WorldWideScience

Sample records for high contrast originating

  1. High Contrast CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    r AD’ A076 235 WATKINS—JOHNSON Co SCOTYS VAL LEY CA F/S 9/5 N HIGH CONTRAST CRT.CU) AUG 79 6 A HOLNQUIST DAABO7—77—C—263 9 UNCLASSIFIED DEL.ET—TR—77...Air Force Systems Command A t t n : l) l . CA 2w) U I f iee ’ of \\ iva l Re ’~.ea r ch Andr ews AFI4 ( • ~~ii 4.~7 001 Washington , l ) .C. 20331

  2. High-contrast imaging testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K; Silva, D; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Bauman, B; Palmer, D; Remington, T; Delgadillo-Lariz, M

    2008-01-23

    Several high-contrast imaging systems are currently under construction to enable the detection of extra-solar planets. In order for these systems to achieve their objectives, however, there is considerable developmental work and testing which must take place. Given the need to perform these tests, a spatially-filtered Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system has been assembled to evaluate new algorithms and hardware configurations which will be implemented in these future high-contrast imaging systems. In this article, construction and phase measurements of a membrane 'woofer' mirror are presented. In addition, results from closed-loop operation of the assembled testbed with static phase plates are presented. The testbed is currently being upgraded to enable operation at speeds approaching 500 hz and to enable studies of the interactions between the woofer and tweeter deformable mirrors.

  3. Generation And Measurement Of High Contrast Ultrashort Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Konoplev, O A

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, the generation and measurement of high contrast, intense, ultrashort pulses have been studied. Various factors affecting the contrast and pulse shape of ultrashort light pulses from a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system are identified. The level of contrast resulting from influence of these factors is estimated. Methods for improving and controlling the pulse shape and increasing the contrast are discussed. Ultrahigh contrast, 1-ps pulses were generated from a CPA system with no temporal structure up to eleven orders of magnitude. This is eight orders of magnitude higher contrast than the original pulse. This contrast boost was achieved using two techniques. One is the optical pulse cleaning based on the nonlinear birefringence of the chirping fiber and applied to the pulses before amplification. The other is the fast saturable absorber. The fast saturable absorber was placed after amplification and compression of the pulse. The measurements of high-contrast, ultrashort pulse with h...

  4. Contrast discrimination at high contrasts reveals the influence of local light adaptation on contrast processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdom, F A; Whittle, P

    1996-03-01

    Previous measurements of contrast discrimination threshold, delta C, as a function of pedestal contrast, C, for sine-wave gratings have shown a power law relationship between delta C and C at suprathreshold levels of C. However, these studies have rarely used contrasts greater than 50%. Whittle (1986), using incremental and decremental patches, found that delta C increased with C only up to about 50%. At higher contrasts it decreased. Since a periodic stimulus can be considered to be composed of increments and decrements, we thought we might find such an inverse U-shaped function for gratings if we used contrasts up to 100%. We tested this for both sine-wave and square-wave stimuli at spatial frequencies from 0.0625 to 8.0 c/deg. We found that for frequencies up to 0.5 c/deg, delta C in nearly all cases 'dipped down' after about C = 50% contrast. At 4.0 and 8.0 c/deg, however, no dip-down occurred. Additional experiments showed that the dip-down was unlikely to be due to cortical long-term adaptation and most likely an effect of localized light adaptation to the dark bars. We argue that the absence of dip-down at high spatial frequencies was mainly due to the attenuation of contrast by the optics of the eye. As for the results of Whittle (1986), a Weber's Law in W = (Lmax-Lmin)/Lmin describes the inverse U-shaped contrast discrimination function well. Two other contrast expressions also linearize the data on log-log plots. We show how some familiar notions about the physiological operation of localized light adaptation can easily account for the form of the contrast discrimination function. Finally we estimate the number of discriminable steps in contrast from detection threshold to maximum contrast for the various spatial frequencies tested.

  5. NASA High Contrast Imaging for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Described is NASA's ongoing program for the detection and characterization of exosolar planets via high-contrast imaging. Some of the more promising proposed techniques under assessment may enable detection of life outside our solar system. In visible light terrestrial planets are approximately 10(exp -10) dimmer than the parent star. Issues such as diffraction, scatter, wavefront, amplitude and polarization all contribute to a reduction in contrast. An overview of the techniques will be discussed.

  6. Evolutionary origins of human handedness: evaluating contrasting hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Variation in methods and measures, resulting in past dispute over the existence of population handedness in nonhuman great apes, has impeded progress into the origins of human right-handedness and how it relates to the human hallmark of language. Pooling evidence from behavioral studies, neuroimaging and neuroanatomy, we evaluate data on manual and cerebral laterality in humans and other apes engaged in a range of manipulative tasks and in gestural communication. A simplistic human/animal partition is no longer tenable, and we review four (nonexclusive) possible drivers for the origin of population-level right-handedness: skilled manipulative activity, as in tool use; communicative gestures; organizational complexity of action, in particular hierarchical structure; and the role of intentionality in goal-directed action. Fully testing these hypotheses will require developmental and evolutionary evidence as well as modern neuroimaging data.

  7. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2015-04-16

    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  8. High-index-contrast subwavelength grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilet, Philippe; Olivier, Nicolas; Grosse, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report our results on 980nm high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) VCSELs for optical interconnection applications. In our structure, a thin undoped HCG layer replaces a thick p-type Bragg mirror. The HCG mirror can feasibly achieve polarization-selective reflectivities...... close to 100%. The investigated structure consists of a HCG mirror with an underneath /4-thick oxide gap, four p-type GaAlAs/GaAs pairs for current spreading, three InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells, and an n-type GaAlAs/GaAs Bragg mirror. The HCG structure was defined by e-beam lithography and dry etching....... The current oxide aperture and the oxide gap underneath the HCG were simultaneously formed by the selective wet oxidation process. Compared to air-gap high contrast grating mirrors demonstrated elsewhere, our grating mirrors are particular since they are supported by thinner /4 aluminium oxide layer, and thus...

  9. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penide, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Quintero, F., E-mail: fquintero@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Riveiro, A. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Fernández, A. [Department of Engineering Design, University of Vigo, Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Campus Universitario, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Val, J. del [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Comesaña, R. [Materials Engineering, Applied Mechanics and Construction Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo E-36310 (Spain); Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, EEI, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser marking of alumina using near infrared (NIR) lasers was experimentally analyzed. • Color change produced by NIR lasers is due to thermally induced oxygen vacancies. • Laser marking results obtained using NIR lasers and green laser are compared. • High contrast marks on alumina were achieved. - Abstract: Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  10. High-contrast imaging with METIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Absil, Olivier; Agócs, Tibor; Pantin, Eric; Quanz, Sascha; Stuik, Remko; Snik, Frans; Brandl, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    The Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) consists of diffraction-limited imagers that cover 3 to 14 microns with medium resolution (R 5000) long slit spectroscopy, and an integral field spectrograph for high spectral resolution spectroscopy (R 100,000) over the L and M bands. One of the science cases that METIS addresses is the characterization of faint circumstellar material and exoplanet companions through imaging and spectroscopy. We present our approach for high contrast imaging with METIS, covering diffraction suppression with coronagraphs, the removal of slowly changing optical aberrations with focal plane wavefront sensing, interferometric imaging with sparse aperture masks, and observing strategies for both the imagers and IFU image slicers.

  11. Printed Multicolor High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Han; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Hu, Chih-Wei; Higuchi, Masayoshi; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2015-11-18

    In this study, electrochemical responses of inkjet-printed multicolored electrochromic devices (ECD) were studied to evaluate the feasibility of presenting multiple colors in one ECD. Metallo-supramolecular polymers (MEPE) solutions with two primary colors were inkjet-printed on flexible electrodes. By digitally controlling print dosages of each species, the colors of the printed EC thin film patterns can be adjusted directly without premixing or synthesizing new materials. The printed EC thin films were then laminated with a solid transparent thin film electrolyte and a transparent conductive thin film to form an ECD. After applying a dc voltage, the printed ECDs exhibited great contrast with a transmittance change (ΔT) of 40.1% and a high coloration efficiency of 445 cm(2) C(-1) within a short darkening time of 2 s. The flexible ECDs also showed the same darkening time of 2 s and still had a high ΔT of 30.1% under bending condition. This study demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate display devices with different color setups by an all-solution process and can be further extended to other types of displays.

  12. The ZIMPOL high contrast imaging polarimeter for SPHERE: polarimetric high contrast commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Bazzon, Andreas; Schmid, Hans Martin; Pragt, Johan; Govaert, Alain; Gisler, Daniel; Dominik, Carsten; Baruffolo, Andrea; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Costille, Anne; Dohlen, Kjetil; Downing, Mark; Elswijk, Eddy; de Haan, Menno; Hubin, Norbert; Kasper, Markus; Keller, Christoph; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Mouillet, David; Pavlov, Alexey; Puget, Pascal; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Wildi, Francois

    2016-07-01

    SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research) is a second generation VLT instrument aimed at the direct detection of exo-planets. It has received its first light in May 2014. ZIMPOL (Zurich Imaging Polarimeter) is the imaging polarimeter subsystem of the SPHERE instrument. It's capable of both high accuracy and high sensitivity polarimetry but can also be used as a classical imager. It is located behind an extreme AO system and a stellar coronagraph. ZIMPOL operates at visible wavelengths which is best suited to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extra solar planets. During the SPHERE fourth commissioning period (October 2014) we have made deep coronagraphic observations of the bright star alpha Gru (mR = 1.75) to assess the high contrast polarimetric performance of SPHERE-ZIMPOL. We have integrated on the target for a total time of about 45 minutes during the meridian transit in the Very Broad Band filter (600 - 900 nm) with a classical Lyot coronagraph with 3 λ/D radius focal mask. We reduce the data by a combination of Polarized Background subtraction, Polarimetric Differential Imaging (PDI) and Angular Differential Imaging (ADI). We reach contrasts of 10-6 and 10-7 at a radial distances of respectively 7 and 14 lambda/D from the PSF core. At these radial distances we are respectively a factor of 10 and 2 above the photon noise limit. We discuss our results by considering the temporal and spatial speckle behavior close to the PSF core in combination with low order polarimetric aberrations.

  13. CONTRAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Krogsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon.......Dette er en afrapportering fra den årlige CONTRAST workshop, der i 2007 blev afholdt i Yaoundé, Cameroon....

  14. Reduced-Contrast Approximations for High-Contrast Multiscale Flow Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study multiscale methods for high-contrast elliptic problems where the media properties change dramatically. The disparity in the media properties (also referred to as high contrast in the paper) introduces an additional scale that needs to be resolved in multiscale simulations. First, we present a construction that uses an integral equation to represent the highcontrast component of the solution. This representation involves solving an integral equation along the interface where the coefficients are discontinuous. The integral representation suggests some multiscale approaches that are discussed in the paper. One of these approaches entails the use of interface functions in addition to multiscale basis functions representing the heterogeneities without high contrast. In this paper, we propose an approximation for the solution of the integral equation using the interface problems in reduced-contrast media. Reduced-contrast media are obtained by lowering the variance of the coefficients. We also propose a similar approach for the solution of the elliptic equation without using an integral representation. This approach is simpler to use in the computations because it does not involve setting up integral equations. The main idea of this approach is to approximate the solution of the high-contrast problem by the solutions of the problems formulated in reduced-contrast media. In this approach, a rapidly converging sequence is proposed where only problems with lower contrast are solved. It was shown that this sequence possesses the convergence rate that is inversely proportional to the reduced contrast. This approximation allows choosing the reduced-contrast problem based on the coarse-mesh size as discussed in this paper. We present a simple application of this approach to homogenization of elliptic equations with high-contrast coefficients. The presented approaches are limited to the cases where there are sharp changes in the contrast (i.e., the high

  15. High Contrast Electroluminescent Numeric Readout Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    approach was available only in separate chips one having npn and the other pnp devices. The first phase of the DMOS transistor development should be...proposed by the vendor. Further samples also failed to meet requirements and, therefore, a discrete transistor driver array was used in prototype...completed by September, high-voltage transistor arrays will be available by December, 1979. 3.2.1 Test Chip Layout Figure 5 shows the layout of the test

  16. Asymptotic expansions for high-contrast linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Poveda, Leonardo A.

    2015-03-01

    We study linear elasticity problems with high contrast in the coefficients using asymptotic limits recently introduced. We derive an asymptotic expansion to solve heterogeneous elasticity problems in terms of the contrast in the coefficients. We study the convergence of the expansion in the H1 norm. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  17. High Contrast Vacuum Nuller Testbed (VNT) Contrast, Performance and Null Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Madison, Timothy; Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report on our Visible Nulling Coronagraph high-contrast result of 109 contrast averaged over a focal planeregion extending from 14 D with the Vacuum Nuller Testbed (VNT) in a vibration isolated vacuum chamber. TheVNC is a hybrid interferometriccoronagraphic approach for exoplanet science. It operates with high Lyot stopefficiency for filled, segmented and sparse or diluted-aperture telescopes, thereby spanning the range of potential futureNASA flight telescopes. NASAGoddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has a well-established effort to develop the VNCand its technologies, and has developed an incremental sequence of VNC testbeds to advance this approach and itsenabling technologies. These testbeds have enabled advancement of high-contrast, visible light, nulling interferometry tounprecedented levels. The VNC is based on a modified Mach-Zehnder nulling interferometer, with a W configurationto accommodate a hex-packed MEMS based deformable mirror, a coherent fiber bundle and achromatic phase shifters.We give an overview of the VNT and discuss the high-contrast laboratory results, the optical configuration, criticaltechnologies and null sensing and control.

  18. Mutations of different molecular origins exhibit contrasting patterns of regional substitution rate variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Elango

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Transitions at CpG dinucleotides, referred to as "CpG substitutions", are a major mutational input into vertebrate genomes and a leading cause of human genetic disease. The prevalence of CpG substitutions is due to their mutational origin, which is dependent on DNA methylation. In comparison, other single nucleotide substitutions (for example those occurring at GpC dinucleotides mainly arise from errors during DNA replication. Here we analyzed high quality BAC-based data from human, chimpanzee, and baboon to investigate regional variation of CpG substitution rates. We show that CpG substitutions occur approximately 15 times more frequently than other single nucleotide substitutions in primate genomes, and that they exhibit substantial regional variation. Patterns of CpG rate variation are consistent with differences in methylation level and susceptibility to subsequent deamination. In particular, we propose a "distance-decaying" hypothesis, positing that due to the molecular mechanism of a CpG substitution, rates are correlated with the stability of double-stranded DNA surrounding each CpG dinucleotide, and the effect of local DNA stability may decrease with distance from the CpG dinucleotide.Consistent with our "distance-decaying" hypothesis, rates of CpG substitution are strongly (negatively correlated with regional G+C content. The influence of G+C content decays as the distance from the target CpG site increases. We estimate that the influence of local G+C content extends up to 1,500 approximately 2,000 bps centered on each CpG site. We also show that the distance-decaying relationship persisted when we controlled for the effect of long-range homogeneity of nucleotide composition. GpC sites, in contrast, do not exhibit such "distance-decaying" relationship. Our results highlight an example of the distinctive properties of methylation-dependent substitutions versus substitutions mostly arising from errors during DNA replication. Furthermore

  19. Asymptotic expansions for high-contrast elliptic equations

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a high-order expansion for elliptic equations in high-contrast media. The background conductivity is taken to be one and we assume the medium contains high (or low) conductivity inclusions. We derive an asymptotic expansion with respect to the contrast and provide a procedure to compute the terms in the expansion. The computation of the expansion does not depend on the contrast which is important for simulations. The latter allows avoiding increased mesh resolution around high conductivity features. This work is partly motivated by our earlier work in [Domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media, Multiscale Model Simul. 8 (2010) 1461-1483] where we design efficient numerical procedures for solving high-contrast problems. These multiscale approaches require local solutions and our proposed high-order expansion can be used to approximate these local solutions inexpensively. In the case of a large-number of inclusions, the proposed analysis can help to design localization techniques for computing the terms in the expansion. In the paper, we present a rigorous analysis of the proposed high-order expansion and estimate the remainder of it. We consider both high-and low-conductivity inclusions. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  20. Origins of Modern Ideas on Love and Loss : Contrasting Forerunners of Attachment Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret S.; Archer, John

    In this article we examine some origins of John Bowlby's attachment theory, a highly influential scientific approach to love and loss in contemporary society. Although some potential influences have been well-documented, others have either received no recognition or have failed to have an impact. We

  1. Origins of Modern Ideas on Love and Loss : Contrasting Forerunners of Attachment Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret S.; Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine some origins of John Bowlby's attachment theory, a highly influential scientific approach to love and loss in contemporary society. Although some potential influences have been well-documented, others have either received no recognition or have failed to have an impact. We

  2. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  3. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  4. Image quality and high contrast improvements on VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien H V; Mawet, Dimitri; Kasper, Markus; Zins, Gérard; Neichel, Benoît; Kolb, Johann; Christiaens, Valentin; Tourneboeuf, Martin; 10.1117/12.925660

    2012-01-01

    NACO is the famous and versatile diffraction limited NIR imager and spectrograph with which ESO celebrated 10 years of Adaptive Optics at the VLT. Since two years a substantial effort has been put in to understanding and fixing issues that directly affect the image quality and the high contrast performances of the instrument. Experiments to compensate the non-common-path aberrations and recover the highest possible Strehl ratios have been carried out successfully and a plan is hereafter described to perform such measurements regularly. The drift associated to pupil tracking since 2007 was fixed in October 2011. NACO is therefore even better suited for high contrast imaging and can be used with coronagraphic masks in the image plane. Some contrast measurements are shown and discussed. The work accomplished on NACO will serve as reference for the next generation instruments on the VLT, especially those working at the diffraction limit and making use of angular differential imaging (i.e. SPHERE, VISIR, possibly ...

  5. High Contrast Imaging Testbed for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowmman, Andrew E.; Trauger, John T.; Gordon, Brian; Green, Joseph J.; Moody, Dwight; Niessner, Albert F.; Shi, Fang

    2004-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission is planning to launch a visible coronagraphic space telescope in 2014. To achieve TPF science goals, the coronagraph must have extreme levels of wavefront correction (less than 1 Angstrom rms over controllable spatial frequencies) and stability to get the necessary suppression of diffracted starlight (approximately l0(exp -10)) contrast at an angular separation approximately 4 (lamda)/D). TPF Coronagraph's primary platform for experimentation is the High Contrast Imaging Testbed, which will provide laboratory validation of key technologies as well as demonstration of a flight-traceable approach to implementation. Precision wavefront control in the testbed is provided by a high actuator density deformable mirror. Diffracted light control is achieved through use of occulting or apodizing masks and stops. Contrast measurements will establish the technical feasibility of TPF requirements, while model and error budget validation will demonstrate implementation viability. This paper describes the current testbed design, development approach, and recent experimental results.

  6. Object-based high contrast travel time tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yenting

    2013-01-01

    We consider travel time tomography problems involving detection of high contrast, discrete high velocity structures. This results in a discrete nonlinear inverse problem, for which traditional grid-based models and iterative linearized least-squares reconstruction algorithms are not suitable. This is because travel paths change significantly near the high contrast velocity structure, making it more difficult to inversely calculate the travel path and infer the velocity along the path. We propose a model-based approach to describe the high velocity structure using pre-defined elementary objects. Compared to a grid-based model, our approach has complexity that increases as a function of the number of objects, rather than increasing with the number of cells (usually very large). A new reconstruction algorithm is developed that provides estimates of the probability that a high velocity structure appears at any point in the region of interest. Simulation results show that our method can efficiently sample the mode...

  7. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (≥ 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and

  8. Polarization-Independent Wideband High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Island-type two-dimensional high-index-contrast grating mirror based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer have been experimentally demonstrated. The measured spectra shows a bandwidth of ∼192 nm with a reflectivity over 99% as well as polarization independence. Numerical simulations show...... that the designed mirror has large tolerance to fabrication errors....

  9. Contrasting origin of two clay-rich debris flows at Cayambe Volcanic Complex, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detienne, M.; Delmelle, P.; Guevara, A.; Samaniego, P.; Opfergelt, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the sedimentological and mineralogical properties of a debris flow deposit west of Cayambe Volcanic Complex, an ice-clad edifice in Ecuador. The deposit exhibits a matrix facies containing up to 16 wt% of clays. However, the stratigraphic relationship of the deposit with respect to the Canguahua Formation, a widespread indurated volcaniclastic material in the Ecuadorian inter-Andean Valley, and the deposit alteration mineralogy differ depending on location. Thus, two different deposits are identified. The Río Granobles debris flow deposit ( 1 km3) is characterised by the alteration mineral assemblage smectite + jarosite, and sulphur isotopic analyses point to a supergene hydrothermal alteration environment. This deposit probably derives from a debris avalanche initiated before 14-21 ka by collapse of a hydrothermally altered rock mass from the volcano summit. In contrast, the alteration mineralogy of the second debris flow deposit, which may itself comprise more than one unit, is dominated by halloysite + smectite and relates to a shallower and more recent (3200 m) volcanic soils. Our study reinforces the significance of hydrothermal alteration in weakening volcano flanks and in favouring rapid transformation of a volcanic debris avalanche into a clay-rich debris flow. It also demonstrates that mineralogical analysis provides crucial information for resolving the origin of a debris flow deposit in volcanic terrains. Finally, we posit that slope instability, promoted by ongoing subglacial hydrothermal alteration, remains a significant hazard at Cayambe Volcanic Complex.

  10. The V-SHARK high contrast imager at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedichini, F.; Ambrosino, F.; Centrone, M.; Farinato, J.; Li Causi, G.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Stangalini, M.; Testa, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the SHARK project the visible channel is a novel instrument synergic to the NIR channel and exploiting the performances of the LBT XAO at visible wavelengths. The status of the project is presented together with the design study of this innovative instrument optimized for high contrast imaging by means of high frame rate. Its expected results will be presented comparing the simulations with the real data of the "Forerunner" experiment taken at 630nm.

  11. High-contrast self-imaging with ordered optical elements

    CERN Document Server

    Naqavi, Ali; Rossi, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Creating arbitrary light patterns finds applications in various domains including lithography, beam shaping, metrology, sensing and imaging. We study the formation of high-contrast light patterns that are obtained by transmission through an ordered optical element based on self-imaging.By applying the phase-space method, we explain phenomena such as the Talbot and the angular Talbot effects. We show that the image contrast is maximum when the source is either a plane wave or a point source, and it has a minimum for a source with finite spatial extent. We compare these regimes and address some of their fundamental differences. Specifically, we prove that increasing the source divergence reduces the contrast for the plane wave illumination but increases it for the point source. Also, we show that to achieve high contrast with a point source, tuning the source size and its distance to the element is crucial.We furthermore indicate and explore the possibility of realizing highly complex light patterns by using a ...

  12. Gd-HOPO Based High Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Ankona; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-11-06

    Tris-bidentate HOPO-based ligands developed in our laboratory were designed to complement the coordination preferences of Gd{sup 3+}, especially its oxophilicity. The HOPO ligands provide a hexadentate coordination environment for Gd{sup 3+} in which all he donor atoms are oxygen. Because Gd{sup 3+} favors eight or nine coordination, this design provides two to three open sites for inner-sphere water molecules. These water molecules rapidly exchange with bulk solution, hence affecting the relaxation rates of bulk water olecules. The parameters affecting the efficiency of these contrast agents have been tuned to improve contrast while still maintaining a high thermodynamic stability for Gd{sup 3+} binding. The Gd- HOPO-based contrast agents surpass current commercially available agents ecause of a higher number of inner-sphere water molecules, rapid exchange of inner-sphere water molecules via an associative mechanism, and a long electronic relaxation time. The contrast enhancement provided by these agents is at least twice that of commercial contrast gents, which are based on polyaminocarboxylate ligands.

  13. Contrasting Linguistic and Genetic Origins of the Asian Source Populations of Malagasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Adelaar, Alexander; Sudoyo, Herawati; Letellier, Thierry; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-05-18

    The Austronesian expansion, one of the last major human migrations, influenced regions as distant as tropical Asia, Remote Oceania and Madagascar, off the east coast of Africa. The identity of the Asian groups that settled Madagascar is particularly mysterious. While language connects Madagascar to the Ma'anyan of southern Borneo, haploid genetic data are more ambiguous. Here, we screened genome-wide diversity in 211 individuals from the Ma'anyan and surrounding groups in southern Borneo. Surprisingly, the Ma'anyan are characterized by a distinct, high frequency genomic component that is not found in Malagasy. This novel genetic layer occurs at low levels across Island Southeast Asia and hints at a more complex model for the Austronesian expansion in this region. In contrast, Malagasy show genomic links to a range of Island Southeast Asian groups, particularly from southern Borneo, but do not have a clear genetic connection with the Ma'anyan despite the obvious linguistic association.

  14. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Garreth J.

    2016-05-01

    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  15. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...

  16. Angular Differential Imaging: a Powerful High-Contrast Imaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Macintosh, B; Nadeau, D

    2005-11-07

    Angular differential imaging is a high-contrast imaging technique that reduces speckle noise from quasi-static optical aberrations and facilitates the detection of faint nearby companions. A sequence of images is acquired with an altitude/azimuth telescope, the instrument rotator being turned off. This keeps the instrument and telescope optics aligned, stabilizes the instrumental PSF and allows the field of view to rotate with respect to the instrument. For each image, a reference PSF obtained from other images of the sequence is subtracted. All residual images are then rotated to align the field and are median combined. Observed performances are reported for Gemini Altair/NIRI data. Inside the speckle dominated region of the PSF, it is shown that quasi-static PSF noise can be reduced by a factor {approx}5 for each image subtraction. The combination of all residuals then provides an additional gain of the order of the square root of the total number of images acquired. To our knowledge, this is the first time an acquisition strategy and reduction pipeline designed for speckle attenuation and high contrast imaging is demonstrated to significantly get better detection limits with longer integration times at all angular separations. A PSF noise attenuation of 100 was achieved from 2-hour long sequences of images of Vega, reaching a 5-sigma contrast of 20 magnitudes for separations greater than 7''. This technique can be used with currently available instruments to search for {approx} 1 M{sub Jup} exoplanets with orbits of radii between 50 and 300 AU around nearby young stars. The possibility of combining the technique with other high-contrast imaging methods is briefly discussed.

  17. Mapping the Microscale Origins of MRI Contrast with Subcellular NV Diamond Magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Hunter C; Bhatnagar, Aadyot; Lee-Gosselin, Audrey; Barry, John F; Glenn, David R; Walsworth, Ronald L; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used biomedical imaging modality that derives much of its contrast from microscale magnetic field gradients in biological tissues. However, the connection between these sub-voxel field patterns and MRI contrast has not been studied experimentally. Here, we describe a new method to map subcellular magnetic fields in mammalian cells and tissues using nitrogen vacancy diamond magnetometry and connect these maps to voxel-scale MRI contrast, providing insights for in vivo imaging and contrast agent design.

