed inclusion. Concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids as well as total volatile fatty acids concentration were higher (P<0.05 with sugarcane inclusion up to 50% level. Corn silage can be replaced by sugar cane plus whole cottonseed up to 50% level of forage in the diet without negative effect on nutrient utilization by dairy cows producing up to 18 kg milk/day. KEY WORDS: Digestibility, NDF, volatile fatty acid. Utilizaram-se cinco vacas holandesas pluríparas (525,91 kg PV e m

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica do colmo de híbridos de milho para avaliar a qualidade de silagem = Morphoanatomical characterization of corn hybrids stems, in order to evaluate silage quality

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    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a caracterização morfoanatômica e suas possíveis correlações com a digestibilidade da parede celular e com a lignina de dez híbridos de milho (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistache e Buxxil, plantados no INRA (Unité de Génétique et d’Amélioration dês Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-França, em parcelas de 150 m². O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Comexceção ao comprimento do córtex, verificou-se que os híbridos apresentaram diferenças significativas (p The objective was to evaluate morphoanatomical characteristics andpossible correlations with cell wall digestibility and with lignin of ten corn hybrids (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistachio and Buxxil planted at INRA (Unité of Génétique Amélioration des Plant Fourragères, Lusignan, France in 150 m² areas. A completely randomized experimental design with five replications was used. With exception for cortical length, significant differences were verified as for the evaluated morphoanatomical aspects, with hybrid DK265bm3 being characterized by lower counts of lignified cells in the medullar parenchyma and cortical areas, lower percentage of medullar parenchyma and higherpercentage of cortex in relation to other hybrids. However, DK265bm3 did not differ from other hybrids in regards to vascular bundle surface and cell wall thickness of the vascular bundle. Usingcorrelation analysis a positive correlation was observed between the levels of Klason lignin and lignin in acid detergent with the number of lignified cells in the parenchyma and cortex. IVCNDF showed a negative correlation with the proportion of lignified cells in medullar parenchyma and lignified cells in the cortex.

  7. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

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    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  8. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

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    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue upon sacrifice at age 119 days using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The intake of 15% high fructose corn syrup did not affect the rats' weight, only the rats on the high-fat diet gained significant weight. The rats in both diets had lower levels of leptin expression and high levels of fatty acid synthase in the brain, which were associated with high serum triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Fifteen percent high fructose corn syrup intake and the high-fat diet reduced leptin gene expression in the brain of Wistar rats, with differential effects on weight gain.

  9. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Adler; Benjamin M. Rau; Gregory W. Roth

    2015-01-01

    Pennsylvania farmers have a long history of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use of cover crops, no-till, and...

  10. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania has a long history of harvesting corn stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use...

  11. Avaliação do uso de inoculantes microbianos sobre a qualidade fermentativa e nutricional da silagem de milho Evaluation of microbial inoculation on nutritional and fermentative quality of corn silage

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    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram ensilados os milhos AG 510 e AG 5011 (Agroceres, formando oito tratamentos: controle (sem inoculantes, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amilase, hemicelulase e celulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium e Lactobacillus sp. e Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium e L. plantarum. Os silos utilizados foram confeccionados em baldes plástico (quatro repetições/tratamento, portando válvula "bunsen" para livre escape dos gases. Após 106 dias de armazenamento, os silos foram abertos e amostrados para análise da composição bromatológica e perfil fermentativo. Para os híbridos AG 510 e AG 5011, foram obtidas diferenças quanto aos teores de MS (35,26 vs. 44,06%, PB (8,07 vs. 9,73%, NIDA (19,04 vs. 24,76% do N total, FDN (62,03 vs. 64,71%, FDA (36,74 vs. 40,19%, lignina (11,24 vs. 12,57%, carboidratos solúveis (12,0 vs. 7,0%, amido (27,04 vs. 24,46%, pH (3,79 vs. 4,32, nitrogênio amoniacal (4,19 vs. 8,81% do N total, ácido láctico (4,875 vs. 1,421% da MS e ácido acético (1,269 vs. 2,682% da MS. O produto Pionner 1174 incrementou os teores de carboidratos solúveis no híbrido AG 510, mas não no híbrido 5011. Apenas no híbrido AG 510 houve diferenças nos teores de amido, tendo sido maior no tratamento Pioneer e intermediário no Silobac, em relação ao controle e ao Sil-All. O híbrido AG 510 apresentou melhor perfil fermentativo, quando comparado ao AG 5011, embora não fossem demonstrados efeitos dos inoculantes sobre esses parâmetros.The corn hybrids AG 510 and AG 5011 (Agroceres were ensiled in plastic experimental silos (four units/treatment, consisting of eight treatments: control (without inoculation, Sil-All® (S. faecium, P. acidilactici, L. plantarum, amylase, hemicellulase, and cellulase, Silobac® (L. plantarum, S. faecium, and Lactobacillus sp., and Pioneer 1174® (S. faecium and L. plantarum. Silos were opened 106 days after ensiling and sampled to proceed chemical analyses. AG 510 and AG 5011 hybrids

  12. Padrões da distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras, ao início e ao final da lactação, alimentadas com dieta à base de silagem de milho Ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns of dairy cows, at the beginning and at the end of lactation, fed a corn silage based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fischer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dos estádios de lactação inicial e final sobre o comportamento e a distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo foram avaliados com oito vacas leiteiras, consumindo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho. A análise espectral das séries de tempos horários de mastigação (ingestão ou ruminação foi realizada usando os dados modificados pela transformação finita de Fourier. Foi realizada análise de variância destes dados e a análise dos periodogramas e diagramas de fase. A duração média das refeições e o consumo de matéria seca foram superiores, enquanto o tempo unitário de ruminação foi inferior no período inicial em relação ao final da lactação. A distribuição dos tempos de ingestão e de ruminação nos estádios inicial e final de lactação seguiu, respectivamente, periodicidades de 24, 12, 8 e 4 horas e de 24, 12 e 8 horas. Foi constatado efeito significativo do estádio de lactação para o tempo gasto ingerindo e ruminando no componente de ritmo 4. O estádio da lactação influenciou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo e sua ritmicidade.The effects of the stage of lactation upon the ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns were evaluated with eight dairy cows eating a corn silage based diet. Spectral analysis was performed through application of the finite Fourier transformation upon hourly duration of eating or ruminating time series. Variance analysis and inspection of phase diagrams and periodograms were done upon modified data. The mean meal duration and dry matter intake were larger while the unitary ruminating time was inferior at the beginning than at the end of the lactation. Nycterohemeral patterns of time spent eating or ruminating at the beginning and at the end of lactation followed mainly periodicities of, respectively, 24, 12, 8 and 4 hours and 24, 12 and 8 hours. A significant effect of stage of lactation was observed at the rhythm component 4 for both time spent

  13. Effects of stage of maturity at harvest, wilting and LAB inoculant on aerobic stability of wheat silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Z.G.; Khanal, Prabhat; Chen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    of maturity were ensiled in mini-silos, either directly after cutting (DC) or after wilting (W). After 2-7 months of storage, silages were subjected to a 7-day aerobic stability test during which changes in chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility, and temperature......, as well as DM losses and CO production, were measured. Silages from wheat cultivar BH were relatively dry (DM between 287 and 430 g/kg) and were mostly stable upon aerobic exposure. The flowering wheat of cultivar Galil was moister (DM of 199 g/kg), and the DC silages were stable upon aerobic exposure...... spoilage indicators. The inoculant enhanced CO production in the silages prepared from the DC wheat of the flowering and milk stages, as compared with the respective non-inoculated control silages which contained high concentrations of VFA. However, in the wilted silages which contained less VFA, both...

  14. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive; corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; urea, at 2% of natural matter; and microbial inoculant for sugarcane silage (Lactobacillus plantarum, Kera-Sil® in a proportion of 2 g L-1 of water using a 2 liter solution per ton of ensilage. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The urea treatment provided the best preparation of silage, taking into account the pH and bromatological composition when compared to silages made with the other tested additives, and the control. The sugarcane silage showed a loss of 5.86% on average of dry matter, not differing from others additives used. There was an increase in crude protein content when urea was used. There was no difference between the treatment for fiber losses in neutral detergent and total digestible nutrients.

  15. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  16. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: <2 ng/L). Neonicotinoids were detected at all nine sites sampled even though the basin areas spanned four orders of magnitude. Temporal patterns in concentrations reveal pulses of neonicotinoids associated with rainfall events during crop planting, suggesting seed treatments as their likely source.

  17. High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor

    2008-12-01

    The annual American Society for Nutrition Public Information Committee symposium for 2007 titled "High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS): Everything You Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" served as a platform to address the controversy surrounding HFCS. Speakers from academia and industry came together to provide up-to-date information on this food ingredient. The proceedings from the symposium covered 1) considerable background on what HFCS is and why it is used as a food ingredient, 2) the contribution HFCS makes to consumers' diets, and 3) the latest research on the metabolic effects of HFCS. The data presented indicated that HFCS is very similar to sucrose, being about 55% fructose and 45% glucose, and thus, not surprisingly, few metabolic differences were found comparing HFCS and sucrose. That said, HFCS does contribute to added sugars and calories, and those concerned with managing their weight should be concerned about calories from beverages and other foods, regardless of HFCS content.

  18. Widespread occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in streams in a high corn and soybean producing region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are of environmental concern, but little is known about their occurrence in surface water. An area of intense corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States was chosen to study this issue because of the high agricultural use of neonicotinoids via both seed treatments and other forms of application. Water samples were collected from nine stream sites during the 2013 growing season. The results for the 79 water samples documented similar patterns among sites for both frequency of detection and concentration (maximum:median) with clothianidin (75%, 257 ng/L:8.2 ng/L) > thiamethoxam (47%, 185 ng/L: imidacloprid (23%, 42.7 ng/L: treatments as their likely source.

  19. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M R; Monz, T O; Root, T W; Connelly, R K; Scott, C T; Klingenberg, D J

    2010-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction temperature, acid concentration, and rheometer temperature. Plastic viscosities increase with increasing solids concentration and tend to decrease with increasing reaction temperature and acid concentration. The solids concentration dependence of the yield stress is consistent with that reported for other fibrous systems. The changes in yield stress with reaction conditions are consistent with observed changes in particle size. This study illustrates that torque rheometry can be used effectively to measure rheological properties of concentrated biomass.

  20. Características nutricionais da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho e dois níveis de concentrado Nutritional characteristics of meat from lambs finished with diets containing sugar cane or corn silage on two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo Leão

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características nutricionais da carne de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho em duas relações volumoso:concentrado (60:40 ou 40:60, utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, com 15 kg de peso corporal distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 × 2. Os animais foram confinados em baias individuais e abatidos aos 32 kg. A carne dos cordeiros teve 74,55% de umidade, 19,61% de proteína bruta, 1,04% de cinzas e 51,28 mg/100 g de colesterol. O teor de extrato etéreo foi maior na carne dos cordeiros alimentados com dietas com silagem de milho (3,97% e na carne daqueles que receberam alimentação mais concentrada (4,02%. Os ácidos graxos em maior concentração na carne dos cordeiros foram C18:1w9 (37,93%, C16:0 (26,41%, C18:0 (17,09%, C14:0 (4,18% e C18:2w6 (4,00%. A carne dos animais alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar apresentou maiores teores dos ácidos C10:0 (0,47% e C20:4w6 (4,17% e menores de C16:1w7 (2,02% e C18:3w3 (0,25%. A dieta com maior quantidade de cana-de-açúcar (60% promoveu maiores teores dos ácidos C15:0 (0,68%, C17:0 (2,13% e C20:2 (1,34% na carne. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou maior quantidade de volumoso (60% promovem menor deposição de gordura na carne de cordeiros. O tipo de volumoso tem maior influência no perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de cordeiro em comparação à relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas. Dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar em maiores proporções originam carne com maiores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados de cadeia ímpar.The objective of this work was to evaluate nutritional characteristics of meat from lambs finished on feedlot with diets containing sugar cane or corn silage on two roughage:concentrate ratios (60:40 or 40:60. It was used 32 non castrated Ile de France lambs, with 15 kg of body weight distributed

  1. Real-time monitoring of high-gravity corn mash fermentation using in situ raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Steven R; Peretti, Steven W; Lamb, H Henry

    2013-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was employed for real-time monitoring of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn mash by an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An accurate univariate calibration model for ethanol was developed based on the very strong 883 cm(-1) C-C stretching band. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration models for total starch, dextrins, maltotriose, maltose, glucose, and ethanol were developed using data from eight batch fermentations and validated using predictions for a separate batch. The starch, ethanol, and dextrins models showed significant prediction improvement when the calibration data were divided into separate high- and low-concentration sets. Collinearity between the ethanol and starch models was avoided by excluding regions containing strong ethanol peaks from the starch model and, conversely, excluding regions containing strong saccharide peaks from the ethanol model. The two-set calibration models for starch (R(2)  = 0.998, percent error = 2.5%) and ethanol (R(2)  = 0.999, percent error = 2.1%) provide more accurate predictions than any previously published spectroscopic models. Glucose, maltose, and maltotriose are modeled to accuracy comparable to previous work on less complex fermentation processes. Our results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is capable of real time in situ monitoring of a complex industrial biomass fermentation. To our knowledge, this is the first PLS-based chemometric modeling of corn mash fermentation under typical industrial conditions, and the first Raman-based monitoring of a fermentation process with glucose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides present. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Raphael dos Santos; Oliveira, Tadeu Silva de; Pereira, José Carlos; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique, Douglas Sampaio; Fernandes, Alberto Magno; Leonel, Fernando de Paula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5) as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in th...

  3. Starch degradability of dry and ensiled high-moisture grains of corn hybrids with different textures at different grinding degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated corn grains with flint and dent texture (ensiled high-moisture or dried, submitted to grinding degrees, using the in situ ruminal degradation technique. Three rumen canulated adult sheeps were used in a complete randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, with two corn hybrids (flint and dent texture, two conservation methods (ensiled high-moisture and dry and three grinding degress (whole, coarsely and finely ground, corresponding to the sieve of 12; 10 and 8 mm. Starch soluble fraction (A of the dent hybrid ensiled corn grains was greater comparing to the dry materials and in both conservation forms this fraction was reduced in the flint texture hybrid, while the insoluble fraction potentially degradable (B the opposite occurred. The degradation potential was higher in grains ensiled in two textures. The ensiled allowed more starch effective degradation in relation to dry grain in two textures and the grains dent texture hybrid also increased such degradation in both conservation methods. The dent texture and the ensiled high-moisture grains proved the best option considering the starch degradability. Regardless of the conservation forms, the grains of corn hybrid flint texture should be finely ground, for providing higher ruminal degradation, while for the dent texture hybrid, the coarsely and whole grinding are the most suitable for ensiled and dry grain, respectively.

  4. Using Gamma Radiation for the Improvement of Silage Inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwicharn, Aporn; Ljinakakr, Nongpanga; Piadang, Patharakorn

    2006-09-01

    A total of 117 acid producing baceria were isolated from grass and silage samples. Almost all isolates, 115 isolates posses homfermentative fermentation. All isolates produced lactic acid in a range of 0.36-2.05%. From their growth and their ability in producing lactic acid, two isolates, a coccus (T3-2-02) and a rod (T3-0-01) were selected for a mixed wild type strains for silage inoculant. After irradiation the wild type strains with gama ray, 51 and 58 isolates of high acid producer were selected from T3-2-02 and T3-0-01 strains, respectively. After testing the growht characteristics and the acid productivity, a coccus strain, MC08 and a rod stain, MR4 were choosen as a mixed irradiated starter culture strains for grass silage fermentation using a 50 dats old Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha). The experiment was divided into 6 treatments. Treatmet I was the control. Treatmment 2, 4% molasses was added ro the grass. Treatment 3, a mixed wild type strains (T3-2-02+ T3-0-01) was inoculated into the grass. Treatment 4, a mixed irradiated strains (MC08+ MR04) was used. Treatment 5, A mixed wild tpye strains was used and supplemented with 4% molasses. Treatnebt 6, A mixed irradiated strain was assed and supplemented with 4% molasses. The results showed that a qualified silage can be obtained within a week from either the treatment inoculated with starter culture together with4% molasses (T5 and T6) or the treatment supplemented with 4% molasses alone (T2). further more, Silage of the treatments that using starter culture supplemented with 4% molasses gave volatile acid in a requred quantity. Silage of the treatments that inoculated either with a wild type pr a mixed irradiated starter culture posses bether quality than the control treatment. Further more silage that used irradiated starter culture showed a faster ffermentation and higher lactic acid production tha silage that uses wild type starter culture.

  5. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  6. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Allison M; Mourra, Devry; Beeler, Jeff A

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6) received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  7. High fructose corn syrup induces metabolic dysregulation and altered dopamine signaling in the absence of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Meyers

    Full Text Available The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Mice (C57BL/6 received either water or 10% HFCS solution in combination with ad libitum chow for 15 weeks. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. These data show that HFCS can contribute to metabolic disorder and altered dopamine function independent of weight gain and high-fat diets.

  8. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  11. Kinetic study of dilute nitric acid treatment of corn stover at relatively high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Lu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S. [Tianjin University, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2011-03-15

    Corn stover was hydrolyzed using dilute nitric acid at 150 C. Several concentrations of HNO{sub 3} (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 wt-%) and reaction times (0-60 min) were evaluated. The kinetic parameters of mathematical models for predicting the concentrations of xylose, glucose, arabinose, acetic acid, and furfural in the hydrolysates were determined. The hydrolysates obtained from corn stover can be used to produce methane by an anaerobic fermentation process. Thus, the hydrolysis process of corn stover using dilute nitric acid can be conceived as the first stage of an integrated strategy for corn stover utilization. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Nutrient digestibility response to sugarcane bagasse addition and corn particle size in normal and high Na diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2018-04-01

    Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0.16 or 0.4%). Protein digestibility coefficient was measured using pooled distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Meanwhile, starch and gross energy digestibility coefficients were measured using pooled duodenal, distal jejunal, and distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Coarsely ground corn (CC) resulted in improved ileal protein digestibility (P digestibility in the duodenum (P digestibility in distal ileum (P digestibility (P digestibility only in birds fed the diet with finely ground corn (FC) and 0.16% Na. These findings demonstrate that SB and CC are able to improve nutrient digestibility. It can be recommended for the poultry industry to use SB and coarsely ground corn in feed to improve the utilization of nutrients.

  13. Excess free fructose, high-fructose corn syrup and adult asthma: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChristopher, Luanne R; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-05-01

    There is growing evidence that intakes of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice - a high-fructose 100 % juice - are associated with asthma, possibly because of the high fructose:glucose ratios and underlying fructose malabsorption, which may contribute to enteral formation of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products, which bind receptors that are mediators of asthma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess associations between intakes of these beverages and asthma risk, with data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diet soda and orange juice - a 100 % juice with a 1:1 fructose:glucose ratio - were included for comparison. Increasing intake of any combination of HFCS-sweetened soda, fruit drinks and apple juice was significantly associated with progressively higher asthma risk, plateauing at 5-7 times/week v. never/seldom, independent of potential confounders (hazard ratio 1·91, Pfructose:glucose ratios, and fructose malabsorption. Recommendations to reduce consumption may be inadequate to address asthma risk, as associations are evident even with moderate intake of these beverages, including apple juice - a 100 % juice. The juice reductions in the US Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 2009, and the plateauing/decreasing asthma prevalence (2010-2013), particularly among non-Hispanic black children, may be related. Further research regarding the consequences of fructose malabsorption is needed.

  14. Kinetics of ruminal degradation of alfalfa and Tifton-85 hays, and of corn SilageCinética de degradação ruminal dos fenos de alfafa e Tifton-85 e da silagem de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The shunt portosystemic or portosystemic deviation (PSD are unique or multiples vascular communications between the systemic circulaton and the portal circulation, that permit blood flow reaches the circulatory system without first passing trhought the hepatic metabolization. May be acquired or congenital and can also be classified as intrahepatic located within the liver or extrahepatic located outside the liver parenquima. The acquired form is usually associated with intra-hepatic disorders. They usually suggest tortuous vessels that communicate with the caudal vena cava in the region of the left kidney. The congenital form is associated with genetic lineage and one of the most affected is Maltese breed. This case report describes the diagnostis and treatment of a eight year-old female Maltese dog presenting extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. The patient showed signs of hepatic encephalopathy, such as restlessnees, weakness, deambulation, head tremor and impaired visual. Complementary exam demonstrated: postprandial glicemia near the lower limit of reference, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT increased and hipoalbuminemia. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of vesical calculus and bilateral kidney, liver decreases and increased echogenicity, gallbladder with anechoic content and high cellularity may suggest liver/ colangiohepatopatia and extrahepatic DPS was detected. The use of Doppler assisted in identifying the location of the bypass communication and the turbulence detecting the extrahepatic DPS. Protein-restricted diet and antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin achieved good results. The clinical treatment was decided make only the clinical and maintain the quality of life of the patient. Objetivou-se avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal e a taxa de degradação in situ da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, dos fenos de alfafa e Tifton-85 e da silagem de milho. Foram

  15. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  16. Steam gasification of a thermally pretreated high lignin corn stover simultaneous saccharification and fermentation digester residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G.; Li, Guosheng; Wolcott, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Efficient conversion of all components in lignocellulosic biomass is essential to realizing economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, when utilizing biochemical pathways, lignin cannot be fermented. Furthermore, the high lignin and high ash residue resulting from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactors is difficult to thermochemically process due to feed line plugging and bed agglomeration. In this study a corn stover SSF digester residue was thermally pretreated at 300°C for 22.5 minutes (min) and then gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on its processing behavior. Untreated, pelletized SSF residue was gasified at the same conditions to establish the baseline processing behavior. Results indicate that the thermal pretreatment process removes a substantial portion of the polar and non-polar extractives, with a resultant increase in the concentration of lignin, cellulose, and ash. Feed line plugging was not observed, although bed agglomeration was occurring at similar rates for both feedstocks, suggesting that overall ash content is the most important factor affecting bed agglomeration. Benzene, phenol, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the tar were present at higher concentrations in the treated material, with higher tar loading in the product gas. Total product gas generation is lower for the treated material, although the overall gas composition does not change.

  17. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  19. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  20. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  1. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  2. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  3. Effects of feeding corn silage, pelleted, ensiled, or pelleted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... However, lambs fed CS gained weight 21.3% faster than lambs fed AH (259 versus 213 ... ground, pelleted alfalfa more closely resembles a concentrate feed in terms of particle size. .... Vitamin E, 44 IU/g .... feed to reach their market weight versus 102.5 kg of feed for the lambs fed alfalfa haylage (P <0.01).

  4. Desempenho produtivo de fêmeas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Productive performance of growing dairy heifers fed corn silage and soybean or cottonseed meal based concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas dietas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão para fêmeas leiteiras. Quatro dietas experimentais foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Observou-se efeito da interação nível de concentrado × fonte proteica no consumo de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. A quantidade de concentrado influenciou os consumos de proteína bruta (PB, FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos nãofibrosos (CNF, matéria orgânica (MO e de PB por kg de NDT. Não houve efeito nas digestibilidades da MS, FDN, MO e para NDT, porém a fonte proteica influenciou as digestibilidades de PB, EE e CNF. Houve efeito da quantidade de concentrado sobre o ganho de peso (GP e da interação quantidade de concentrado × fonte proteica sobre o ganho de peso por cm de ganho em altura da cernelha. A dieta com 1 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de algodão foi insuficiente para ganho de peso de 800 g/dia, enquanto as dietas com 2 kg de concentrado propiciaram o maior ganho de peso. Entretanto, a dieta constituída de 2 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de soja foi mais eficiente, pois propiciou maior crescimento linear das novilhas, com ganho médio de 820 g por dia. Equações de predição do peso corporal com base no perímetro torácico apresentam maior acurácia em relação a equações baseadas em outras medidas lineares.Diets for dairy heifers were assessed with corn silage and soybean or cotton seed based concentrate. Four experimental diets consisting of the combination of two concentrate levels, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cotton seed meal. The effect of the interaction was observed for intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in % live weight and total digestible nutrient intake (TDN. The quantity of

  5. Características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho e dois níveis de concentrado Physic-chemical and sensorial characteristics of meat from lambs finished with diets containing sugar cane or corn silage and two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo Leão

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais da carne de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho em duas relações volumoso:concentrado, 60:40 ou 40:60, utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, com 15 kg de peso corporal. Os animais foram confinados em baias individuais e abatidos aos 32 kg. As dietas e os músculos estudados não influenciaram o pH aos 45 minutos (6,56 e 24 horas (5,62 após o abate nem a capacidade de retenção de água (58,38% e a perda de peso por cocção (34,04%. A cor da carne e da gordura subcutânea não diferiu entre as dietas, entretanto a cor da carne variou entre os músculos longissimus lumborum e triceps brachii. A força de cisalhamento (1,85 kgf/cm² não foi afetada pelas dietas, porém diferiu entre os músculos, com valores de 1,41 e 2,28 kgf/cm² para o longissimus lumborum e triceps brachii, respectivamente. Nas análises sensoriais do lombo e da paleta, foram obtidas para os cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar e maior quantidade de concentrado as maiores notas para sabor (8,07 e 8,26, textura (8,53 e 8,53, preferência (8,20 e 8,46 e aceitação (8,33 e 8,26, respectivamente. A cana-de-açúcar na alimentação de cordeiros em confinamento manteve a qualidade físicoquímica da carne, podendo ser utilizada nesta fase de produção e, quando associada a maior quantidade de concentrado na dieta, melhora a qualidade sensorial da carne de cordeiros.With the objective of evaluating physic-chemical and sensorial characteristics of meat from lambs finished in feedlot with diets containing sugar cane or corn silage at two roughage:concentrate ratios, 60:40 or 40:60, 32 non-castrated Ile de France lambs, with 15 kg body weight were used. Animals were confined in individual stalls and were slaughtered at 32 kg body weight. Studied diets and muscles did not affect pH at 45 minutes (6.56 and 24 hours (5

  6. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho = Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Belisário de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietasdiferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins egordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem serterminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadas.The study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemicalcharacteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, emptygastrointestinal tract, head or feet. There

  7. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  8. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  9. A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshee, Richard A; Storey, Maureen L; Allison, David B; Glinsmann, Walter H; Hein, Gayle L; Lineback, David R; Miller, Sanford A; Nicklas, Theresa A; Weaver, Gary A; White, John S

    2007-01-01

    The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S. population. The Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy convened an expert panel to discuss the published scientific literature examining the relationship between consumption of HFCS or "soft drinks" (proxy for HFCS) and weight gain. The authors conducted original analysis to address certain gaps in the literature. Evidence from ecological studies linking HFCS consumption with rising BMI rates is unreliable. Evidence from epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials is inconclusive. Studies analyzing the differences between HFCS and sucrose consumption and their contributions to weight gain do not exist. HFCS and sucrose have similar monosaccharide compositions and sweetness values. The fructose:glucose (F:G) ratio in the U.S. food supply has not appreciably changed since the introduction of HFCS in the 1960s. It is unclear why HFCS would affect satiety or absorption and metabolism of fructose any differently than would sucrose. Based on the currently available evidence, the expert panel concluded that HFCS does not appear to contribute to overweight and obesity any differently than do other energy sources. Research recommendations were made to improve our understanding of the association of HFCS and weight gain.

  10. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar or high fructose corn syrup-what should nurses teach patients and families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Dalby, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    There is lack of consensus in the lay literature to support consumption of table sugar as a preferred sweetener when compared to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The purpose of this study was to search the literature for evidence to determine the health effects of consumption of table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS on blood glucose, lipid levels, obesity, and appetite as well as to make recommendations for patient and family teaching of those at risk for developing negative health outcomes, including coronary heart disease. Nursing and health-related databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Health and Wellness were searched for research articles, which were compared and evaluated for purpose, sample size, procedure, findings, and level of evidence. Five studies that met inclusion criteria were evaluated. No difference was found in changes in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, or appetite between table sugar consumption and HFCS consumption. When only fructose was consumed, lipid levels were significantly increased. The evidence suggests that fructose, found in both table sugar and HFCS, has a negative effect on health outcomes. Clinicians should teach patients and families that all sugar consumption should be closely monitored and kept below the 40 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Immobilization of Recombinant Glucose Isomerase for Efficient Production of High Fructose Corn Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qun; Xu, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong-Xu; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23.8 mM min -1 . The fructose concentration still retained above 55% after the immobilized glucose isomerase was reused for 10 cycles, and more than 85% of its initial activity was reserved even after 15 recycles of usage at temperature of 90 °C. The results highlighted the immobilized glucose isomerase as a potential biocatalyst for HFCS-55 production.

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chu, Deqiang; Huang, Juan; Yu, Zhanchun; Dai, Gance; Bao, Jie

    2010-03-01

    The higher ethanol titer inevitably requires higher solids loading during the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as the feedstock. The mixing between the solid lignocellulose and the liquid enzyme is crucially important. In this study, a bioreactor with a novel helical impeller was designed and applied to the SSF operation of the steam explosion pretreated corn stover under different solids loadings and different enzyme dosages. The performances using the helical impeller and the common Rushton impeller were compared and analyzed by measuring rheological properties and the mixing energy consumption. The results showed that the new designed stirring system had better performances in the saccharification yield, ethanol titer, and energy cost than those of the Rushton impeller stirring. The mixing energy consumption under different solids loadings and enzyme dosages during SSF operation were analyzed and compared to the thermal energy in the ethanol produced. A balance for achieving the optimal energy cost between the increased mixing energy cost and the reduced distillation energy cost at the high solids loading should be made. The potentials of the new bioreactor were tested under various SSF conditions for obtaining optimal ethanol yield and titer. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Does consumption of high-fructose corn syrup beverages cause obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E

    2013-08-01

    The consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) beverages has increased since the 1970s. At the same time, childhood obesity is on the rise, causing children to be at risk of heart disease, diabetes and other diseases. Healthcare providers have attributed childhood obesity to the consumption of HFCS in the form of beverages. This article will look at the available research and determine if there is scientific evidence underlying the idea that sweetened soft drinks, especially those containing HFCS, could cause or contribute to childhood obesity. A thorough literature search was performed using the ISI Web of Sciences, PubMed and Scopus databases within the years 2006-2012. The search generated 19 results. The articles were screened, and six were deemed eligible: four systematic reviews and two meta-analyses. Two systematic reviews found that there is no relationship between consumption of HFCS beverages and obesity in children. The other two systematic reviews found possible links between HFCS and childhood obesity. The meta-analysis articles found that consumption of HFCS beverages can contribute to childhood obesity, and limitation of sweetened beverages may help decrease obesity in children. Available research studies demonstrate inconclusive scientific evidence definitively linking HFCS to obesity in children. © 2013 The Author. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. High-fructose corn syrup-55 consumption alters hepatic lipid metabolism and promotes triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kaitlin; Lateef, Sundus; Benedito, Vagner A; Tou, Janet C

    2017-01-01

    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been suggested to be more lipogenic than sucrose, which increases the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia. The study objectives were to determine the effects of drinking different sugar-sweetened solutions on hepatic gene expression in relation to liver fatty acid composition and risk of NAFLD. Female rats were randomly assigned (n=7 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) HFCS-55, sucrose or fructose for 8 weeks. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest (P=.03) hepatic total lipid and triglyceride content and histological evidence of fat infiltration. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had the highest hepatic de novo lipogenesis indicated by the up-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and the highest (Ptriglyceride-rich lipoprotein from the liver was increased as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in rats drinking sucrose, but not HFCS-55 solution. The observed lipogenic effects were attributed to the slightly higher fructose content of HFCS-55 solution in the absence of differences in macronutrient and total caloric intake between rats drinking HFCS-55 and sucrose solution. Results from gene expression and fatty acid composition analysis showed that, in a hypercaloric state, some types of sugars are more detrimental to the liver. Based on these preclinical study results, excess consumption of caloric sweetened beverage, particularly HFCS-sweetened beverages, should be limited. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. and the quality of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Syrjälä-Qvist

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Five silages having different proportions of red clover and timothy (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 were preserved in five glass-fibre silos of 0.4 m 3. Chopped red clover and timothy were mixed during ensiling and preserved with AIV II solution (80 % formic acid and 2 % orthophosphoric acid, applied at the rate of 6 l/1000kg fresh material. The timothy sward was fertilized with 100kg N/ha and the red clover with 15kg N/ha. The dry matter content in red clover was 14.5 % and in timothy 18.6%, and the crude protein content of DM 22.9 % and 11.5 %, respectively. True protein formed 75—76 % of crude protein in both herbages and the proportion of watersoluble N in total N was 32 % in red clover and 36 % in timothy. The rumen degradability of protein during the first two hours was under 10 % in both herbages; after 18 and 24h ours it was 76 % and 87 % in red clover, and 65 % and 70 % in timothy. In red clover the contents of lysine, methionine and cysteine were 5.7 g, 0.4 g and 0.9 g/16 g N, respectively, the corresponding values for timothy being 4.8 g, 0.7 g and 1.4g/16 g N. In red clover the content of water-soluble carbohydrates was 10.6 % of DM and in timothy 16.5 %; the contents of plant acids were 6.7 % and 3.5 % of DM, respectively. Red clover contained 10.9g Ca/kg DM and timothy 3.1 g Ca. The total amount of inorganic constituents was also higher in red clover than in timothy. Although the chemical composition of red clover was less suitable for ensiling than the composition of timothy, the quality of all the silages was good. During ensiling the decrease in the proportion of true protein in crude protein and the increase in the proportion of watersoluble N in total N were smaller in red clover than in timothy silage. These changes were reflected in the ruminal protein degradation, which seemed to be slower when they were small. The amino acid profile of the protein did not alter during ensiling. The ensiling losses were higher in