  18. High spatial resolution and high contrast optical speckle imaging with FASTCAM at the ORM

    CERN Document Server

    Labadie, L; Femenia, B; Villo, Isidro; Diaz-Sanchez, A; Oscoz, A; Lopez, R; Perez-Prieto, J; Perez-Garrido, A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bejar-Sanchez, V; Piqueras, J; Rodriguez, L F; 10.1117/12.857998

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an original observational approach, which combines, for the first time, traditional speckle imaging with image post-processing to obtain in the optical domain diffraction-limited images with high contrast (1e-5) within 0.5 to 2 arcseconds around a bright star. The post-processing step is based on wavelet filtering an has analogy with edge enhancement and high-pass filtering. Our I-band on-sky results with the 2.5-m Nordic Telescope (NOT) and the lucky imaging instrument FASTCAM show that we are able to detect L-type brown dwarf companions around a solar-type star with a contrast DI~12 at 2" and with no use of any coronographic capability, which greatly simplifies the instrumental and hardware approach. This object has been detected from the ground in J and H bands so far only with AO-assisted 8-10 m class telescopes (Gemini, Keck), although more recently detected with small-class telescopes in the K band. Discussing the advantage and disadvantage of the optical regime for the detecti...

  19. Visible light metasurfaces based on gallium nitride high contrast gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    We propose visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lens and beam deflecting element based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wavefront of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 86.3%, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.09° and transmissivity as high as 91.4%. The proposed all-dielectric metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  20. High Contrast Imaging with the JWST NIRCAM Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joseph J.; Beichman, Charles; Basinger, Scott A.; Horner, Scott; Meyer, Michael; Redding, David C.; Rieke, Marcia; Trauger, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to ground-based telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have a substantial sensitivity advantage in the 2.2-5pm wavelength range where brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters are thought to have significant brightness enhancements. To facilitate high contrast imaging within this band, the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCAM) will employ a Lyot coronagraph with an array of band-limited image-plane occulting spots. In this paper, we provide the science motivation for high contrast imaging with NIRCAM, comparing its expected performance to that of the Keck, Gemini and 30 m (TMT) telescopes equipped with Adaptive Optics systems of different capabilities. We then describe our design for the NIRCAM coronagraph that enables imaging over the entire sensitivity range of the instrument while providing significant operational flexibility. We describe the various design tradeoffs that were made in consideration of alignment and aberration sensitivities and present contrast performance in the presence of JWST's expected optical aberrations. Finally we show an example of a that can provide 10-5 companion sensitivity at sub-arcsecond separations.

  1. Alternative Contrast Mechanisms in High Field MR Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Robert Thomas

    1995-01-01

    In high-field MR Microscopy, the T_1 relaxation times may become long and converge while the T_2 relaxation times may become short and converge. As a result, much of the contrast is due solely to differences in spin density. The use of T_{1rho} as an alternative contrast parameter in high-field MR Microscopy has been explored here. To this end, MR Microscopy experiments have been performed using 2.0 and 9.4 Tesla Bruker MRI systems. Spectroscopy experiments at 9.4 Tesla were performed on several phantoms (5.75% agar gel, 1.0 mM MnCl_2, 7.3% and 20% gelatin). Imaging experiments were performed on two, 17.5 day old, perfusion fixed, mouse embryos, embedded in 7.3% gelatin to minimize drying and susceptibility differences. The relaxation times, T_1, T _2, and T_{1rho }, the signal to noise ratios (SNR) and contrast to noise ratios (CNR), have been measured for several types of tissue. The T_{1rho} relaxation times were measured at four locking field strengths, 0.7, 0.9, 1.3 and 1.7 G. T_1 and T_2 imaging experiments were performed using a conventional spin warp imaging sequence. T_{1rho } imaging experiments were performed using a presaturating spin locking pulse, followed by a conventional spin warp imaging sequence. Muscle, diencephalon, lung and liver were chosen for the relaxation time measurements as they offered both good tissue specificity and size. Both static and locking field dispersion of T _{1rho} were observed in the selected mouse embryo tissues. The observed T _{1rho} relaxation times were generally longer than the T_2 relaxation times, increased with locking field strength, and were consistently shorter at 9.4 Tesla than at 2.0 Tesla. The static field dispersion of T_ {1rho} and T_2 are both believed to be due, in part, to diffusion losses through susceptibility induced gradients. The losses are much smaller in the T_{1rho} images, and decrease as the locking pulse is increased. Finally, under certain circumstances, T_{1rho }-weighting could produce

  2. Biphasic contrast medium injection in cardiac CT: moderate versus high concentration contrast material at identical iodine flux and iodine dose.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.; Meijs, M.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Seidensticker, P.R.; Prokop, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the influence of contrast material concentration on enhancement in cardiac CT by using a biphasic single-injection protocol. METHODS: Sixty-four-row multidetector cardiac CT angiography was performed in 159 patients randomised to a moderate or high contrast me

  3. The Leiden EXoplanet Instrument (LEXI): a high-contrast high-dispersion spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffert, S. Y.; Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2016-08-01

    The Leiden EXoplanet Instrument (LEXI) will be the first instrument designed for high-contrast, high-dispersion integral field spectroscopy at optical wavelengths. High-contrast imaging (HCI) and high-dispersion spectroscopy (HDS) techniques are used to reach contrasts of 10-7. LEXI will be a bench-mounted, high dispersion integral field spectrograph that will record spectra in a small area around the star with high spatial resolution and high dynamic range. A prototype is being setup to The Leiden EXoplanet Instrument (LEXI) will be the first instrument designed for high-contrast, high-dispersion integral field spectroscopy at optical wavelengths. High-contrast imaging (HCI) and high-dispersion spectroscopy (HDS) techniques are used to reach contrasts of 10-7. LEXI will be a bench-mounted, high dispersion integral field spectrograph that will record spectra in a small area around the star with high spatial resolution and high dynamic range. A prototype is being setup to test the combination of HCI+HDS and its first light is expected in 2016.

  4. Contrasting distributions of groundwater arsenic and uranium in the western Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia: Implication for origins and fate controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaming; Jia, Yongfeng; Wanty, Richard B.; Jiang, Yuxiao; Zhao, Weiguang; Xiu, Wei; Shen, Jiaxing; Li, Yuan; Cao, Yongsheng; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Di; Wei, Chao; Zhang, Yilong; Cao, Wengeng; Foster, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Although As concentrations have been investigated in shallow groundwater from the Hetao basin, China, less is known about U and As distributions in deep groundwater, which would help to better understand their origins and fate controls. Two hundred and ninety-nine groundwater samples, 122 sediment samples, and 14 rock samples were taken from the northwest portion of the Hetao basin, and analyzed for geochemical parameters. Results showed contrasting distributions of groundwater U and As, with high U and low As concentrations in the alluvial fans along the basin margins, and low U and high As concentrations downgradient in the flat plain. The probable sources of both As and U in groundwater were ultimately traced to the bedrocks in the local mountains (the Langshan Mountains). Chemical weathering of U-bearing rocks (schist, phyllite, and carbonate veins) released and mobilized U as UO2(CO3)22 − and UO2(CO3)34 − species in the alluvial fans under oxic conditions and suboxic conditions where reductions of Mn and NO3− were favorable (OSO), resulting in high groundwater U concentrations. Conversely, the recent weathering of As-bearing rocks (schist, phyllite, and sulfides) led to the formation of As-bearing Fe(III) (hydr)oxides in sediments, resulting in low groundwater As concentrations. Arsenic mobilization and U immobilization occurred in suboxic conditions where reduction of Fe(III) oxides was favorable and reducing conditions (SOR). Reduction of As-bearing Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, which were formed during palaeo-weathering and transported and deposited as Quaternary aquifer sediments, was believed to release As into groundwater. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) would lead to the formation of uraninite, and therefore remove U from groundwater. We conclude that the contrasting distributions of groundwater As and U present a challenge to ensuring safe drinking water in analogous areas, especially with high background values of U and As.

  5. Double high refractive-index contrast grating VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Wasiak, Michał; Sarzała, Robert P.; Lott, J. A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are typically used as the highly reflecting mirrors of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In order to provide optical field confinement, oxide apertures are often incorporated in the process of the selective wet oxidation of high aluminum-content DBR layers. This technology has some potential drawbacks such as difficulty in controlling the uniformity of the oxide aperture diameters across a large-diameter (≥ 6 inch) production wafers, high DBR series resistance especially for small diameters below about 5 μm despite elaborate grading and doping schemes, free carrier absorption at longer emission wavelengths in the p-doped DBRs, reduced reliability for oxide apertures placed close to the quantum wells, and low thermal conductivity for transporting heat away from the active region. A prospective alternative mirror is a high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) monolithically integrated with the VCSEL cavity. Two HCG mirrors potentially offer a very compact and simplified VCSEL design although the problems of resistance, heat dissipation, and reliability are not completely solved. We present an analysis of a double HCG 980 nm GaAs-based ultra-thin VCSEL. We analyze the optical confinement of such a structure with a total optical thickness is ~1.0λ including the optical cavity and the two opposing and parallel HCG mirrors.

  6. A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of squames of normal oral mucosa and oral leukoplakia: Original study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afreen Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral leukoplakia represents the most common potentially malignant oral disorder, representing 85% of such lesions. The worldwide prevalence of leukoplakia is 1.5- 4.3%. Leukoplakia is often associated with carcinogenic exposures, such as from use of tobacco, alcohol or betel nut. The level of risk for malignant transformation of leukoplakia is associated with lesion histology. The overall malignant transformation rates for dysplastic lesions range from 11% to 36%, depending on the length of follow-up. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and minimally invasive method. Phase contrast microscope, an essential tool in the field of biology and medical research provides improved discrimination of cellular details. Aims: To study and compare the cytomorphological and cytomorphometric features of squames obtained from the mucosa of normal individuals, tobacco habituates with and without clinically evident leukoplakia. To assess the role of phase contrast microscopy as an alternative and easy method of cytological evaluation of wet and unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases from each group were taken. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase contrast microscope and were evaluated morphologically and morphometrically for nuclear and cellular diameters. Results: The study showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear diameter and decrease in the mean cellular diameter. Conclusion: Cytomorphometric changes could be the earliest indicators of cellular alterations. This indicates that there could be a cause-effect relationship between tobacco and quantitative alterations.

  7. Optimal parameters of monolithic high-index contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic High refractive index Contrast Grating (MHCG) allows several-fold size reduction of epitaxial structure of VCSEL and facilitates VCSEL fabrication in all photonic material systems. MHCGs can be fabricated of material which refractive index is higher than 1.75 without the need of the combination of low and high refractive index materials. MHCGs have a great application potential in optoelectronic devices, especially in phosphide- and nitride-based VCSELs, which suffer from the lack of efficient monolithically integrated DBR mirrors. MHCGs can simplify the construction of VCSELs, reducing their epitaxial design to monolithic wafer with carrier confinement and active region inside and etched stripes on both surfaces in post processing. In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of MHCGs as a high reflective mirrors for broad range of refractive indices that corresponds to plethora of materials typically used in optoelectronics. Our calculations base on a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model. We investigate the reflectance of the MHCG mirrors of different design as the function of the refractive index and we show the optimal geometrical parameters of MHCG enabling nearly 100% reflectance and broad reflection stop-band. We show that MHCG can be designed based on most of semiconductors materials and for any incident light wavelength from optical spectrum.

  8. High contrast single molecule tracking in the pericellular coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Jan; McLane, Louis T.; Curtis, Jennifer E.

    2014-03-01

    The pericellular coat is a robust, hydrated, polymer brush-like structure that can extend several micrometers into the extracellular space around living cells. By controlling access to the cell surface, acting as a filter and storage reservoir for proteins, and actively controlling tissue-immune system interactions, the cell coat performs many important functions at scales ranging from the single cell to whole tissues. The cell coat consists of a malleable backbone - the large polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) - with its structure, material properties, and ultimately its bio-functionality tuned by a diverse set of HA binding proteins. These proteins add charge, cross-links and growth factor-like ligands to the coat To probe the dynamic behavior of this soft biomaterial we have used high contrast single molecule imaging, based on highly inclined laser illumination, to observe individual fluorescently labeled HA binding proteins within the cell coat. Our work focuses on the cell coat of living chondrocyte (cartilage) cells, and in particular the effect of the large, highly charged, protein aggrecan on the properties of the coat. Through single molecule imaging we observe that aggrecan is tightly tethered to HA, and plays an important role in cell coat extension and stiffening.

  9. Monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present optical design and simulation results of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that incorporate monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors - a new variety of HCG mirror that is composed of high index material surrounded only on one side by low index material. We show the impact of an MHCG mirror on the performance of 980 nm VCSELs designed for high bit rate and energy-efficient optical data communications. In our design, all or part of the all-semiconductor top coupling distributed Bragg reflector mirror is replaced by an undoped gallium-arsenide MHCG. We show how the optical field intensity distribution of the VCSEL's fundamental mode is controlled by the combination of the number of residual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror periods and the physical design of the topmost gallium-arsenide MHCG. Additionally, we numerically investigate the confinement factors of our VCSELs and show that this parameter for the MHCG DBR VCSELs may only be properly determined in two or three dimensions due to the periodic nature of the grating mirror.

  10. A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative as a high-contrast piezofluorochromic material induced by protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Chen, Peng; Jia, Junhui; Xu, Qiuxia; Sun, Jiabao; Yao, Boqi; Zhang, Zhenqi; Lu, Ran

    2014-03-11

    A triphenylamine-based benzoxazole derivative exhibits a low contrast piezofluorochromic behavior under external pressure, and a high-contrast fluorescence change induced by protonation can be observed.

  11. MEPHISTO - Mapping the Exoplanet Population via High-Contrast Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apai, Daniel

    The surprising recent discovery of four large-separation super-Jupiters highlighted how little we know about the giant exoplanet population beyond 5 AU. The HR8799bcd system includes three 7-10 jupiter-mass planets at separations > 24 AU. This system is not simply the result of a scaled-up version of the Solar System formation, but suggests a qualitatively different way of super-jupiter formation, perhaps efficient only in initially massive disks. At the same time, these spectacular images demonstrated the opportunity high-contrast imaging has to offer in answering three fundamental questions: 1)How frequent are gas giants and super-Jupiters as a function of host star mass? 2)What are the planet mass and semi-major axis distributions? 3)How frequent are HR8799-like multiple super-jupiter systems? In addition to answering these questions, most large-separation giant planets discovered from ground-based observations today will also be ideal targets for JWST for in-depth spectroscopic characterization. To study the properties of the large-separation giant exoplanet population we developed new high-contrast imaging techniques that work in the 3-4 micron atmospheric window. These ground-based observations reach the most favorable contrasts and sensitivities to giant planets and also remain sensitive to few Gyr-old planets, in contrast to shorter- wavelength observations. We demonstrated the advantage of these techniques in technical papers, on-sky published surveys, on the HR8799bcd planets and by confirming the nature of the planet candidate around Beta Pictoris b (results in press in Science). Here we propose to utilize these well-tested, powerful techniques to significantly extend our sensitive imaging surveys to image all 138 known southern stars around which we are capable of detecting at least 5 Jupiter-mass planets on separations smaller than 70 AU, analogs to the HR8799bcd system. Our goal is to provide a statistically well sampled range of spectral type and

  12. Focal plane wave-front sensing algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast imaging provided by a coronagraph is critical for the direction imaging of the Earth-like planet orbiting its bright parent star.A major limitation for such direct imaging is the speckle noise that is induced from the wave-front error of an optical system.We derive an algorithm for the wave-front measurement directly from 3 focal plane images.The 3 images are achieved through a deformable mirror to provide specific phases for the optics system.We introduce an extra amplitude modulation on one deformable mirror configuration to create an uncorrelated wave-front,which is a critical procedure for wave-front sensing.The simulation shows that the reconstructed wave-front is consistent with the original wave-front theoretically,which indicates that such an algorithm is a promising technique for the wave-front measurement for the high-contrast imaging.

  13. Focal plane wave-front sensin8 algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU JiangPei; REN DeQing; ZHU YongTian; ZHANG Xi

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast imaging provided by a coronagraph is critical for the direction imaging of the Earth-like planet orbiting its bright parent star. A major limitation for such direct imaging is the speckle noise that is induced from the wave-front error of an optical system. We derive an algorithm for the wave-front measurement directly from 3 focal plane images. The 3 images are achieved through a deformable mirror to provide specific phases for the optics system. We introduce an extra amplitude modulation on one deformable mirror configuration to create an uncorrelated wave-front, which is a critical procedure for wave-front sensing. The simulation shows that the reconstructed wave-front is consistent with the original wave-front theoretically, which indicates that such an algorithm is a promising technique for the wave-front measurement for the high-contrast imaging.

  14. High-speed optical observations of contrast agent destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouakaz, Ayache; Versluis, Michel; Jong, de Nico

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are now available since a few years and used for diagnostic purposes. Improved diagnostic decisions have been made possible with new imaging methods that are mainly based on the nonlinear properties of gas microbubbles. Since it is well known that contrast agents are destr

  15. High-sensitive Optical Pulse-Shape Characterization using a Beating-Contrast-Measurement Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Roncin, Vincent; Millaud, Audrey; Cramer, Romain; Jaouën, Yves; Simon, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Ultrahigh-speed optical transmission technology, such as optical time domain multiplexing or optical signal processing is a key point for increasing the communication capacity. The system performances are strongly related to pulse properties. We present an original method dedicated to short pulse-shape characterization with high repetition rate using standard optical telecommunications equipments. Its principle is based on temporal measurement of the contrast produced by the beating of two delayed optical pulses in a high bandwidth photo detector. This technique returns firstly reliable information on the pulse-shape, such as pulse width, shape and pedestal. Simulation and experimental results evaluate the high-sensitivity and the high-resolution of the technique allowing the measurement of pulse extinction ratio up to 20 dB with typical timing resolution of about 100 fs. The compatibility of the technique with high repetition rate pulse measurement offers an efficient tool for short pulse analysis.

  16. Exploring the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient: Contrasting the sister fern genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald SCHNEIDER; Li-Juan HE; Jeannine MARQUARDT; Li WANG; Jochen HEINRICHS; Sabine HENNEQUIN; Xian-Chun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the latitudinal biodiversity gradient has been studied using various approaches.Here,we employ a comparative phylogenetic approach to infer evidence for the hypothesis that differences in diversification rates are one of the main factors contributing to the assembly of this gradient.We infer the phylogeny of the two sister genera Phegopteris and Pseudophegopteris.The two genera are distinct in their species richness (4 vs.20 spp.) and their preferences to temperate to subtropical (Phegopteris) or tropical climates (Pseudophegopteris).Using sequences of three plastid DNA regions,we confirm the monophyly of each genus and infer the inter-and intra-generic phylogenetic differentiation of the sister clades.We recover evidence for distinct net-diversification rate between the two genera,which may be caused either by a higher extinction risk of temperate Phegopteris or a higher speciation rate of tropical Pseudophegopteris.We discuss our results in the context of our current knowledge on the speciation processes of ferns.We conclude on the crucial influence of other factors such as the rise of the Himalaya on the diversification of these fems.

  17. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  18. High-Contrast NIR Polarization Imaging of MWC480

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, M. W.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T.; Kandori, R.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Werren, C.; Day, A. N.; Beerman, C.; Iye, M.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Brafford, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases that the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0".2-1"0 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by HST / NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half angle for the disk to lie between 1.3 <= Theta <=2.2 deg. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only approx 30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R approx 0. 03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.

  19. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  20. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  1. Origin of magnetic contrast in spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Experiments on ultra-thin Mn films

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, T K; Heijnen, G M M; Kempen, H V; Mizoguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    Normalized differential tunneling conductivities obtained with Fe-coated W tips show a spin-polarized peak around +0.8 V on ultrathin bct Mn films grown on Fe(001)-whiskers. This spin-polarized peak results in a clear magnetic contrast in spectroscopic images. Our normalization removes the influence of the tunneling probability and makes the spectroscopic curves most reliable for a derivation of the spin-resolved sample density of states (DOS) at positive voltages. From this analysis we conclude that the magnetic contrast in our spectroscopic maps is caused by a highly polarized DOS. Furthermore, a tip polarization of about 15% is found. (author)

  2. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula, E-mail: paulasanchez@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Beiras, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L{sub Cu}) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L{sub Cu} varied from 0.08 {mu}M in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 {mu}M in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC{sub 50} of 0.64 {mu}M, significantly higher than the Cu EC{sub 50} of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 {mu}M. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC{sub 50}. This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC{sub 50}, while L

  3. Post-processing of high-contrast observations of exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladysz S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-processing of images delivered by the eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO instrumentation is a crucial step which can increase achievable contrast even by two orders of magnitude. In this communication I present a new class of algorithms for detection of extrasolar planets from a sequence of adaptive-optics-corrected images. In general, the methods discriminate between real sources and stellar PSF features based on statistics of recorded intensity. The methods are particularly useful in dealing with static speckles which are the greatest obstacle in detecting exoplanets.

  4. Measurements of high-contrast starshade performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Warwick, Steven; Glassman, Tiffany M.; Novicki, Megan C.; Richards, Michael C.; Harness, Anthony; Patterson, Keith D.

    2016-07-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. In an effort to validate the starlight-suppression performance of the starshade, we have measured contrast better than 1×10-9 using 60 cm starshades at points just beyond the starshade tips. These measurements were made over a 50% spectral bandpass, using an incoherent light source (a white LED), and in challenging outdoor test environments. Our experimental setup is designed to provide starshade to telescope separation and telescope aperture size that are scaled as closely as possible to the flight system. The measurements confirm not only the overall starlight-suppression capability of the starshade concept but also the robustness of the setup to optical disturbances such as atmospheric effects at the test site. The spectral coverage is limited only by the optics and detectors in our test setup, not by the starshade itself. Here we describe our latest results as well as detailed comparisons of the measured results to model predictions. Plans and status of the next phase of ground testing are also discussed.

  5. Subwavelength-thick Lenses with High Numerical Apertures and Large Efficiency Based on High Contrast Transmitarrays

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir; Ball, Alexander J; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We report subwavelength-thick, polarization insensitive micro-lenses operating at telecom wavelength with focal spots as small as 0.57 wavelengths and measured focusing efficiency up to 82%. The lens design is based on high contrast transmitarrays that enable control of optical phase fronts with subwavelength spatial resolution. A rigorous method for ultra-thin lens design, and the trade-off between high efficiency and small spot size (or large numerical aperture) are discussed. The transmitarrays, composed of silicon nano-posts on glass, could be fabricated by high-throughput photo or nanoimprint lithography, thus enabling widespread adoption.

  6. A high precision technique to correct for residual atmospheric dispersion in high-contrast imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, P; Jovanovic, N; Lozi, J; Martinache, F; Minowa, Y; Kudo, T; Takami, H; Hayano, Y; Narita, N

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopy of exoplanets requires high contrast imaging. For habitable exoplanets in particular, located at small angular separation from the host star, it is crucial to employ small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraphs that efficiently suppress starlight. These coronagraphs, in turn, require careful control of the wavefront which directly impacts their performance. For ground-based telescopes, atmospheric refraction is also an important factor, since it results in a smearing of the PSF, that can no longer be efficiently suppressed by the coronagraph. Traditionally, atmospheric refraction is compensated for by an atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC). ADC control relies on an a priori model of the atmosphere whose parameters are solely based on the pointing of the telescope, which can result in imperfect compensation. For a high contrast instrument like the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, which employs very small IWA coronagraphs, refraction-induced sm...

  7. High contrast two-photon imaging of fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Caleb R.; Rebane, Aleksander

    2016-04-01

    Optically-acquired fingermarks are widely used as evidence across law enforcement agencies as well as in the courts of law. A common technique for visualizing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces consists of cyanoacrylate fuming of the fingerprint material, followed by impregnation with a fluorescent dye, which under ultra violet (UV) illumination makes the fingermarks visible and thus accessible for digital recording. However, there exist critical circumstances, when the image quality is compromised due to high background scattering, high auto-fluorescence of the substrate material, or other detrimental photo-physical and photo-chemical effects such as light-induced damage to the sample. Here we present a novel near-infrared (NIR), two-photon induced fluorescence imaging modality, which significantly enhances the quality of the fingermark images, especially when obtained from highly reflective and/or scattering surfaces, while at the same time reducing photo-damage to sensitive forensic samples.

  8. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  9. High functional load inhibits phonological contrast loss: a corpus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, Andrew; Kaplan, Abby; Jackson, Scott

    2013-08-01

    For nearly a century, linguists have suggested that diachronic merger is less likely between phonemes with a high functional load--that is, phonemes that distinguish many words in the language in question. However, limitations in data and computational power have made assessing this hypothesis difficult. Here we present the first larger-scale study of the functional load hypothesis, using data from sound changes in a diverse set of languages. Our results support the functional load hypothesis: phoneme pairs undergoing merger distinguish significantly fewer minimal pairs in the lexicon than unmerged phoneme pairs. Furthermore, we show that higher phoneme probability is positively correlated with merger, but that this effect is stronger for phonemes that distinguish no minimal pairs. Finally, within our dataset we find that minimal pair count and phoneme probability better predict merger than change in system entropy at the lexical or phoneme level.

  10. Exploring Planetary System Evolution Through High-Contrast Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging of circumstellar disks provides unique information about planetary system construction and evolution. Several hundred nearby main-sequence stars are known to host debris disks, which are produced by mutual collisions of orbiting planetesimals during a phase thought to coincide with terrestrial planet formation. Therefore, detection of the dust in such systems through scattered near-infrared starlight offers a view of the circumstellar environment during the epoch of planet assembly. We have used ground-based coronagraphic angular differential imaging (ADI) with Keck NIRC2 and Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to investigate disk structures that may act as signposts of planets. ADI and its associated image processing algorithms (e.g., LOCI) are powerful tools for suppressing the stellar PSF and quasistatic speckles that can contaminate disk signal. However, ADI PSF-subtraction also attenuates disk surface brightness in a spatially- and parameter-dependent manner, thereby biasing photometry and compromising inferences regarding the physical processes responsible for the dust distribution. To account for this disk "self-subtraction," we developed a novel technique to forward model the disk structure and compute a self-subtraction map for a given ADI-processed image. Applying this method to NIRC2 near-IR imaging of the HD 32297 debris disk, we combined the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of ADI data with unbiased photometry to measure midplane curvature in the edge-on disk and a break in the disk's radial brightness profile. Such a break may indicate the location of a planetesimal ring that is a source of the light-scattering micron-sized grains. For the HD 61005 debris disk, we examined similar data together with GPI 1.6-micron polarization data and detected the dust ring's swept-back morphology, brightness asymmetry, stellocentric offset, and inner clearing. To study the physical mechanism behind these features, we explored how eccentricity and mutual

  11. High-contrast all-glass volumetric photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.; van Caloen, G.; Buczynski, R.; Kujawa, I.; Pysz, D.; Vermeulen, N.; Thienpont, H.; Stepien, R.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we designed and made a photonic crystal structure with a photonic band gap around 532 nm wavelength. The structure was to be made from two commercially available glasses. Both should have similar temperature coefficients (alpha), also melting and softening temperatures should be as close as possible in order to thermally process both glasses together. In addition the refractive indexes of chosen glasses should be as different as possible in order to facilitate a wide band gap. The pair of glasses that met those requirements is LLF1 and SF6 produced by Schott. For those two glasses we performed a series of computer simulations using MIT MPB software. After checking various structures the widest band gap for the 532 nm wavelength was found for the hexagonal structure of high dielectric constant rods in low index material with a linear fill factor of 0.12 and a lattice constant 3.75 μm. This structure was manufactured using the stack and draw method. The measurements of the final structure made by ESM show that it is regular, with diffusion between glasses at the manageable level. This assures that manufacture process is repeatable.