  17. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with ligninolytic enzyme for high efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, En-Tao; Du, Feng-Guang; Song, An-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at increasing the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, a biological pretreatment was developed and investigated in this study. The protocol was characterized by the pretreatment with crude ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochete chrysosporium and Coridus versicolor to break the lignin structure in corn stover, followed by a washing procedure to eliminate the inhibition of ligninolytic enzyme on cellulase. By a 2 d-pretreatment, sugar yield from corn stover hydrolysis could be increased by 50.2% (up to 323 mg/g) compared with that of the control. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR analysis revealed that biological pretreatment could partially remove the lignin of corn stover, and consequently enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and hemeicellulose. In addition, the amount of microbial inhibitors, such as acetic acid and furfural, were much lower in biological pretreatment than that in acid pretreatment. This study provided a promising pretreatment method for biotransformation of corn stovers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical and structural changes induced by high pressure on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The impact of high pressure (HP) processing on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour was investigated as a function of pressure level (400MPa; 600MPa), pressure holding time (5min; 10min), and temperature (20°C; 40°C). Samples were pre-conditioned (final moisture level: 40g/100g) before HP treatments. Both the HP treated and the untreated raw materials were evaluated for pasting properties and solvent retention capacity, and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Different pasting behaviors and solvent retention capacities were evidenced according to the applied pressure. Corn starch presented a slower gelatinization trend when treated at 600MPa. Corn starch and rice flour treated at 600MPa showed a higher retention capacity of carbonate and lactic acid solvents, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy investigations highlighted that HP affected the starch structure of rice flour and corn starch. Few variations were evidenced in waxy rice flour. These results can assist in advancing the HP processing knowledge, as the possibility to successfully process raw samples in a very high sample-to-water concentration level was evidenced. This work investigates the effect of high pressure as a potential technique to modify the processing characteristics of starchy materials without using high temperature. In this case the starches were processed in the powder form - and not as a slurry as in previously reported studies - showing the flexibility of the HP treatment. The relevance for industrial application is the possibility to change the structure of flour starches, and thus modifying the processability of the mentioned products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of different parts of corn stover for high yield and lower polydispersity lignin extraction with high-boiling alkaline solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengyao; Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Yan, Tingxuan; Khan, Asad Ullah; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Xu, Xia; Cui, Ping; Xu, Jian

    2018-02-01

    The influence of different parts of corn stover on lignin extraction was investigated. Five kinds of lignin were isolated by the high boiling point solvent extraction from the whole corn stover and four different parts including leaf, husk, bark and pith. The optimal condition was obtained: 6.25 g/L NaOH, 140 °C, 1 h and 60% (v/v) 1,4-butanediol. The extracted lignins were then characterized. FT-IR analysis revealed that all of the lignins were typically herbaceous. The lignin extracted from husk contained more S unit. Gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that it was necessary to separate corn stover into different parts to obtain low polydispersity lignin. The SEM and FT-IR analysis proved that the lignin dissolution was related to the tightness structure presenting a positive correlation with hydrogen bond index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  1. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  2. Verification of statistical method CORN for modeling of microfuel in the case of high grain concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukbar, B. K., E-mail: bchukbar@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Two methods of modeling a double-heterogeneity fuel are studied: the deterministic positioning and the statistical method CORN of the MCU software package. The effect of distribution of microfuel in a pebble bed on the calculation results is studied. The results of verification of the statistical method CORN for the cases of the microfuel concentration up to 170 cm{sup –3} in a pebble bed are presented. The admissibility of homogenization of the microfuel coating with the graphite matrix is studied. The dependence of the reactivity on the relative location of fuel and graphite spheres in a pebble bed is found.

  3. High-concentration sugars production from corn stover based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maohua; Li, Wangliang; Liu, Binbin; Li, Qiang; Xing, Jianmin

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, high-concentration sugars were produced from pretreated corn stover. The raw corn stover was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline hydrogen-peroxide. The hemicellulose and lignin were removed greatly. The cellulose content increased to 73.2%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading and 20 FPU/g solids. Then, 6% solids were fed consecutively at 12, 36 and 60 h. After 144 h, the final concentrations of reducing sugar, glucose, cellobiose and xylose reached 220, 175, 22 and 20 g/L, respectively. The final total biomass conversion was 60% in fed-batch process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Biogas Production Performance and Archaeal Microbial Dynamics of Corn Straw during Anaerobic Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Benyue; Zhao, Hongyan; Yu, Hairu; Chen, Di; Li, Xue; Wang, Weidong; Piao, Renzhe; Cui, Zongjun

    2016-04-28

    The rational utilization of crop straw as a raw material for natural gas production is of economic significance. In order to increase the efficiency of biogas production from agricultural straw, seasonal restrictions must be overcome. Therefore, the potential for biogas production via anaerobic straw digestion was assessed by exposing fresh, silage, and dry yellow corn straw to cow dung liquid extract as a nitrogen source. The characteristics of anaerobic corn straw digestion were comprehensively evaluated by measuring the pH, gas production, chemical oxygen demand, methane production, and volatile fatty acid content, as well as applying a modified Gompertz model and high-throughput sequencing technology to the resident microbial community. The efficiency of biogas production from fresh straw (433.8 ml/g) was higher than that of production from straw silage and dry yellow straw (46.55 ml/g and 68.75 ml/g, respectively). The cumulative biogas production from fresh straw, silage straw, and dry yellow straw was 365 l(-1) g(-1) VS, 322 l(-1) g-1 VS, and 304 l(-1) g(-1) VS, respectively, whereas cumulative methane production was 1,426.33%, 1,351.35%, and 1,286.14%, respectively, and potential biogas production was 470.06 ml(-1) g(-1) VS, 461.73 ml(-1) g(-1) VS, and 451.76 ml(-1) g(-1) VS, respectively. Microbial community analysis showed that the corn straw was mainly metabolized by acetate-utilizing methanogens, with Methanosaeta as the dominant archaeal community. These findings provide important guidance to the biogas industry and farmers with respect to rational and efficient utilization of crop straw resources as material for biogas production.

  5. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  6. [Estimation of the consumption frequency of high glucose corn syrup by patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semków-Pochwatko, Aneta; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Czarnecka, Danuta

    Hypertension is a major health problem in modern times, due to its high prevalence. This is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which are the main cause of death in developed countries. The component of prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension is a proper diet. More and more often an adequate supply of sugars in the diet is emphasized. In recent years particular attention was paid to the consumption of HFCS (high fructose corn syrup), which is present in many processed foods. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of consumption of HFCS products among patients with hypertension. The study involved 108 people diagnosed with hypertension, who attended to the Hypertensive Clinic in Krakow. The study was conducted in the form of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) of 24 selected beverages and solid products, which are a source of HFCS. In addition, the survey included 6 questions about nutrition knowledge on HFCS. The examination took place from October 2014. to March 2015. The vast majority of patients indicated consumption of products with HFSC. The most popular products proved to be sweets (especially chocolate bars, wafers) and fruit drinks and nectars. Frequent consumption of cola drinks was also observed, which were more often chosen by men than women. Younger respondents (<55 years old) more often than respondents over 55. years old chose sweets. At the same time our survey indicated unsatisfactory level of nutritional knowledge on HFCS among patients. The consumption of HFCS in patients with hypertension is common, at low knowledge of its harmful effects on health. Therefore there is apparent need for dietary education of patients with hypertension in this area.

  7. Feeding Value of Low and High Protein Dried Distillers Grains and Corn Gluten Meal for Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tangendjaja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial has been conducted to compare feeding value of low and high protein dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, and corn gluten meal (CGM to brown layer in the tropics. Both types of DDGS was included at level 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% in the diet while CGM was included at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% in similar content of metabolizable energy (ME value (2650 kcal/kg and protein (17%. Each dietary treatment was fed to 4 birds in individual wire cage and replicated 5 times. The trial was performed for 10 weeks and egg production, egg weight, feed intake was measured. At the end of feeding period, manure was collected and analyzed for moisture content while samples of eggs were measured for yolk color and the yolk was analyzed for xanthophyll level. Result showed that feeding Lopro DDGS, Hipro DDGS, and CGM did not affect egg production (egg mass, egg number, and egg weight, however, feeding DDGS resulted in less feed intake (111 g/day compared to feeding CGM (114 g/day. Feeding DDGS up to 16% did not affect egg production and similar to feeding CGM up to 8%. Feeding high level of DDGS or CGM did not significantly affect the moisture content of excreta which were between 78.1%-81.9%. Increasing levels of DDGS or CGM increased yolk color score related to the higher level of xanthophylls content in egg yolk. The coloring ability of CGM to egg yolk was higher than that of DDGS. In conclusion, DDGS can be fed to layer up to 16% without affecting egg production while CGM can be fed up to 8% in the diet. DDGS can be used as source of yellow pigment for egg yolk as also found in CGM.

  8. Microbial pretreatment of corn stovers by solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Wu, Shubiao; Pang, Changle; Li, Wei; Dong, Renjie

    2014-02-01

    The microbial pretreatment of corn stover and corn stover silage was achieved via the solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium; pretreatment effects on the biodegradability and subsequent anaerobic production of biogas were investigated. The peak levels of daily biogas production and CH₄ yield from corn stover silage were approximately twice that of corn stover. Results suggested that ensiling was a potential pretreatment method to stimulate biogas production from corn stover. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the microbial pretreatment of corn stover silage improved biogas production by 10.5 to 19.7% and CH4 yield by 11.7 to 21.2% because pretreatment could decrease dry mass loss (14.2%) and increase substrate biodegradability (19.9% cellulose, 32.4% hemicellulose, and 22.6% lignin). By contrast, the higher dry mass loss in corn stover (55.3%) after microbial pretreatment was accompanied by 54.7% cellulose, 64.0% hemicellulose, and 61.1% lignin degradation but did not significantly influence biogas production.

  9. Physiological time model for predicting adult emergence of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the Texas High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Douglass E; Michels, Gerald J; Bible, John B; Jackman, John A; Harris, Marvin K

    2008-10-01

    Field observations at three locations in the Texas High Plains were used to develop and validate a degree-day phenology model to predict the onset and proportional emergence of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Climatic data from the Texas High Plains Potential Evapotranspiration network were used with records of cumulative proportional adult emergence to determine the functional lower developmental temperature, optimum starting date, and the sum of degree-days for phenological events from onset to 99% adult emergence. The model base temperature, 10 degrees C (50 degrees F), corresponds closely to known physiological lower limits for development. The model uses a modified Gompertz equation, y = 96.5 x exp (-(exp(6.0 - 0.00404 x (x - 4.0), where x is cumulative heat (degree-days), to predict y, cumulative proportional emergence expressed as a percentage. The model starts degree-day accumulation on the date of corn, Zea mays L., emergence, and predictions correspond closely to corn phenological stages from tasseling to black layer development. Validation shows the model predicts cumulative proportional adult emergence within a satisfactory interval of 4.5 d. The model is flexible enough to accommodate early planting, late emergence, and the effects of drought and heat stress. The model provides corn producers ample lead time to anticipate and implement adult control practices.

  10. Silagem de cana-de-açúcar comparada a fontes tradicionais de volumosos suplementares no desempenho de vacas de alta produção Sugar cane silage as compared to traditional supplemental sources of forage in the performance of high production cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cezar Muller Queiroz

    2008-02-01

    with L. buchneri (SCS, corn silage (CS and mixture of fresh sugarcane and corn silage (SCCS. The experiment was carried out in a 4×4 latin square design with periods of 21 days, and the last 7 days, of each period was used for sample collections. Besides the performance evaluation, chemical analyses of forages, rations and orts were performed and analyses of milk composition and aerobic stability of forages and rations were also made. There was differences for DM intake, which was higher for SCS (23.5 kg/day and SCSM (23.5 kg/day. All rations provided to the animals high milk production (24.4-25.5 kg/day, which did not differ among the animals. The milk composition varied only as for fat content, which was higher in the animals fed CS (36.1% and in the SCCS (34.8%. The aerobic stability results showed positive effect of the bacterial aditivation in SCS, which presented the highest aerobic stability among the forages (13.63 hours. The ration with CS as source of forage presented the worst stability, which could explain the lower intake by the animals in this treatment. The SCS is a technical viable alternative to the use of fresh plant and both can proportionate high milk production, as long as, the rations are properly balanced. The inoculation with L. buchneri showed capable to bring benefits for nutritional value and fermentative losses.

  11. Avaliação nutricional da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo de alto ou de baixo conteúdo de tanino para frangos de corte Nutritional evaluation of high moisture sorghum silage grain with high or low tannin content for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Carla Grigoletto Barcellos

    2006-02-01

    evaluate the moisture sorghum silage (HMSS with high or low tannin content as ingredient in broiler chicken diets. In the digestibility trial, ninety 20-d chicks were assigned to a completely randomized design with three treatments and six replications, and five chicks per experimental unit. Coefficients of metabolizable dry matter (MDM, metabolizable protein (MP, metabolizable starch (MS, metabolizable organic matter (MOM and metabolizable energy (ME of HMSS with high tannin, as-fed basis (66.22%DM, were as follows: 57.29; 56.96; 4.45; 35.27% and 2,408 kcal/kg, respectively. The coefficients of HMSS with low tannin were of 60.42; 59.95; 5.11; 39.58% and 2578 kcal/kg, respectively, as-fed basis (65.28% DM. In the performance assay, eight hundred and forty chicks were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design, with seven treatments, four replications and thirty chicks per experimental unit. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal -based diet and six with 33, 66 and 100% HMSS with high or low content replaced by dry corn. Increasing HMSS levels with high tannin contents in diets caused a linear decrease on weight, weight gain, feed intake at 21 and 40 days old, but this effect was not observed for HMSS of low tannin content. Forty-day-old broilers fed diets with HMSS of high tannin content in 66 and 100% replacement levels showed lower weight and lower weigh gain. However, broilers fed HMSS with low tannin content did not differ from control. Linear decrease on the chicken leg color of was observed when HMSS was included in the diets. Performance results demonstrated that HMSS with high tannin content may replace um 33% of corn and with low tannin HMSS up to 100% of corn in diets of broilers, with no effect on performance and with lower cost per kilogram of produced broiler.

  12. Continuous high-solids corn liquefaction and fermentation with stripping of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Marquez, Marco A; Johnston, David B; Goldberg, Neil M; Hicks, Kevin B

    2010-06-01

    Removal of ethanol from the fermentor during fermentation can increase productivity and reduce the costs for dewatering the product and coproduct. One approach is to recycle the fermentor contents through a stripping column, where a non-condensable gas removes ethanol to a condenser. Previous research showed that this approach is feasible. Savings of $0.03 per gallon were predicted at 34% corn dry solids. Greater savings were predicted at higher concentration. Now the feasibility has been demonstrated at over 40% corn dry solids, using a continuous corn liquefaction system. A pilot plant, that continuously fed corn meal at more than one bushel (25 kg) per day, was operated for 60 consecutive days, continuously converting 95% of starch and producing 88% of the maximum theoretical yield of ethanol. A computer simulation was used to analyze the results. The fermentation and stripping systems were not significantly affected when the CO(2) stripping gas was partially replaced by nitrogen or air, potentially lowering costs associated with the gas recycle loop. It was concluded that previous estimates of potential cost savings are still valid. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on gamma-irradiation of high amylose corn starch, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yukio; Ayano, Yuko; Obara, Tetsujiro.

    1976-01-01

    Amylomaize 7, amylomaize 5, normal corn, waxy corn and potato starches were irradiated with 60 Co-gamma rays at the dose levels from 2x10 4 to 100x10 4 rad to determine the changes in physicochemical properties by irradiation. Irradiated starches were characterized by determination of amylography, specific viscosity, blue value, pH, acidity, carbonyl content, reducing value and limit of β-amylolysis. Irradiated starches showed a decrease in viscosity and blue value, and an increase in reducing value with increasing dose levels. These results were seemed to indicate the degradation of starch molecule. A slight oxidation of starch was suggested by a decrease in pH and an increase in acidity and carbonyl content. Amylomaize 7 and amylomaize 5 starches were less sensitive than the other starches in terms of irradiation effects. The rheological properties determined by amylography and Ostwald viscometer changed at the lowest dose (5x10 4 rad) and the other properties changed above 20x10 4 rad. The limits of β-amylase hydrolysis of normal corn, waxy corn and potato starches increased slightly by irradiation (100x10 4 rad). On the other hand, β-amylolysis limits of amylomaize 7 and amylomaize 5 starches were lower about 5.5% and 2.5% respectively than that of nonirradiated samples. The decrease of β-amylolysis limit enlarged with increasing amylose content. (auth.)

  14. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  15. High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is this what’s for dinner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research on trends in consumption of added sugar and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the U.S. has largely focused on calorically-sweetened beverages, ignoring other sources. Objective To examine U.S. consumption of added sugar and HFCS to determine long-term trends in availability and intake from beverages and foods. Design We used two estimation techniques and data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965 and 1977), Continuing Survey of Food Intake in Individuals (1989–1991) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004) to examine trends in HFCS and added sugar, including: (a) overall trends, and (b) within certain food and beverage groups. Results Availability and consumption of HFCS and added sugar increased over time until a slight decline between 2000 and 2004. By 2004, HFCS provided roughly 8% of total energy intake compared to total added sugar of 377 kcal/person/d, accounting for 17% of total energy intake. While food and beverage trends were similar, soft drinks and fruit drinks provided the most HFCS (158 and 40 kcal/person/d in 2004, respectively). Moreover, among the top 20% of individuals, 896 kcal/person/d of added sugar was consumed compared to 505 kcal/person/d of HFCS. Among consumers, sweetened tea and desserts also represented major contributors of calories from added sugar (over 100 kcal/person/d). Conclusion While increased intake of calories from HFCS is important to examine, the health affect of overall trends in added caloric sweeteners should not be overlooked. PMID:19064537

  16. Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Dumke, Kelly A; Goran, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Excess fructose consumption is hypothesized to be associated with risk for metabolic disease. Actual fructose consumption levels are difficult to estimate because of the unlabeled quantity of fructose in beverages. The aims of this study were threefold: 1) re-examine the fructose content in previously tested beverages using two additional assay methods capable of detecting other sugars, especially maltose, 2) compare data across all methods to determine the actual free fructose-to-glucose ratio in beverages made either with or without high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and 3) expand the analysis to determine fructose content in commonly consumed juice products. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fruit juice drinks that were either made with or without HFCS were analyzed in separate, independent laboratories via three different methods to determine sugar profiles. For SSBs, the three independent laboratory methods showed consistent and reproducible results. In SSBs made with HFCS, fructose constituted 60.6% ± 2.7% of sugar content. In juices sweetened with HFCS, fructose accounted for 52.1% ± 5.9% of sugar content, although in some juices made from 100% fruit, fructose concentration reached 65.35 g/L accounting for 67% of sugars. Our results provide evidence of higher than expected amounts of free fructose in some beverages. Popular beverages made with HFCS have a fructose-to-glucose ratio of approximately 60:40, and thus contain 50% more fructose than glucose. Some pure fruit juices have twice as much fructose as glucose. These findings suggest that beverages made with HFCS and some juices have a sugar profile very different than sucrose, in which amounts of fructose and glucose are equivalent. Current dietary analyses may underestimate actual fructose consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacanoglu, C; Yildirim, N; Sadi, G; Pektas, M B; Akar, F

    2013-10-01

    Dietary intake of fructose and sucrose can cause development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The consequences of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commonly consumed form of fructose and glucose, have poorly been examined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether HFCS intake (10% and 20% beverages for 12 weeks) impacts vascular reactivity to insulin and endothelin-1 in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA/proteins levels in aorta of rats. At challenge, we tested the effectiveness of resveratrol (28-30 mg/kg body weight/day) on outcomes of HFCS feeding. HFCS (20%) diet feeding increased plasma triglyceride, VLDL, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels, but not body weights of rats. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation to insulin (10⁻⁹ to 3×10⁻⁶ M), and enhanced contraction to endothelin-1 (10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁸ M) were associated with decreased expression of IRS-1 and eNOS mRNA and protein, but increased expression of iNOS, in aortas of rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation restored many features of HFCS-induced disturbances, probably by regulating eNOS and iNOS production. In conclusion, dietary HFCS causes vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction through attenuating IRS-1 and eNOS expressions as well as increasing iNOS in rats. Resveratrol has capability to recover HFCS-induced disturbances. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efeitos de rações com níveis crescentes de cana-de-açúcar em substituição à silagem de milho sobre a população de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos Effects of diets with increasing levels of sugar cane in substitution of corn silage on rumen population ciliate protozoa in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Tieghi Franzolin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oito ovinos machos com fístulas ruminais foram delineados em dois quadrados latinos, em quatro períodos de 35 dias cada e quatro tratamentos, compreendendo níveis crescentes de cana-de-açúcar (CA em substituição à silagem de milho (SM: A 100% SM; B 67% SM e 33% CA; C 33% SM e 67% CA; e D 100% CA, para avaliação da população de protozoários ciliados no rúmen. As concentrações totais de protozoários ciliados no rúmen e de Entodinium diminuíram e os valores de pH do conteúdo ruminal aumentaram linearmente com o incremento das quantidades de cana-de-açúcar na ração. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para o volume ruminal e a taxa de passagem da fase líquida do rúmen.Eight rumen fistulated rams were delineated in two Latin Squares in four periods of 35 days each and four treatments consisted of increasing levels of sugar cane (SC in substitution to the corn silage (CS: A 100% CS, B 67% CS and 33% SC, C 33% CS and 67% SC and D 100% SC, to evaluate the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen. The total concentrations of rumen ciliate protozoa and of Entodinium decreased and the values of pH of the ruminal content increased linearly as dietary sugar cane levels increased. No differences between treatments were observed for the rumen volume and the rumen liquid turnover rate.

  19. Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, free-living and fed baled timothy silage in summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove H. Aagnes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal (GI tract was investigated in reindeer calves (Rangtfer tarandus tarandus, free-living and fed two different qualities of timothy silage in September 1992 (summer and April 1993 (winter and related to the body condition. At both seasons nine male reindeer calves were taken from a natural pasture. Three animals were slaughtered directly (NP reindeer, three offered first cut (FC silage and three regrowth (RG silage ad lib., for 46 days. The FC silage contained 27% leaves and 57.8% dry matter (DM cell wall content (CWC and the RG silage 89 % leaves, and 38.7% DM CWC. The reticulo-rumen (RR digesta wet weight in the NP reindeer in summer was 6.7-7.7% of body mass (BM, compared to 25.1-32.8% and 9.6-12.9% of BM, respectively, in the animals fed FC and RG silage. In winter the RR digesta wet weight relative to BM in the NP reindeer and in the animals fed FC and RG silages were 9-5-11.5%, 25.4-33.3% and 10.4-18.3%, respectively. The distal fermentation chamber (DFC digesta wet weight in the NP animals in summer was 0.48-0.80% of BM, compared to 0.77-1.26% and 0.57¬0.65% of BM, respectively, in the animals fed FC and RG silage. In winter the DFC digesta wet weight relative to BM in the animals fed FC and RG silage did not differ significantly from the summer values (P>0.05, while in the NP reindeer it was 1.0-1.2% of BM which is significantly greater than in summer (P<0.05. The differences in relative weight of the fermentation chambers between the animals fed FC and RG silage both summer and winter were not reflected in total BM, which was similar in all groups fed silage. This is explained by a significantly lower carcass weight in the animals fed FC silage compared to the animals fed RG silage. Thus, the GI-tract gross anatomy in the silage fed animals seem to be highly affected by the plant structure and composition, and not by the season.

  20. Hull Fiber From DDGS and Corn Grain as Alternative Fillers in Polymer Composites with High Density Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pankaj

    The steady increase in corn based ethanol production has resulted in a dramatic rise in the supply of its co-product known as distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Currently, the main outlet for DDGS is the animal feed industry, but the presence of fibers makes them indigestible by non-ruminants such as swine and poultry. Separation of fiber from DDGS would increase the nutritional value of DDGS with higher protein and fat contents and reduced fiber content. The fiber from DDGS can be separated through a physical separation process known as elusieve. The DDGS fiber has the potential to be used as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites. This research project evaluates DDGS fiber as a filler in thermoplastic composites. The fibers from corn hull and DDGS have been used as fillers at 30% and 50% fiber loading in high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites and compared against a standard oak fiber filler composites at a lab scale. DDGS and corn fiber composites showed comparable mechanical properties as the oak wood fiber HDPE composites. Further evaluation was completed on the performance of composite samples at commercial scale with six combinations of oak fiber, corn hull fiber and DDGS fiber with fiber loading maintained at 50%, and then samples were exposed to UV accelerated weathering for 2000 h. The UV weathering decreased the mechanical properties of all the exposed samples compared to the unexposed samples. Also, UV weathering resulted in a severe chain scission of the HDPE polymer, increasing their crystallinity. The performance of mercerized or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated DDGS fiber as filler was investigated by characterizing the effects of treated and untreated DDGS fibers on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of HDPE composites. The NaOH treated DDGS fiber at 25% loading showed consistent improvement in flexural and tensile modulus of elasticities of the composites compared to the neat HDPE.

  1. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  2. Aerobic deterioration influences the fermentative, microbiological and nutritional quality of maize and sorghum silages on farm in high quality milk and cheese production chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Borreani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum silages are good sources of energy for lactating dairy cows that produce milk destined for fresh and matured cheeses. Silages are usually stored in horizontal silos with or without side walls on commercial farms throughout the world. The main microbiological and nutritional quality problems are related to harvesting time, ensiling technology, and management practices during filling and feed-out. Aerobic deterioration is a key point that must avoided on farms in order to improve the hygienic, chemical and sensorial quality of milk and cheeses. Aerobic deterioration causes large losses of dry matter (DM and quality, and it can cause health problems for animals and humans through the transfer of pathogens and mycotoxins from feed and livestock to food products. The objectives of the present work were to overview management practices connected to the storage of maize and sorghum in horizontal silos on farms producing milk for make Protected Designation of Origin (PDO hard ripened cheese, to define good management practices that should be applied as the basis for safe silage production and to reduce the extent of aerobic deterioration.As silagens de milho e de sorgo são importantes fontes de energia em rações utilizadas na bovinocultura leiteira, sendo que a estocagem desses volumosos é realizada em silos horizontais com ou sem a presença de paredes laterais (trincheira ou superfície, respectivamente, os quais são atrativos em razão do baixo custo de armazenamento, porém suas conformações determinam grande superfície de exposição, o que torna as silagens mais susceptíveis a deterioração aeróbia. Os maiores problemas envolvendo a qualidade microbiológica e nutricional em silagens, estão relacionados às práticas de manejo na colheita, no abastecimento e compactação da massa, na vedação e, principalmente, durante o desabastecimento do silo. O controle da deterioração aeróbia em silagens pode ser o principal

  3. Desempenho e digestibilidade de nutrientes em frangos de corte alternativos alimentados com silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557 Performance and nutrient digestibility in alternative broilers fed with high-moisture sorghum grains silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Pelícia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de inclusão de silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo (SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração sobre desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, além de avaliação econômica da criação alternativa, no período de 1 a 49 dias de idade. Também foi avaliada a digestibilidade das rações aos 21 dias de idade. Para as análises de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, foram distribuídos, em galpão, 600 pintos machos (Cobb, um dia de idade, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50% de inclusão SGUS, em substituição ao milho seco da ração, e quatro repetições de 25 aves cada. Para digestibilidade, foram alojados em câmara termoneutra, 72 pintos (Cobb, em 24 gaiolas, sendo três aves/gaiola, 12 aves/tratamento. Os tratamentos experimentais foram os mesmos adotados para o galpão. A SGUS pode substituir em até 50% o milho seco das rações de frangos alternativos, criados até 49 dias de idade, sem alterar desempenho, rendimento de carcaça, cortes e gordura abdominal, bem como a digestibilidade de nutrientes aos 21 dias de idade. Entretanto, o maior retorno econômico e melhor fator de produção foram obtidos com 10% de substituição.The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of inclusion of high-moisture sorghum grains silage (HMSS in replacement of dry corn in diet on performance, carcass yield, cuts and abdominal fat, and also economic analysis of alternative system at 1 to 49 d of age. The digestibility of the diets was determined at 21 d of age. For performance and carcass yield analysis, 600 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb were used, installed in a broiler house, in a randomized blocks, with six treatments based on the inclusion of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of HMSS in replacement of dry corn, and four replicates/treatment with 25 chicks each. For digestibility, 72 one-dayold male chicks (Cobb were

  4. Microbiome dynamics during ensiling of corn with and without Lactobacillus plantarum inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, Jitendra; Chen, Yaira; Pinto, Riky; Kroupitski, Yulia; Weinberg, Zwi G; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo

    2018-05-01

    Microbial population dynamics associated with corn silage, with and without Lactobacillus plantarum treatment, was studied. Whole crop corn was ensiled using laboratory silos and sampled at different times, up to 3 months. The dominant bacteria, before ensiling, were Acinetobacter (38.5%) and Klebsiella (16.3%), while the dominant fungi were Meyerozyma (53.5%) and Candida (27.7%). During ensiling, the microbial population shifted considerably, and Lactobacillus (> 94%) and Candida (> 74%) became the most dominant microbial genera in both treated and untreated silages. Yet, lactic acid content was higher in the treated silage, while the microbial diversity was lower than in the untreated silage. Upon aerobic exposure, spoilage occurred more rapidly in the treated silage, possibly due to the higher abundance of lactic acid-assimilating fungi, such as Candida. Our study is the first to describe microbial population dynamics during whole-crop corn ensiling and the results indicate that microbial diversity may be an indicator of aerobic stability.

  5. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  6. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  7. Crop Yield Predictions - High Resolution Statistical Model for Intra-season Forecasts Applied to Corn in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately forecasting crop yields has broad implications for economic trading, food production monitoring, and global food security. However, the variation of environmental variables presents challenges to model yields accurately, especially when the lack of highly accurate measurements creates difficulties in creating models that can succeed across space and time. In 2016, we developed a sequence of machine-learning based models forecasting end-of-season corn yields for the US at both the county and national levels. We combined machine learning algorithms in a hierarchical way, and used an understanding of physiological processes in temporal feature selection, to achieve high precision in our intra-season forecasts, including in very anomalous seasons. During the live run, we predicted the national corn yield within 1.40% of the final USDA number as early as August. In the backtesting of the 2000-2015 period, our model predicts national yield within 2.69% of the actual yield on average already by mid-August. At the county level, our model predicts 77% of the variation in final yield using data through the beginning of August and improves to 80% by the beginning of October, with the percentage of counties predicted within 10% of the average yield increasing from 68% to 73%. Further, the lowest errors are in the most significant producing regions, resulting in very high precision national-level forecasts. In addition, we identify the changes of important variables throughout the season, specifically early-season land surface temperature, and mid-season land surface temperature and vegetation index. For the 2017 season, we feed 2016 data to the training set, together with additional geospatial data sources, aiming to make the current model even more precise. We will show how our 2017 US corn yield forecasts converges in time, which factors affect the yield the most, as well as present our plans for 2018 model adjustments.

  8. Effect of feeding a by-product feed-based silage on nutrients intake, apparent digestibility, and nitrogen balance in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, J S; Kim, Y I; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2016-01-01

    Literature is lacking on the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on rumen fermentation parameters, nutrient digestion and nitrogen (N) retention in sheep. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing rye straw with BF-based silage as a roughage source on ruminal parameters, total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility, and N balance in sheep. The by-product feed silage was composed of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) (45 %), recycled poultry bedding (RPB) (21 %), rye straw (11 %), rice bran (10.8 %), corn taffy residue (10 %), protected fat (1.0 %), bentonite (0.6 %), and mixed microbial additive (0.6 %). Six sheep were assigned randomly to either the control (concentrate mix + rye straw) or a treatment diet (concentrate mix + BF-based silage). Compared with the control diet, feeding a BF-based silage diet resulted in similar ruminal characteristics (pH, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, and acetate: propionate ratio), higher (p < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N, higher (p < 0.05) ether extract digestibility, similar crude protein digestibility, lower (p < 0.05) dry matter, fiber, and crude ash digestibilities, and higher (p < 0.05) N retention (g/d). The BF-based silage showed similar energy value, higher protein metabolism and utilization, and lower fiber digestion in sheep compared to the control diet containing rye straw.