  12. Stochastic optimal phase retrieval algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give'on, Amir; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Spergel, David N.; Littman, Michael G.; Gurfil, Pini

    2003-12-01

    The Princeton University Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) has been working on a novel method for direct imaging of extra solar planets using a shaped-pupil coronagraph. The entrance pupil of the coronagraph is optimized to have a point spread function (PSF) that provides the suppression level needed at the angular separation required for detection of extra solar planets. When integration time is to be minimized, the photon count at the planet location in the image plane is a Poisson distributed random process. The ultimate limitation of these high-dynamic-range imaging systems comes from scattering due to imperfections in the optical surfaces of the collecting system. The first step in correcting the wavefront errors is the estimation of the phase aberrations. The phase aberration caused by these imperfections is assumed to be a sum of two-dimensional sinusoidal functions. Its parameters are estimated using a global search with a genetic algorithm and a local optimization with the BFGS quasi-Newton method with a mixed quadratic and cubic line search procedure.

  13. High-contrast imaging of ɛ Eridani with ground-based instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, T.; Yamada, T.; Carson, J. C.; Kuzuhara, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishikawa, J.; Sitko, M. L.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Abe, L.; Brander, W.; Brandt, T. D.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S. S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K. W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G. R.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; McElwain, M. W.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.; Serabyn, E.; Suenaga, T.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Turner, E. L.; Watanabe, M.; Wisniewski, J.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2016-11-01

    ɛ Eridani is one of the nearest solar-type stars. Its proximity and relatively young age allow high-contrast imaging observations to achieve sensitivities to planets at narrow separations down to an inner radius of 5 AU. Previous observational studies of the system report a dust disk with asymmetric morphology as well as a giant planet with large orbital eccentricity, which may require another massive companion to induce the peculiar morphology and to enhance the large orbital eccentricity. In this paper, we report results from deep high-contrastimaging observations to detect the previously reported planet and search for other unseen less massive companions with Subaru/HiCIAO, Gemini-South/NICI, and VLT/NACO. No positive detection was made, but high-contrast measurements with the CH4S narrow-band filter of HiCIAO achieved sensitivities at 14.7 mag differential magnitude level, at an angular separation of 1.0″. In terms of planetary mass, as determined by cooling evolutionary models, the highest sensitivities were achieved by the Lp broad-band filter of NACO, resulting in sensitivities corresponding to 1.8, 2.8, and 4.5 Mjup at the projected separation of 3 AU, if 200, 400, and 800 Myr is assumed for the age of the system, respectively. We also discuss origins of the dust disk from the detection sensitivity in the planetary mass and find that a less massive eccentric planet is preferred for disk stirring, which is consistent with the orbital parameters of ɛ Eri b claimed from the previous long-term radial velocity monitoring.

  14. High contrast ratio, high uniformity multiple quantum well spatial light modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yuyang; Yang Chen; Yang Hui [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, H C; Cui Guoxin; Bian Lifeng; Zhang Yaohui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Wasilewski, Z R; Buchanan, M; Laframboise, S R, E-mail: yhzhang2006@sinano.ac.c [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Our latest research results on GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum well spatial light modulators are presented. The thickness uniformity of the epitaxial layers across the 3-inch wafer grown by our molecular beam epitaxy is better than 0.1% and the variation of cavity resonance wavelength within the wafer is only 0.9 nm. A contrast ratio (CR) of 102 by varying bias voltage from 0 to 6.7 V is achieved after fine tuning the cavity by etching an adjust layer. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that incorporating an adjust layer is an effective tuning method for obtaining high CR. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. On the origin of high m magnetospheric waves

    OpenAIRE

    Beharrell, Matthew J.; Kavanagh, Andrew J.; F. Honary

    2010-01-01

    A survey of Advanced Rio-Imaging Experiment in Scandinavia data reveals evidence for a previously overlooked generation mechanism of high azimuthal wave number magnetospheric waves. Here we present observations of pulsating cosmic noise absorption with azimuthal wave numbers as high as 380, suggestive of precipitation modulation by magnetospheric waves. Dispersion relations of the small-scale precipitation pulsations are indicative of the proposed origin. Previous studies of magnetospheric wa...

  16. Contrasting origin of two A-type rhyolite series from the Early Permian Nomgon bimodal volcanic association (Southern Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A-type rhyolites of contrasting compositions and eruption characters were revealed among two volcanic series of the Early Permian bimodal association in the Nomgon graben. Rhyolites of the lower volcanic series formed extrusions, lava domes, and tuff horizons. They had low FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations and also a moderately depleted Nd isotope composition (ɛNd( T) = 6.7-7.1). Their formation was related to anatexis of the juvenile continental crust, triggered by the thermal effect of mafic magmas. Rhyolites of the upper volcanic series formed extensive lava flows and dikes. Their composition was characterized by high FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations, and also depleted Nd isotope characteristics (ɛNd( T) = 7.7-9.0). These rhyolite melts formed under long-term crystallizational differentiation of basaltoids in the intracrustal magmatic chambers, with limited participation of crustal contamination. The source of magmas for the upper volcanic series was the sublithospheric mantle.

  17. Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  18. High frequency nonlinear scattering from a micrometer to submicrometer sized lipid encapsulated contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goertz, David E.; Frijlink, Martijn E.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental lipid encapsulated contrast agent comprised substantially of micrometer to submicrometer diameter bubbles was evaluated for its capacity to produce nonlinear scattering in response to high transmit frequencies. Agent characterization experiments were conducted at transmit frequencies

  19. Towards Ultra-High Q Microresonators in High-Index Contrast AlGaAs-On-Insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Kamel, Ayman Nassar; Stassen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonator with intrinsic Q as high as 690,000. We optimized the fabrication and investigated the impact of waveguide dimension on the Q in such a high-index contrast platform.......We demonstrate an AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonator with intrinsic Q as high as 690,000. We optimized the fabrication and investigated the impact of waveguide dimension on the Q in such a high-index contrast platform....

  20. Ultra-high contrast frontend for high peak power fs-lasers at 1030 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hornung, Marco; Seidel, Andreas; Hellwing, Marco; Kessler, Alexander; Keppler, Sebastian; Schorcht, Frank; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2014-10-01

    We present the results from a new frontend within a double-chirped pulse amplification architecture (DCPA) utilizing crossed-polarized wave generation (XPW) for generating ultra-high contrast, 150 μJ-level, femtosecond seed pulses at 1030 nm. These pulses are used in the high energy class diode-pumped laser system Polaris at the Helmholtz Institute in Jena. Within this frontend, laser pulses from a 75 MHz oscillator-pulse train are extracted at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, temporally stretched, amplified and then recompressed reaching a pulse energy of 2 mJ, a bandwidth of 12 nm and 112 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm. These pulses are temporally filtered via XPW in a holographic-cut BaF₂ crystal, resulting in 150 μJ pulse energy with an efficiency of 13 %. Due to this non-linear filtering, the relative intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission preceding the main pulse is suppressed to 2×10⁻¹³. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value achieved in a high peak power laser system operating at 1030 nm center wavelength.

  1. High-Contrast Coronagraph Performance in the Presence of DM Actuator Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Deformable Mirrors (DMs) are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Occasionally DM actuators or their associated cables or electronics fail, requiring a wavefront control algorithm to compensate for actuators that may be displaced from their neighbors by hundreds of nanometers. We have carried out experiments on our High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) to study the impact of failed actuators in partial fulfillment of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph optical model validation milestone. We show that the wavefront control algorithm adapts to several broken actuators and maintains dark-hole contrast in broadband light.

  2. HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

    2014-01-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

  3. A high-contrast coronagraph for earth-like exoplanet direct imaging: design and test

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C C; Dou, J P; Zhu, Y T; Zhang, X; Zhao, G; Wu, Zh; Chen, R

    2014-01-01

    The high-contrast coronagraph for direct imaging earth-like exoplanet at the visible needs a contrast of 10^(-10) at a small angular separation of 4 lambda/D or less. Here we report our recent laboratory experiment that is close to the limits. The test of the high-contrast imaging coronagraph is based on our step-transmission apodized filter. To achieve the goal, we use a liquid crystal array (LCA) as a phase corrector to create a dark hole based on our dedicated focal dark algorithm. We have suppressed the diffracted and speckle noise near the star point image to a level of 1.68 x 10^(-9) at 4 lambda/D, which can be immediately used for the direct imaging of Jupiter like exoplanets. This demonstrates that high-contrast coronagraph telescope in space has the potentiality to detect and characterize earth-like planets.

  4. Peripheral Vasculature: High-Temporal- and High-Spatial-Resolution Three-dimensional Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Glockner, James F.; Stanson, Anthony W.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of performing high-spatial-resolution (1-mm isotropic) time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the peripheral vasculature with Cartesian acquisition with projection-reconstruction–like sampling (CAPR) and eightfold accelerated two-dimensional (2D) sensitivity encoding (SENSE). Materials and Methods: All studies were approved by the institutional review board and were HIPAA compliant; written informed consent was obtained from all participants. There were 13 volunteers (mean age, 41.9; range, 27–53 years). The CAPR sequence was adapted to provide 1-mm isotropic spatial resolution and a 5-second frame time. Use of different receiver coil element sizes for those placed on the anterior-to-posterior versus left-to-right sides of the field of view reduced signal-to-noise ratio loss due to acceleration. Results from eight volunteers were rated independently by two radiologists according to prominence of artifact, arterial to venous separation, vessel sharpness, continuity of arterial signal intensity in major arteries (anterior and posterior tibial, peroneal), demarcation of origin of major arteries, and overall diagnostic image quality. MR angiographic results in two patients with peripheral vascular disease were compared with their results at computed tomographic angiography. Results: The sequence exhibited no image artifact adversely affecting diagnostic image quality. Temporal resolution was evaluated to be sufficient in all cases, even with known rapid arterial to venous transit. The vessels were graded to have excellent sharpness, continuity, and demarcation of the origins of the major arteries. Distal muscular branches and the communicating and perforating arteries were routinely seen. Excellent diagnostic quality rating was given for 15 (94%) of 16 evaluations. Conclusion: The feasibility of performing high-diagnostic-quality time-resolved 3D

  5. Subharmonic, non-linear fundamental and ultraharmonic imaging of microbubble contrast at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeichin, Verya; Bosch, Johan G; Needles, Andrew; Foster, F Stuart; van der Steen, Antonius; de Jong, Nico

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing use of ultrasound contrast agent in high-frequency ultrasound imaging. However, conventional contrast detection methods perform poorly at high frequencies. We performed systematic in vitro comparisons of subharmonic, non-linear fundamental and ultraharmonic imaging for different depths and ultrasound contrast agent concentrations (Vevo 2100 system with MS250 probe and MicroMarker ultrasound contrast agent, VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada). We investigated 4-, 6- and 10-cycle bursts at three power levels with the following pulse sequences: B-mode, amplitude modulation, pulse inversion and combined pulse inversion/amplitude modulation. The contrast-to-tissue (CTR) and contrast-to-artifact (CAR) ratios were calculated. At a depth of 8 mm, subharmonic pulse-inversion imaging performed the best (CTR = 26 dB, CAR = 18 dB) and at 16 mm, non-linear amplitude modulation imaging was the best contrast imaging method (CTR = 10 dB). Ultraharmonic imaging did not result in acceptable CTRs and CARs. The best candidates from the in vitro study were tested in vivo in chicken embryo and mouse models, and the results were in a good agreement with the in vitro findings.

  6. High mechanical index post-contrast ultrasonography improves tissue structural display of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min-hua; YANG Wei; DAI Ying; WU Wei

    2005-01-01

    Background The advent of second generation agent-SonoVue and low mechanical index real-time contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging have been shown to improve the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But no report has described the effect of high mechanical index (MI) post-CEUS. This study aimed to investigate the value of post-CEUS in displaying tissue structures of HCC. Methods Seventy-six HCCs in 65 patients were included in the study. Each patient underwent three scans, high-MI (MI: 0.15-1.6) pre-contrast ultrasound, low-MI (MI: 0.04-0.08) CEUS with contrast agent SonoVue, and high-MI post-contrast ultrasound, which was performed within 3 minutes after CEUS. The size, boundary, echogenicity, internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of the HCCs in the conventional scans before and after CEUS were evaluated. According to pathological evidence, diagnosis rates of pre-contrast, CEUS and post-contrast scans were determined and compared. The potential mechanism of post-contrast ultrasound imaging was also discussed. Results Compared with pre-contrast, post-contrast ultrasound showed improvement in image quality in most HCCs: twenty-six (34.2%) more lesions showed well defined margins and fourteen (18.4%) more nodules showed halo sign; twenty-three (30.3%) lesions demonstrated enlarged in sizes; changes in echogenicity were seen in 30 lesions (39.5%); eighteen (23.7%) more lesions showed heterogenecity and 20 (26.3%) more lesions showed "mosaic" or "nodule-in-nodule" sign; twelve (15.8%) more lesions showed posterior acoustic enhancement. Post-contrast ultrasound showed increased diagnostic accuracy of 93.4% (71/76), compare with 88.2% (67/76) of CEUS alone. Conclusions High-MI post-contrast ultrasound utilizes harmonic signals during the rupture of microbubbles, and significantly improves the display of echo-characteristics of HCCs in ultrasound images, which adds diagnostic values for CEUS. Post-contrast

  7. Efficient multi-keV X-ray generation from high-contrast laser plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kα line emission from Mo was experimentally and theoretically studied using clean, ultrahigh-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The absolute yields of Kα x-rays at 17 keV from Mo were measured as a function of the laser pulse contrast ratio and irradiation intensity. Significantly enhanced Kα yields were obtained by employing high contrast ratio at optimum irradiance. Conversion efficiencies of 4.28 × 10−5/sr, the highest values obtained to date, was demonstrated with contrast ratios in the range of 10−10 to 10−11.

  8. A CASE REPORT ON HIGH ORIGIN OF RADIAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Bondage

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of radial artery (RA as an access to heart and for other procedures and surgeries make it significant. The context and purpose: The RA is a common access port for coronary angiography (CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass graft Surgery (CABG, RA cannulation, along with others. Results: In this case report, we want to present a case of unilateral high origin of RA arising as branch of brachial artery in the proximal 1/3rd of arm. Conclusions, brief summary and potential implications: Misdiagnosis, complications during medical procedures and increased possibility of injury are the most common dangers of having a superficial RA.

  9. Mathematical impairment associated with high-contrast abnormalities in change detection and magnocellular visual evoked response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2015-10-01

    The cause of developmental dyscalculia, a specific deficit in acquisition of arithmetic skills, particularly of enumeration, has never been investigated with respect to the patency of the visual magnocellular system. Here, the question of dysfunction of the afferent magnocellular cortical input and its dorsal stream projections was tested directly using nonlinear analysis of the visual evoked potential (VEP) and through the psychophysical ability to rapidly detect visual change. A group of young adults with self-reported deficiencies of arithmetical ability, showed marked impairment in magnitude estimation and enumeration performance-though not in lexical decision reaction times when compared with an arithmetically capable group controlled for age and handedness. Multifocal nonlinear VEPs were recorded at low (24 %) and high (96 %) contrast. First- and second-order VEP kernels were comparable between groups at low contrast, but not at high contrast. The mathematically impaired group showed an abnormal lack of contrast saturation in the shortest latency first-order peak (N60) and a delayed P100 positivity in the first slice of the second-order kernel. Both features have previously been argued to be physiological markers of magnocellular function. Mathematically impaired participants also performed worse on a gap paradigm change detection for digit task showing increased reaction times for high-contrast stimuli but not for low-contrast stimuli compared with controls. The VEP results give direct evidence of abnormality in the occipital processing of magnocellular information in those with mathematical impairment. The anomalous high visual contrast physiological and psychophysical performance suggests an abnormality in the inhibitory processes that normally result in saturation of contrast gain in the magnocellular system.

  10. High dynamic range multi-channel cross-correlator for single-shot temporal contrast measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Ogura, K.; Mori, M.; Sakaki, H.; Kando, M.; Kondo, K.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a multi-channel cross-correlator for high dynamic range (>1010), single-shot temporal contrast measurements. The correlator utilizes a third-order crosscorrelation technique and has a reference channel, to be normalized by the measured peak intensity, and four independent optical delay lines. The measurement results of the shot-to-shot temporal contrast clearly show the intensity fluctuations of short pre-pulses at -4.5 ps and -26 ps before main pulse.

  11. High-reflectivity high-contrast grating focusing reflector on silicon-on-insulator wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenjing; Huang, Yongqing; Duan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Fei, Jiarui; Ren, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    A high-contrast grating (HCG) focusing reflector providing phase front control of reflected light and high reflectivity is proposed and fabricated. Basic design rules to engineer this category of structures are given in detail. A 1550 nm TM polarized incident light of 11.86 mm in focal length and 0.8320 in reflectivity is obtained in experiment. The wavelength dependence of the fabricated HCGs from 1530 nm to 1580 nm is also tested. The test results show that the focal length is in the range of 11.81-12 mm, which is close to the designed focal length of 15 mm. The reflectivity is almost above 0.56 within a bandwidth of 50 nm. At a distance of 11.86 mm, the light is focused to a round spot with the highest concentration, which is much smaller than the size of the incident beam. The FWHM of the reflected light beam decreases to 120 nm, and the intensity increases to 1.18. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274044, 61574019 and 61020106007), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB327600), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130005130001), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. 4132069), the Key International Science and Technology Cooperation Project of China (Grant No. 2011RR000100), the 111 Project of China (Grant No. B07005), and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in Universities of China (Grant No. IRT0609).

  12. High-Index Contrast Silicon Rich Silicon Nitride Optical Waveguides and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh Taylor

    2004-01-01

    This research focused on the realization of high-density integrated optical devices made with high-index contrast waveguides. The material platform used for to develop these devices was modeled after standard silicon on silicon technology. The high-index waveguide core material was silicon rich...... silicon nitride. This provided a sharp contrast with silica and made low-loss waveguide bending radii less than 25mm possible. An immediate consequence of such small bending radii is the ability to make practical ring resonator based devices with a large free spectral range. Several ring resonator based...

  13. Characterization of the Gaseous Companion k Andromedae B* New Keck and LBTI High-contrast Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Currie, T.; Marleau, G.-D.; Schlieder, J. E.; Wisniewski, J.; Carson, J.; Covey, K. R.; Henning, T.; Biller, B.; Hinz, P.; Klahr, H.; Boyer, A. N. Marsh; Zimmerman, N.; Janson, M.; McElwain, M.; Mordasini, C.; Skemer, A.; Bailey, V.; Defrere, D.; Thalmann, C.; Skrutskie, M.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+/-2 astronomical units around the B9 type star kappa Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. Aims. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the system at 2.146 (K(sub s)), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 micrometers (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We aim to determine the near-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of the companion and use it to characterize the object. Methods. We used analysis methods adapted to ADI to extract the companion flux. We compared the photometry of the object to reference young/old objects and to a set of seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models of cool objects accounting for the formation of dust. We used evolutionary models to derive mass estimates considering a wide range of plausible initial conditions. Finally, we used dedicated formation models to discuss the possible origin of the companion. Results. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +/- 0.21, H = 14.95 +/- 0.13, K(sub s) = 14.32 +/- 0.09 mag for kappa And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at K(sub s) and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +/- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +/- 0.3 mag and estimate Log(base 10)(L/solar luminosity) = -3.76 +/- 0.06. Atmospheric models yield T(sub eff) = 1900(+100/-200) K. They do not set constrains on the surface gravity. "Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14(+25/-2) Jupiter mass based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30(+120/-10) million years). "warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M greater than or

  14. Testing the Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Andrey E; Moskalenko, Igor V; Porter, Troy A

    2011-01-01

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) protons and nuclei by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal: a) unexpected spectral hardening in the spectra of CR species above a few hundred GeV per nucleon, b) a harder spectrum of He compared to protons, and c) softening of the CR spectra just below the break energy. These newly-discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of the observed high-energy Galactic CRs. We discuss possible interpretations of these spectral features and make predictions for the CR isotopic ratios, anisotropy of CRs, and diffuse Galactic {\\gamma}-ray emission in different phenomenological scenarios. Our predictions can be tested by currently running or near-future high-energy astrophysics experiments.

  15. High-index-contrast grating reflector with beam steering ability for the transmitted beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carletti, Luca; Malureanu, Radu; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    High-index contrast grating mirrors providing wave front control of the transmitted light as well as high reflectivity over a broad bandwidth are suggested and both numerically and experimentally investigated. General design rules to engineer these structures for different applications are derived...

  16. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.abstract type="synopsis">Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large region of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium region" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its origin, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its origin is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient impact crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets, is rich in

  17. High contrast en bloc staining of neuronal tissue for field emission scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Juan C.; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Hayworth, Kenneth; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J; Buchanan, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Conventional heavy metal post staining methods on thin sections lend contrast but often cause contamination. To avoid this problem, we tested several en bloc staining techniques to contrast tissue in serial sections mounted on solid substrates for examination by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Because FESEM section imaging requires that specimens have higher contrast and greater electrical conductivity than transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples, our technique utilizes osmium impregnation (OTO) to make the samples conductive while heavily staining membranes for segmentation studies. Combining this step with other classic heavy metal en bloc stains including uranyl acetate, lead aspartate, copper sulfate and lead citrate produced clean, highly contrasted TEM and SEM samples of insect, fish, and mammalian nervous system. This protocol takes 7–15 days to prepare resin embedded tissue, cut sections and produce serial section images. PMID:22240582

  18. Fabrication of High Contrast Gratings for the Spectrum Splitting Dispersive Element in a Concentrated Photovoltaic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wu, Wei

    2015-07-18

    High contrast gratings are designed and fabricated and its application is proposed in a parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element that can improve the solar conversion efficiency of a concentrated photovoltaic system. The proposed system will also lower the solar cell cost in the concentrated photovoltaic system by replacing the expensive tandem solar cells with the cost-effective single junction solar cells. The structures and the parameters of high contrast gratings for the dispersive elements were numerically optimized. The large-area fabrication of high contrast gratings was experimentally demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. The quality of grating material and the performance of the fabricated device were both experimentally characterized. By analyzing the measurement results, the possible side effects from the fabrication processes are discussed and several methods that have the potential to improve the fabrication processes are proposed, which can help to increase the optical efficiency of the fabricated devices.

  19. Color Vision Changes and Effects of High Contrast Visor Use at Simulated Cabin Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    4. Richalet JP, Duval-Arnould G, Darnaud B, Keromes A, Rutgers V. Modification of colour vision in the green/ red axis in acute and chronic...L ( red )] was evaluated, with the S cone showing the greatest decrease at 8,000 feet. High-contrast visor use at simulated altitudes did not...on which cone [S (blue), M (green), or L ( red )] was evaluated, with the S cone showing the greatest decrease at 8,000 feet. High-contrast visor use

  20. Characterization of phase and contrast of high peak power, ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Aoyama, Makoto; Matsuoka, Sinichi; Akahane, Yutaka; Nakano, Fumihiko; Yamakawa, Koichi [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We fully characterize a high-peak power, ultrashort laser pulse in a Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification laser system. The phase and contrast of the 20 fs pulse are determined by using frequency-resolved optical gating and high dynamic range cross-correlation techniques. The result of the phase measurement of the pulse indicate that the predominant phase distortion is quartic. The measured contrast of the pulse is of the order of 10{sup -6} limited by amplified spontaneous emission coming from the amplifiers. (author)

  1. Waveguide-mode interference lithography technique for high contrast subwavelength structures in the visible region

    CERN Document Server

    Kusaka, Kanta; Ohno, Seigo; Sakaki, Yozaburo; Nakayama, Kazuyuki; Moritake, Yuto; Ishihara, Teruya

    2014-01-01

    We explore possibilities of waveguide-mode interference lithography (WMIL) technique for high contrast subwavelength structures in the visible region. Selecting an appropriate waveguide-mode, we demonstrate high contrast resist mask patterns for the first time. TM1 mode in the waveguide is shown to be useful for providing a three-dimensional structure whose cross section is checkerboard pattern. Applying our WMIL technique, we demonstrate 1D, 2D and 3D subwavelength resist patterns that are widely used for the fabrication of metamteterials in the visible region. In addition to the resist patterns, we demonstrate a resonance at 1.9 eV for a split tube structure experimentally.

  2. Country of origin effects in developed and emerging markets: Exploring the contrasting roles of materialism and value consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing evidence about differences in the attitudes and behaviors of consumers in emerging and developed markets, there is little research on the differences in country of origin (COO) effects on their evaluation, behavioral intentions (BIs), and actual purchase of imported products. This paper introduces a new conceptual framework incorporating consumer ethnocentrism (CET), materialism (MAT), and value consciousness (VC) to hypothesize several differences in the influence of COO effe...

  3. Buzz in Paris: flower production and plant-pollinator interactions in plants from contrasted urban and rural origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaegher, James; Nadot, Sophie; Dajoz, Isabelle; Colas, Bruno

    2017-09-23

    Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015. For each species and each experimental site, plants were grown from seeds collected in five urban and five rural locations. During flowering, we observed flower production and insect-flower interactions during 14 weeks and tested for the effects of experimental site location and plant origin on flower production and on the number of floral visits. The study species had various flower morphology and hence were visited by different floral visitors. The effect of experimental sites and seed origin also varied among study species. We found that (1) insect visits on P. vulgaris were more frequent in rural than in urban sites; (2) for C. muralis, the slope relating the number of pollinator visits to the number of flowers per individual was steeper in urban versus rural sites, suggesting a greater benefit in allocating resources to flower production in urban conditions; (3) as a likely consequence, C. muralis tended to produce more flowers in plants from urban versus rural origin.

  4. Highly magnetic iron carbide nanoparticles as effective T(2) contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoming; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Zijian; Chi, Xiaoqin; Gao, Jinhao

    2014-01-21

    This paper reports that iron carbide nanoparticles with high air-stability and strong saturation magnetization can serve as effective T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Fe5C2 nanoparticles (~20 nm in diameter) exhibit strong contrast enhancement with an r2 value of 283.2 mM(-1) S(-1), which is about twice as high as that of spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles (~140.9 mM(-1) S(-1)). In vivo experiments demonstrate that Fe5C2 nanoparticles are able to produce much more significant MRI contrast enhancement than conventional Fe3O4 nanoparticles in living subjects, which holds great promise in biomedical applications.

  5. Low-signal, coronagraphic wavefront estimation with Kalman filtering in the high contrast imaging testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Cady, Eric J.; Prada, Camilo M.; Kern, Brian D.; Zhou, Hanying; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.

    2016-07-01

    For direct imaging and spectral characterization of cold exoplanets in reflected light, the proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) will carry two types of coronagraphs. The High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been testing both coronagraph types and demonstrated their abilities to achieve high contrast. Focal plane wavefront correction is used to estimate and mitigate aberrations. As the most time-consuming part of correction during a space mission, the acquisition of probed images for electric field estimation needs to be as short as possible. We present results from the HCIT of narrowband, low-signal wavefront estimation tests using a shaped pupil Lyot coronagraph (SPLC) designed for the WFIRST CGI. In the low-flux regime, the Kalman filter and iterated extended Kalman filter provide faster correction, better achievable contrast, and more accurate estimates than batch process estimation.