  9. Poly(vinyl alcohol) films reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) isolated from corn husk by high intensity ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shaoliang; Gao, Runan; Gao, LiKun; Li, Jian

    2016-01-20

    This work was aimed at fabricating and characterizing poly(vinyl alcohol) films that were reinforced by nanofibrillated corn husk celluloses using a combination of chemical pretreatments and ultrasonication. The obtained nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) possessed a narrow width ranging from 50 to 250 nm and a high aspect ratio (394). The crystalline type of NFC was cellulose I type. Compared with the original corn husks, the NCF crystallinity and thermal stability increased due to the removal of the hemicelluloses and lignin. PVA films containing different NFC concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%, w/w, dry basis) were examined. The 1% PVA/NFC reinforced films exhibited a highly visible light transmittance of 80%, and its tensile strength and the tensile strain at break were increased by 1.47 and 1.80 times compared to that of the pure PVA film, respectively. The NFC with high aspect ratio and high crystallinity is beneficial to the improvement of the mechanical strength and thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avaliação nutricional da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo de alto ou de baixo conteúdo de taninos para leitões na fase de creche Nutritional evaluation of high moisture sorghum silage grain of high or low tannin contents for nursery piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Mayumi Ishida Patricio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de sorgo (SGUS de alto ou baixo conteúdo de tanino na alimentação de leitões na fase de creche. No ensaio de digestibilidade, foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados (peso inicial de 15,9±1,9 kg, alojados em gaiolas para estudos de metabolismo, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em que a unidade experimental foi constituída por um leitão. O método utilizado foi o de coleta total de fezes e urina. Os valores de MS, proteína, amido, MO e energia digestíveis e os de EM, na matéria natural (68,75% de MS, foram, respectivamente, 43,94; 5,45; 46,67; 63,46%; 2.700 e 2.674 kcal/kg para a SGUS de alto teor de tanino e 40,72; 5,92; 44,08; 63,75%; 2.641 e 2.608 kcal/kg, para SGUS de baixo conteúdo de tanino. O segundo experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o desempenho de leitões e a viabilidade econômica da utilização de rações com diferentes níveis de substituição do milho seco por SGUS de alto ou baixo teor de tanino. Foram utilizados 56 suínos mestiços (14,7±1,9 e 29,2±3,0 kg de pesos inicial e final distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e dois leitões por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração à base de milho e farelo de soja e de outras seis com 33, 66 e 100% de substituição do milho seco por SGUS de alto ou baixo conteúdo de taninos, com base nos valores de energia digestível (ED desses ingredientes. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho dos animais entre os tratamentos, entretanto, houve aumento linear no consumo diário de ração para a SGUS de baixo teor de tanino e redução linear para o custo da ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho para a SGUS de alto teor de tanino.Two trials were carried out to evaluate the feeding of high moisture sorghum silage

  11. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Rasmus; Pedersen, S; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ......Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics...... such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal...... specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial...

  12. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. High solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wet oxidized corn stover to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, E.; Klinke, H.B.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study ethanol was produced from corn stover pretreated by alkaline and acidic wet oxidation (WO) (195 degreesC, 15 min, 12 bar oxygen) followed by nonisothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). In the first step of the SSF, small amounts of cellulases were added at 50...... increase of substrate concentration reduced the ethanol yield significant as a result of insufficient mass transfer. It was also shown that the fermentation could be followed with an easy monitoring system based on the weight loss of the produced CO2. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  15. A high-performance carbon derived from corn stover via microwave and slow pyrolysis for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Hong; wang, Xiaomin; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Microwave and slow pyrolysis were conducted for converting corn stover to biochar. Chemical agents of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide were used to progressively produce activated carbon. The pore structures and surface area of the samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption....../desorption at 77 K. The results demonstrated that higher specific surface areas of activated carbons were obtained by microwave pyrolysis combined with potassium hydroxide activation. However, electrochemical measurements showed that the slow pyrolysis biochar treated with 0.05 mol g−1 (potassium hydroxide...

  16. Modification of Corn Starch Ethanol Refinery to Efficiently Accept Various High-Impact Cellulosic Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derr, Dan [Logos Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the Corn-to-Cellulosic Migration (CCM) pilot facility was to demonstrate the implementation of advanced technologies and methods for conversion of non-food, cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, assess the economics of the facility and evaluate potential environmental benefits for biomass to fuels conversion. The CCM project was comprised of design, build, and operate phases for the CCM pilot facility as well as research & development, and modeling components. The CCM pilot facility was designed to process 1 tonne per day of non-food biomass and biologically convert that biomass to ethanol at a rate of 70 gallons per tonne. The plant demonstrated throughputs in excess of 1 tonne per day for an extended run of 1400 hours. Although target yields were not fully achieved, the continuous operation validated the design and operability of the plant. These designs will permit the design of larger scale operations at existing corn milling operations or for greenfield plants. EdeniQ, a partner in the project and the owner of the pilot plant, continues to operate and evaluate other feedstocks.

  17. Effect of increasing plant maturity in timothy-dominated grass silage on the performance of growing/finishing Norwegian Red bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, Å T; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage was produ......An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage...... and a formic acid-based additive applied. All silages were preserved with restricted fermentation. Silage DOMD values were 0·747, 0·708 and 0·647 for harvesting time (H) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Silages were fed ad libitum as sole feed, or supplemented with 2–4 kg concentrate at increasing LW, to six bulls per...... treatment from age 7 months (288 kg) to slaughter at 575 kg. Daily LW gain for bulls fed unsupplemented silage was 1423, 1262 and 936 g, respectively, for H1, H2 and H3, and 1570, 1567 and 1357 g for supplemented bulls. For concentrate-supplemented bulls, higher energy intake increased proportions...

  18. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  19. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  20. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  1. Compositional variability of nutrients and phytochemicals in corn after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanthi, P S; Naveena, N; Vishnuvardhana Rao, M; Bhaskarachary, K

    2017-04-01

    The result of various process strategies on the nutrient and phytochemical composition of corn samples were studied. Fresh and cooked baby corn, sweet corn, dent corn and industrially processed and cooked popcorn, corn grits, corn flour and corn flakes were analysed for the determination of proximate, minerals, xanthophylls and phenolic acids content. This study revealed that the proximate composition of popcorn is high compared to the other corn products analyzed while the mineral composition of these maize products showed higher concentration of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and low concentration of calcium, manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and sodium. Popcorn was high in iron, zinc, copper, manganese, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin were predominant in the dent corn and the total polyphenolic content was highest in dent corn while the phenolic acids distribution was variable in different corn products. This study showed preparation and processing brought significant reduction of xanthophylls and polyphenols.

  2. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein. Thirty-two multiparous (4 ruminally cannulated) plus 16 primiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk and fed diets as total mixed rations in an incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square trial with four 28-d periods. Production data (over the last 14 d of each period) and digestibility and excretion data (at the end of each period) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Although DM intake was 1.2 kg/d greater on AS than RCS, milk yield and body weight gain were not different. However, yields of fat and energy-corrected milk as well as milk content of fat, true protein, and solids-not-fat were greater on AS. Relative to AS, feeding RCS increased milk and energy-corrected milk yield per unit of DM intake, milk lactose content, and apparent N efficiency and reduced milk urea. Relative to AS, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber were greater on RCS, whereas apparent and estimated true N digestibility were lower. Urinary N excretion and ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids were reduced on RCS, indicating reduced ruminal protein degradation. Supplementation of RPM increased intake, milk true protein, and solids-not-fat content and tended to increase milk fat content. There were no silage × RPM interactions, suggesting that RPM was equally limiting on both AS and RCS. Supplementation of RPL did not

  3. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  4. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  5. Dairy Replacement Performance Fed Various Recipes of Pangola (Digitaria eriantha) Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Boon-ek, Lerchart; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Various kinds of Pangola silage ensiled with molasses and 2 types of silage innoculant (wild and mutant types). There were 6 recipes consisting of Treatment 1 : Pangola silage, Treatment 2: Pangola ensiled with molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 3 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant /gm Pangola, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, Treatment 5 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 6 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w. After 21 days of fermentation, silage sample was taken for nutritive value analysis. Preference testing on all silage recipes was studied using 18 dairy yearlings, aged 10-12 months old and weighed 200-300 kg, at 6 treatments with 3 animals each for 21 days in a Complete Randomized Design. The results did show that Treatment 1 had higher dry matter intake than those consisted of silage innoculant. However, when taking body weight changes and blood metabolites into account, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, has an advantage on the ease of making process. Then, it is concluded that Treatment 4 is the most appropriate method to improve silage quality.

  6. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-10-01

    Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  7. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetri, Laura H; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Yerian, Lisa M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) equivalent for 1-16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow or mice with trans fats or HFCS omitted. Cage racks were removed from western diet mice to promote sedentary behavior. By 16 wk, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necroinflammatory changes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels increased, as did liver TNF-alpha and procollagen mRNA, indicating an inflammatory and profibrogenic response to injury. Glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose developed within 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Plasma insulin, resistin, and leptin levels increased in a profile similar to that seen in patients with NASH. The individual components of this diet contributed to the phenotype independently; isocaloric replacement of trans fats with lard established that trans fats played a major role in promoting hepatic steatosis and injury, whereas inclusion of HFCS promoted food consumption, obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Combining risk factors for the metabolic syndrome by feeding mice trans fats and HFCS induced histological features of NASH in the context of a metabolic profile similar to patients with this disease. Because dietary trans fats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluation.

  8. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding but also helped in overcoming the disposal problem.

  9. The influence of grass silage-to-maize silage ratio and concentrate composition on methane emissions, performance and milk composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Huntington, J A; Wilkinson, R G; Bartram, C G; Sinclair, L A

    2015-06-01

    It is well-established that altering the proportion of starch and fibre in ruminant diets can alter ruminal and post-ruminal digestion, although quantitative evidence that this reduces enteric methane (CH4) production in dairy cattle is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of varying grass-to-maize silage ratio (70 : 30 and 30 : 70 DM basis), offered ad libitum, with either a concentrate that was high in starch or fibre, on CH4 production, intake, performance and milk composition of dairy cows. A total of 20 cows were allocated to one of the four experimental diets in a two-by-two factorial design run as a Latin square with each period lasting 28 days. Measurements were conducted during the final 7 days of each period. Cows offered the high maize silage ration had a higher dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk energy output and lower CH4 emissions when expressed per kg DMI and per unit of ingested gross energy, but there was no difference in total CH4 production. Several of the milk long-chain fatty acids (FA) were affected by forage treatment with the most notable being an increase in 18:0, 18:1 c9, 18:2 c9 c12 and total mono unsaturated FA, observed in cows offered the higher inclusion of maize silage, and an increase in 18:3 c9 c12 c15 when offered the higher grass silage ration. Varying the composition of the concentrate had no effect on DMI or milk production; however, when the high-starch concentrate was fed, milk protein concentration and milk FAs, 10:0, 14:1, 15:0, 16:1, increased and 18:0 decreased. Interactions were observed for milk fat concentration, being lower in cows offered high-grass silage and high-fibre concentrates compared with the high-starch concentrate, and FA 17:0, which was the highest in milk from cows fed the high-grass silage diet supplemented with the high-starch concentrate. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of maize silage in the diets of dairy cows increased intake and performance, and reduced CH

  10. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  11. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets leads to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoprotein B concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not in those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, and sucrose suggest that high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable with that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments.

  12. Application of corn meal at ensiling of alfalfa cocksfoot and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Jasmin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the solutions for the economical use of alfalfa and cocksfoot is making the silage. However, these plant species are difficult to be conserved without appropriate additives. The aim of this study was to determine the impact addition of cornmeal on the quality of silage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Kruševačka 22, cocksfoot (Dactilys glomerata L. cv. Kruševačka 40 and their mixture (50% alfalfa, 50% cocksfoot. Mowing both species was carried out at the stage when 1/3 to 1/5 of the plants were in flowering in alfalfa or in stage appearance of inflorescence with cocksfoot. Corn grain is ground at the mill with a sieve ø 2 mm, then mixed with chopped fodder of alfalfa, cocksfoot and the mixture in the following amount: 6% (treatment A2, 3% (treatment A1, and without cornmeal addition (control A0. After six months was determined silage quality. Cornmeal addition, according to the basic indicators of the quality of silage had a significant impact on changing the quality silage of alfalfa, cocksfoot and their mixtures. It is evident that the addition cornmeal addition a significant impact on increasing the energy value (primarily the content inside BEM of silage in all studied treatments.

  13. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energ...... silage aNDFom digestibility improved daily milk yield with 82 g (P = 0.04) and daily weight gain with 12 g (P = 0.03). Therefore, aNDFom digestibility is an important trait in maize used as whole crop silage for dairy cows.......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...

  14. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  15. The impact of corn stover removal on N2O emission and soil respiration: An investigation with automated chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover removal, whether for silage, bedding, or bioenergy production, could have a variety of environmental consequences through its effect on soil processes, particularly N2O production and soil respiration. Because these effects may be episodic in nature, weekly snapshots with static chambers...

  16. The effect of feed rations containing high moisture crimped corn ensiled with microbial inoculant or chemical additive on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Könyves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of crimped corn preserved either with organic acids or with a microbial inoculant on a range of metabolic and production indicators of dairy cows. Two hundred and sixty in-calf, second and third parity cows were selected into pairs on basis of age, parity, milk production in previous lactation, days in milk and body condition score with the greatest possible conformity within pairs. Cow pairs were assigned into a 2-period crossover experiment (2 × 45 days and kept in separate groups within the same shed. Dietary treatments were TMR with crimped corn preserved with either organic acids (treatment K or microbial inoculant (treatment B. Ten superbly matched cow-pairs were selected to form nucleus pairs for metabolic studies. The preservatives had no effect on the nutrient content of crimped corn. Crimped corn preserved with the microbial inoculant were found mouldy, predominantly with Mucor sp. at a number high enough to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria, and had significantly higher pH and ammonium concentration compared to the chemical treatment. The milk yield of treatment K cows was significantly higher than that of treatment B cows with identical feed intake. Blood beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration was lower and blood aspartate amino transferase activity higher with treatment K compared to treatment B. Results of this study suggest the superiority of total mixed rations containing chemically preserved crimped corn in terms of ammonia and microbiological indicators of crimped corn, significantly higher milk yield, and balanced energy metabolism.

  17. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  18. Effect of Including Extruded, Rolled or Ground Corn in Dairy Cow Diets Based on Direct Cut Grass Silage Efecto de la Inclusión de Maíz Extruido, Rolado o Molido en Dietas de Vacas Lecheras Basadas en Ensilaje de Pradera de Corte Directo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alvarado G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of corn (Zea mays L. grain processing on intake, digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition. The effect of extrusion on nutrient digestibility was evaluated in trial 1, using ground corn as a control. In trial 2, the effect of extrusion on intake was evaluated, comparing extruded corn of two densities (357 and 308 g L-1 with rolled corn (507 g L-1 as a control. In trial 3, the effects of extrusion on milk production, digestibility and intake were evaluated; using steam rolled corn and ground corn as controls. No effects on dry matter and metabolizable energy intakes due to differences in the extruded corn grains were observed. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments, although a greater digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates was observed. Higher milk production was obtained in treatments including extruded and steam rolled corn (21.4 and 21.6 L d-1, compared to ground corn (20.5 L d-1 but differences disappeared when standardizing for fat content. Milk composition was not affected by treatments. Daily protein production was greater (P Se estudiaron los efectos del procesamiento del grano de maíz (Zea mays L. en el consumo y digestibilidad de la dieta, y en la composición y producción láctea. En el ensayo 1, se evaluó el efecto de la extrusión en la digestibilidad de la dieta utilizando maíz molido como control. En el ensayo 2, se evaluó el efecto de la extrusión en el consumo comparando maíz extruido de dos densidades (357 y 308 g L-1 usando maíz rolado (507 gL-1 como control. En el ensayo 3, se evaluó el efecto de la extrusión sobre la producción de leche, digestibilidad y consumo, empleando maíz rolado y maíz molido como controles. No se observaron diferencias en consumo de materia seca (MS ni de energía metabolizable atribuibles a diferencias de densidad del ma

  19. Effects of dry-rolled or high-moisture corn with twenty-five or forty-five percent wet distillers' grains with solubles on energy metabolism, nutrient digestibility, and macromineral balance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of feeding dry-rolled corn (DRC) or high-moisture corn (HMC) with 25% and 45% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on energy metabolism, and nutrient and mineral balance were evaluated in 8 finishing beef steers using a replicated Latin square design. The model included the fixed ...

  20. Ecosystem and human health impacts from increased corn production: vulnerability assessment of exposure to high nitrate concentrations in groundwater and blue baby syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. This study applies the geophysical relationships captured with linked meteorological, air quality and agriculture models to examine the impact of corn production before enactment of the RFS in 2002 and at the height of the RFS targets in 2022. In particular, we investigate the probability of high-levels of nitrate in groundwater resulting from increased corn production and then relate this vulnerability to the potential for infants to acquire Methemoglobinemia, or 'Blue Baby Syndrome'. Blue Baby Syndrome (BBS) is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the hemoglobin (Fe2+) in an infant's red blood cells is oxidized to methemoglobin (Fe3+), preventing the uptake of oxygen from the baby's blood. Exposure to high levels of nitrate in groundwater occur near the intersection of areas where surface water can more readily leach into shallow aquifers, wells are the main source of drinking water, and high nitrogen inputs exist. We use a coupled meteorological, agricultural and air quality model to identify areas vulnerable to increased nitrate contamination and associated risk to acquiring BBS. We first verify the relationship between predictive variables (e.g., nitrogen deposition and fertilization rates, landcover, soils and aquifer type) and nitrate groundwater levels by applying a regression model to over 800 nitrate measurements taken from wells located throughout the US (Figure 1). We then apply the regression coefficients to the coupled model output to identify areas that are at an increased risk for high nitrate groundwater levels in 2022. Finally, we examine the potential change in risk for acquiring BBS resulting from increased corn production by applying an Oral Reference Dose (Rf

  1. Effects of delayed wrapping of baled silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of baled silage allows greater flexibility for harvest management when weather does not allow drying and harvesting forage as dry hay. However, timely wrapping on the day of baling can be difficult if significant numbers of bales need to be wrapped, or if a mechanical breakdown occurs. Researc...

  2. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  3. Fast detection of atrazine in corn using thermometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Zhiwei; Ning, Baoan; Liu, Ming; Bai, Jialei; Peng, Yuan; Song, Nan; Lv, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Siming; Su, Xuan; Zhang, Yihong; Gao, Zhixian

    2013-09-07

    Fast detection is important in screening large-scale samples. This study establishes a direct competitive ELISA method (dcTELISA) based on an enzyme thermistor for fast atrazine (ATZ) detection. ATZ competes with β-lactamase-labeled ATZ (ATZ-E) for the binding sites on anti-ATZ monoclonal antibody (mAb). The mAb are covalently bound to Controlled Pore Glass (CPG) in an immunoreactor to form immunocomplexes with ATZ and ATZ-E. Several parameters of biosensor performance were optimized, such as the ATZ-E concentration, concentration and nature of the substrate, flow rate, and effect of temperature on the sensor response. After optimization, the assay time for a single sample was 12 min. The work process and result were compared with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection results exhibited a recovery rate of 88% to 107% in ATZ-spiked fresh cut corn stalks and silage samples. The results obtained via dcTELISA had good correlation with that of HPLC, and the biosensor response was reproducible and stable even when used continuously for over 4 months. All these properties suggested that the fast detection method, dcTELISA, may be used to detect pesticide residue in large-scale samples.

  4. Corn Earworm

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane G.; Olsen, Shawn; Barnhill, James

    2011-01-01

    In Utah, there are typically three generations of corn earworm (CEW) each year. The first generation of adults either come from overwintering pupae (southern and central Utah), or migrate into northern Utah. The adult moth is tannish brown with a 1 1/2 inch wingspan. The front wings are marked with a distinct dark spot in the center and darker bands near the outer margins. The hind wings are lighter tan, with a dark band along the outer margins. The male moths have green eyes. Moth flight occ...

  5. Adaptation of Methanogenic Inocula to Anaerobic Digestion of Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Wojcieszak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i an agricultural biogas plant (ABP which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii cattle slurry (CS, which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii raw sewage sludge (RSS with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of AD in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase, methanogenic consortia occurred very slowly, and only after several passages did the microbial community adapts to allow production of biogas with high methane content. The ABP consortium revealed highest biogas production in the adaptation and in the start-up process. The biodiversity dynamics monitored during adaptation and start-up process showed that community profile changed in a similar direction in three studied consortia. Native communities were very distinct to each other, while at the end of the Phase II of the start-up process microbial diversity profile was similar in all consortia. All adopted bacterial communities were dominated by representatives of Porphyromonadaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Synergistaceae. A shift from low acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae (ABP and RSS and/or hydrogenotrophic Archaea, e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae (CS prevailing in the inoculum samples to larger populations of high acetate-preferring acetoclastic

  6. Influence of species and preservations on the quality and safety of grass silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Skládanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the quality of model silages made of wilted grass biomass and treated with silage additives. Grass species used for the production of silages were Lolium perenne, Festulolium pabulare and Festulolium braunii harvested in the first cut at the stage of earing. The assessed grass species were wilted after the cut for an identical time 36 hours (2008, resp. 24 hours (2009. The treatment was made either with a chemical preparation (formic acid, propionic acid, ammonium formate and/or with a bio­lo­gi­cal inoculant (Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus salivarius, cellulase, hemicellulase and amylase. The amount of the chemical ingredient was 4 l . t−1 and the amount of the biological additive was 10 g . t−1.The biomass was after wilting ensilaged in con­tai­ners whose diameter and height were 0.15 m and 0.64 m, respectively. After 60 days of ensilaging, the silages were assessed for pH, organic acids content, ethanol content and acidity of water extract (AWE; organic nutrients assessed in the silages were crude fibre (CF, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, crude protein (CP and digestibility of organic matter (DOM. Hygienic safety was assessed from the contents of zearalenon, fumonisin and aflatoxin mycotoxins. The high (P < 0.05 dry matter (DM content in Festulolium pabulare silages indicates that the species tends to rapid wilting. The higher DM content reflected in lower biomass losses (P < 0.05. The lowest pH values (P < 0.05 were detected in silages made of Festulolium braunii. The fact relates to the higher content of lactic acid in the prepared microsilages. The use of ensiling additives affected the quality of extracts. Namely the application of the biological additive led to the increased content (P < 0.05 of not only lactic acid but acetic acid too. Titrable acidity was not affected by the ensiling additives. As to the

  7. High titer L-lactic acid production from corn stover with minimum wastewater generation and techno-economic evaluation based on Aspen plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Jiaoe; Zhang, Jian; Tu, Yi; Bao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Technological potentials of l-lactic acid production from corn stover feedstock were investigated by experimental and techno-economic studies. An optimal performance with 104.5 g/L in l-lactic acid titer and 71.5% in overall yield from cellulose in corn stover to l-lactic acid using an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain were obtained by overcoming several technical barriers. A rigorous Aspen plus model for l-lactic acid production starting from dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was developed. The techno-economic analysis shows that the minimum l-lactic acid selling price (MLSP) was $0.523 per kg, which was close to that of the commercial l-lactic acid produced from starch feedstock, and 24% less expensive than that of ethanol from corn stover, even though the xylose utilization was not considered. The study provided a prototype of industrial application and an evaluation model for high titer l-lactic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SILAGE OF HIGH MOISTURE GRAIN AND DRY GRAIN OF SORGHUM AS ENERGETIC SOURCE FOR FEMALE CALVES FROM TWO GENETIC GROUPS SILAGEM DE GRÃO ÚMIDO OU GRÃO SECO DE SORGO COMO FONTE ENERGÉTICA PARA BEZERRAS DE DOIS GRUPOS GENÉTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance and development of Charolais (CH and 5/8Nellore 3/8Charolais (5/8NC female calves, feedlot fed with silage of high moisture grain or dry grain of sorghum, were evaluated. The roughage (corn silage:concentrate ratio was 60:40, dry matter (DM basis. Calves average initial weight and age was 96.9±8.5kg and five months. The experimental design was complete randomized, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (types of sorghum grains conservation x genetic groups. No significant interaction was observed between type of sorghum grain conservation and genetic group, for the variables studied. No difference (P>.05 was observed between high moisture and dry grain for daily intake of DM (DMI 3.83 and 3.84 kg DM/day, and digestible energy (DEI 14.59 and 14.92 Mcal/day, respectively. Average daily weight gain (ADW .80 and .83 kg, final weight (FW 165.0 and 166.5 kg, and feed conversion (FC 4.78 and 4.63, were similar for high moisture and dry grain sorghum, respectively. Calves growth parameters according to sorghum grains conservation did not differ (P>.05. The gain of body condition (GBC was higher (P<.05 for the treatment of high moisture grain (.33 points in comparison to dry grain (.22 points. No difference (P>.05 was observed between genetic groups for DMI, DEI, ADW, FC and FW. The 5/8NC compared to the CH calves showed higher (P<.05 final body condition score (3.1 vs 3.0 points, initial (91.12 vs 83.62 cm and final withers height (102.62 vs 94.84 cm and initial (99.37 vs 89.69 cm and final rump height (108.87 vs 101.37 cm. The CH calves had higher (P<.05 thoracic perimeter (24.94 vs 20.56 cm.


    KEY WORDS: Average daily weight gain, crossbreeding, rump height, withers height, thoracic perimeter.

    Avaliaram-se o desempenho e o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras Charolês (CH e 5/8Nelore 3/8Charolês (5/8NC, alimentadas em confinamento com silagem de grão úmido ou seco de sorgo. A rela

  9. High-solid anaerobic digestion of corn straw for methane production and pretreatment of bio-briquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Yan, Fang; Li, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Qian, Mingyu; Xu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved. A preferred BB can be obtained with side compressive strength of 863.8 ± 10.8 N and calorific value of 20.21 MJ/kg-BB. The finding of this study indicated that the integrated process could be an alternative way to produce methane and high-quality BB with CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  11. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  12. Identification and quantification of six major α-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2012-07-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major α-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, α-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified α-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the α-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the α-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major α-DC with concentrations up to 730 μg/mL HFCS. The total α-DC content ranged from 293 μg/mL to 1,130 μg/mL HFCS. Significantly different α-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the

  13. Influence of ensiling, exogenous protease addition, and bacterial inoculation on fermentation profile, nitrogen fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fredin, S M; Shaver, R D

    2015-10-01

    Exogenous protease addition may be an option to increase proteolysis of zein proteins and thus starch digestibility in rehydrated and high-moisture corn (HMC) ensiled for short periods. In addition, microbial inoculation may accelerate fermentation and increase acid production and thus increase solubilization of zein proteins. Four experiments were performed to evaluate the effect on fermentation profile, N fractions, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivSD) of the following: (1) rehydration and ensiling of dry ground corn; (2) exogenous protease addition to rehydrated un-ensiled and ensiled corn; (3) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in rehydrated ensiled corn; and (4) exogenous protease addition or inoculation in HMC. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were performed with 7 treatments: dry ground corn (DGC); DGC rehydrated to a targeted dry matter content of 70% (REH); REH treated with exogenous protease (REH+); REH ensiled for 30 d (ENS); ENS treated with exogenous protease (ENS+); ENS treated with a microbial inoculant containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Enterococcus faecium, and Pediococcus sp. (ENSI); and ENS treated with exogenous protease and microbial inoculant (ENSI+). Experiment 1 compared DGC, REH, and ENS with ivSD being greater for ENS (64.9%) than DGC and REH (51.7% on average). Experiment 2 compared REH and ENS without or with exogenous protease addition (REH+ and ENS+, respectively). Ensiling and exogenous protease addition increased ivSD, but exogenous protease addition was more effective in ENS than REH (6.4 vs. 2.6 percentage unit increase). Experiment 3 compared the effects of exogenous protease addition and inoculation in ENS corn (ENS, ENS+, ENSI, and ENSI+). The addition of protease, but not inoculant, increased ivSD. Inoculation reduced pH and acetate, propionate, and ethanol concentrations, and increased lactate and total acid concentrations. In experiment 4, 8 treatments were a combination of HMC noninoculated

  14. Anaerobic digestion of corn ethanol thin stillage in batch and by high-rate down-flow fixed film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A; Kennedy, K J

    2012-01-01

    Thin stillage (CTS) from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant was evaluated as a carbon source for anaerobic digestion (AD) by batch and high rate semi-continuous down-flow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were carried out with CTS concentrations ranging from approximately 2,460-27,172 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre, achieved by diluting CTS with clean water or a combination of clean water and treated effluent. High TCOD, SCOD and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies of 85 ± 2, 94 ± 0 and 82 ± 1% were achieved for CTS diluted with only clean water at an organic concentration of 21,177 mg TCOD per litre, with a methane yield of 0.30 L methane per gram TCOD(removed) at standard temperature and pressure (STP, 0 °C and 1 atmosphere). Batch studies investigating the use of treated effluent for dilution showed promising results. Continuous studies employed two mesophilic DSFF anaerobic digesters treating thin stillage, operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 20, 14.3, 8.7, 6.3, 5 and 4.2 d. Successful digestion was achieved up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 7.4 g TCOD L(-1)d(-1) at a 5 d HRT with a yield of 2.05 LCH(4) L(-1)d(-1) (at STP) and TCOD and VS removal efficiencies of 89 ± 3 and 85 ± 3%, respectively.

  15. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devantier, R. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, S. [Starch, Applied Discovery, Research and Development, Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Olsson, L. [Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol was produced from very high gravity mashes of dry milled corn (35% w/w total dry matter) under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions. The effects of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on the growth characteristics such as the ethanol yield and volumetric and specific productivity were determined. It was shown that higher glucoamylase doses and/or pre-saccharification accelerated the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process and increased the final ethanol concentration from 106 to 126 g/kg although the maximal specific growth rate was decreased. Ethanol production was not only growth related, as more than half of the total saccharides were consumed and more than half of the ethanol was produced during the stationary phase. Furthermore, a high stress tolerance of the applied yeast strain was found to be crucial for the outcome of the fermentation process, both with regard to residual saccharides and final ethanol concentration. The increased formation of cell mass when a well-suited strain was applied increased the final ethanol concentration, since a more complete fermentation was achieved. (orig.)

  16. Identification and quantification of fumonisin A1, A2, and A3 in corn by high-resolution liquid chromatography-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masayoshi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Harayama, Koichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-02-16

    Three compounds, hypothesized as fumonisin A1 (FA1), fumonisin A2 (FA2), and fumonisin A3 (FA3), were detected in a corn sample contaminated with mycotoxins by high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS). One of them has been identified as FA1 synthesized by the acetylation of fumonisin B1 (FB1), and established a method for its quantification. Herein, we identified the two remaining compounds as FA2 and FA3, which were acetylated fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3), respectively. Moreover, we examined a method for the simultaneous analysis of FA1, FA2, FA3, FB1, FB2, and FB3. The corn samples were prepared by extraction using a QuEChERS kit and purification using a multifunctional cartridge. The linearity, recovery, repeatability, limit of detection, and limit of quantification of the method were >0.99, 82.9%-104.6%, 3.7%-9.5%, 0.02-0.60 μg/kg, and 0.05-1.98 μg/kg, respectively. The simultaneous analysis of the six fumonisins revealed that FA1, FA2, and FA3 were present in all corn samples contaminated with FB1, FB2, and FB3. The results suggested that corn marketed for consumption can be considered as being contaminated with both the fumonisin B-series and with fumonisin A-series. This report presents the first identification and quantification of FA1, FA2, and FA3 in corn samples.

  17. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  18. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  19. Monitoring presence and advance of the alien invasive western corn rootworm beetle in eastern Slovenia with highly sensitive Metcalf traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Urek, G; Modic, S; Hein, D F

    2005-01-01

    The American Chrysomelid beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (D.v.v.), also called the western corn rootworm, spread from the location of its original introduction into Europe, Belgrade airport (BACA 1993), in all directions. Within a decade it occupied almost all countries of South-eastern and Central Europe. However, it reached Slovenia as late as 2003: Only 19 specimen were found in maize fields of the eastern and also western provinces. Already in the summer of 2004, their number had risen to 386 which were mainly found in the eastern provinces near the borders to Croatia, Austria and Hungary. For their monitoring, a simple trap is being described which can be acquired in high numbers at a very low price and can guaranty a most sensitive detection of beetles. The Metcalf cup trap which in Slovenia so far has been unknown performed the task of monitoring quite well at five locations. It will also facilitate the future search for new and increasing infestations. Comparing 2004 with the year 2003, D.v.v. expanded its range in eastern Slovenia by about 15 km. These new infestations will include territories in which fields of the regionally Important oil seed pumpkin Cucurbita pepo are located. With important traffic connections between South-eastern and Central Europe, Slovenia will occupy a bridgehead function in the preventive protection of maize from D.v.v. spreading into more northerly European regions including western Austria and southern Germany.

  20. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  1. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose.

  2. Sucrose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, and Fructose, Their Metabolism and Potential Health Effects: What Do We Really Know?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose. PMID:23493540

  3. The health implications of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M

    2010-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of arguments suggesting a link between obesity and fructose consumption is epidemiologic and does not establish cause and effect. The causes of obesity are well-known and involve the overconsumption of calories from all sources. Research employing a pure fructose model distorts the real-world situation of fructose consumption, which predominantly comes from sweeteners containing roughly equal proportions of glucose and fructose. The fructose hypothesis has the potential to distract us from further exploration and amelioration of known causes of obesity. Randomized prospective trials of metabolic consequences of fructose consumption at normal population levels and from sources typically found in the human diet such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup are urgently needed. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  5. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M; Murphy, J Austin; Smith, William A; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W; Ray, Allison E; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N; Nguyen, Quang A

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  6. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after ...

  7. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  8. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  9. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Wendt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML, about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery.