  6. High-contrast Coherent Population Trapping based on Crossed Polarizers Method

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    We developed a method based on crossed polarizers to observe high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance. Since crossed polarizers have a simple optical system, our method is suitable for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSACs). We calculated the Faraday rotation in CPT in a linearly polarized light field (lin || lin) using two pairs of lambda system models based on the density matrix and estimated the spectrum of the Faraday rotation. After that, we measured the contrast and linewidth with the crossed polarizers method. A comparison of the theoretical model and experiment data showed they were in good agreement. Moreover, the experimental results showed that a high contrast (88.4 %) and narrow linewidth (1.15 kHz) resonance could be observed using a Cs gas cell and D1-line vertical-cavity surfaceemitting laser (VCSEL).

  7. Domain Decomposition Preconditioners for Multiscale Flows in High-Contrast Media

    KAUST Repository

    Galvis, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media. We consider flow equations governed by elliptic equations in heterogeneous media with a large contrast in the coefficients. Our main goal is to develop domain decomposition preconditioners with the condition number that is independent of the contrast when there are variations within coarse regions. This is accomplished by designing coarse-scale spaces and interpolators that represent important features of the solution within each coarse region. The important features are characterized by the connectivities of high-conductivity regions. To detect these connectivities, we introduce an eigenvalue problem that automatically detects high-conductivity regions via a large gap in the spectrum. A main observation is that this eigenvalue problem has a few small, asymptotically vanishing eigenvalues. The number of these small eigenvalues is the same as the number of connected high-conductivity regions. The coarse spaces are constructed such that they span eigenfunctions corresponding to these small eigenvalues. These spaces are used within two-level additive Schwarz preconditioners as well as overlapping methods for the Schur complement to design preconditioners. We show that the condition number of the preconditioned systems is independent of the contrast. More detailed studies are performed for the case when the high-conductivity region is connected within coarse block neighborhoods. Our numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results presented in this paper. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. Laser-matter interaction at high intensity and high temporal contrast; Interaction laser matiere a haut flux et fort contraste temporel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumy, G

    2006-01-15

    The continuous progress in the development of laser installations has already lead to ultra-short pulses capable of achieving very high focalized intensities (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}). At these intensities, matter presents new non-linear behaviours, due to the fact that the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. The experimental access to this interaction regime on solid targets has long been forbidden because of the presence, alongside the femtosecond pulse, of a pedestal (mainly due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which occurs in the laser chain) intense enough to modify the state of the target. In this thesis, we first characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, a device which allows an improvement of the temporal contrast of the pulse: the Plasma Mirror. It consists in adjusting the focusing of the pulse on a dielectric target, so that the pedestal is mainly transmitted, while the main pulse is reflected by the overcritical plasma that it forms at the surface. The implementation of such a device on the UHI 10 laser facility (CEA Saclay - 10 TW - 60 fs) then allowed us to study the interaction between ultra-intense, high contrast pulses with solid targets. In a first part, we managed to generate and characterize dense plasmas resulting directly from the interaction between the main pulse and very thin foils (100 nm). This characterization was realized by using an XUV source obtained by high order harmonics generation in a rare gas jet. In a second part, we studied experimentally the phenomenon of high order harmonics generation on solid targets, which is still badly understood, but could potentially lead to a new kind of energetic ultra-short XUV sources. (author)

  9. The formation and physical origin of highly ionized cooling gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Norman, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    We present a physically clear cooling flow theory that explains the origin of warm diffuse gas seen primarily as highly ionized absorption line systems in the spectra of background sources. We predict the observed column densities of several highly ionized transitions such as O VI, O VII, Ne VIII, N V, and Mg X; and present a unified comparison of the model predictions with absorption lines seen in the Milky Way disk, Milky Way halo, starburst galaxies, the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium at low and high redshifts. We show that diffuse gas seen in such diverse environments can be simultaneously explained by a simple model of radiatively cooling gas. We show that most of such absorption line systems are consistent with being collisionally ionized, and estimate the maximum likelihood temperature of the gas in each observation. This model satisfactorily explains why O VI is regularly observed around star-forming low-z L* galaxies, and why N V is rarely seen around the same galaxies. We predict...

  10. High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shu-Fen; Chen Chun-Yan; Yang Yang; Xie Jun; Huang Wei; Shi Hong-Ying; Cheng Fan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on a high-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting device utilizing a moderate-reflection contrast-enhancement stack and a high refractive index anti-reflection layer.The contrast-enhancement stack consists of a thin metal anode layer,a dielectric bilayer,and a thick metal underlayer.The resulting device,with the optimized contrast-enhancement stack thicknesses of Ni (30 nm)/MgF2 (62 nm)/ZnS (16 nm)/Ni (20 nm) and the 25-nm-thick ZnS anti-reflection layer,achieves a luminous reflectance of 4.01% in the visible region and a maximum current efficiency of 0.99 cd/A (at 62.3 mA/cm2) together with a very stable chromaticity.The contrast ratio reaches 561∶1 at an on-state brightness of 1000 cd/m2 under an ambient illumination of 140 lx.In addition,the anti-reflection layer can als0 enhance the transmissivity of the cathode and improve light out-coupling by the effective restraint of microcavity effects.

  11. High Contrast Imaging in the Visible: First Experimental Results at the Large Binocular Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pedichini, F; Ambrosino, A; Puglisi, A; Pinna, E; Bailey, V; Carbonaro, L; Centrone, M; Christou, J; Esposito, S; Farinato, J; Fiore, F; Giallongo, E; Hill, J M; Hinz, P M; Sabatini, L

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, the SHARK-VIS (System for High contrast And coronography from R to K at VISual bands) Forerunner, a high contrast experimental imager operating at visible wavelengths, was installed at LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Here we report on the first results obtained by recent on-sky tests. These results show the extremely good performance of the LBT ExAO (Extreme Adaptive Optics) system at visible wavelengths, both in terms of spatial resolution and contrast achieved. Similarly to what was done by (Amara et al. 2012), we used the SHARK-VIS Forerunner data to quantitatively assess the contrast enhancement. This is done by injecting several different synthetic faint objects in the acquired data and applying the ADI (angular differential imaging) technique. A contrast of the order of $5 \\times 10^{-5}$ is obtained at 630 nm for angular separations from the star larger than 100 mas. These results are discussed in light of the future development of SHARK-VIS and compared to those obtained by other hi...

  12. Tunable Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Photodetector with Double High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Yvind, Kresten; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists...

  13. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  14. Achievement Motivation in High School: Contrasting Theoretical Models in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Celay, I. Montero; Tapia, J. Alonso

    1992-01-01

    Three models of achievement motivation in the classroom are contrasted. Results with 155 high school students suggest that the model of C. S. Dweck and E. S. Elliott offers a better explanation of the relationships among achievement motivation, attributions, emotional reactions, expectancies, and performance than do the other models. (SLD)

  15. The ZIMPOL high-contrast imaging polarimeter for SPHERE: design, manufacturing, and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, R.; Schmid, H.M.; Pragt, J.; Gisler, D.; Waters, R.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Charton, J.; Cumani, C.; Dohlen, K.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Feldt, M.; Groothuis, C.; de Haan, M.; Hanenburg, H.; Hubin, N.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Keller, C.; Kragt, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Mouillet, D.; Pavlov, A.; Rigal, F.; Rochat, S.; Salasnich, B.; Steiner, P.; Thalmann, C.; Venema, L.; Wildi, F.

    2010-01-01

    ZIMPOL is the high contrast imaging polarimeter subsystem of the ESO SPHERE instrument. ZIMPOL is dedicated to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extrasolar planets. ZIMPOL is located behind an extreme AO system (SAXO) and a stellar coronagraph. SPHERE is foreseen

  16. The ZIMPOL high-contrast imaging polarimeter for SPHERE: design, manufacturing, and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, R.; Schmid, H.M.; Pragt, J.; Gisler, D.; Waters, R.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Charton, J.; Cumani, C.; Dohlen, K.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Feldt, M.; Groothuis, C.; de Haan, M.; Hanenburg, H.; Hubin, N.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Keller, C.; Kragt, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Mouillet, D.; Pavlov, A.; Rigal, F.; Rochat, S.; Salasnich, B.; Steiner, P.; Thalmann, C.; Venema, L.; Wildi, F.

    2010-01-01

    ZIMPOL is the high contrast imaging polarimeter subsystem of the ESO SPHERE instrument. ZIMPOL is dedicated to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extrasolar planets. ZIMPOL is located behind an extreme AO system (SAXO) and a stellar coronagraph. SPHERE is foreseen

  17. Dynamical dispersion engineering in coupled vertical cavities employing a high-contrast grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    strength. This can be implemented by employing a high-contrast grating (HCG) as the coupling reflector in a system of two coupled vertical cavities, and engineering both the HCG reflection phase and amplitude response. Several examples of HCG-based coupled cavities with novel features are discussed...

  18. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  19. Vortex Image Processing (VIP) package for high-contrast direct imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C.; Absil, O.; Wertz, O.

    2016-05-01

    VIP is a Python instrument-agnostic toolbox featuring a flexible framework for reproducible and robust data reduction. VIP currently supports three high-contrast imaging observational techniques: angular, reference-star and multi-spectral differential imaging. The code can be downloaded from our git repository on Github: http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP

  20. Scientific Design of a High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Ground based telescopes equipped with adaptive optics systems and specialized science cameras are now capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets. We present the scientific design for a high contrast integral field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. This lenslet based integral field spectrograph will be implemented into the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, called SCExAO.

  1. High contrast, depth-resolved thermoreflectance imaging using a Nipkow disk confocal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, J A; Yang, T; Tuominen, M T; Hudgings, J A

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a depth-resolved confocal thermal imaging technique that is capable of measuring the temperature distribution of an encapsulated or semi-obstructed device. The technique employs lock-in charge coupled device-based thermoreflectance imaging via a Nipkow disk confocal microscope, which is used to eliminate extraneous reflections from above or below the imaging plane. We use the confocal microscope to predict the decrease in contrast and dynamic range due to an obstruction for widefield thermoreflectance, and we demonstrate the ability of confocal thermoreflectance to maintain a high contrast and thermal sensitivity in the presence of large reflecting obstructions in the optical path.

  2. Non-contrast enhanced MRI for evaluation of breast lesions: comparison of non-contrast enhanced high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) images vs. contrast enhanced fat-suppressed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Wood, Abbie M.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Kulkarni, Kirti; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Pesce, Lorenzo L.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI for diagnosis of breast cancer without injection of contrast media: to compare the performance of pre-contrast HiSS images to conventional contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, based on image quality and in the task of classifying benign and malignant breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten benign and 44 malignant lesions were imaged at 1.5T with HiSS (pre-contrast administration) and conventional fat-suppressed imaging (3–10 min post-contrast). This set of 108 images, after randomization, was evaluated by three experienced radiologists blinded to the imaging technique. BIRADS morphologic criteria (lesion shape; lesion margin; internal signal intensity pattern) and final assessment were used to measure reader performance. Image quality was evaluated based on boundary delineation and quality of fat suppression. An overall probability of malignancy was assigned to each lesion for HiSS and conventional images separately. RESULTS On boundary delineation and quality of fat-suppression, pre-contrast HiSS scored similarly to conventional post-contrast MRI. On benign vs. malignant lesion separation, there was no statistically significant difference in ROC performance between HiSS and conventional MRI, and HiSS met a reasonable non-inferiority condition. CONCLUSION Pre-contrast HiSS imaging is a promising approach for showing lesion morphology without blooming and other artifacts caused by contrast agents. HiSS images could be used to guide subsequent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI scans, to maximize spatial and temporal resolution in suspicious regions. HiSS MRI without contrast agent injection may be particularly important for patients at risk for contrast-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, or allergic reactions. PMID:21962476

  3. High-Contrast Imaging using Adaptive Optics for Extrasolar Planet Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Julia Wilhelmsen [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Direct imaging of extrasolar planets is an important, but challenging, next step in planetary science. Most planets identified to date have been detected indirectly--not by emitted or reflected light but through the effect of the planet on the parent star. For example, radial velocity techniques measure the doppler shift in the spectrum of the star produced by the presence of a planet. Indirect techniques only probe about 15% of the orbital parameter space of our solar system. Direct methods would probe new parameter space, and the detected light can be analyzed spectroscopically, providing new information about detected planets. High contrast adaptive optics systems, also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO), will require contrasts of between 10-6 and 10-7 at angles of 4-24 λ/D on an 8-m class telescope to image young Jupiter-like planets still warm with the heat of formation. Contrast is defined as the intensity ratio of the dark wings of the image, where a planet might be, to the bright core of the star. Such instruments will be technically challenging, requiring high order adaptive optics with > 2000 actuators and improved diffraction suppression. Contrast is ultimately limited by residual static wavefront errors, so an extrasolar planet imager will require wavefront control with an accuracy of better than 1 nm rms within the low- to mid-spatial frequency range. Laboratory demonstrations are critical to instrument development. The ExAO testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics was designed with low wavefront error and precision optical metrology, which is used to explore contrast limits and develop the technology needed for an extrasolar planet imager. A state-of-the-art, 1024-actuator micro-electrical-mechanical-systems (MEMS) deformable mirror was installed and characterized to provide active wavefront control and test this novel technology. I present 6.5 x 10-8 contrast measurements with a prolate shaped pupil and

  4. High-index-contrast grating reflector with beam steering ability for the transmitted beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Luca; Malureanu, Radu; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2011-11-07

    High-index contrast grating mirrors providing wave front control of the transmitted light as well as high reflectivity over a broad bandwidth are suggested and both numerically and experimentally investigated. General design rules to engineer these structures for different applications are derived. Such grating mirrors would have a significant impact on low cost laser fabrication, since a more efficient integration of optoelectronic modules can be achieved by avoiding expensive external lens systems.

  5. Lyot-plane phase masks for improved high-contrast imaging with a vortex coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Ruane, Garreth J; Absil, Olivier; Mawet, Dimitri; Delacroix, Christian; Carlomagno, Brunella; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2015-01-01

    The vortex coronagraph is an optical instrument that precisely removes on-axis starlight allowing for high contrast imaging at small angular separation from the star, thereby providing a crucial capability for direct detection and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks. Telescopes with aperture obstructions, such as secondary mirrors and spider support structures, require advanced coronagraph designs to provide adequate starlight suppression. We introduce a phase-only Lyot-plane optic to the vortex coronagraph that offers improved contrast performance on telescopes with complicated apertures. Potential solutions for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) are described and compared. Adding a Lyot-plane phase mask relocates residual starlight away from a region of the image plane thereby reducing stellar noise and improving sensitivity to off-axis companions. The phase mask is calculated using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Numerically, we achieve a contrast on the order of $10^...

  6. Phase Quantization Study of Spatial Light Modulator for Extreme High contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Jiangpei

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extreme high contrast. We present the phase quantization study of spatial light modulator for wave front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask, respectively. The simulation result has constrained the specification for phase accuracy of SLM in above two optical configurations. Finally, we have demonstrated that the S...

  7. Survey of Experimental Results in High-Contrast Imaging for Future Exoplanet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, P. R.; Belikov, R.; Cash, W.; Clampin, M.; Glassman, T.; Guyon, O.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kern, B. D.; Lyon, R.; Mawet, D.; Moody, D.; Samuele, R.; Serabyn, E.; Sirbu, D.; Trauger, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present and compare experimental results in high contrast imaging representing the state of the art in coronagraph and starshade technology. These experiments have been undertaken with the goal of demonstrating the capability of detecting Earth-like planets around nearby Sun-like stars. The contrast of an Earth seen in reflected light around a Sun-like star would be about 1.2 x 10(exp -10). Several of the current candidate technologies now yield raw contrasts of 1.0 x 10(exp -9) or better, and so should enable the detection of Earths, assuming a gain in sensitivity in post-processing of a factor of 10. We present results of coronagraph and starshade experiments conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths. Cross-sections of dark fields are directly compared as a function of field angle and bandwidth. The strength and differences of the techniques are compared.

  8. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  9. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context).

  10. Is the reproduction of Donax trunculus affected by their sites of origin contrasted by their level of contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Sofiène; Métais, Isabelle; Ayache, Nadia; Boussetta, Hamadi; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    The reproductive cycle of bivalves is regulated by several natural environmental factors but exposure to chemical pollutants can also interfere and may result in advanced or delayed spawning season. To our knowledge, the gametogenic cycle of the suspension-feeder bivalve Donax trunculus has not yet been used as biomonitoring tool in ecotoxicological surveys. The aim of this study was to examine over a year physiological reproductive endpoints (sex-ratio, gametogenic and energy reserve cycles) and biological indices (condition index, allometry) in D. trunculus originating from two sites differing by their level of contamination. Specimens were collected bimonthly from November 2008 to October 2009 from a polluted site (Radès Méliane) and a comparatively reference site (Sidi Jehmi) in the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia). Five stages were depicted by histological examination of gonads: undifferentiated, developing, mature, spawn and spent. Differences in the gametogenic cycle according to the site of origin of bivalves were observed. The spawning period began in March and was maximum in May in bivalves from both sites, but the percentage of spawning animals was higher in the polluted site vs the reference site. The spawning period was shorter in animals from the polluted site comparatively to the reference site. Energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) were higher in March and May comparatively to the other studied periods in bivalves from both sites. Lower energy reserves levels were usually observed in animals from the polluted site compared to the reference site. Seasonal variations of the condition index were associated to the reproductive and nutritive status of bivalves. Differences in allometry were depicted between bivalves from both studied sites. If we try to link allometry, energy reserves and reproduction, it can be hypothesized that for bivalves from the reference site, energy reserves are allocated to gametogenesis and length growth. For bivalves from the polluted

  11. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. A global approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    We apply dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media to extract the dominant coherent structures and derive reduced-order models via Galerkin projection. Permeability fields with high contrast are considered to investigate the capability of these techniques to capture the main flow features and forecast the flow evolution within a certain accuracy. A DMD-based approach shows a better predictive capability due to its ability to accurately extract the information relevant to long-time dynamics, in particular, the slowly-decaying eigenmodes corresponding to largest eigenvalues. Our study enables a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of these techniques for flows in high-contrast porous media. Furthermore, we discuss the robustness of DMD- and POD-based reduced-order models with respect to variations in initial conditions, permeability fields, and forcing terms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Contrasting origins of the upper mantle revealed by hafnium and lead isotopes from the Southeast Indian Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Barry B; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pyle, Douglas G; Christie, David M

    2004-11-04

    The origin of the isotopic signature of Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts has remained enigmatic, because the geochemical composition of these basalts is consistent either with pollution from recycled, ancient altered oceanic crust and sediments, or with ancient continental crust or lithosphere. The radiogenic isotopic signature may therefore be the result of contamination of the upper mantle by plumes containing recycled altered ancient oceanic crust and sediments, detachment and dispersal of continental material into the shallow mantle during rifting and breakup of Gondwana, or contamination of the upper mantle by ancient subduction processes. The identification of a process operating on a scale large enough to affect major portions of the Indian mid-ocean ridge basalt source region has been a long-standing problem. Here we present hafnium and lead isotope data from across the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary at the Australian-Antarctic discordance region of the Southeast Indian Ridge, which demonstrate that the Pacific and Indian upper mantle basalt source domains were each affected by different mechanisms. We infer that the Indian upper-mantle isotope signature in this region is affected mainly by lower continental crust entrained during Gondwana rifting, whereas the isotope signature of the Pacific upper mantle is influenced predominantly by ocean floor subduction-related processes.

  13. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  14. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Lin, Xiaojie; Yuan, Falei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  15. Novel Gd nanoparticles enhance vascular contrast for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tot Bui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd, with its 7 unpaired electrons in 4f orbitals that provide a very large magnetic moment, is proven to be among the best agents for contrast enhanced MRI. Unfortunately, the most potent MR contrast agent based on Gd requires relatively high doses of Gd. The Gd-chelated to diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA, or other derivatives (at 0.1 mmole/kg recommended dose, distribute broadly into tissues and clear through the kidney. These contrast agents carry the risk of Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF, particularly in kidney impaired subjects. Thus, Gd contrast agents that produce higher resolution images using a much lower Gd dose could address both imaging sensitivity and Gd safety. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether a biocompatible lipid nanoparticle with surface bound Gd can improve MRI contrast sensitivity, we constructed Gd-lipid nanoparticles (Gd-LNP containing lipid bound DTPA and Gd. The Gd-LNP were intravenously administered to rats and MR images collected. We found that Gd in Gd-LNP produced a greater than 33-fold higher longitudinal (T(1 relaxivity, r(1, constant than the current FDA approved Gd-chelated contrast agents. Intravenous administration of these Gd-LNP at only 3% of the recommended clinical Gd dose produced MRI signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 300 in all vasculatures. Unlike current Gd contrast agents, these Gd-LNP stably retained Gd in normal vasculature, and are eliminated predominately through the biliary, instead of the renal system. Gd-LNP did not appear to accumulate in the liver or kidney, and was eliminated completely within 24 hrs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The novel Gd-nanoparticles provide high quality contrast enhanced vascular MRI at 97% reduced dose of Gd and do not rely on renal clearance. This new agent is likely to be suitable for patients exhibiting varying degrees of renal impairment. The simple and adaptive nanoparticle design could accommodate

  16. Susceptibility Contrast in High Field MRI of Human Brain as a Function of Tissue Iron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility provides an important contrast mechanism for MRI. Increasingly, susceptibility-based contrast is being exploited to investigate brain tissue microstructure and to detect abnormal levels of brain iron as these have been implicated in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent magnetic susceptibility-related contrast at high field relates to actual brain iron concentrations. In this study, we performed susceptibility weighted imaging as a function of field strength on healthy brains in vivo and post-mortem brain tissues at 1.5T, 3T and 7T. Iron histology was performed on the tissue samples for comparison. The calculated susceptibility-related parameters R2* and signal frequency shift in four iron-rich regions (putamen, globus pallidus, caudate, and thalamus) showed an almost linear dependence (r=0.90 for R2*; r=0.83 for phase, p<0.01) on field strength, suggesting that potential ferritin saturation effects are not relevant to susceptibility-weighted contrast for field strengths up to 7T. The R2* dependence on the putative (literature-based) iron concentration was 0.048 Hz/Tesla/ppm. The histological data from brain samples confirmed the linear dependence of R2* on field strength and showed a slope against iron concentration of 0.0099 Hz/Tesla/ppm dry-weight, which is equivalent to 0.05 Hz/Tesla/ppm wet-weight and closely matched the calculated value in vivo. These results confirm the validity of using susceptibility-weighted contrast as an indicator of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. The absence of saturation effects opens the way to exploit the benefits of MRI at high field strengths for the detection of iron distributions with high sensitivity and resolution. PMID:19027861

  17. High-contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2013-09-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to JWST, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for future Extremely Large Telescopes, even when the pupil features a missing segment" . We show that the converging non-linear mappings resulting from our Deformable Mirror shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and strut's while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime and illustrate the broadband properties of ACAD in the case of the pupil configuration corresponding to the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets. Since details about these telescopes are not yet available to the broader astronomical community, our test case is based on a geometry mimicking the actual one, to the best of our knowledge.

  18. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  19. Image Formation in High Contrast Optical Systems: The Role of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.

    2004-01-01

    To find evidence of life in the Universe outside our solar system is one of the most compelling and visionary adventures of the 21st century. The technologies to create the telescopes and instruments that will enable this discovery are now within the grasp of mankind. Direct imaging of a very faint planet around a neighboring bright star requires high contrast or a hypercontrast optical imaging system capable of controlling unwanted radiation within the system to one part in ten to the 11th. This paper identifies several physical phenomena that affect image quality in high contrast imaging systems. Polarization induced at curved metallic surfaces and by anisotropy in the deposition process (Smith-Purcell effect) along with beam shifts introduced by the Goos-Hachen effect are discussed. A typical configuration is analyzed, and technical risk mitigation concepts are discussed.

  20. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT): 1. Testbed design

    CERN Document Server

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Elliot, Erin; Perrin, Marshall D; Wallace, J Kent; Groff, Tyler; Carlotti, Alexis; Mawet, Dimitri; Sheckells, Matt; Shaklan, Stuart; Macintosh, Bruce; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Searching for nearby habitable worlds with direct imaging and spectroscopy will require a telescope large enough to provide angular resolution and sensitivity to planets around a significant sample of stars. Segmented telescopes are a compelling option to obtain such large apertures. However, these telescope designs have a complex geometry (central obstruction, support structures, segmentation) that makes high-contrast imaging more challenging. We are developing a new high-contrast imaging testbed at STScI to provide an integrated solution for wavefront control and starlight suppression on complex aperture geometries. We present our approach for the testbed optical design, which defines the surface requirements for each mirror to minimize the amplitude-induced errors from the propagation of out-of-pupil surfaces. Our approach guarantees that the testbed will not be limited by these Fresnel propagation effects, but only by the aperture geometry. This approach involves iterations between classical ray-tracing o...

  1. High contrast imaging of exoplanets on ELTs using a super-Nyquist wavefront control scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Gerard, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    One of the key science goals for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) is the detailed characterization of already known directly imaged exoplanets. The typical adaptive optics (AO) Nyquist control region for ELTs is ~0.4 arcseconds, placing many already known directly imaged planets outside the DM control region and not allowing any standard wavefront control scheme to remove speckles that would allow higher SNR images/spectra to be acquired. This can be fixed with super-Nyquist wavefront control (SNWFC), using a sine wave phase plate to allow for wavefront control outside the central DM Nyquist region. We demonstrate that SNWFC is feasible through a simple, deterministic, non-coronagraphic, super-Nyquist speckle nulling technique in the adaptive optics laboratory at the National Research Council of Canada. We also present results in simulation of how SNWFC using the self coherent camera (SCC) can be used for high contrast imaging. This technique could be implemented on future high contrast imaging instruments t...

  2. Multiscale modeling of high contrast brinkman equations with applications to deformable porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2013-06-18

    Simulating porous media flows has a wide range of applications. Often, these applications involve many scales and multi-physical processes. A useful tool in the analysis of such problems in that of homogenization as an averaged description is derived circumventing the need for complicated simulation of the fine scale features. In this work, we recall recent developments of homogenization techniques in the application of flows in deformable porous media. In addition, homogenization of media with high-contrast. In particular, we recall the main ideas of the homogenization of slowly varying Stokes flow and summarize the results of [4]. We also present the ideas for extending these techniques to high-contrast deformable media [3]. These ideas are connected by the modeling of multiscale fluid-structure interaction problems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. High-dynamic-range cross-correlator for shot-to-shot measurement of temporal contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Akira; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Koichi; Mori, Michiaki; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-01-01

    The temporal contrast of an ultrahigh-intensity laser is a crucial parameter for laser plasma experiments. We have developed a multichannel cross-correlator (MCCC) for single-shot measurements of the temporal contrast in a high-power laser system. The MCCC is based on third-order cross-correlation, and has four channels and independent optical delay lines. We have experimentally demonstrated that the MCCC system achieves a high dynamic range of ˜1012 and a large temporal window of ˜1 ns. Moreover, we were able to measure the shot-to-shot fluctuations of a short-prepulse intensity at -26 ps and long-pulse (amplified spontaneous emission, ASE) intensities at -30, -450, and -950 ps before the arrival of the main pulse at the interaction point.

  4. Propagation-based phase-contrast tomography for high-resolution lung imaging with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, Martin, E-mail: mkrenke@gwdg.de; Töpperwien, Mareike; Salditt, Tim, E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de [Institute for X-Ray Physics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Dullin, Christian [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Alves, Frauke [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen (Germany); Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We have performed high-resolution phase-contrast tomography on whole mice with a laboratory setup. Enabled by a high-brilliance liquid-metal-jet source, we show the feasibility of propagation-based phase contrast in local tomography even in the presence of strongly absorbing surrounding tissue as it is the case in small animal imaging of the lung. We demonstrate the technique by reconstructions of the mouse lung for two different fields of view, covering the whole organ, and a zoom to the local finer structure of terminal airways and alveoli. With a resolution of a few micrometers and the wide availability of the technique, studies of larger biological samples at the cellular level become possible.

  5. Study on differences between high contrast grating reflectors for TM and TE polarizations and their impact on VCSEL designs

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical study of differences in broadband high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflectors for TM and TE polarizations is presented, covering various grating parameters and properties of HCGs. It is shown that the HCG reflectors for TM polarization (TM HCG reflectors) have much thicker grating thicknesses and smaller grating periods than the TE HCG reflectors. This difference is found to originate from the different boundary conditions met for the electric field of each polarization. Due to this difference, the TM HCG reflectors have much shorter evanescent extension of HCG modes into low-refractive-index media surrounding the HCG. This enables to achieve a very short effective cavity length for VCSELs, which is essential for ultrahigh speed VCSELs and MEMS-tunable VCSELs. The obtained understandings on polarization dependences will be able to serve as important design guidelines for various HCG-based devices.

  6. High-resolution breast tomography at high energy: a feasibility study of phase contrast imaging on a whole breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrókay, A.; Diemoz, P. C.; Schlossbauer, T.; Brun, E.; Bamberg, F.; Mayr, D.; Reiser, M. F.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on phase contrast imaging (PCI) mammography have demonstrated an enhancement of breast morphology and cancerous tissue visualization compared to conventional imaging. We show here the first results of the PCI analyser-based imaging (ABI) in computed tomography (CT) mode on whole and large (>12 cm) tumour-bearing breast tissues. We demonstrate in this work the capability of the technique of working at high x-ray energies and producing high-contrast images of large and complex specimens. One entire breast of an 80-year-old woman with invasive ductal cancer was imaged using ABI-CT with monochromatic 70 keV x-rays and an area detector of 92×92 µm2 pixel size. Sagittal slices were reconstructed from the acquired data, and compared to corresponding histological sections. Comparison with conventional absorption-based CT was also performed. Five blinded radiologists quantitatively evaluated the visual aspects of the ABI-CT images with respect to sharpness, soft tissue contrast, tissue boundaries and the discrimination of different structures/tissues. ABI-CT excellently depicted the entire 3D architecture of the breast volume by providing high-resolution and high-contrast images of the normal and cancerous breast tissues. These results are an important step in the evolution of PCI-CT towards its clinical implementation.

  7. High-contrast imaging of mycobacterium tuberculosis using third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Eungjang; Park, Seung-Han

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical microcopy has become an important tool in investigating biomaterials due to its various advantages such as label-free imaging capabilities. In particular, it has been shown that third-harmonic generation (THG) signals can be produced at interfaces between an aqueous medium (e.g. cytoplasm, interstitial fluid) and a mineralized lipidic surface. In this work, we have demonstrated that label-free high-contrast THG images of the mycobacterium tuberculosis can be obtained using THG microscopy.

  8. The SEEDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets Around Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Taichi; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Livingston, John; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2017-03-01

    We present high-contrast observations of 68 young stellar objects (YSOs) that have been explored as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey on the Subaru telescope. Our targets are very young (population of planets and brown dwarfs at the very youngest ages; these may be compared to the results of surveys targeting somewhat older stars. Our sample and the associated observational results will help enable detailed statistical analyses of giant planet formation.

  9. Contrast validation test for retrieval method of high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hailong; GUO Peifang; HAN Shuzong; XIE Qiang; ZHOU Liangming

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the working principles of high frequency ground wave radar for retrieval of ocean wave and sea wind elements were used to systematically study the data obtained from contrast validation test in Zhoushan sea area of Zhejiang Province on Oct. 2000, to validate the accuracy of OSMAR2000for wave and wind parameters, and to analyze the possible error caused when using OSMAR2000 to retrieve ocean parameters.

  10. High Contrast Imaging and Wavefront Control with a PIAA Coronagraph: Laboratory System Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Totems, Julien; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Taro; Blain, Celia; Belikov, Ruslan

    2009-01-01

    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is a high performance coronagraph concept able to work at small angular separation with little loss in throughput. We present results obtained with a laboratory PIAA system including active wavefront control. The system has a 94.3% throughput (excluding coating losses) and operates in air with monochromatic light. Our testbed achieved a 2.27e-7 raw contrast between 1.65 lambda/D (inner working angle of the coronagraph configuration tested) and 4.4 lambda/D (outer working angle). Through careful calibration, we were able to separate this residual light into a dynamic coherent component (turbulence, vibrations) at 4.5e-8 contrast and a static incoherent component (ghosts and/or polarization missmatch) at 1.6e-7 contrast. Pointing errors are controlled at the 1e-3 lambda/D level using a dedicated low order wavefront sensor. While not sufficient for direct imaging of Earth-like planets from space, the 2.27e-7 raw contrast achieved already exceeds requirem...

  11. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Longitudinal proton probing of ultrafast and high-contrast laser-solid interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertazzi B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an experiment aimed at measuring self-generated magnetic fields produced in solids by high electron currents following high-intensity and high contrast short-pulse laser irradiation. This was done using longitudinal high resolution proton deflectometry. The experiment was performed at the Titan-JLF laser facility with a high-power short-pulse beam (700 fs, ∼  110 J split into two beams irradiating two solid targets. One beam is used for the generation of protons and the other beam for the generation of the ultra-high currents of electrons and of the associated magnetic fields. This capability allows us to study the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetic fields and its dependence on the laser intensity and target material.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of a high relaxivity manganese(II)-based MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troughton, Jeffrey S; Greenfield, Matthew T; Greenwood, Jaclyn M; Dumas, Stéphane; Wiethoff, Andrea J; Wang, Jufeng; Spiller, Marga; McMurry, Thomas J; Caravan, Peter

    2004-10-04

    The manganese(II) ion has many favorable properties that lead to its potential use as an MRI contrast agent: high spin number, long electronic relaxation time, labile water exchange. The present work describes the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a novel Mn(II) complex (MnL1) based on EDTA and also contains a moiety that noncovalently binds the complex to serum albumin, the same moiety used in the gadolinium based contrast agent MS-325. Ultrafiltration albumin binding measurements (0.1 mM, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) indicated that the complex binds well to plasma proteins (rabbit: 96 +/- 2% bound, human: 93 +/- 2% bound), and most likely to serum albumin (rabbit: 89 +/- 2% bound, human 98 +/- 2% bound). Observed relaxivities (+/- 5%) of the complex were measured (20 MHz, 37 degrees C, 0.1 mM, pH 7.4) in HEPES buffer (r(1) = 5.8 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), rabbit plasma (r(1) = 51 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), human plasma (r(1) = 46 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), 4.5% rabbit serum albumin (r(1) = 47 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), and 4.5% human serum albumin (r(1) = 48 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The water exchange rate was near optimal for an MRI contrast agent (k(298) = 2.3 +/- 0.9 x 10(8) s(-)(1)). Variable temperature NMRD profiles indicated that the high relaxivity was due to slow tumbling of the albumin-bound complex and fast exchange of the inner sphere water. The concept of a high relaxivity Mn(II)-based contrast agent was validated by imaging at 1.5 T. In a rabbit model of carotid artery injury, MnL1 clearly delineated both arteries and veins while also distinguishing between healthy tissue and regions of vessel damage.

  14. Topography improvements in MEMS DMs for high-contrast, high-resolution imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop and demonstrate an innovative microfabrication process to substantially improve the surface quality achievable in high-resolution...

  15. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  16. High-Contrast Imaging and Wavefront Control with a PIAA Coronagraph: Laboratory System Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Martinache, Frantz; Totems, Julien; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Taro; Blain, Celia; Belikov, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is a high-performance coronagraph concept able to work at small angular separation with little loss in throughput. We present results obtained with a laboratory PIAA system including active wavefront control. The system has a 94.3% throughput (excluding coating losses) and operates in air with monochromatic light. Our testbed achieved a 2.27 × 10-7 raw contrast between 1.65λ/D (inner working angle of the coronagraph configuration tested) and 4.4λ/D (outer working angle). Through careful calibration, we were able to separate this residual light into a dynamic coherent component (turbulence, vibrations) at 4.5 × 10-8 contrast and a static incoherent component (ghosts and/or polarization mismatch) at 1.6 × 10-7 contrast. Pointing errors are controlled at the 10-3λ/D level using a dedicated low-order wavefront sensor. While not sufficient for direct imaging of Earthlike planets from space, the 2.27 × 10-7 raw contrast achieved already exceeds requirements for a ground-based extreme adaptive optics system aimed at direct detection of more massive exoplanets. We show that over a 4 hr period, averaged wavefront errors have been controlled to the 3.5 × 10-9 contrast level. This result is particularly encouraging for ground-based extreme-AO systems relying on long-term stability and absence of static wavefront errors to recover planets much fainter than the fast boiling speckle halo.

  17. Unilateral high origin of facial artery associated with a variant origin of the glandular branch to the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandas Rao KG

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The variations in the carotid arteries and their branches are common in the anterior triangle of the neck. However, variations in the origin of facial artery and its branches given in the digastric triangle are not very common. A case of high origin of facial artery and abnormal origin of the glandular branch to submandibular gland encountered during routine dissection of anterior triangle of the neck is reported. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery deep in the digastric triangle and the glandular branch to submandibular gland was also arising from the external carotid artery about 1 cm below the origin of facial artery in the digastric triangle. Further, the surgical, importance of the case was discussed.

  18. Hydrogels incorporating GdDOTA: towards highly efficient dual T1/T2 MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Thomas; Roullin, Valérie Gaëlle; Cadiou, Cyril; Callewaert, Maïté; Andry, Marie Christine; Portefaix, Christophe; Hoeffel, Christine; de Goltstein, Marie Christine; Port, Marc; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert; Molinari, Michaël; Chuburu, Françoise

    2012-09-03

    Do not tumble dry: Gadolinium-DOTA encapsulated into polysaccharide nanoparticles (GdDOTA NPs) exhibited high relaxivity (r(1) =101.7 s(-1) mM(-1) per Gd(3+) ion at 37 °C and 20 MHz). This high relaxation rate is due to efficient Gd loading, reduced tumbling of the Gd complex, and the hydrogel nature of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as a T(1)/T(2) dual-mode contrast agent was studied in C6 cells.

  19. High sensitivity contrast enhanced optical coherence tomography for functional in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed and applied highly-scattering large gold nanorods (LGNRs) and custom spectral detection algorithms for high sensitivity contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We were able to detect LGNRs at a concentration as low as 50 pM in blood. We used this approach for noninvasive 3D imaging of blood vessels deep in solid tumors in living mice. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed imaging of spectrally-distinct LGNRs that enabled observations of functional drainage in lymphatic networks. This method, which we call MOZART, provides a platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution.

  20. The Subharmonic Behavior and Thresholds of High Frequency Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are encapsulated micro-bubbles used for diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical ultrasound. The agents oscillate nonlinearly about their equilibrium radii upon sufficient acoustic forcing and produce unique acoustic signatures that allow them to be distinguished from scattering from the surrounding tissue. The subharmonic response occurs below the fundamental and is associated with an acoustic pressure threshold. Subharmonic imaging using ultrasound contrast agents has been established for clinical applications at standard diagnostic frequencies typically below 20 MHz. However, for emerging applications of high frequency applications (above 20 MHz) subharmonic imaging is an area of on-going research. The effects of attenuation from tissue are more significant and the characterization of agents is not as well understood. Due to specificity and control production, polymer agents are useful for high frequency applications. In this study, we highlight novel measurement techniques to measure and characterize the mechanical properties of the shell of polymer contrast agents. The definition of the subharmonic threshold is investigated with respect to mono-frequency and chirp forcing waveforms which have been used to achieve optimal subharmonic content in the backscattered signal. Time frequency analysis using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the Hilbert-Huang transform facilitates a more sensitive and robust methodology for characterization of subharmonic content with respect to non-stationary forcing. A new definition of the subharmonic threshold is proposed with respect to the energy content of the associated adaptive basis decomposition. Additional studies with respect to targeted agent behavior and cardiovascular disease are discussed. NIH, ONR.

  1. High-index-contrast multilayer hollow waveguides for mid-IR laser delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Kendall, Wesley Y.; Harrington, James A.

    2016-03-01

    Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) have been researched extensively for the efficient transmission of radiation over a broad spectral range spanning from the visible region to the far-IR. One such HGW film structure consists of a metallic substrate with overlaying multilayer dielectric thin film stack of alternating high and low refractive index films. The optical properties of such multilayer thin film stacks are well established and provide a method for developing photonic bandgap fibers with exceptionally low attenuation losses at a desired wavelength. Transmission losses can be minimized in multilayer waveguides through two main approaches; either maximizing the number of alternating layer pairs or maximizing the index contrast between adjacent films. In practice, it has been shown that for liquid-phase deposition-based procedures, the former approach leads to compounding surface and interface roughness, negating the low-loss advantage of a multilayer waveguide. Thus, this research focuses on maximizing index contrast between adjacent dielectrics in an attempt to minimize the number of films required to achieve acceptable transmission characteristics both in theory and in practice. In this study, multilayer waveguides are fabricated using three dielectric materials: silver iodide, lead sulfide, and cyclic olefin copolymer. Through exploitation of their high index contrast, these materials are used to develop low-film-count multilayer waveguides designed for enhanced transmission at both Er:YAG and CO2 laser wavelengths.

  2. A High Contrast Imaging Survey of SIM Lite Planet Search Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, Angelle M; Law, Nicholas M

    2010-01-01

    With the development of extreme high contrast ground-based adaptive optics instruments and space missions aimed at detecting and characterizing Jupiter- and terrestrial-mass planets, it is critical that each target star be thoroughly vetted to determine whether it is a viable target given both the instrumental design and scientific goals of the program. With this in mind, we have conducted a high contrast imaging survey of mature AFGKM stars with the PALAO/PHARO instrument on the Palomar 200 inch telescope. The survey reached sensitivities sufficient to detect brown dwarf companions at separations of > 50 AU. The results of this survey will be utilized both by future direct imaging projects such as GPI, SPHERE and P1640 and indirect detection missions such as SIM Lite. Out of 84 targets, all but one have no close-in (0.45-1") companions and 64 (76%) have no stars at all within the 25" field-of-view. The sensitivity contrasts in the Ks passband ranged from 4.5 to 10 for this set of observations. These stars we...

  3. Nomarski serial time-encoded amplified microscopy for high-speed contrast-enhanced imaging of transparent media

    OpenAIRE

    Fard, Ali M.; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Gossett, Daniel R.; Di Carlo, Dino; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    High-speed high-contrast imaging modalities that enable image acquisition of transparent media without the need for chemical staining are essential tools for a broad range of applications; from semiconductor process monitoring to blood screening. Here we introduce a method for contrast-enhanced imaging of unstained transparent objects that is capable of high-throughput imaging. This method combines the Nomarski phase contrast capability with the ultrahigh frame rate and shutter speed of seria...

  4. Highly monodisperse low-magnetization magnetite nanocubes as simultaneous T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V. K.; Alipour, A.; Soran-Erdem, Z.; Aykut, Z. G.; Demir, H. V.

    2015-06-01

    We report the first study of highly monodisperse and crystalline iron oxide nanocubes with sub-nm controlled size distribution (9.7 +/- 0.5 nm in size) that achieve simultaneous contrast enhancement in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we confirmed the magnetite structure of iron oxide nanocubes by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, optical absorption and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These magnetite nanocubes exhibit superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior simultaneously by virtue of their finely controlled shape and size. The magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic moment values are favorably much lower because of the small size and cubic shape of the nanoparticles, which results in an enhanced spin canting effect. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we showed their potential as dual contrast agents for both T1- and T2-weighted MRI via phantom studies, in vivo imaging and relaxivity measurements. Therefore, these low-magnetization magnetite nanocubes, while being non-toxic and bio-compatible, hold great promise as excellent dual-mode T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI.We report the first study of highly monodisperse and crystalline iron oxide nanocubes with sub-nm controlled size distribution (9.7 +/- 0.5 nm in size) that achieve simultaneous contrast enhancement in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we confirmed the magnetite structure of iron oxide nanocubes by X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, optical absorption and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These magnetite nanocubes exhibit superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior simultaneously by virtue of their finely controlled shape and size. The magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic moment values are favorably much lower because of the small size and cubic shape of the nanoparticles, which results in an enhanced spin

  5. Modeling the subjective quality of highly contrasted videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard

    2015-02-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.

  6. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapata, A., E-mail: adrian.sarapata@tum.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 and Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Pfeiffer, F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  7. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Finkenthal, M.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Pfeiffer, F.; Stutman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  8. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at Los

  9. Digital differential interference contrast autofocus for high-resolution oil-immersion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feimo; Hodgson, Louis; Price, Jeffrey H; Hahn, Klaus M

    2008-07-01

    Continued advances in cellular fluorescent biosensors enable studying intracellular protein dynamics in individual, living cells. Autofocus is valuable in such studies to compensate for temperature drift, uneven substrate over multiple fields of view, and cell growth during long-term high-resolution time-lapse studies of hours to days. Observing cellular dynamics with the highest possible resolution and sensitivity motivates the use of high numerical aperture (NA) oil-immersion objectives, and control of fluorescence exposure to minimize phototoxicity. To limit phototoxicity, to maximize light throughput of the objective for biosensor studies, and because phase contrast is distorted by the meniscus in microtiter plates, we studied autofocus in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy with a 60x 1.45 NA oil objective after removing the analyzer from the fluorescent light path. Based on a study of the experimental DIC modulation transfer function, we designed a new bandpass digital filter for measuring image sharpness. Repeated tests of DIC autofocus with this digital filter on 225 fields-of-view resulted in a precision of 8.6 nm (standard deviation). Autofocus trials on specimens with thicknesses from 9.47 to 33.20 mum, controlled by cell plating density, showed that autofocus precision was independent of specimen thickness. The results demonstrated that the selected spatial frequencies enabled very high-precision autofocus for high NA DIC automated microscopy, thereby potentially removing the problems of meniscus distortion in phase contrast imaging of microtiter plates and rendering the toxicity of additional fluorescence exposure unnecessary. (c) 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry

  10. Photothermal Microscopy for High Sensitivity and High Resolution Absorption Contrast Imaging of Biological Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Miyazaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal microscopy is useful to visualize the distribution of non-fluorescence chromoproteins in biological specimens. Here, we developed a high sensitivity and high resolution photothermal microscopy with low-cost and compact laser diodes as light sources. A new detection scheme for improving signal to noise ratio more than 4-fold is presented. It is demonstrated that spatial resolution in photothermal microscopy is up to nearly twice as high as that in the conventional widefield microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability for distinguishing or identifying biological molecules with simultaneous muti-wavelength imaging. Simultaneous photothermal and fluorescence imaging of mouse brain tissue was conducted to visualize both neurons expressing yellow fluorescent protein and endogenous non-fluorescent chromophores.

  11. Shaped Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs: High-Contrast Solutions for Restricted Focal Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Neil T; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphs of the apodized pupil and shaped pupil varieties use the Fraunhofer diffraction properties of amplitude masks to create regions of high contrast in the vicinity of a target star. Here we present a hybrid coronagraph architecture in which a binary, hard-edged shaped pupil mask replaces the gray, smooth apodizer of the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC). For any contrast and bandwidth goal in this configuration, as long as the prescribed region of contrast is restricted to a finite area in the image, a shaped pupil is the apodizer with the highest transmission. We relate the starlight cancellation mechanism to that of the conventional APLC. We introduce a new class of solutions in which the amplitude profile of the Lyot stop, instead of being fixed as a padded replica of the telescope aperture, is jointly optimized with the apodizer. Finally, we describe shaped pupil Lyot coronagraph (SPLC) designs for the baseline architecture of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Te...

  12. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  13. A generalized quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast for highly concentrated microsphere suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoumas, Spyridon; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Wang, Zhentian; Romano, Lucia; Abis, Matteo; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-10-01

    In X-ray grating interferometry, dark-field contrast arises due to partial extinction of the detected interference fringes. This is also called visibility reduction and is attributed to small-angle scattering from unresolved structures in the imaged object. In recent years, analytical quantitative frameworks of dark-field contrast have been developed for highly diluted monodisperse microsphere suspensions with maximum 6% volume fraction. These frameworks assume that scattering particles are separated by large enough distances, which make any interparticle scattering interference negligible. In this paper, we start from the small-angle scattering intensity equation and, by linking Fourier and real-space, we introduce the structure factor and thus extend the analytical and experimental quantitative interpretation of dark-field contrast, for a range of suspensions with volume fractions reaching 40%. The structure factor accounts for interparticle scattering interference. Without introducing any additional fitting parameters, we successfully predict the experimental values measured at the TOMCAT beamline, Swiss Light Source. Finally, we apply this theoretical framework to an experiment probing a range of system correlation lengths by acquiring dark-field images at different energies. This proposed method has the potential to be applied in single-shot-mode using a polychromatic X-ray tube setup and a single-photon-counting energy-resolving detector.

  14. High contrast Kr gas jet K alpha x-ray source for high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, N L; Neumayer, P; Döppner, T; Chung, H-K; Constantin, C G; Girard, F; Glenzer, S H; Kemp, A; Niemann, C

    2008-10-01

    A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr K alpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility using strongly clustering Kr gas jet targets. The contrast ratio (K alpha to continuum) is 65, with a competitive ultrashort pulse laser to x-ray conversion efficiency of 10(-5). Filtered shadowgraphy indicates that the Kr K alpha and K beta x rays are emitted from a roughly 1x2 mm(2) emission volume, making this source suitable for area backlighting and scattering. Spectral calculations indicate a typical bulk electron temperature of 50-70 eV (i.e., mean ionization state 13-16), based on the observed ratio of K alpha to K beta. Kr gas jets provide a debris-free high energy K alpha source for time-resolved diagnosis of dense matter.

  15. VIP: Vortex Image Processing Package for High-contrast Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Absil, Pierre-Antoine; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc; Cantalloube, Faustine; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Karlsson, Mikael; Surdej, Jean

    2017-07-01

    We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to provide a flexible framework for high-contrast data and image processing. In this paper, we describe the capabilities of VIP related to processing image sequences acquired using the angular differential imaging (ADI) observing technique. VIP implements functionalities for building high-contrast data processing pipelines, encompassing pre- and post-processing algorithms, potential source position and flux estimation, and sensitivity curve generation. Among the reference point-spread function subtraction techniques for ADI post-processing, VIP includes several flavors of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms, such as annular PCA and incremental PCA algorithms capable of processing big datacubes (of several gigabytes) on a computer with limited memory. Also, we present a novel ADI algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization, which comes from the same family of low-rank matrix approximations as PCA and provides fairly similar results. We showcase the ADI capabilities of the VIP library using a deep sequence on HR 8799 taken with the LBTI/LMIRCam and its recently commissioned L-band vortex coronagraph. Using VIP, we investigated the presence of additional companions around HR 8799 and did not find any significant additional point source beyond the four known planets. VIP is available at http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP and is accompanied with Jupyter notebook tutorials illustrating the main functionalities of the library.

  16. High contrast switching of transmission due to electrohydrodynamic effect in stacked thin systems of liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serak, Svetlana V; Hrozhyk, Uladzimir; Hwang, Jeoungyeon; Tabiryan, Nelson V; Steeves, Diane; Kimball, Brian R

    2016-10-20

    We study the opportunity of using electrohydrodynamic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal mixture with negative dielectric anisotropy for controlling laser beams. Switching between naturally transparent and diffuse light scattering states is achieved by application of low frequency, low amplitude voltages. The specifics of diffuse light scattering state depending on the orientation and thickness of the liquid crystal layer are revealed. The switching occurs on a milliseconds time scale. Combination of thin, flexible liquid crystal cells allows polarization independent, high contrast, fast switching in a broad band of visible wavelengths.

  17. Ultrafast, high resolution, phase contrast imaging of impact response with synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Jensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic response of materials at extreme conditions requires diagnostics that can provide real-time, in situ, spatially resolved measurements on the nanosecond timescale. The development of methods such as phase contrast imaging (PCI typically used at synchrotron sources offer unique opportunities to examine dynamic material response. In this work, we report ultrafast, high-resolution, dynamic PCI measurements of shock compressed materials with 3 μm spatial resolution using a single 60 ps synchrotron X-ray bunch. These results firmly establish the use of PCI to examine dynamic phenomena at ns to μs timescales.

  18. Iron oxide nanorods as high-performance magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Mitra, Arijit; Tyagi, Himanshu; Bahadur, D.; Aslam, M.

    2015-05-01

    An efficient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with a high R2 relaxivity value is achieved by controlling the shape of iron oxide to rod like morphology with a length of 30-70 nm and diameter of 4-12 nm. Fe3O4 nanorods of 70 nm length, encapsulated with polyethyleneimine show a very high R2 relaxivity value of 608 mM-1 s-1. The enhanced MRI contrast of nanorods is attributed to their higher surface area and anisotropic morphology. The higher surface area induces a stronger magnetic field perturbation over a larger volume more effectively for the outer sphere protons. The shape anisotropy contribution is understood by calculating the local magnetic field of nanorods and spherical nanoparticles under an applied magnetic field (3 Tesla). As compared to spherical geometry, the induced magnetic field of a rod is stronger and hence the stronger magnetic field over a large volume leads to a higher R2 relaxivity of nanorods.An efficient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with a high R2 relaxivity value is achieved by controlling the shape of iron oxide to rod like morphology with a length of 30-70 nm and diameter of 4-12 nm. Fe3O4 nanorods of 70 nm length, encapsulated with polyethyleneimine show a very high R2 relaxivity value of 608 mM-1 s-1. The enhanced MRI contrast of nanorods is attributed to their higher surface area and anisotropic morphology. The higher surface area induces a stronger magnetic field perturbation over a larger volume more effectively for the outer sphere protons. The shape anisotropy contribution is understood by calculating the local magnetic field of nanorods and spherical nanoparticles under an applied magnetic field (3 Tesla). As compared to spherical geometry, the induced magnetic field of a rod is stronger and hence the stronger magnetic field over a large volume leads to a higher R2 relaxivity of nanorods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00055f

  19. Absorbing Backside Anti-reflecting Layers for high contrast imaging in fluid cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ausserré, Dominique; Amra, Claude; Zerrad, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The single Anti-Reflecting (AR) layer is a classical problem in optics. When all materials are pure dielectrics, the solution is the so-called lambda/4 layer. Here we examine the case of absorbing layers between non absorbing media. We find a solution for any layer absorption coefficient provided that the light goes from the higher towards the lower index medium, which characterizes backside layers. We describe these AR absorbing (ARA) layers through generalized index and thickness conditions. They are most often ultrathin, and have important applications for high contrast imaging in fluid cells.