  10. Compatibility of High-Moisture Storage for Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover: Storage Performance at Laboratory and Field Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Austin; Smith, William A.; Robb, Thomas; Reed, David W.; Ray, Allison E.; Liang, Ling; He, Qian; Sun, Ning; Hoover, Amber N.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2018-01-01

    Wet anaerobic storage of corn stover can provide a year-round supply of feedstock to biorefineries meanwhile serving an active management approach to reduce the risks associated with fire loss and microbial degradation. Wet logistics systems employ particle size reduction early in the supply chain through field-chopping which removes the dependency on drying corn stover prior to baling, expands the harvest window, and diminishes the biorefinery size reduction requirements. Over two harvest years, in-field forage chopping was capable of reducing over 60% of the corn stover to a particle size of 6 mm or less. Aerobic and anaerobic storage methods were evaluated for wet corn stover in 100 L laboratory reactors. Of the methods evaluated, traditional ensiling resulted in <6% total solid dry matter loss (DML), about five times less than the aerobic storage process and slightly less than half that of the anaerobic modified-Ritter pile method. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of the anaerobic storage, a field demonstration was completed with 272 dry tonnes of corn stover; DML averaged <5% after 6 months. Assessment of sugar release as a result of dilute acid or dilute alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis suggested that when anaerobic conditions were maintained in storage, sugar release was either similar to or greater than as-harvested material depending on the pretreatment chemistry used. This study demonstrates that wet logistics systems offer practical benefits for commercial corn stover supply, including particle size reduction during harvest, stability in storage, and compatibility with biochemical conversion of carbohydrates for biofuel production. Evaluation of the operational efficiencies and costs is suggested to quantify the potential benefits of a fully-wet biomass supply system to a commercial biorefinery. PMID:29632861

  11. Bed Agglomeration During the Steam Gasification of a High Lignin Corn Stover Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Digester Residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Saraf, Laxmikant; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2015-11-13

    This research investigates the bed agglomeration phenomena during the steam gasification of a high lignin residue produced from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn stover in a bubbling fluidized bed. The studies were conducted at 895°C using alumina as bed material. Biomass was fed at 1.5 kg/hr, while steam was fed to give a velocity equal to 2.5 times the minimum fluidization velocity, with a steam/carbon ratio of 0.9. The pelletized feedstock was co-fed with a cooling nitrogen stream to mitigate feed line plugging issues. Tar production was high at 50.3 g/Nm3, and the fraction of C10+ compounds was greater than that seen in the gasification of traditional lignocellulosic feedstocks. Carbon closures over 94 % were achieved for all experiments. Bed agglomeration was found to be problematic, indicated by pressure drop increases observed below the bed and upstream of the feed line. Two size categories of solids were recovered from the reactor, +60 mesh and -60 mesh. After a 2.75-hour experiment, 61.7 wt % was recovered as -60 mesh particles and 38.2 wt% of the recovered reactor solids were +60 mesh. A sizeable percentage, 31.8 wt%, was +20 mesh. The -60 mesh particles were mainly formed by the initial bed material (Al2O3). Almost 50 wt. % of the + 20 mesh particles was found to be formed by organics. The unreacted carbon remaining in the reactor resulted in a low conversion rate to product gas. ICP-AES, SEM, SEM-EDS, and XRD confirmed that the large agglomerates (+ 20 mesh) were not encapsulated bed material but rather un-gasified feedstock pellets with sand particles attached to it.

  12. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  13. Energy Expenditure and Hormone Responses in Humans After Overeating High-Fructose Corn Syrup Versus Whole-Wheat Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mostafa; Bonfiglio, Susan; Schlögl, Mathias; Vinales, Karyne L; Piaggi, Paolo; Venti, Colleen; Walter, Mary; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the dietary source of carbohydrates, either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or complex carbohydrates, affects energy expenditure (EE) measures, appetitive sensations, and hormones during 24 hours of overfeeding. Seventeen healthy participants with normal glucose regulation had 24-hour EE measures and fasting blood and 24-hour urine collection during four different 1-day diets, including an energy-balanced diet, fasting, and two 75% carbohydrate diets (5% fat) given at 200% of energy requirements with either HFCS or whole-wheat foods as the carbohydrate source. In eight volunteers, hunger was assessed with visual analog scales the morning after the diets. Compared with energy balance, 24-hour EE increased 12.8% ± 6.9% with carbohydrate overfeeding (P < 0.0001). No differences in 24-hour EE or macronutrient utilization were observed between the two high-carbohydrate diets; however, sleeping metabolic rate was higher after the HFCS diet (Δ = 35 ± 48 kcal [146 ± 200 kJ]; P = 0.01). Insulin, ghrelin, and triglycerides increased the morning after both overfeeding diets. Urinary cortisol concentrations (82.8 ± 35.9 vs. 107.6 ± 46.9 nmol/24 h; P = 0.01) and morning-after hunger scores (Δ = 2.4 ± 2.0 cm; P = 0.01) were higher with HFCS overfeeding. The dietary carbohydrate source while overeating did not affect 24-hour EE, but HFCS overconsumption may predispose individuals to further overeating due to increased glucocorticoid release and increased hunger the following morning. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John S

    2008-12-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (common table sugar) first introduced to the food and beverage industry in the 1970s. It is not meaningfully different in composition or metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. HFCS was widely embraced by food formulators, and its use grew between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, principally as a replacement for sucrose. This was primarily because of its sweetness comparable with that of sucrose, improved stability and functionality, and ease of use. Although HFCS use today is nearly equivalent to sucrose use in the United States, we live in a decidedly sucrose-sweetened world: >90% of the nutritive sweetener used worldwide is sucrose. Here I review the history, composition, availability, and characteristics of HFCS in a factual manner to clarify common misunderstandings that have been a source of confusion to health professionals and the general public alike. In particular, I evaluate the strength of the popular hypothesis that HFCS is uniquely responsible for obesity. Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide.

  15. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  17. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  18. Baby corn, green corn, and dry corn yield of corn cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Castro,Renato S; Silva,Paulo Sérgio L; Cardoso,Milton J

    2013-01-01

    In corn, when the first female inflorescence is removed, the plant often produces new female inflorescences. This allows the first ear to be harvested as baby corn (BC) and the second as green corn (GC) or dry corn (DC), that is, mature corn. The flexibility provided by a variety of harvested products allows the grower to compete with better conditions in the markets. We evaluated BC, GC, and DC yields in corn cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, and BRS 2020, after the first ear was harvested as BC. ...

  19. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  20. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige K. Berger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers (n = 41 were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p < 0.01. Post hoc comparisons showed the HFCS-sweetened beverage vs. control beverage increased breast milk fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL, 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL, and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL (all p < 0.05. The mean incremental area under the curve for breast milk fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. −2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p < 0.01. There was no treatment × time interaction for breast milk glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  2. High-Fructose Corn-Syrup-Sweetened Beverage Intake Increases 5-Hour Breast Milk Fructose Concentrations in Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Paige K; Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fujiwara, Hideji; Goran, Michael I

    2018-05-24

    This study determined the effects of consuming a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverage on breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose concentrations in lactating women. At six weeks postpartum, lactating mothers ( n = 41) were randomized to a crossover study to consume a commercially available HFCS-sweetened beverage or artificially sweetened control beverage. At each session, mothers pumped a complete breast milk expression every hour for six consecutive hours. The baseline fasting concentrations of breast milk fructose, glucose, and lactose were 5.0 ± 1.3 µg/mL, 0.6 ± 0.3 mg/mL, and 6.8 ± 1.6 g/dL, respectively. The changes over time in breast milk sugars were significant only for fructose (treatment × time, p fructose at 120 min (8.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL), 180 min (9.4 ± 1.9 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2 µg/mL), 240 min (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 5.1 ± 1.9 µg/mL), and 300 min (6.9 ± 1.4 vs. 4.9 ± 1.9 µg/mL) (all p fructose was also different between treatments (14.7 ± 1.2 vs. -2.60 ± 1.2 µg/mL × 360 min, p glucose or lactose. Our data suggest that the consumption of an HFCS-sweetened beverage increased breast milk fructose concentrations, which remained elevated up to five hours post-consumption.

  3. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  4. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05. As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake.

  5. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  6. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    intake (PRumination time per kg DM intake (Pcontents (Prumination with greater...... NDF content (Prumination time increased with greater NDF content (Pcontent (P...The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense...

  7. Evaluation of normal yellow dent corn and high available phosphorus corn in combination with reduced dietary phosphorus and phytase supplementation for broilers grown to market weights in litter pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F; Kersey, J H; Fritts, C A; Waldroup, P W; Stilborn, H L; Crum, R C; Rice, D W; Raboy, V

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent fecal P levels could be reduced while maintaining performance. Various strategies were employed including the use of a high available phosphorus hybrid of corn (HAPC), supplementation with phytase enzyme, and reduced dietary P levels. The use of HAPC resulted in a 50% reduction in phytate-bound dietary P as compared with a normal yellow dent corn (YDC) diet. Dietary nonphytate P was maintained at either NRC (1994) recommendations for appropriate age periods or reduced by 0.075 or 0.15%. Portions of the diets were supplemented with 1,000 units of phytase/kg. Male chicks of a commercial strain were grown to 56 d on the test diets. Broilers fed diets with HAPC had BW, feed conversion, livability, and tibia ash that were equal to or superior to those fed diets with YDC with considerably reduced fecal P content at any dietary level of nonphytate P. Phytase supplementation enabled birds to maintain live performance at lower levels of nonphytate P, further reducing the fecal P output. One of the greatest contributions of phytase was a reduction in mortality at the lower levels of nonphytate P. Dietary P levels could be reduced by 0.075% under NRC (1994) recommendations without adversely affecting live performance; a reduction of 0.15% in conjunction with phytase supplementation maintained BW, feed conversion, and livability but reduced tibia ash. The extent to which dietary P levels can be reduced over the entire feeding program is subject to further research.

  8. Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Schmidt, R J; Holmes, B J; Muck, R E

    2018-05-01

    An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration. The possibility of reducing DM and quality losses during the ensiling process requires knowledge of how to measure losses on farm and establish the status of the silage during the feed-out phase, implementing the most effective management practices to avoid air exposure during conservation and reduce silage aerobic deterioration during feeding. The paper concludes with future perspectives and recommended management practices to reduce losses and increase efficiency over the whole ensiling process in view of increasing sustainability of the livestock production chain. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  9. Silage review: Using molecular approaches to define the microbial ecology of silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T A; Dunière, L; Drouin, P; Xu, S; Wang, Y; Munns, K; Zaheer, R

    2018-05-01

    Ensiling of forages was recognized as a microbial-driven process as early as the late 1800s, when it was associated with the production of "sweet" or "sour" silage. Classical microbiological plating techniques defined the epiphytic microbial populations associated with fresh forage, the pivotal role of lactic acid-producing bacteria in the ensiling process, and the contribution of clostridia, bacilli, yeast, and molds to the spoilage of silage. Many of these classical studies focused on the enumeration and characterization of a limited number of microbial species that could be readily isolated on selective media. Evidence suggested that many of the members of these microbial populations were viable but unculturable, resulting in classical studies underestimating the true microbial diversity associated with ensiling. Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, including length heterogeneity PCR, terminal RFLP, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, were the first molecular methods used to study silage microbial communities. Further advancements in whole comparative genomic, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic sequencing have or are in the process of superseding these methods, enabling microbial communities during ensiling to be defined with a degree of detail that is impossible using classical microbiology. These methods have identified new microbial species in silage, as well as characterized shifts in microbial communities with forage type and composition, ensiling method, and in response to aerobic exposure. Strain- and species-specific primers have been used to track the persistence and contribution of silage inoculants to the ensiling process and the role of specific species of yeast and fungi in silage spoilage. Sampling and the methods used to isolate genetic materials for further molecular analysis can have a profound effect on results. Primer selection for PCR amplification and the presence of inhibitors

  10. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  11. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  12. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  13. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  14. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  15. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function wh...

  16. Characteristic and kinetics of corn stalk pyrolysis in a high pressure reactor and steam gasification of its char

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guojie; Sun, Yinghui; Shi, Yuliang; Jia, Yong; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Peiyu; Zhang, Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of the corn stalk were investigated at different temperatures and pressures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of gas. The results show that a higher pressure was conducive to the yield of H2 and CH4, and was not conducive to the generation of CO. Combustible gas components increase with the increase temperature. H2 concentration was affected significantly by temperature, was mainly released at higher temperatures (>500 °C). At 700 °C,...

  17. ELASTICITY OF CORN PRICE TRANSMISION AND ITS IMPLICATION TO FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn has important roles to Indonesian economy both for staple foods and for price transmission to other products. The high domestic demand for corn compared to its domestic production has made corn imports continue to grow. This research is aimed to know the elasticity of price transmission and its implication to corn’s farmers. The results of analysis show that corn price transmission is inelastic. The coefficient shows that corn market is oligopsony under the imperfect competition market. To help the corn farmers, the government has to provide fertilizer subsidy and farm credit with low interest rates, as well as impose import tariff on corn. Keywords: Corn, Elasticity of price transmission, oligopsony, imperfect competition marketJEL classification numbers: Q00, Q12, Q18

  18. Utilization of High-Fructose Corn Syrup for Biomass Production Containing High Levels of Docosahexaenoic Acid by a Newly Isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. YLH70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying-Liang; Sun, Jie; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Wang, Zhao

    2015-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an agro-source product and has been the most commonly used substitute for sugar as sweetener in food industry due to its low price and high solution property. In this study, the F55 HFCS, rich in fructose and glucose, was first tested for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions as a mixed carbon source by a newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70. After the compositions of the HFCS media were optimized, the results showed that the HFCS with additions of metal ion and vitamin at low concentrations was suitable for biomass and docosahexaenoic acid productions and the metal ion and sea salt had the most significant effects on biomass production. During the 5-l fed-batch fermentation, total HFCS containing 180 g l(-1) reducing sugar was consumed and yields of biomass, lipid, and DHA could reach 78.5, 51, and 20.1 g l(-1), respectively, at 114 h. Meanwhile, the daily productivity and the reducing sugar conversion yield for docosahexaenoic acid were up to 4.23 g l(-1)day(-1) and 0.11 g g(-1). The fatty acid profile of Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 showed that 46.4% of total fatty acid was docosahexaenoic acid, suggesting that Aurantiochytrium sp.YLH70 was a promising DHA producer.

  19. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  20. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  1. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  2. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  3. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  4. Characteristics of carcass and of non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate corn or sorghum diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets finished in the feedlot with high-concentrate corn or sorghum grain-based diets. Thirty-two animals were finished, comprising 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (two teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two sheep categories × two grains. For the variables final live weight, live weight at slaughter, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, carcass compactness index, subjective color, loin-eye area, fasting losses, external organs, internal organs, and for the weights, in kilograms, of neck, shoulder, ribs, and leg, there was a significant difference between categories. In the variables studied for the high-concentrate diets, significant differences were found for the ribs, expressed in relative values. Lambs have much higher fasting losses, a greater proportion of internal organs, and lighter-colored meat compared with hoggets. Hot and cold carcass yields, meat subjective color, and percentage of ribs are higher in feedlot-finished lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate sorghum-based diets compared with those fed corn-based diets.

  5. Parsing multiple processes of high temperature impacts on corn/soybean yield using a newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Future agricultural production faces a grand challenge of higher temperature under climate change. There are multiple physiological or metabolic processes of how high temperature affects crop yield. Specifically, we consider the following major processes: (1) direct temperature effects on photosynthesis and respiration; (2) speed-up growth rate and the shortening of growing season; (3) heat stress during reproductive stage (flowering and grain-filling); (4) high-temperature induced increase of atmospheric water demands. In this work, we use a newly developed modeling framework (CLM-APSIM) to simulate the corn and soybean growth and explicitly parse the above four processes. By combining the strength of CLM in modeling surface biophysical (e.g., hydrology and energy balance) and biogeochemical (e.g., photosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen interactions), as well as that of APSIM in modeling crop phenology and reproductive stress, the newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework enables us to diagnose the impacts of high temperature stress through different processes at various crop phenology stages. Ground measurements from the advanced SoyFACE facility at University of Illinois is used here to calibrate, validate, and improve the CLM-APSIM modeling framework at the site level. We finally use the CLM-APSIM modeling framework to project crop yield for the whole US Corn Belt under different climate scenarios.

  6. Natural lactic acid bacteria population of tropical grasses and their fermentation factor analysis of silage prepared with cellulase and inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-12-01

    Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system. Treatments were CH, TH14, AC at 0.01% fresh matter, AC 0.1%, MC 0.01%, MC 0.1%, CH+AC 0.01%, CH+AC 0.1%, CH+MC 0.01%, CH+MC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.01%, TH14+MC 0.1%, and TH14+MC 0.01%. Microorganism counts of Guinea grass and Napier grass before ensiling were 10 2 LAB and 10 6 aerobic bacteria; these increased during wilting. Based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, natural strains from both grasses were identified as L. plantarum, L. casei, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc garlicum, Weissella confusa, and Lactococcus lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei are the dominant species and could grow at lower pH and produce more lactic acid than the other isolates. Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were 5.8 and 83.7% of dry matter (DM) for Guinea grass, and 7.5 and 77.1% of DM for Napier grass. Guinea grass had a low level of water-soluble carbohydrates (0.39% of DM). Guinea grass silage treated with cellulase had a lower pH and higher lactic acid content than control and LAB treatments. The 0.1% AC and MC treatments had the best result for fermentation quality. All high water-soluble carbohydrate (2.38% DM) Napier grass silages showed good fermentation quality. Compared with control and LAB-inoculated silage, the cellulase-treated silages had significantly higher crude protein content and

  7. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muinga, R.W.; Mambo, L.C.; Bimbuzi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  8. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollaah Zargaraan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42 (42% fructose and HFCS-55 (55% fructose and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and soft drink industries. Using a glucose isomerase, the starch in corn can be efficiently converted into glucose and then to various amounts of fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose produces a 50:50 molar mixture of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in sucrose bonded together. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharide in HFCS provides better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. The development of these inexpensive, sweet corn-based syrups made it profitable to replace sucrose (sugar and simple sugars with HFCS in our diet. In the present study, the replacement of sucrose with HFCS and its effect on the functionality and organoleptic properties of different food products were reviewed.