  20. High-Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents: Where Coordination Chemistry Meets Medical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Eric J.; Datta, Ankona; Jocher, Christoph J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-01-15

    The desire to improve and expand the scope of clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has prompted the search for contrast agents of higher efficiency. The development of better agents requires consideration of the fundamental coordination chemistry of the gadolinium(III) ion and the parameters that affect its efficacy as a proton relaxation agent. In optimizing each parameter, other practical issues such as solubility and in vivo toxicity must also be addressed, making the attainment of safe, high-relaxivity agents a challenging goal. Here we present recent advances in the field, with an emphasis on the hydroxypyridinone family of Gd{sup III} chelates.

  1. High-contrast grating resonators for label-free detection of disease biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianbo; Kan, Shu; Marriott, Gerard; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2016-06-01

    A label-free optical biosensor is described that employs a silicon-based high-contrast grating (HCG) resonator with a spectral linewidth of ~500 pm that is sensitive to ligand-induced changes in surface properties. The device is used to generate thermodynamic and kinetic data on surface-attached antibodies with their respective antigens. The device can detect serum cardiac troponin I, a biomarker of cardiac disease to 100 pg/ml within 4 mins, which is faster, and as sensitive as current enzyme-linked immuno-assays for cTnI.

  2. High contrast imaging with the JWST-NIRSpec Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygouf, Marie; Beichman, Charles A.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Roellig, Thomas L.; NIRCam GTO

    2017-06-01

    With its integral field unit, the near-infrared spectrograph NIRSpec on JWST will allow to measure high-resolution spectra into the 3-5 μm range with an increased sensitivity over ground-based systems. This capability will considerably extend our knowledge of brown dwarfs and bright exoplanets at large separations from their host star. But because there is not any coronagraph on NIRSpec, the performance in term of contrast at close separation will be extremely limited. In this communication, we explore possibilities to further push this limitation by comparing different observing strategies and associated post-processing techniques.

  3. A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui; Liang, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    We report an ultrafast optical switching device constructed by stacking two layers of gold nanowires into a perpendicularly crossed network, which works at a speed faster than 280 fs with an on/off modulation depth of about 22.4%. The two stacks play different roles in enhancing consistently the optical switching performance due to their different dependence on the polarization of optical electric fields. The cross-plasmon resonance based on the interaction between the perpendicularly stacked gold nanowires and its Fano-coupling with Rayleigh anomaly is the dominant mechanism for such a high-contrast optical switching device.

  4. Polarization-independent high-index contrast grating and its fabrication tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Takayose, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A polarization-independent, high-index contrast grating (HCG) with a single layer of cross stripes allowing simple fabrication is proposed. Since the cross stripes structure can be suspended in air by selectively wet-etching the layer below, all the layers can be grown at once when implemented...... also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the structure and found that, assuming careful optimizations of electron beam lithography for the precise grating width and dry-etching for the vertical sidewall, the suggested polarization-independent HCG can be fabricated using standard technologies....

  5. Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rong; Beals, Mark; Pomerene, Andrew; Cheng, Jing; Hong, Ching-Yin; Kimerling, Lionel; Michel, Jurgen

    2008-08-04

    We designed and demonstrated a compact, high-index contrast (HIC) vertical waveguide coupler for TE single mode operation with the lowest coupling loss of 0.20 dB +/- 0.05 dB at 1550 nm. Our vertical coupler consists of a pair of vertically overlapping inverse taper structures made of SOI and amorphous silicon. The vertical coupler can suppress power oscillation observed in regular directional couplers and guarantees vertical optical impedance matching with great tolerance for fabrication and refractive index variations of the waveguide materials. The coupler furthermore shows excellent broadband coupling efficiencies between 1460 nm and 1570 nm.

  6. An iterative wavefront sensing algorithm for high-contrast imaging systems *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Pei Dou; De-Qing Ren; Yong-Tian Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensing from multiple focal plane images is a promising technique for high-contrast imaging systems. However, the wavefront error of an optics system can be properly reconstructed only when it is very small. This paper presents an iterative optimization algorithm for the direct measurement of large static wavefront errors from only one focal plane image. We first measure the intensity of the pupil image to get the pupil function of the system and acquire the aberrated image on the focal plane with a phase error that will be measured. Then we induce a dynamic phase on the tested pupil function and calculate the associated intensity of the reconstructed image on the focal plane. The algorithm will then try to minimize the intensity difference between the reconstructed image and the aberrated test image in the focal plane, where the induced phase is a variable of the optimization algorithm.The simulation shows that the wavefront of an optical system can theoretically be reconstructed with high precision, which indicates that such an iterative algorithm may be an effective way to perform wavefront sensing for high-contrast imaging systems.

  7. Bifunctional Luminomagnetic Rare-Earth Nanorods for High-Contrast Bioimaging Nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Lee, Yean; Kedawat, Garima; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Vithayathil, Sajna Antony; Ge, Liehui; Zhan, Xiaobo; Gupta, Sarika; Martí, Angel A.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles exhibiting both magnetic and luminescent properties are need of the hour for many biological applications. A single compound exhibiting this combination of properties is uncommon. Herein, we report a strategy to synthesize a bifunctional luminomagnetic Gd2‑xEuxO3 (x = 0.05 to 0.5) nanorod, with a diameter of ~20 nm and length in ~0.6 μm, using hydrothermal method. Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods have been characterized by studying its structural, optical and magnetic properties. The advantage offered by photoluminescent imaging with Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods is that this ultrafine nanorod material exhibits hypersensitive intense red emission (610 nm) with good brightness (quantum yield more than 90%), which is an essential parameter for high-contrast bioimaging, especially for overcoming auto fluorescent background. The utility of luminomagnetic nanorods for biological applications in high-contrast cell imaging capability and cell toxicity to image two human breast cancer cell lines T47D and MDA-MB-231 are also evaluated. Additionally, to understand the significance of shape of the nanostructure, the photoluminescence and paramagnetic characteristic of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanorods were compared with the spherical nanoparticles of Gd2O3:Eu3+.

  8. The maturing of high contrast imaging and starlight suppression techniques for future NASA exoplanet characterization missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Gallagher, David B.; Siegler, Nicholas; Shaklan, Stuart; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Traub, Wesley A.

    2016-07-01

    Over 3000 exoplanets and hundreds of exoplanetary systems have been detected to date and we are now rapidly moving toward an era where the focus is shifting from detection to direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of these new worlds and their atmospheres. NASA is currently studying several exoplanet characterization mission concepts for the 2020 Decadal Survey ranging from probe class to flagships. Detailed and comprehensive exoplanet characterization, particularly of exo-Earths, leading to assessment of habitability, or indeed detection of life, will require significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in high contrast imaging and starlight suppression techniques which utilize specially shaped precision optical elements to block the light from the parent star while controlling scattering and diffraction thus revealing and enabling spectroscopic study of the orbiting exoplanets in reflected light. In this paper we describe the two primary high contrast starlight suppression techniques currently being pursued by NASA: 1) coronagraphs (including several design variations) and 2) free-flying starshades. These techniques are rapidly moving from the technology development phase to the design and engineering phase and we discuss the prospects and projected performance for future exoplanet characterization missions utilizing these techniques coupled with large aperture telescopes in space.

  9. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT): testbed design and coronagraph developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, E.; Pueyo, L.; Elliot, E.; Perrin, M. D.; Wallace, J.; Anderson, R. E.; Carlotti, A.; Groff, T. D.; Hartig, G. F.; Kasdin, J.; Lajoie, C.; Levecq, O.; Long, C.; Macintosh, B.; Mawet, D.; Norman, C. A.; Shaklan, S.; Sheckells, M.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions for wavefront sensing and control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes (NASA APRA; Soummer PI). This includes geometries with central obstruction, support structures, and/or primary mirror segmentation. Complex aperture telescopes are often associated with large telescope designs, which are considered for future space missions. However, these designs makes high-contrast imaging challenging because of additional diffraction features in the point spread function. We present a novel optimization approach for the testbed optical and opto-mechanical design that minimizes the impact of both phase and amplitude errors from the wave propagation of testbed optics surface errors. This design approach allows us to define the specification for the bench optics, which we then compare to the manufactured parts. We discuss the testbed alignment and first results. We also present our coronagraph design for different testbed pupil shapes (AFTA or ATLAST), which involves a new method for the optimization of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs (APLC).

  10. High-contrast imager for complex aperture telescopes (HiCAT): 1. testbed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Elliot, Erin; Perrin, Marshall D.; Wallace, J. Kent; Groff, Tyler; Carlotti, Alexis; Mawet, Dimitri; Sheckells, Matt; Shaklan, Stuart; Macintosh, Bruce; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Soummer, Rémi

    2013-09-01

    Searching for nearby habitable worlds with direct imaging and spectroscopy will require a telescope large enough to provide angular resolution and sensitivity to planets around a significant sample of stars. Segmented telescopes are a compelling option to obtain such large apertures. However, these telescope designs have a complex geometry (central obstruction, support structures, segmentation) that makes high-contrast imaging more challenging. We are developing a new high-contrast imaging testbed at STScI to provide an integrated solution for wavefront control and starlight suppression on complex aperture geometries. We present our approach for the testbed optical design, which defines the surface requirements for each mirror to minimize the amplitude-induced errors from the propagation of out-of-pupil surfaces. Our approach guarantees that the testbed will not be limited by these Fresnel propagation effects, but only by the aperture geometry. This approach involves iterations between classical ray-tracing optical design optimization, and end-to-end Fresnel propagation with wavefront control (e.g. Electric Field Conjugation / Stroke Minimization). The construction of the testbed is planned to start in late Fall 2013.

  11. High-contrast imaging testbed for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT) for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, E.; N'Diaye, M.; Pueyo, L.; Elliot, E.; Perrin, M. D.; Wallace, J. K.; Anderson, R.; Carlotti, A.; Groff, T.; Hartig, G.; Kasdin, N. J.; Lajoie, C.; Levecq, O.; Long, C.; Mawet, D.; Macintosh, B.; Norman, C.; Shaklan, S.; Sheckells, M.; Sivaramakrishnan, An; Soummer, R.

    2014-03-01

    Searching for nearby habitable worlds with direct imaging and spectroscopy will require a telescope large enough to provide angular resolution and sensitivity to planets around a significant sample of stars. Segmented telescopes are a compelling option to obtain such large apertures. However, these designs have a complex geometry (central obstruction, support structures, segmentation) that makes high contrast imaging challenging. We are developing a new high-contrast imaging testbed at STScI to provide an integrated solution for wavefront control and starlight suppression on complex aperture geometries. We present a novel optimization approach for the testbed optical and opto-mechanical design that minimizes the impact of both phase and amplitude errors from the wave propagation of testbed optics surface errors. This design approach allows us to define the specification for the bench optics, which we then compare to the manufactured parts. We discuss the testbed alignment and first results. We also present our coronagraph design for different testbed pupil shapes (AFTA or ATLAST), which involves a new method for the optimization of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs (APLC).

  12. High contrast imaging at the LBT: the LEECH exoplanet imaging survey

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew J; Esposito, Simone; Skrutskie, Michael F; Defrere, Denis; Bailey, Vanessa; Leisenring, Jarron; Apai, Daniel; Biller, Beth; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin; De Rosa, Robert J; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E; Zimmerman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its $\\sim$130-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reduce the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 $\\mu$m), as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 $\\mu$m) of other surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deep mass sensitivity, especially around nearby adolescent ($\\sim$0.1-1 Gyr) stars. LEECH's contrast is competitive with other extreme adaptive optics systems, while providing an alternative survey strategy. Additionally, LEECH is characterizing known exoplanetary systems with observations from 3-5$\\mu$m in preparation for JWST.

  13. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  14. High-contrast laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in solid cone-wire targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, D. P. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Link, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sawada, H. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Wilks, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chawla, S. R. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, C. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jarrott, L. C. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Flippo, K. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McLean, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perez, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beg, F. N. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Bartal, T. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Optimization of electron coupling into small solid angles is of extreme importance to applications, such as Fast Ignition, that require maximum electron energy deposition within a small volume. To optimize this coupling, we use the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser, which remains below intensity of 1011 W/cm2 until < 0.1 ns before the main pulse, while still attaining high-energy, 75 J, and peak intensity of 5 x 1019 W/cm2. Using a cone-wire target, we find that the coupling into the 40 μm diameter wire is increased by a factor of 2.7x over the low-contrast Titan laser at similar peak intensity. Full-scale simulations are used to model the laser interaction and quantitatively reproduce the experimental results. These show that increase in coupling is due to both a closer interaction, as well as the reduction of laser filamentation and self-focusing.

  15. Properties and characterization of deeply-etched, high-index-contrast ridge waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Christopher S.

    In order to fill the need for more densely packed photonic integrated circuits (PICs) the higher optical confinement provided by high-index-contrast (HIC) ridge waveguide (RWG) structures is required. In order to realize the high index contrast (An) between the semiconductor waveguide core and the dielectric cladding, an oxygenenhanced non-selective wet thermal oxidation (OENSO) process developed at the University of Notre Dame has been applied to the fabrication of GaAs and InP based HIC RWGs. In this work, the unique characteristics of HIC RWGs as well as the interface between the semiconductor and the native oxide have been examined. Utilizing this process, passive single mode HIC RWG devices have been fabricated which exhibit record low propagation losses. Active diode laser devices are fabricated with improved performance over previous results. For the first time these devices have been modified for junction side down bonding to heatsinks and characterized under continuous wave (CW) excitation while mounted to a temperature controlled stage. Finally, the use of the OENSO process has been extended for use in the oxidation of InGaAs lattice matched to InP. As proof of the efficacy of this process for use in this new material system, a novel native-oxide confined quantum cascade laser operating at e=5.4 im has been demonstrated.

  16. High Relaxivity Gadolinium Hydroxypyridonate-Viral Capsid Conjugates: Nano-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meux, Susan C.; Datta, Ankona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Botta, Mauro; Francis, Matthew B.; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-29

    High relaxivity macromolecular contrast agents based on the conjugation of gadolinium chelates to the interior and exterior surfaces of MS2 viral capsids are assessed. The proton nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of the conjugates show up to a five-fold increase in relaxivity, leading to a peak relaxivity (per Gd{sup 3+} ion) of 41.6 mM{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 30 MHz for the internally modified capsids. Modification of the exterior was achieved through conjugation to flexible lysines, while internal modification was accomplished by conjugation to relatively rigid tyrosines. Higher relaxivities were obtained for the internally modified capsids, showing that (1) there is facile diffusion of water to the interior of capsids and (2) the rigidity of the linker attaching the complex to the macromolecule is important for obtaining high relaxivity enhancements. The viral capsid conjugated gadolinium hydroxypyridonate complexes appear to possess two inner-sphere water molecules (q = 2) and the NMRD fittings highlight the differences in the local motion for the internal ({tau}{sub RI} = 440 ps) and external ({tau}{sub RI} = 310 ps) conjugates. These results indicate that there are significant advantages of using the internal surface of the capsids for contrast agent attachment, leaving the exterior surface available for the installation of tissue targeting groups.

  17. The added value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET to contrast-enhanced CT for primary site detection in CUP of neuroendocrine origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierczak, Philipp M. [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Rominger, Axel; Wenter, Vera [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenchen (Germany); Spitzweg, Christine; Auernhammer, Christoph [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, Muenchen (Germany); Angele, Martin K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Muenchen (Germany); Rist, Carsten; Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To quantify the additional value of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT alone for primary tumour detection in neuroendocrine cancer of unknown primary (CUP-NET). In total, 38 consecutive patients (27 men, 11 women; mean age 62 years) with histologically proven CUP-NET who underwent a contrast-enhanced {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT scan for primary tumour detection and staging between 2010 and 2014 were included in this IRB-approved retrospective study. Two blinded readers independently analysed the contrast-enhanced CT and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET datasets separately and noted from which modality they suspected a primary tumour. Consensus was reached if the results were divergent. Postoperative histopathology (24 patients) and follow-up {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT imaging (14 patients) served as the reference standards and statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated accordingly. The majority of confirmed primary tumours were located in the abdomen (ileum in 19 patients, pancreas in 12, lung in 2, small pelvis in 1). High interobserver agreement was noted regarding the suspected primary tumour site (Cohen's k 0.90, p < 0.001). {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TATE PET demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (94 % vs. 63 %, p = 0.005) and a significantly higher accuracy (87 % vs. 68 %, p = 0.003) than contrast-enhanced CT. Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT alone provides an improvement in sensitivity of 50 % and an improvement in accuracy of 30 % in primary tumour detection in CUP-NET. (orig.)

  18. Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Zandanel, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear ($pp$) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to one order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than $E^{-2.1}$ as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than $(1...

  19. High-resolution wide-field imaging of perfused capillaries without the use of contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson DA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Darin A Nelson1, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash1,2, Hila Barash1, Anat Loewenstein3, Adiel Barak4, Elisha Bartov2, Tali Rock2, Amiram Grinvald51Optical Imaging Ltd, Rehovot, Israel; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Edith Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Medical Center & Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; 5Department of Neurobiology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, IsraelPurpose: Assessment of capillary abnormalities facilitates early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of common retinal pathologies. Injected contrast agents like fluorescein are widely used to image retinal capillaries, but this highly effective procedure has a few disadvantages, such as untoward side effects, inconvenience of injection, and brevity of the time window for clear visualization. The retinal function imager (RFI is a tool for monitoring retinal functions, such as blood velocity and oximetry, based on intrinsic signals. Here we describe the clinical use of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs as an intrinsic motion-contrast agent in the generation of detailed noninvasive capillary-perfusion maps (nCPMs.Patients and methods: Multiple series of nCPM images were acquired from 130 patients with diabetic retinopathy, vein occlusion, central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, or metabolic syndrome, as well as from 37 healthy subjects. After registration, pixel value distribution parameters were analyzed to locate RBC motion.Results: The RFI yielded nCPMs demonstrating microvascular morphology including capillaries in exquisite detail. Maps from the same subject were highly reproducible in repeated measurements, in as much detail and often better than that revealed by the very best fluorescein angiography. In patients, neovascularization and capillary nonperfusion areas were clearly observed. Foveal avascular

  20. Recursive Starlight and Bias Estimation for High-Contrast Imaging with an Extended Kalman Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Riggs, A J Eldorado; Groff, Tyler D

    2016-01-01

    For imaging faint exoplanets and disks, a coronagraph-equipped observatory needs focal plane wavefront correction to recover high contrast. The most efficient correction methods iteratively estimate the stellar electric field and suppress it with active optics. The estimation requires several images from the science camera per iteration. To maximize the science yield, it is desirable both to have fast wavefront correction and to utilize all the correction images for science target detection. Exoplanets and disks are incoherent with their stars, so a nonlinear estimator is required to estimate both the incoherent intensity and the stellar electric field. Such techniques assume a high level of stability found only on space-based observatories and possibly ground-based telescopes with extreme adaptive optics. In this paper, we implement a nonlinear estimator, the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF), to enable fast wavefront correction and a recursive, nearly-optimal estimate of the incoherent light. In Prince...

  1. Mode splitting in high-index-contrast grating with mini-scale finite size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixin; Ni, Liangfu; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhang, Hanxing; Jin, Jicheng; Peng, Chao; Hu, Weiwei

    2016-08-15

    The mode-splitting phenomenon within finite-size, mini-scale high-index-contrast gratings (HCGs) has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The high-Q resonance splits into a series of in-plane modes due to the confinement of boundaries but can still survive even on a mini-scale footprint. Q factors up to ∼3300 and ∼2200 have been observed for the HCGs with footprints that are only 55  μm×300  μm and 27.5  μm×300  μm, which would be promising for realizing optical communication and sensing applications with compact footprint.

  2. Starlight Demonstration of the Dragonfly Instrument: an Integrated Photonic Pupil Remapping Interferometer for High Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Norris, B; Gross, S; Stewart, P; Charles, N; Lacour, S; Ams, M; Lawrence, J S; Lehmann, A; Niel, C; Robertson, J G; Marshall, G D; Ireland, M; Fuerbach, A; Withford, M J

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since the first extra-solar planet was discovered, the detection and characterization of extra-solar planets has become one of the key endeavors in all of modern science. Recently direct detection techniques such as interferometry or coronography have received growing attention because they reveal the population of exoplanets inaccessible to Doppler or transit techniques, and moreover they allow the faint signal from the planet itself to be investigated. Next-generation stellar interferometers are increasingly incorporating photonic technologies due to the increase in fidelity of the data generated. Here, we report the design, construction and commissioning of a new high contrast imager; the integrated pupil-remapping interferometer; an instrument we expect will find application in the detection of young faint companions in the nearest star-forming regions. The laboratory characterisation of the instrument demonstrated high visibility fringes on all interferometer baselines in addition to s...

  3. Mathematical and computational modeling of a ferrofluid deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Aaron J.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Groff, Tyler D.; Rousing, Andreas W.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    Deformable mirrors (DMs) are an enabling and mission-critical technology in any coronagraphic instrument designed to directly image exoplanets. A new ferro fluid deformable mirror technology for high-contrast imaging is currently under development at Princeton, featuring a flexible optical surface manipulated by the local electromagnetic and global hydraulic actuation of a reservoir of ferro fluid. The ferro fluid DM is designed to prioritize high optical surface quality, high-precision/low-stroke actuation, and excellent low-spatial-frequency performance - capabilities that meet the unique demands of high-contrast coronagraphy in a space-based platform. To this end, the ferro-fluid medium continuously supports the DM face sheet, a configuration that eliminates actuator print-through (or, quilting) by decoupling the nominal surface figure from the geometry of the actuator array. The global pressure control allows independent focus actuation. In this paper we describe an analytical model for the quasi-static deformation response of the DM face sheet to both magnetic and pressure actuation. These modeling efforts serve to identify the key design parameters and quantify their contributions to the DM response, model the relationship between actuation commands and DM surface-profile response, and predict performance metrics such as achievable spatial resolution and stroke precision for specific actuator configurations. Our theoretical approach addresses the complexity of the boundary conditions associated with mechanical mounting of the face sheet, and makes use of asymptotic approximations by leveraging the three distinct length scales in the problem - namely, the low-stroke ( nm) actuation, face sheet thickness ( mm), and mirror diameter (cm). In addition to describing the theoretical treatment, we report the progress of computational multi physics simulations which will be useful in improving the model fidelity and in drawing conclusions to improve the design.

  4. High-contrast gratings for long-wavelength laser integration on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado; Descos, Antoine; Bordel, Damien; Duprez, Hélène; Letartre, Xavier; Menezo, Sylvie; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2014-02-01

    Silicon photonics is increasingly considered as the most promising way-out to the relentless growth of data traffic in today's telecommunications infrastructures, driving an increase in transmission rates and computing capabilities. This is in fact challenging the intrinsic limit of copper-based, short-reach interconnects and microelectronic circuits in data centers and server architectures to offer enough modulation bandwidth at reasonable power dissipation. In the context of the heterogeneous integration of III-V direct-bandgap materials on silicon, optics with high-contrast metastructures enables the efficient implementation of optical functions such as laser feedback, input/output (I/O) to active/passive components, and optical filtering, while heterogeneous integration of III-V layers provides sufficient optical gain, resulting in silicon-integrated laser sources. The latest ensure reduced packaging costs and reduced footprint for the optical transceivers, a key point for the short reach communications. The invited talk will introduce the audience to the latest breakthroughs concerning the use of high-contrast gratings (HCGs) for the integration of III-V-on-Si verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as Fabry-Perot edge-emitters (EELs) in the main telecom band around 1.55 μm. The strong near-field mode overlap within HCG mirrors can be exploited to implement unique optical functions such as dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM): a 16-λ100-GHz-spaced channels VCSEL array is demonstrated. On the other hand, high fabrication yields obtained via molecular wafer bonding of III-V alloys on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) conjugate excellent device performances with cost-effective high-throughput production, supporting industrial needs for a rapid research-to-market transfer.

  5. Renal Arteries: Isotropic, High-Spatial-Resolution, Unenhanced MR Angiography with Three-dimensional Radial Phase Contrast1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Darren P.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Landgraf, Benjamin R.; Bley, Thorsten A.; Reeder, Scott B.; Schiebler, Mark L.; Grist, Thomas M.; Wieben, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare a new three-dimensional (3D) radial phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) angiographic method with contrast material–enhanced MR angiography for anatomic assessment of the renal arteries. Materials and Methods: An institutional review board approved this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. Informed consent was obtained. Twenty-seven subjects (mean age, 52.6 years ± 20.5 [standard deviation]) were imaged with respiratory-gated phase-contrast vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (VIPR) prior to contrast-enhanced MR angiographic acquisition with a 3.0-T clinical system. The imaging duration for phase-contrast VIPR was 10 minutes and provided magnitude and complex difference (“angiographic”) images with 3D volumetric (320 mm) coverage and isotropic high spatial resolution (1.25 mm3). Quantitative analysis consisted of comparing vessel diameters between the two techniques. Qualitative assessment included evaluation of the phase-contrast VIPR and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques for artifacts, noise, and image quality. Bland-Altman analysis was used for comparison of quantitative measurements, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for comparison of qualitative scores. Results: Phase-contrast VIPR images were successfully acquired in all subjects. The vessel diameters measured with phase-contrast VIPR were slightly greater than those measured with contrast-enhanced MR angiography (mean bias = 0.09 mm). Differences in mean artifact, quality scores for the proximal renal arteries, and overall image quality scores between phase-contrast VIPR and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques were not statistically significant (P = .31 and .29, .27 and .39, and .43 and .69 for readers 1 and 2, respectively). The quality scores for the segmental renal arteries were higher for phase-contrast VIPR than for contrast-enhanced MR angiography (P contrast-enhanced MR angiography and were statistically

  6. High contrast imaging through adaptive transmittance control in the focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    High contrast imaging, in the presence of a bright background, is a challenging problem encountered in diverse applications ranging from the daily chore of driving into a sun-drenched scene to in vivo use of biomedical imaging in various types of keyhole surgeries. Imaging in the presence of bright sources saturates the vision system, resulting in loss of scene fidelity, corresponding to low image contrast and reduced resolution. The problem is exacerbated in retro-reflective imaging systems where the light sources illuminating the object are unavoidably strong, typically masking the object features. This manuscript presents a novel theoretical framework, based on nonlinear analysis and adaptive focal plane transmittance, to selectively remove object domain sources of background light from the image plane, resulting in local and global increases in image contrast. The background signal can either be of a global specular nature, giving rise to parallel illumination from the entire object surface or can be represented by a mosaic of randomly orientated, small specular surfaces. The latter is more representative of real world practical imaging systems. Thus, the background signal comprises of groups of oblique rays corresponding to distributions of the mosaic surfaces. Through the imaging system, light from group of like surfaces, converges to a localized spot in the focal plane of the lens and then diverges to cast a localized bright spot in the image plane. Thus, transmittance of a spatial light modulator, positioned in the focal plane, can be adaptively controlled to block a particular source of background light. Consequently, the image plane intensity is entirely due to the object features. Experimental image data is presented to verify the efficacy of the methodology.

  7. Tobacco mosaic virus rods and spheres as supramolecular high-relaxivity MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Hern, Stephen; Jiang, Kai; Flask, Chris A.; Yu, Xin; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2013-01-01

    To compensate for the low sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nanoparticles have been developed to deliver high payloads of contrast agents to sites of disease. Here, we report the development of supramolecular MRI contrast agents using the plant viral nanoparticle tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Rod-shaped TMV nanoparticles measuring 300×18 nm were loaded with up to 3,500 or 2,000 chelated paramagnetic gadolinium (III) ions selectively at the interior (iGd-TMV) or exterior (eGd-TMV) surface, respectively. Spatial control is achieved through targeting either tyrosine or carboxylic acid side chains on the solvent exposed exterior or interior TMV surface. The ionic T1 relaxivity per Gd ion (at 60 MHz) increases from 4.9 mM−1s−1 for free Gd(DOTA) to 18.4 mM−1s−1 for eGd-TMV and 10.7 mM−1s−1 for iGd-TMV. This equates to T1 values of ~ 30,000 mM−1s−1 and ~ 35,000 mM−1s−1 per eGd-TMV and iGd-TMV nanoparticle. Further, we show that interior-labeled TMV rods can undergo thermal transition to form 170 nm-sized spherical nanoparticles containing ~ 25,000 Gd chelates and a per particle relaxivity of almost 400,000 mM−1s−1 (15.2 mM−1s−1 per Gd). This work lays the foundation for the use of TMV as a contrast agent for MRI. PMID:23589767

  8. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy (HDS) with high contrast imaging (HCI): Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors

    CERN Document Server

    Snellen, Ignas; Birkby, Jayne; Brandl, Bernhard; Brogi, Matteo; Keller, Christoph; Kenworthy, Matthew; Schwarz, Henriette; Stuik, Remko

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine High Dispersion Spectroscopy and High Contrast Imaging (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~1e-5 x 1e-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the baseline parameters of the E-ELT and METIS instrument, with the latter combining extreme adaptive optics with an R=100,...

  9. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. III. A Faint White Dwarf Companion Orbiting HD 114174

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin; Wright, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    The nearby Sun-like star HD 114174 exhibits a strong and persistent Doppler acceleration indicating the presence of an unseen distant companion. We have acquired high-contrast imaging observations of this star using NIRC2 at Keck and report the direct detection of the body responsible for causing the "trend". HD 114174 B has a projected separation of 692+/-9 mas (18.1 AU) and is 10.75+/-0.12 magnitudes (contrast of 5x10{-5}) fainter than its host in the K-band, requiring aggressive point-spread function subtraction to identify. Our astrometric time baseline of 1.4 years demonstrates physical association through common proper motion. We find that the companion has absolute magnitude, M_J=13.97+/-0.11, and colors, J-K= 0.12+/-0.16 mag. These characteristics are consistent with an ~T3 dwarf, initially leading us to believe that HD 114174 B was a substellar object. However, a dynamical analysis that combines radial velocity measurements with available imaging data indicates a minimum mass of m=0.260+/-0.010Msun. ...

  10. Palladium nanosheets as highly stable and effective contrast agents for in vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Chen, Mei; Sun, Xiaolian; Rong, Pengfei; Zheng, Nanfeng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    A stable and efficient contrast agent is highly desirable for photoacoustic (PA) imaging applications. Recently gold nanostructures have been widely reported and studied for PA imaging and photothermal therapy. However, the structures of the nonspherical gold nanoparticles are easily destroyed after laser irradiation and thus may fail to complete the intended tasks. In this study, we propose to apply palladium nanosheets (PNSs), with strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, as a new class of exogenous PA contrast agents. PA and ultrasound (US) images were acquired sequentially by a portable and fast photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with a hand-held transducer. Significant and long-lasting imaging enhancement in SCC7 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was successfully observed in mice by PAT over time after tail vein administration of PNSs. The morphology and functional perfusion of the tumors were delineated in PA images due to the nanoparticle accumulation. PAT of the main organs was also conducted ex vivo to trace the fate of PNSs, which was further validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). No obvious toxic effect was observed by in vitro MTT assay and ex vivo histological examination 7 days after PNS administration. With the combination of a portable imaging instrument and signal specificity, PNSs might be applied as stable and effective agents for photoacoustic cancer detection, diagnosis and treatment guidance.

  11. Characterization of the gaseous companion {\\kappa} Andromedae b: New Keck and LBTI high-contrast observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Marleau, G -D; Schlieder, J E; Wisniewski, J; Carson, J; Covey, K R; Henning, T; Biller, B; Hinz, P; Klahr, H; Boyer, A N Marsh; Zimmerman, N; Janson, M; McElwain, M; Mordasini, C; Skemer, A; Bailey, V; Defrère, D; Thalmann, C; Skrutskie, M; Allard, F; Homeier, D; Tamura, M; Feldt, M; Cumming, A; Grady, C; Brandner, W; Kandori, R; Kuzuhara, M; Fukagawa, M; Kwon, J; Kudo, T; Hashimoto, J; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Brandt, T; Egner, S; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Knapp, G; Matsuo, T; Mede, K; Miyama, M; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T; Serabyn, E; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi,; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and co...

  12. High-contrast Imaging with Spitzer: Deep Observations of Vega, Fomalhaut, and epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C; Thalmann, Christian; Lafreniere, David; Amara, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Stars with debris disks are intriguing targets for direct imaging exoplanet searches, both due to previous detections of wide planets in debris disk systems, as well as commonly existing morphological features in the disks themselves that may be indicative of a planetary influence. Here we present observations of three of the most nearby young stars, that are also known to host massive debris disks: Vega, Fomalhaut, and eps Eri. The Spitzer Space Telescope is used at a range of orientation angles for each star, in order to supply a deep contrast through angular differential imaging combined with high-contrast algorithms. The observations provide the opportunity to probe substantially colder bound planets (120--330 K) than is possible with any other technique or instrument. For Vega, some apparently very red candidate point sources detected in the 4.5 micron image remain to be tested for common proper motion. The images are sensitive to ~2 Mjup companions at 150 AU in this system. The observations presented he...

  13. PSF reconstruction for NICI, the high-contrast coronagraphicimager of GEMINI observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, M.; Gratadour, D.; Chun, M.; Hayward, T.

    2011-09-01

    It is more than a decade ago that PSF reconstruction from wavefront sensor (WFS) data has been described by Veran et al. (JOSA A, 1997) and successfully demonstrated at CFHT/PUEO. Nevertheless, even though adaptive optics (AO) has evolved into a mature technology, no breakthrough has been reached yet in terms of a broad use of WFS estimated PSFs in astronomical image data reduction. Reasons for this are certainly the lack of easy access to the needed AO data as well as the automatic supply of reconstructed PSFs along with the science exposures to eventually give the astronomical community a chance to exploit its potential. The key information are the covariance matrices of the WFS signal and the DM voltages in sync with the science exposures. Without active interaction from the user side with the observatory, we intend to automatically provide the user with these AO data together with the retrieved PSF for every taken science exposure. Typical applications for a WFS retrieved PSF are photometry and image sharpening by deconvolution. For the high-contrast imager NICI, the reconstructed PSF will be of particular use providing a fixed reference point to derive planet detection contrast curves completely in sync with the science exposure. We will compare how well the WFS estimated PSF matches the science image PSF at various AO guide stars, and will study the impact of system modeling errors.

  14. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.

    2016-05-16

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  15. A High-precision Technique to Correct for Residual Atmospheric Dispersion in High-contrast Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P.; Guyon, O.; Jovanovic, N.; Lozi, J.; Martinache, F.; Minowa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Takami, H.; Hayano, Y.; Narita, N.

    2016-12-01

    Direct detection and spectroscopy of exoplanets requires high-contrast imaging. For habitable exoplanets in particular, located at a small angular separation from the host star, it is crucial to employ small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraphs that efficiently suppress starlight. These coronagraphs, in turn, require careful control of the wavefront that directly impacts their performance. For ground-based telescopes, atmospheric refraction is also an important factor, since it results in a smearing of the point-spread function (PSF), that can no longer be efficiently suppressed by the coronagraph. Traditionally, atmospheric refraction is compensated for by an atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC). ADC control relies on an a priori model of the atmosphere whose parameters are solely based on the pointing of the telescope, which can result in imperfect compensation. For a high-contrast instrument like the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, which employs very small IWA coronagraphs, refraction-induced smearing of the PSF has to be less than 1 mas in the science band for optimum performance. In this paper, we present the first on-sky measurement and correction of residual atmospheric dispersion. Atmospheric dispersion is measured from the science image directly, using an adaptive grid of artificially introduced speckles as a diagnostic to feedback to the telescope’s ADC. With our current setup, we were able to reduce the initial residual atmospheric dispersion from 18.8 mas to 4.2 in broadband light (y- to H-band) and to 1.4 mas in the H-band only. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming extremely large telescopes (ELTs) that will require fine control of their ADC to reach their full high-contrast imaging potential.

  16. Low-Cost High-Precision PIAA Optics for High Contrast Imaging with Exo-Planet Coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Pueyo, Laurent; Wilson, Daniel W.; Guyon, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    PIAA optics for high contrast imaging present challenges in manufacturing and testing due to their large surface departures from aspheric profiles at the aperture edges. With smaller form factors and consequent smaller surface deformations (<50 microns), fabrication of these mirrors with diamond turning followed by electron beam lithographic techniques becomes feasible. Though such a design reduces the system throughput to approx.50%, it still provides good performance down to 2 lambda/D inner working angle. With new achromatic focal plane mask designs, the system performance can be further improved. We report on the design, expected performance, fabrication challenges, and initial assessment of such novel PIAA optics.

  17. PISCES High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Simulations and Data Reduction Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop Sayson, Jorge Domingo; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McElwain, Michael W.; Gong, Qian; Perrin, Marshall; Brandt, Timothy; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Marx, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The PISCES (Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to advance the technology readiness of the WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope)-AFTA (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) high contrast Coronagraph Instrument. We present the end to end optical simulator and plans for the data reduction pipeline (DRP). The optical simulator was created with a combination of the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based PROPER (optical propagation) library and Zemax (a MatLab script), while the data reduction pipeline is a modified version of the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) IDL pipeline. The simulations of the propagation of light through the instrument are based on Fourier transform algorithms. The DRP enables transformation of the PISCES IFS data to calibrated spectral data cubes.

  18. High-sensitivity phase-contrast tomography of rat brain in phosphate buffered saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics, Technical University Munich, 85748 Garching (Germany); David, Christian; Bunk, Oliver [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Gruetter, Rolf [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mueller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Weitkamp, Timm, E-mail: franz.pfeiffer@ph.tum.d [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-09-01

    We report advances and complementary results concerning a recently developed method for high-sensitivity grating-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography. In particular we demonstrate how the soft tissue sensitivity of the technique can be used to obtain in-vitro tomographic images of rat brain specimens. Contrary to our previous experiments with fixated specimen (chemically modified or formalin fixed), the present results on the rat's brain are closer to the in-vivo situation. The findings are particularly important from a clinical point of view, since a similar approach using three gratings can be implemented with more readily available x-ray sources, such as standard x-ray tubes.

  19. High-contrast imaging and interferometry mission concepts for the characterization of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, P. R.

    2014-03-01

    This review paper describes space-based high-contrast imaging mission concepts that have been developed for NASA and ESA for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. This effort will be put in the context of other ground and space-based exoplanet missions. Concepts for coronagraphs, starshades, and interferometers are described along with their predicted science yield and technology challenges. This will include concepts for flagship and probe-scale missions that have been developed over the past 20 years. Particular emphasis will be placed on the current state of the art in starlight suppression technology and the technology gaps that must yet be filled. The coronagraph instrument for the AFTA-WFIRST mission will be described, and a roadmap for future mission and technology development will be presented.

  20. Demonstration of high contrast with an obscured aperture with the WFIRST-AFTA shaped pupil coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Cady, Eric; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Diaz, Rosemary; Kasdin, N Jeremy; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Nemati, Bijan; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Riggs, A J Eldorado; Zimmer, Robert; Zimmerman, Neil

    2015-01-01

    The coronagraph instrument on the WFIRST-AFTA mission study has two coronagraphic architectures, shaped pupil and hybrid Lyot, which may be interchanged for use in different observing scenarios. Each architecture relies on newly-developed mask components to function in the presence of the AFTA aperture, and so both must be matured to a high technology readiness level (TRL) in advance of the mission. A series of milestones were set to track the development of the technologies required for the instrument; in this paper, we report on completion of WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Milestone 2---a narrowband $10^{-8}$ contrast test with static aberrations for the shaped pupil---and the plans for the upcoming broadband Coronagraph Milestone 5.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Cavity Lasers With High-Contrast Gratings Using the Fourier Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    , the scattering losses of several HCG-based vertical cavities with inplane heterostructures which have promising prospects for fundamental physics studies and on-chip laser applications, are investigated. This type of parametric study of 3D structures would be numerically very demanding using spatial......We explore the use of a modal expansion technique, Fourier modal method (FMM), for investigating the optical properties of vertical cavities employing high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Three techniques for determining the resonance frequency and quality factor (Q-factor) of a cavity mode are compared......, and the computational uncertainties in the resonance frequency and Qfactor calculations are analyzed. Moreover, a method for reducing a three-dimensional (3D) simulation to lower-dimensional simulations is suggested, which allows for very fast and approximate analysis of a 3D structure. By using the implemented FMM...

  2. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated...... signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight......-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage...

  3. High contrast XMT studies of in-situ electrochemical dissolution of broken dental tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David; Mitchell, Alison; Khine, Sean; Davis, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Fracture of nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic files is an uncommon but potentially damaging occurrence during root canal preparation. If the broken portion of the file remains inside the tooth canal it can prevent complete preparation of the root canal with consequent negative impact on treatment outcomes. Removal of file fragment from the tooth canal is currently a mechanical process, which due to the limited working space and restricted view can lead to further problems including perforation of the tooth. Electrochemical dissolution is a relatively new method proposed to dissolve a fractured instrument, fully or partially within the canal, to enable its removal. In this article we explore the effects of electrochemical dissolution on the root canal environment using high contrast time delay integration (TDI) X-ray micro-tomography (XMT) designed specifically for dental research.

  4. A novel method to obtain electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns with high contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengwei Li; Chen Tang; Gao Wang; Hongwei Ren; Ke Tang; Tianyu Ye

    2009-01-01

    Traditional speckle fringe patterns of electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI)are obtained by adding,subtracting,or multiplying the speckle patterns recorded before and after the deformation.However,these speckle fringe patterns are of limited visibility,especially for addition and multiplication fringe patterns.We propose a novel method to obtain speckle fringe patterns of ESPI from undeformed and deformed speckle patterns.The fringe pattern generated by our method is of high contrast and has better quality than subtraction fringe.The new method is simple and does not require more computational effort.The proposed method is tested on the experimentally obtained undeformed and deformed speckle patterns.The experimental results illustrate the performance of this approach.

  5. High-contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinita; Wilkinson, James S.; Murugan, Ganapathy S.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of single-mode waveguides is essential for ultra-sensitive biosensing in the mid-infrared molecular "fingerprint" region for biomedical lab-on-chip applications. High contrast (Δn ≍ 1) germanium telluride (GeTe4) single mode rib waveguides were fabricated on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates for evanescent field based sensing to detect analytes at low concentration. Amorphous GeTe4 thin films were deposited by RF-sputtering and were found to transmit over the spectral range from 2μm - 20μm. Photolithography followed by reactive ion etching was carried out to etch the film, forming rib waveguide structures with minimum surface roughness and vertical sidewalls. It was found that films deposited at room temperature have average roughness of about 5nm. Optical constants were determined by IR-VASE ellipsometry.

  6. Positive focal shift of gallium nitride high contrast grating focusing reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shumin; Wang, Zhenhai; Liu, Qifa

    2016-09-01

    We design a type of metasurfaces capable of serving as a visible-light focusing reflector based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). The wavefront of the reflected light is precisely manipulated by spatial variation of the grating periods along the subwavelength ridge array to achieve light focusing. Different from conventional negative focal shift effect, a positive focal shift is observed in such focusing reflectors. Detailed investigations of the influence of device size on the focusing performance, especially the focal length, are preformed via a finite element method . The results show that all performance parameters are greatly affected by the reflector size. A more concentrated focal point, or a better focusing capability, can be achieved by larger size. With increasing reflector size, the achieved focal length decreases and gradually approaches to the design, thus the corresponding positive focal shift decreases. Our results are helpful for understanding the visible-light control of the planar HCG-based focusing reflectors.

  7. Separation of scattering and intrinsic attenuation at Asama volcano (Japan): Evidence of high volcanic structural contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudencio, Janire; Aoki, Yosuke; Takeo, Minoru; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Song, WenZhan

    2017-03-01

    In this study we show 2D intrinsic- and scattering-Q images of Asama volcano obtained by analyzing 2320 waveforms from active data. Observed energy envelopes were fitted to the diffusion model and separate intrinsic- and scattering-Q images were produced using a back-projection method based on a Gaussian-type weighting function. Synthetic tests indicate robustness and reliability of the results. Areas of high scattering attenuation coincide with the volcanic edifice and the summit at which recent eruptions took place. The intrinsic dissipation pattern shows a strong contrast between the east and west side of the volcanic structure with the low values observed in the west interpreted as solidified magma bodies. Our results demonstrate a strong relationship between structural heterogeneities and attenuation processes in volcanic areas and confirm the effectiveness of the present technique, which can be used as an imaging tool complementary to conventional techniques.

  8. Erythrocytes and microbubble contrast agents, improve the therapeutic efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kenji; Kaneko, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Maruyama, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Yoichiro; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2005-03-01

    Erythrocytes, an well as Levovist microbubble contrast agent, enhance the heating effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and increase the coagulation volume produced by HIFU irradiation. In vitro experiments used human plasma with various concentrations of human erythrocytes in combination with or without Levovist. In vivo experiments used eight Japan white rabbits with three levels of anaemia. Using a 2.17 MHz transducer, HIFU was applied for 60 seconds, and the temperature rise and the volume of coagulation necrosis was evaluated. There was a significant correlation between the HIFU-induced temperature rise and hematocrit, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 (p=0.0001). Although the temperature rise was smaller at low hematocrit, it was significantly increased by adding Levovist to the suspension (panaemia group was significantly increased by using Levovist (p<0.01).

  9. PISCES High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Simulations and Data Reduction Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop Sayson, Jorge Domingo; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McElwain, Michael W.; Gong, Qian; Perrin, Marshall; Brandt, Timothy; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Marx, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The PISCES (Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to advance the technology readiness of the WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope)-AFTA (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) high contrast Coronagraph Instrument. We present the end to end optical simulator and plans for the data reduction pipeline (DRP). The optical simulator was created with a combination of the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based PROPER (optical propagation) library and Zemax (a MatLab script), while the data reduction pipeline is a modified version of the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) IDL pipeline. The simulations of the propagation of light through the instrument are based on Fourier transform algorithms. The DRP enables transformation of the PISCES IFS data to calibrated spectral data cubes.

  10. High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Non-planar Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yi; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Moreel, Loise; Zhou, Jie; Du, Qingyang; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Dobson, Kevin D; Birkmire, Robert; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a versatile, roll-to-roll and backend compatible technique for the fabrication of high-index-contrast photonic structures on both silicon and plastic substrates. The fabrication technique combines low-temperature chalcogenide glass film deposition and resist-free single-step thermal nanoimprint to process low-loss (1.6 dB/cm), sub-micron single-mode waveguides with a smooth surface finish using simple contact photolithography. Using this approach, the first chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators are fabricated by thermal nanoimprint. The devices exhibit an ultra-high quality-factor of 400,000 near 1550 nm wavelength, which represents the highest value reported in chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators. Furthermore, sub-micron nanoimprint of chalcogenide glass films on non-planar plastic substrates is demonstrated, which establishes the method as a facile route for monolithic fabrication of high-index-contrast devices on a wide array of unconventional substrates.

  11. Dynamics and structure of self-generated magnetics fields on solids following high contrast, high intensity laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, 1650 bd L. Boulet, J3X1S2, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Osaka, Suita, Osaka 565-087 (Japan); Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J., E-mail: julien.fuchs@polytechnique.fr [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Antici, P. [INRS-EMT, 1650 bd L. Boulet, J3X1S2, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Dept. SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Böker, J.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O. [Institut für Laser-und Plasmaphysik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf (Germany); Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Breil, J.; Feugeas, J. L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; D' Humières, E. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, 33405 Talence (France); Dervieux, V.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lancia, L. [Dept. SBAI, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza,” Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Shepherd, R. [LLNL, East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0058 (United States); Starodubtsev, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov Street, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); and others

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of self-generated magnetic B-fields produced following the interaction of a high contrast, high intensity (I > 10{sup 19 }W cm{sup −2}) laser beam with thin (3 μm thick) solid (Al or Au) targets is investigated experimentally and numerically. Two main sources drive the growth of B-fields on the target surfaces. B-fields are first driven by laser-generated hot electron currents that relax over ∼10–20 ps. Over longer timescales, the hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk of the target into vacuum also generates B-field induced by non-collinear gradients of density and temperature. The laser irradiation of the target front side strongly localizes the energy deposition at the target front, in contrast to the target rear side, which is heated by fast electrons over a much larger area. This induces an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic expansion between the front and rear target surfaces, and consequently the associated B-fields are found strongly asymmetric. The sole long-lasting (>30 ps) B-fields are the ones growing on the target front surface, where they remain of extremely high strength (∼8–10 MG). These B-fields have been recently put by us in practical use for focusing laser-accelerated protons [B. Albertazzi et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 043502 (2015)]; here we analyze in detail their dynamics and structure.

  12. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  13. High-contrast fluorescence imaging in fixed and living cells using optimized optical switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxing Wu

    Full Text Available We present the design, synthesis and characterization of new functionalized fluorescent optical switches for rapid, all-visible light-mediated manipulation of fluorescence signals from labelled structures within living cells, and as probes for high-contrast optical lock-in detection (OLID imaging microscopy. A triazole-substituted BIPS (TzBIPS is identified from a rational synthetic design strategy that undergoes robust, rapid and reversible, visible light-driven transitions between a colorless spiro- (SP and a far-red absorbing merocyanine (MC state within living cells. The excited MC-state of TzBIPS may also decay to the MC-ground state emitting near infra-red fluorescence, which is used as a sensitive and quantitative read-out of the state of the optical switch in living cells. The SP to MC transition for a membrane-targeted TzBIPS probe (C₁₂-TzBIPS is triggered at 405 nm at an energy level compatible with studies in living cells, while the action spectrum of the reverse transition (MC to SP has a maximum at 650 nm. The SP to MC transition is complete within the 790 ns pixel dwell time of the confocal microscope, while a single cycle of optical switching between the SP and MC states in a region of interest is complete within 8 ms (125 Hz within living cells, the fastest rate attained for any optical switch probe in a biological sample. This property can be exploited for real-time correction of background signals in living cells. A reactive form of TzBIPS is linked to secondary antibodies and used, in conjunction with an enhanced scope-based analysis of the modulated MC-fluorescence in immuno-stained cells, for high-contrast immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton.

  14. Collimated Propagation of Fast Electron Beams Accelerated by High-Contrast Laser Pulses in Highly Resistive Shocked Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisseau, X.; Morace, A.; Touati, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Baton, S. D.; Hulin, S.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Nuter, R.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Breil, J.; Fedosejevs, R.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fourment, C.; Fujioka, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Kerr, S.; McLean, H. S.; Sawada, H.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Santos, J. J.

    2017-05-01

    Collimated transport of ultrahigh intensity electron current was observed in cold and in laser-shocked vitreous carbon, in agreement with simulation predictions. The fast electron beams were created by coupling high-intensity and high-contrast laser pulses onto copper-coated cones drilled into the carbon samples. The guiding mechanism—observed only for times before the shock breakout at the inner cone tip—is due to self-generated resistive magnetic fields of ˜0.5 - 1 kT arising from the intense currents of fast electrons in vitreous carbon, by virtue of its specific high resistivity over the range of explored background temperatures. The spatial distribution of the electron beams, injected through the samples at different stages of compression, was characterized by side-on imaging of hard x-ray fluorescence.

  15. High-contrast 10-fs OPCPA-based Front-End for the Apollon-10PW laser

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios PAPADOPOULOS; Ramirez, Patricia; Pellegrina, A; Lebas, N.; Leblanc, Catherine; Cheriaux, Gilles; ZOU, J-P; Mennerat, G.; Monot, P.; Mathieu, F.; Audebert, P.; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a high-contrast 10-fs Front-End for Ti:sapphire PW-lasers within the Apollon-10PW project. This injector uses OPCPA pumped at 100 Hz by Yb-based CPA chain. Combination of OPCPA and XPW permits a >10 12 contrast ratio.

  16. Comparative analysis of flavonoids and polar metabolite profiling of Tanno-original and Tanno-high rutin buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Soo-Yun; Zhao, Shicheng; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2014-03-26

    Rutin is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of buckwheat. In this study, flavonoid biosynthesis was compared between two common cultivars (an original and a high-rutin line) of buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Transcriptional levels of the main flavonoid biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time PCR, and main flavonoid metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); levels of gene expression varied among organs of the two cultivars. Significantly higher transcription levels of most flavonoid biosynthetic genes, except FeFLS1, were detected in stems of the high-rutin line than in stems of the original line. FeCHI and FeFLS2 genes also showed higher expression levels in seeds of the high-rutin cultivar. In contrast, FePAL, FeC4H, Fe4CL1, FeCHS, FeF3H, FeF3'H, FeFLS2, and FeDFR were highly detected in the roots of the original line. The HPLC results indicated 1.73-, 1.62-, and 1.77-fold higher accumulation of rutin (the primary flavonoid compound) in leaves, stems, and mature seeds of the high-rutin cultivar (24.86, 1.46, and 1.36 μg/mg, respectively) compared with the original cultivar (14.40, 0.90, and 0.77 μg/mg, respectively). A total of 46 metabolites were identified from seeds by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA could clearly differentiate the original and high-rutin cultivars. Our results indicate that the high-rutin cultivar could be an excellent alternative for buckwheat culture, and we provide useful information for obtaining this cultivar.

  17. 3D tissue-engineered construct analysis via conventional high-resolution microcomputed tomography without X-ray contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Roman S; VanGordon, Samuel B; Shambaugh, Robert L; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2013-05-01

    As the field of tissue engineering develops, researchers are faced with a large number of degrees of freedom regarding the choice of material, architecture, seeding, and culturing. To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue-engineered strategy, histology is typically done by physically slicing and staining a construct (crude, time-consuming, and unreliable). However, due to recent advances in high-resolution biomedical imaging, microcomputed tomography (μCT) has arisen as a quick and effective way to evaluate samples, while preserving their structure in the original state. However, a major barrier for using μCT to do histology has been its inability to differentiate between materials with similar X-ray attenuation. Various contrasting strategies (hardware and chemical staining agents) have been proposed to address this problem, but at a cost of additional complexity and limited access. Instead, here we suggest a strategy for how virtual 3D histology in silico can be conducted using conventional μCT, and we provide an illustrative example from bone tissue engineering. The key to our methodology is an implementation of scaffold surface architecture that is ordered in relation to cells and tissue, in concert with straightforward image-processing techniques, to minimize the reliance on contrasting for material segmentation. In the case study reported, μCT was used to image and segment porous poly(lactic acid) nonwoven fiber mesh scaffolds that were seeded dynamically with mesenchymal stem cells and cultured to produce soft tissue and mineralized tissue in a flow perfusion bioreactor using an osteogenic medium. The methodology presented herein paves a new way for tissue engineers to identify and distinguish components of cell/tissue/scaffold constructs to easily and effectively evaluate the tissue-engineering strategies that generate them.