  9. Caracterização morfoanatômica do colmo de híbridos de milho para avaliar a qualidade de silagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.550 Morphoanatomical characterization of corn hybrids stems, in order to evaluate silage quality - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.550

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Emile

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a caracterização morfoanatômica e suas possíveis correlações com a digestibilidade da parede celular e com a lignina de dez híbridos de milho (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistache e Buxxil, plantados no INRA (Unité de Génétique et d’Amélioration dês Plantes Fourragères, Lusignan-França, em parcelas de 150 m². O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Com exceção ao comprimento do córtex, verificou-se que os híbridos apresentaram diferenças significativas (p bm3 se caracterizou por apresentar menor quantidade de células lignificadas, tanto na região medular quanto na região do córtex, menor porcentagem de parênquima medular e maior porcentagem do córtex em relação aos demais híbridos. Porém, o híbrido DK265bm3 não diferiu dos demais quanto à superfície do feixe vascular e espessura da parede celular do feixe vascular. Por meio de análises de correlação, verificou-se correlação positiva entre os teores de lignina klason e lignina em detergente ácido com as quantidades de células lignificadas no parênquima e córtex. A DIVFDN apresentou correlação negativa com a proporção de células lignificadas no parênquima medular e células lignificadas no córtex.The objective was to evaluate morphoanatomical characteristics and possible correlations with cell wall digestibility and with lignin of ten corn hybrids (DK265bm3, DK265, HS5, HS6, HTV2, HTV27, Anjou285, Mexxal, Pistachio and Buxxil planted at INRA (Unité of Génétique Amélioration des Plant Fourragères, Lusignan, France in 150 m² areas. A completely randomized experimental design with five replications was used. With exception for cortical length, significant differences were verified as for the evaluated morphoanatomical aspects, with hybrid DK265bm3 being characterized by lower counts of lignified cells in the medullar parenchyma and

  10. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  11. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States. PMID:22866961

  12. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  13. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-08-06

    The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  14. Effects of partial replacement of dietary starch from barley or corn with lactose on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid absorption, nitrogen utilization, and production performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Gorka, P; Penner, G B; Berthiaume, R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-04-01

    In cows fed diets based on corn-alfalfa silage, replacing starch with sugar improves milk production. Although the rate of ruminal fermentation of sugar is more rapid than that of starch, evidence has been found that feeding sugar as a partial replacement for starch does not negatively affect ruminal pH despite increasing diet fermentability. The mechanism(s) for this desirable response are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of replacing barley or corn starch with lactose (as dried whey permeate; DWP) on ruminal function, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, and nitrogen (N) utilization in dairy cows. Eight lactating cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and source of starch (barley vs. corn) and level of DWP (0 vs. 6%, DM basis) as treatment factors. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal function, SCFA absorption, and N utilization. Dry matter intake and milk and milk component yields did not differ with diet. The dietary addition of DWP tended to increase ruminal butyrate concentration (13.6 vs. 12.2 mmol/L), and increased the Cl(-)-competitive absorption rates for acetate and propionate. There was no sugar effect on minimum ruminal pH, and the duration and area when ruminal pH was below 5.8. Minimum ruminal pH tended to be lower in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn (5.47 vs. 5.61). The duration when ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 tended to be shorter (186 vs. 235 min/d), whereas the area (pH × min/d) that pH was below 5.8 was smaller (47 vs. 111) on the corn than barley diets. Cows fed the high- compared with the low-sugar diet had lower ruminal NH3-N concentration. Feeding the high-sugar diet tended to increase apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter and organic matters and increased apparent total-tract digestibility of fat. Apparent total-tract digestibility of N tended to be greater in cows fed barley compared with those fed corn

  15. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  16. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

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    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  17. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

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    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  18. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprints and primary structure identification of corn peptides by HPLC-diode array detection and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn peptides (CPs are reported to have many biological functions, such as facilitating alcohol metabolism, antioxidation, antitumor, antihypertension, and hepatoprotection. To develop a method for quality control, the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system was applied. Twenty-eight common peaks were found in all the CPs of corn samples from Enshi, China, based on which, a fingerprinting chromatogram was established for use in quality control in future research. Subsequently, the major chemical constituents of these common peaks were identified respectively using the HPLC-diode-array detection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DAD-ESI-MS/MS system, and 48 peptide fractions were determined ultimately. This was the first time for the majority of these peptides to be reported, and many of them contained amino acids of glutamine (Q, L and A, which might play an important role in the exhibition of the bioactivities of CPs. Many peptides had a similar primary structure to the peptides which had been proven to be bioactive such as facilitating alcohol metabolism, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation. This systematical analysis of the primary structure of CPs facilitated subsequent studies on the relationship between the structures and functions, and could accelerate holistic research on CPs.

  19. Highly efficient production of optically pure l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kedong; Hu, Guoquan; Pan, Liwei; Wang, Zichao; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Yanwei; Ruan, Zhiyong; He, Mingxiong

    2016-11-01

    A thermophilic strain Bacillus coagulans (NBRC 12714) was employed to produce l-lactic acid from corn stover hydrolysate in membrane integrated continuous fermentation. The strain NBRC 12714 metabolized glucose and xylose by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway (EMP) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), producing l-lactic acid with optical purity >99.5%. The overall l-lactic acid titer of 92g/l with a yield of 0.91g/g and a productivity of 13.8g/l/h were achieved at a dilution rate of 0.15h(-1). The productivity obtained was 1.6-fold than that of conventional continuous fermentation without cell recycling, and also was the highest among the relevant studies ever reported. These results indicated that the process developed had great potential for economical industrial production of l-lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

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    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  1. Tolerância de sementes de linhagens de milho à alta temperatura de secagem Tolerance of corn lines seeds to high drying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Carvalho Barrios Roveri José

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cultivares tolerantes a altas temperaturas de secagem proporcionam redução no tempo de secagem, uma etapa crítica no sistema de produção de sementes de milho (Zea mays L.. Nesta pesquisa, foi avaliada a tolerância à alta temperatura de secagem de sementes de linhagens de milho, por meio de testes de germinação e vigor. As sementes foram colhidas manualmente em espigas com teor de água em torno de 35% e secas artificialmente à 45 C até atingirem 11% de teor de água. Em seguida, foram submetidas aos testes de primeira contagem e contagem final de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio sem solo e de condutividade elétrica. Houve diferenças significativas nos valores de germinação e vigor de sementes das diferentes linhagens, sendo então classificadas em tolerantes e intolerantes. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que a sensibilidade das sementes à injúria por secagem à alta temperatura é dependente da linhagem.High drying temperature tolerant cultivars provide a reduction in the drying period, a critical phase of the corn seeds (Zea mays L. production system. In this research the tolerance of corn lines seeds to high drying temperature was evaluated by the germination and vigor tests. Seeds were handpicked in ears with water content around 35% and dried artificially at 45ºC up to 11% water content. Then, the seeds were submitted to the first and final germination counting tests, accelerated aging, cold test without soil and electrical conductivity. There were significant differences in the germination and vigor values of seeds from different lines, being classified into tolerant and intolerant. The results permitted to conclude that sensitivity of seeds to high drying temperature injury depends on the lines.

  2. Detection of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B2 and B3 in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Takahara, Kentaro; Sago, Yuki; Kushiro, Masayo; Nagashima, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These “bound-fumonisins” (FB2 and FB3 bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B2 (NDfrc-FB2) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B3 (NDfrc-FB3) respectively, based on the accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Treatment on NDfrc-FB2 and NDfrc-FB3 with the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) reagent also supported that d-glucose binding to FB2 and FB3 molecules occurred to their primary amine residues. PMID:26389955

  3. Detection of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisins B₂ and B₃ in Corn by High-Resolution LC-Orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Takahara, Kentaro; Sago, Yuki; Kushiro, Masayo; Nagashima, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-16

    The existence of glucose conjugates of fumonisin B₂ (FB₂) and fumonisin B₃ (FB₃) in corn powder was confirmed for the first time. These "bound-fumonisins" (FB₂ and FB₃ bound to glucose) were identified as N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B₂ (NDfrc-FB₂) and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B₃ (NDfrc-FB₃) respectively, based on the accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Treatment on NDfrc-FB₂ and NDfrc-FB₃ with the o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) reagent also supported that D-glucose binding to FB₂ and FB₃ molecules occurred to their primary amine residues.

  4. Characteristics of on-demand biogas production by using sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Kazda, Marian

    2017-08-01

    On-demand electricity generation can be achieved by just-in-time biogas production instantly utilized in co-generation units. For this goal, easily degradable substrates like sugar beet silage have a high potential. Potential for on-demand biogas production from co-digestion of sugar beet silage (SS) with grass silage (GS) was evaluated in two experiments at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 and 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , respectively. Each experiment was fed with intermittent feeding system at 8 hrs interval at the same feedstock ratios (volatile solids based) of GS:SS-1:0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Modelling by Gaussian equation was performed in order to understand the effects of SS on biogas production. Addition of sugar beet silage led to maximum biogas production within a short time, but it differed significantly depending on feedstock ratios and OLRs, respectively. At OLR 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , during mono fermentation of grass silage maximum biogas production rate of 0.27 l N hr -1 was reached at 2.74 hrs. Production rate did not change at feedstock ratio of GS:SS-3:1 but increased to 0.64 l N hr -1 at GS:SS-1:3 within a shorter time span (1.58 hrs). On the contrary, at OLR of 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 time span between feedstock input and maximum biogas production did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the reactors. Biogas production rates were 0.60 l N hr -1 within 2.27 hrs and 0.82 l N hr -1 within 2.30 hrs at GS:SS-3:1 and GS:SS-1:3, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no time lag between maximum biogas and methane production rates, irrespectively of OLR. This implies that once the whole microbial community is adapted to intermittent substrate input, the metabolic products are instantly utilized through the all steps of anaerobic substrate degradation. Applying this finding opens new perspectives for on-demand biogas energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  6. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  7. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  8. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β...

  9. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Dong, Shuangzhao; Du, Yun; Li, Shengli; Wang, Yajing; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-09-01

    A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length) and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length) samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW), dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD), or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG). Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h ( P  < 0.05) compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG). Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact ( P  < 0.05) on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  10. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW, dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD, or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG. Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h (P < 0.05 compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG. Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact (P < 0.05 on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  11. Nutritional characterization of co-product silages of pejibaye Caracterização nutricional de silagens do coproduto da pupunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cabral Barreiros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this work was to evaluate the fermentation kinetic; chemical composition and “in vitro” dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of co-product silage from the extraction of peyibaye palmetto. The experimental treatments utilized were co-product extraction of peyibaye palmetto: in nature, with 10% of cassava meal, with 10% of corn meal, with 10% of palm kernel cake, with 1% of urea and wilted. The silos were opened after 1; 3; 5; 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. The experimental design utilized was a completely randomized design with factorial 6 x 7 (treatments and days after silage, with two repetitions. The pH ranged from 3.78 to 3.93. The silage with cassava or corn meal had less concentration of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin. The content of crude protein of the silage with urea was greater than the other treatments. The additions of cassava or corn meal result in increase of IVDMD percentage. The silages showed appropriate values of ammonia nitrogen. The co-product silage of peyibaye palmetto extraction has conservation potential in silage form, and the addition of 10% of cassava meal improved its quality.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a dinâmica de fermentação, a composição química e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS das silagens do coproduto da pupunha. Os tratamentos constituíram-se no coproduto da pupunha: in natura, emurchecido, com 10% de farelo de mandioca, com 10% de fubá de milho, com 10% de torta de dendê e com 1% de uréia. Os silos experimentais foram abertos com 1; 3; 5; 7; 14; 28 e 56 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 7 (tratamentos e períodos de fermentação com duas repetições. O pH variou de 3,78 a 3,93. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou fubá de milho apresentaram menores concentrações de fibra detergente neutro, fibra detergente ácido, celulose e lignina. Houve redução nos teores de

  12. Lactobacillus diolivorans sp nov., a 1,2-propanediol-degrading bacterium isolated from aerobically stable maize silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krooneman, J; Faber, F; Alderkamp, AC; Elferink, SJHWO; Driehuis, F; Cleenwerck, [No Value; Swings, J; Gottschal, JC; Vancanneyt, M

    Inoculation of maize silage with Lactobacillus buchneri (5 x 10(5) c.f.u. g(-1) of maize silage) prior to ensiling results in the formation of aerobically stable silage. After 9 months, lactic acid bacterium counts are approximately 10(10) c.f.u. g(-1) in these treated silages. An important

  13. EFFECT OF GRASS TAIWAN (Pennisetum purpureum AND RAMON (Brosimum alicastrum SILAGE SUPPLEMENTATION ON CHANGE OF BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD VARIABLES IN COLLARED PECCARY (Pecarí tajacu IN CAPTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the weight changes, level of hematocrit and serum total protein to supplement the diet of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu with a silage mixture of grass Taiwan (Pennisetum purpureum and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum a voluntary consumption test was performed for five weeks. Using eleven non-pregnant adult females, with mean age of 4.5 years and weighing 19.15 kg (± 0.5 kg, two groups were formed: one of five animals which offered squash (Cucurbita pepo and corn (Zea mays, and another of six animals on a diet of squash, corn and silage at 50%. Were taken blood samples and record weight every seven days. T-student test were used to compare means of two independent samples.  There were no differences between the means of the weights and blood proteins levels of individuals. The use of a silage mixture of grass and fodder cutting is a viable option to supplement the diet of nonpregnant adult females.

  14. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  15. Handling Indian corn on the cob (for the alcohol industry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podurazhnyi, Y K

    1962-01-01

    The corn grains are mechanically prepared from the cob shortly before malting, the wort is boiled at 142 to 144/sup 0/, and is made up of corn 34, beets 40, and molasses 26%, providing an alcohol liquor which contains on the average 7.34% (individual values as high as 8.6) ethanol. This application of corn on the cob incurs (on the base of prices in the Soviet Union) a saving of about 20% in ethanol manufacture.

  16. Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which increases erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while still mainta...

  17. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  18. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  19. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  20. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  1. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  3. Assessment of soil attributes and crop productivity after diversification of the ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly specialized cash-grain production systems based upon corn-soybean rotations under tilled soil management are common in the northwestern U.S. Corn Belt. This study, initiated in 1997, was conducted to determine if diversification of this ubiquitous corn-soybean rotation would affect soil char...

  4. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, Carla R; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; O'Dea, Kerin; Gentili, Sheridan

    2017-07-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning. Plasma levels of free fatty acids remained elevated in young adulthood, but consumption of a control diet following weaning appeared to ameliorate most other effects of perinatal exposure to a maternal high-sugar diet. Guidelines for maternal nutrition should advise limiting consumption of fructose-containing sugars, and it is particularly important that these recommendations include maternal nutrition during lactation. Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% (w/v) beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9) fatty acid content was elevated at weaning, and was most pronounced in sucrose offspring exposed during both the prenatal and

  5. Ethanol production from maize silage as lignocellulosic biomass in anaerobically digested and wet-oxidized manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Lisiecki, P.; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    was investigated using 2 1 bioreactors. Wet oxidation performed for 20 min at 121 degrees C was found as the most suitable pretreatment conditions for AD manure. High ammonia concentration and significant amount of macro- and micro-nutrients in the AD manure had a positive influence on the ethanol fermentation....... No extra nitrogen source was needed in the fermentation broth. It was shown that the AD manure could successfully substitute process water in SSF of pretreated lignocellulosic fibres. Theoretical ethanol yields of 82% were achieved, giving 30.8 kg ethanol per 100 kg dry mass of maize silage. (C) 2007...

  6. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  7. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  8. Toxic pyrrolizidinalkaloids as undesired contaminants in food and feed: degradation of the PAs from Senecio jacobaea in silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Jiminez, J; Kuschak, M; Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2013-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can show a hazardous potential for men and animals. They can act as cancerogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and fetotoxic agents. One pathway of a human intoxication is its occurence as contaminants in food and feed. Here, the contamination of cereals already led to severe and fatal intoxication episodes. Besides this, milk is of special concern as it is the main food for children which show a very high susceptibility for a PA intoxication. Milk can contain PAs in case the milk producing animals have access to contaminated feed. In this context it is of special interest whether the PA content of contaminated silage remains stable during the ensiling procedure or show a more or less high level of decomposition. We could show that ensiling will not lead to PA-free silage.

  9. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between dry matter co