  18. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W

    1964-10-30

    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  19. Homogenization of two-phase flow: high contrast of phase permeability; Homogeneisation d'ecoulement diphasique: grand contraste de permeabilite d'une phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, G.P. [Saint-Etienne Universite, Equipe d' Analyse Numerique, UPRES EA 3058, 42 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Modelisation en Numerique, CNRS UMR 7607, 75 - Paris (France); Virnovsky, G. [R.F. - Rogaland Research, Stavanger (Norway)

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state two-phase flow non-linear equation is considered in the case when one of phases has low effective permeability in some periodic set, while on the complementary set it is high; the second phase has no contrast of permeabilities in different zones. A homogenization procedure gives the homogenized model with macroscopic effective permeability of the second phase depending on the gradient and on the second order derivatives of the macroscopic pressure of the first phase. This effect cannot be obtained by classical (one small parameter) homogenization. (author)

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors associated with female high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa in 2002,1 7% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYS) and 7.1% of deaths ... high-risk drinking in women of reproductive age in a rural and an urban South .... hungry; employment status; highest level of education; and the presence of 8 ...

  1. Apodization in high-contrast long-slit spectroscopy. Closer, deeper, fainter, cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.

    2013-07-01

    The spectroscopy of faint planetary-mass companions to nearby stars is one of the main challenges that new-generation high-contrast spectro-imagers are going to face. However, the high contrast ratio between main-sequence stars and young planets makes it difficult to extract a companion spectrum that is not biased by the signal from the star. In a previous work we demonstrated that coupling long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) and classical Lyot coronagraphy (CLC) to form a long-slit coronagraph (LSC) allows low-mass companions to be properly characterized when combined with an innovative a posteriori data analysis methods based on the spectral deconvolution (SD). However, the presence of a slit in the coronagraphic focal plane induces a complex distribution of energy in the Lyot pupil plane that cannot be easily masked with a binary Lyot stop, creating strong diffraction residuals at close angular separation. To alleviate this concern, we propose to use a pupil apodization to suppress diffraction, creating an apodized long-slit coronagraph (ALSC). We show that this concept allows looking at a closer separation from the star, at deeper contrast, which enables the characterization of fainter substellar companions. After describing how the apodization was optimized, we demonstrate its advantages with respect to the CLC in the context of SPHERE/IRDIS LSS mode at low resolution with a 0.12'' slit and 0.18'' coronagraphic mask. We performed different sets of simulations with and without aberrations, and with and without a slit to demonstrate that the apodization is a more appropriate concept for LSS, at the expense of a significantly reduced throughput (37%) compared to the LSC. Then we performed detailed end-to-end simulations of the LSC and the ALSC that include realistic levels of aberrations to obtain several datasets representing 1 h of integration time on stars of spectral type A0 to M0 located at 10 pc. We inserted the spectra of planetary companions at different

  2. On the origin of high-field magnetic white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, E; Lorén-Aguilar, P; Aznar-Siguán, G; Camacho, J; Külebi, B; Isern, J; Althaus, L G; Córsico, A H

    2012-01-01

    High-field magnetic white dwarfs have been long suspected to be the result of stellar mergers. However, the nature of the coalescing stars and the precise mechanism that produces the magnetic field are still unknown. Here we show that the hot, convective, differentially rotating corona present in the outer layers of the remnant of the merger of two degenerate cores is able to produce magnetic fields of the required strength that do not decay for long timescales. We also show, using an state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulator, that the expected number of high-field magnetic white dwarfs produced in this way is consistent with that found in the solar neighborhood.

  3. Origins and Impacts of High-Density Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bao-An

    2016-01-01

    What is nuclear symmetry energy? Why is it important? What do we know about it? Why is it so uncertain especially at high densities? Can the total symmetry energy or its kinetic part be negative? What are the effects of three-body and/or tensor force on symmetry energy? How can we probe the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy with terrestrial nuclear experiments? What observables of heavy-ion reactions are sensitive to the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy? How does the symmetry energy affect properties of neutron stars, gravitational waves and our understanding about the nature of strong-field gravity? In this lecture, we try to answer these questions as best as we can based on some of our recent work and/or understanding of research done by others. This note summarizes the main points of the lecture.

  4. Nuclear reactor high-level waste: origin and safe disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, C.; Tsipis, K. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    High-level waste (HLW) is a natural component of the nuclear fuel cycle. Because of its radioactivity, HLW needs to be handled with great care. Different alternatives for permanently storing HLW are evaluated. Studies have shown that the disposal of HLW is safest when the waste is first vitrified before storage. Simple calculations show that vitrified HLW that is properly buried in deep, carefully chosen crystalline rock structures poses insignificant health risks. (author).

  5. North Atlantic Origin of Interdecadal variability of Siberian High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hwa; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Baek-Min

    2017-04-01

    We suggest that the changes in the mean atmospheric circulation structure in the North Atlantic Ocean upstream region of Eurasian continent play an important role in the interdecadal variability of Siberian High (SH) through the modulation of Ural blocking frequency. Previous studies suggested that the interdecadal variability of SH is partly explained by the Arctic Oscillation. However, in this study, we emphasize the role of 'Warm Arctic and Cold Eurasia (WACE)', which is the second mode of winter surface air temperature variability over Eurasia. We show that the correlation between SH and WACE is high in general compared to that between SH and AO. However, the correlation between SH and WACE does not always exhibit high constant value. It shows a distinctive interdecadal fluctuation in the correlation. We found that this fluctuation in the correlation is due to the interdecadal fluctuation of the continental trough over the North Atlantic and the resultant strengthening of in-situ atmospheric baroclinicity. This accompanies changes in the transient vorticity flux divergence which leads to the downstream wave development and anomalous anticyclonic flow near Ural region. Obviously, the existence of anticyclonic flow over Ural region helps more frequent occurrence of Ural blocking and it is shown that this condition favors positive WACE event, which links to an intensified SH.

  6. High-resolution Z-contrast imaging and EELS study of functional oxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, Robert F; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Zhu, Yimei

    2008-08-01

    Functional complex-oxide materials show a wide variety of properties and behaviors that cannot be found in any other class of materials, including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magneto resistance. Consequently, this group of oxide materials has become the focus of many experimental as well as theoretical studies, aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms and properties that govern these complex structures. Here, we will review our high-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss studies of two complex-oxide materials systems, more specifically low-angle tilt grain-boundaries in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO), and the spin-state transition in LaCoO(3). It will be shown that the O K-edge pre-peak can be used to quantify the hole-concentration in the vicinity of the dislocation core in YBCO, as well as to determine the Co(3+) spin-state in LaCoO(3).

  7. Four shades of brown: tuning of electrochromic polymer blends toward high-contrast eyewear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österholm, Anna M; Shen, D Eric; Kerszulis, Justin A; Bulloch, Rayford H; Kuepfert, Michael; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2015-01-28

    We report a straightforward strategy of accessing a wide variety of colors through simple predictive color mixing of electrochromic polymers (ECPs). We have created a set of brown ECP blends that can be incorporated as the active material in user-controlled electrochromic eyewear. Color mixing of ECPs proceeds in a subtractive fashion, and we acquire various hues of brown through the mixing of cyan and yellow primaries in combination with orange and periwinkle-blue secondary colors. Upon oxidation, all of the created blends exhibit a change in transmittance from ca. 10 to 70% in a few seconds. We demonstrate the attractiveness of these ECP blends as active materials in electrochromic eyewear by assembling user-controlled, high-contrast, fast-switching, and fully solution-processable electrochromic lenses with colorless transmissive states and colored states that correspond to commercially available sunglasses. The lenses were fabricated using a combination of inkjet printing and blade-coating to illustrate the feasibility of using soluble ECPs for high-throughput and large-scale processing.

  8. Implantation of high concentration noble gases in cubic zirconia and silicon carbide: A contrasted radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velişa, Gihan, E-mail: gihan@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Debelle, Aurélien; Thomé, Lionel; Mylonas, Stamatis [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Vincent, Laetitia [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS-IN2P3-Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, Bât. 220, 91405 Orsay (France); Boulle, Alexandre [Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); National Center for Nuclear Research, PL-05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Pantelica, Dan [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-08-01

    The modifications of the microstructure of yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia and silicon carbide single crystals implanted with high concentrations of noble gas ions and subsequently annealed at high temperature were characterized using RBS/C, XRD and TEM. It is found that the annealing behavior is strongly dependent on both the material and the implanted noble gases. Ar-implanted yttria-stabilized zirconia shows no significant microstructural modification upon annealing at 800 °C, e.g. dislocations are still present and the size of the Ar bubbles does not evolve. This is in strong contrast with previous observations on helium-implanted zirconia, where the formation of bubbles and elongated fractures were observed. In the case of SiC, thermal annealing at 1000 °C shows an enhanced damage recovery when He is implanted as compared to Ar implantation and the recrystallization of the matrix is accompanied with the release of noble gas atoms. This difference can be ascribed to different atomic radii, and thus mobility of implanted species.

  9. Metasurfaces based on Gallium Nitride High Contrast Gratings at Visible Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yongjin; Zhu, Hongbo; Grünberg Research Centre Team

    2015-03-01

    Metasurfaces are currently attracting global attention due to their ability to achieve full control of light propagation. However, these metasurfaces have thus far been constructed mostly from metallic materials, which greatly limit the diffraction efficiencies because of the ohmic losses. Semiconducting metasurfaces offer one potential solution to the issue of losses. Besides, the use of semiconducting materials can broaden the applicability of metasurfaces, as they enable facile integration with electronics and mechanical systems and can benefit from mature semiconductor fabrication technologies. We have proposed visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lenses and beam deflecting elements based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wave-fronts of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 83.0% and numerical aperture of 0.77, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.03° and transmissivity as high as 93.3%. The proposed metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  10. Co-Immobilization of Proteins and DNA Origami Nanoplates to Produce High-Contrast Biomolecular Nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Roland; Burns, Jonathan R; Grydlik, Martyna J; Halilovic, Alma; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich; Howorka, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The biofunctionalization of nanopatterned surfaces with DNA origami nanostructures is an important topic in nanobiotechnology. An unexplored challenge is, however, to co-immobilize proteins with DNA origami at pre-determined substrate sites in high contrast relative to the nontarget areas. The immobilization should, in addition, preferably be achieved on a transparent substrate to allow ultrasensitive optical detection. If successful, specific co-binding would be a step towards stoichiometrically defined arrays with few to individual protein molecules per site. Here, we successfully immobilize with high specificity positively charged avidin proteins and negatively charged DNA origami nanoplates on 100 nm-wide carbon nanoislands while suppressing undesired adsorption to surrounding nontarget areas. The arrays on glass slides achieve unprecedented selectivity factors of up to 4000 and allow ultrasensitive fluorescence read-out. The co-immobilization onto the nanoislands leads to layered biomolecular architectures, which are functional because bound DNA origami influences the number of capturing sites on the nanopatches for other proteins. The novel hybrid DNA origami-protein nanoarrays allow the fabrication of versatile research platforms for applications in biosensing, biophysics, and cell biology, and, in addition, represent an important step towards single-molecule protein arrays.

  11. High-contrast Imaging of Intermediate-mass Giants with Long-term Radial Velocity Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tsuguru; Sato, Bun'ei; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Uyama, Taichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Abe, Lyu; Ando, Hiroyasu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ida, Shigeru; Ishii, Miki; Itoh, Yoichi; Iye, Masanori; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Janson, Markus; Kambe, Eiji; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W.; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Takeda, Yoichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-07-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been in operation for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct-imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations of six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to γ Hya B ({0.61}-0.14+0.12{M}⊙ ), HD 5608 B (0.10+/- 0.01{M}⊙ ), and HD 109272 B (0.28+/- 0.06{M}⊙ ). For the remaining targets (ι Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067), we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 M Jup at projected separations of 1″-7″. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find that the Kozai mechanism can explain the high eccentricity of the inner planets ι Dra b, HD 5608 b, and HD 14067 b.

  12. On filtration for high-energy phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Christian; Mohamed, Ashraf; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging promises unprecedented soft-tissue contrast and resolution. However, several practical challenges have to be overcome when using the setup in a clinical environment. The system design that is currently closest to clinical use is the grating-based Talbot-Lau interferometer (GBI).1-3 The requirements for patient imaging are low patient dose, fast imaging time, and high image quality. For GBI, these requirements can be met most successfully with a narrow energy width, high- ux spectrum. Additionally, to penetrate a human-sized object, the design energy of the system has to be well above 40 keV. To our knowledge, little research has been done so far to investigate optimal GBI filtration at such high x-ray energies. In this paper, we study different filtration strategies and their impact on high-energy GBI. Specifically, we compare copper filtration at low peak voltage with equal-absorption, equal-imaging time K-edge filtration of spectra with higher peak voltage under clinically realistic boundary conditions. We specifically focus on a design energy of 59 keV and investigate combinations of tube current, peak voltage, and filtration that lead to equal patient absorption. Theoretical considerations suggest that the K edge of tantalum might provide a transmission pocket at around 59 keV, yielding a well-shaped spectrum. Although one can observe a slight visibility benefit when using tungsten or tantalum filtration, experimental results indicate that visibility benefits most from a low x-ray tube peak voltage.

  13. Integrated laser with low-loss high index-contrast waveguides for OEICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, R J; Bond, T C; Behymer, E; Pocha, M; Loomis, G; Wolfe, J; Vernon, S

    2004-11-22

    Photonic integrated circuits require the ability to integrate both lasers and waveguides with low absorption and coupling loss. This technology is being developed at LLNL for digital logic gates for optical key generation circuits to facilitate secure communications. Here, we demonstrate an approach of integrating InGaAs DQW edge emitting lasers (EEL) with electron beam evaporated dielectric waveguides. The EELs are defined by electron cyclotron resonance etching (ECR). This approach results in highly anisotropic etched mirrors with smooth etched features (sidewall rms roughness = 28 {angstrom}, surface rms roughness = 10 {angstrom}). The mirror is etched to form both the laser cavity and define the waveguide mesa, which accommodates a dielectric stack, where the core is aligned with the active region of the laser to achieve maximum vertical mode overlapping. The waveguides are based on SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} which yields a high index contrast of 0.6, resulting in low loss guides ({approx}2-3dB/cm). The design of the interface has taken into account the waveguide transmission loss, air gap spacing and tilt between the laser and waveguide. The critical feature for this deposition technique is its required high directionality or minimal sidewall deposition and corner effects. In the butt coupled EEL/waveguide system we have measured a slope efficiency to be as high as 0.45 W/A. We have in conclusion demonstrated a technology that allows direct coupling of a dielectric optical interconnect to a semiconductor laser monolithically fabricated on the semiconductor substrate.

  14. High contrast imaging of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins via temporally unmixed Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (tuMSOT)

    CERN Document Server

    Stiel, Andre C; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Razansky, Daniel; Westmeyer, Gil G

    2014-01-01

    Photocontrol of reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) was used to program optoacoustic signal time courses that were temporally unmixed to increase the proteins contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) in optoacoustic imaging. In this way, two variants of the RSFP Dronpa with very similar optoacoustic spectra could be readily discriminated in the presence of highly absorbing blood. Addition of temporal unmixing to multispectral optoacoustic tomography (tuMSOT) in conjunction with synthetic or genetically controlled photochromic contrast agents and customized photoswitching schedules can increase the performance of multiplexed and high contrast molecular optoacoustic imaging.

  15. High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treossi, Emanuele; Melucci, Manuela; Liscio, Andrea; Gazzano, Massimo; Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2009-11-04

    We present a novel approach for detecting and visualizing graphene oxide (GO) with high contrast on different substrates, including glass, quartz, and silicon. Visualization of GO sheets is accomplished through quenching the fluorescence of a thiophene dye, giving high optical contrast without the need to use interference methods. A comparison of fluorescence, AFM, and XRD measurements confirmed that even a single GO sheet can completely quench the fluorescence and thus be quickly visualized.

  16. High-energy gamma-ray sources of cosmological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Pierre; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of instruments in gamma-ray astrophysics launched a new era in the search for a dark matter signal in the high-energy sky. Such searches are said indirect, in the sense that the presence of a dark matter particle is inferred from the detection of products of its pair-annihilation or decay. They have recently started to probe the natural domain of existence for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the favorite dark matter candidates today. In this article, we review the basic framework for indirect searches and we present a status of current limits obtained with gamma-ray observations. We also devote a section to another possible class of cosmological gamma-ray sources, primordial black holes, also considered as a potential constituent of dark matter. xml:lang="fr"

  17. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  18. High-throughput mapping of origins of replication in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Isabelle; Palakodeti, Aparna; Jiang, Yanwen; Young, David J; Jiang, Nan; Fernald, Anthony A; Le Beau, Michelle M

    2007-08-01

    Mapping origins of replication has been challenging in higher eukaryotes. We have developed a rapid, genome-wide method to map origins of replication in asynchronous human cells by combining the nascent strand abundance assay with a highly tiled microarray platform, and we validated the technique by two independent assays. We applied this method to analyse the enrichment of nascent DNA in three 50-kb regions containing known origins of replication in the MYC, lamin B2 (LMNB2) and haemoglobin beta (HBB) genes, a 200-kb region containing the rare fragile site, FRAXA, and a 1,075-kb region on chromosome 22; we detected most of the known origins and also 28 new origins. Surprisingly, the 28 new origins were small in size and located predominantly within genes. Our study also showed a strong correlation between origin replication timing and chromatin acetylation.

  19. No reserved communication lanes for high energy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  20. High-resolution 3D non-contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography of the lower extremities: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Petersen, Steffen E. [The London Chest Hospital, Centre for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, London (United Kingdom); Heidt, Martin C. [Cardiovascular Center Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Schulze, Thomas; Schmitt, Peter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Application and Workflow Development, Erlangen (Germany); Bergemann, Sabine [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic value of non-contrast-enhanced, 3D-high-resolution, ECG-gated, multi-step MR angiography (non-ceMRA) of the lower extremities using a modified turbo-spin-echo technique in comparison to 1.0-molar contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ceMRA) in patients with suspected peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Fifty consecutive patients underwent non-ceMRA before ceMRA within the same session. We assessed examination time, image quality, localisation and severity of stenosis. Examination time was shorter for ceMRA (12 {+-} 4 min) compared with non-ceMRA (28 {+-} 6 min, p < 0.001). The image quality of the aorta-iliac, femoral and combined popliteal and lower leg arteries was inferior for non-ceMRA (2.8 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.8/3.3 {+-} 0.9) versus ceMRA (4.7 {+-} 0.8/4.8 {+-} 0.6/4.8 {+-} 0.7) on a 5-point scale with 5 for maximum quality (p < 0.01). CeMRA offered more assessable data sets than non-ceMRA (98% vs. 90%). For detecting stenosis >50% or occlusions of pelvic and femoral arteries using non-ceMRA the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 94%, 86%, 67% and 98% and for popliteal and lower leg arteries 93%, 87%, 69% and 98%, respectively. We demonstrated that 3D non-ceMRA represents a very promising technique in patients with lower extremities PVD and could be used as an alternative if gadolinium-based contrast agents cannot be administered. (orig.)

  1. Thermoacoustic contrast of prostate cancer due to heating by very high frequency irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, S. K.; Hull, D.; Thomas, M.; Griep, SK; Jacobsohn, K.; See, WA

    2015-01-01

    Applying the thermoacoustic (TA) effect to diagnostic imaging was first proposed in the 1980s. The object under test is irradiated by high-power pulses of electromagnetic energy, which heat tissue and cause thermal expansion. Outgoing TA pressure pulses are detected by ultrasound transducers and reconstructed to provide images of the object. The TA contrast mechanism is strongly dependent upon the frequency of the irradiating electromagnetic pulse. When very high frequency (VHF) electromagnetic irradiation is utilized, TA signal production is driven by ionic content. Prostatic fluids contain high levels of ionic metabolites, including citrate, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. Healthy prostate glands produce more ionic metabolites than diseased glands. VHF pulses are therefore expected to generate stronger TA signal in healthy prostate glands than in diseased glands. A benchtop system for performing ex vivo TA computed tomography with VHF energy is described and images are presented. The system utilizes irradiation pulses of 700 ns duration exceeding 20 kW power. Reconstructions frequently visualize anatomic landmarks such as the urethra and verumontanum. TA reconstructions from three freshly excised human prostate glands with little, moderate, and severe cancerous involvement are compared with histology. TA signal strength is negatively correlated with percent cancerous involvement in this small sample size. For the 45 regions of interest analyzed, a reconstruction value of 0.4 mV provides 100% sensitivity but only 29% specificity. This sample size is far too small to draw sweeping conclusions, but the results warrant a larger volume study including comparison of TA images to the gold standard, histology.

  2. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  3. The issues and tentative solutions for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Peter; Morelli, John N; Lux, Francois; Tillement, Olivier; Schneider, Günther; Buecker, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at ultra-high field strengths beyond 3 Tesla (T) has become increasingly prevalent in research and preclinical applications. As such, the inevitable clinical implementation of such systems lies on the horizon. The major benefit of ultra-high field MRI is the markedly increased signal-to-noise ratios achievable, enabling acquisition of MR images with simultaneously greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, at field strengths higher than 3 T, the efficacy of Gd(III)-based contrast agents is diminished due to decreased r1 relaxivity, somewhat limiting imaging of the vasculature and contrast-enhanced imaging of tumors. There have been extensive efforts to design new contrast agents with high r1 relaxivities based on macromolecular compounds or nanoparticles; however, the efficacy of these agents at ultra-high field strengths has not yet been proven. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic principles of MR contrast enhancement processes and to highlight the main factors influencing relaxivity. In addition, challenges and opportunities for contrast-enhanced MRI at ultra-high field strengths will be explored. Various approaches for the development of effective contrast agent molecules that are suitable for a broad spectrum of applied field strengths will be discussed in the context of the current literature.

  4. Determining contrast sensitivity functions for monochromatic light emitted by high-brightness LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Vasudha; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Raghavan, Ramesh; Boyce, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is becoming the choice for many lighting applications that require monochromatic light. However, one potential problem with LED-based lighting systems is uneven luminance patterns. Having a uniform luminance distribution is more important in some applications. One example where LEDs are becoming a viable alternative and luminance uniformity is an important criterion is backlighted monochromatic signage. The question is how much uniformity is required for these applications. Presently, there is no accepted metric that quantifies luminance uniformity. A recent publication proposed a method based on digital image analysis to quantify beam quality of reflectorized halogen lamps. To be able to employ such a technique to analyze colored beams generated by LED systems, it is necessary to have contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) for monochromatic light produced by LEDs. Several factors including the luminance, visual field size, and spectral power distribution of the light affect the CSFs. Although CSFs exist for a variety of light sources at visual fields ranging from 2 degrees to 20 degrees, CSFs do not exist for red, green, and blue light produced by high-brightness LEDs at 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields and at luminances typical for backlighted signage. Therefore, the goal of the study was to develop a family of CSFs for 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields illuminated by narrow-band LEDs at typical luminances seen in backlighted signs. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  5. A mineralogical study in contrasts: highly mineralized whale rostrum and human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ai-Jawad, Maisoon; Siddiqui, Samera; Pasteris, Jill D.

    2015-11-01

    The outermost enamel of the human tooth and the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris are two highly mineralized tissues that contain over 95 wt.% mineral, i.e., bioapatite. However, the same mineral type (carbonated hydroxylapatite) does not yield the same material properties, as revealed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis. Overall, the outermost enamel of a tooth has more homogeneous physical and chemical features than the rostrum. Chemical comparison of rostrum and enamel shows bioapatite in the rostrum to be enriched in Na, Mg, CO3, and S, whereas the outermost enamel shows only a slightly enriched Cl concentration. Morphologically, mineral rods (at tens of μm scale), crystallites and prisms (at μm and sub-μm scale), and platelets (at tens of nm scale) all demonstrate less organized texture in the rostrum than in enamel. Such contrasts between two mineralized tissues suggest distinct pathways of biomineralization, e.g., the nature of the equilibrium between mineral and body fluid. This study illustrates the remarkable flexibility of the apatite mineral structure to match its chemical and physical properties to specific biological needs within the same animal or between species.

  6. Complete sparing of high-contrast color input to motion perception in cortical color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P; Hénaff, M A; Michel, F; Landis, T; Troscianko, T; Intriligator, J

    1998-07-01

    It is widely held that color and motion are processed by separate parallel pathways in the visual system, but this view is difficult to reconcile with the fact that motion can be detected in equiluminant stimuli that are defined by color alone. To examine the relationship between color and motion, we tested three patients who had lost their color vision following cortical damage (central achromatopsia). Despite their profound loss in the subjective experience of color and their inability to detect the motion of faint colors, all three subjects showed surprisingly strong responses to high-contrast, moving color stimuli--equal in all respects to the performance of subjects with normal color vision. The pathway from opponent-color detectors in the retina to the motion analysis areas must therefore be independent of the damaged color centers in the occipitotemporal area. It is probably also independent of the motion analysis area MT/V5, because the contribution of color to motion detection in these patients is much stronger than the color response of monkey area MT.

  7. High-Contrast Imaging for Intermediate-Mass Giants with Long-Term Radial Velocity Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Tsuguru; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Narita, Norio; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Uyama, Taichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Abe, Lyu; Ando, Hiroyasu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ida, Shigeru; Ishii, Miki; Itoh, Yoichi; Iye, Masanori; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Janson, Markus; Kambe, Eiji; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; McElwain, Michael W; Mede, Kyle; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Takeda, Yoichi; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been operated for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations or six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to $\\gamma$ Hya B ($0.61^{+0.12}_{-0.14} M_\\odot$), HD 5608 B ($0.10 \\pm 0.01 M_\\odot$), and HD 109272 B ($0.28 \\pm 0.06 M_\\odot$). For the remaining targets($\\iota$ Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067) we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ at projected separations of 1arcsec-7arcsec. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find ...

  8. The SEEDS High Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets around Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Uyama, Taichi; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; Akiyama, Eiji; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    We present high-contrast observations of 68 young stellar objects (YSOs) taken as part of the SEEDS survey on the Subaru telescope. Our targets are very young ($<$10 Myr) stars, which often harbor protoplanetary disks where planets may be forming. We achieve typical contransts of $\\sim$$10^{-4}$-$10^{-5.5}$ at the angular distance of 1$\\arcsec$ from the central star, corresponding to typical mass sensitivities (assuming hot-start evolutionary models) of $\\sim$10 ${\\rm M_J}$ at 70 AU and $\\sim$6 ${\\rm M_J}$ at 140 AU. We have detected a stellar companion to HIP 79462 and confirmed the substellar objects GQ Lup b and ROXs 42B b. An additional six companion candidates await follow-up observations to check for common proper-motion. Our SEEDS YSO observations prove the population of planets and brown dwarfs at the very youngest ages, these may be compared to the results of surveys targeting somewhat older stars. We will present a detailed statistical analysis of our sample and its implications for giant planet ...

  9. Diffraction Analysis of 2-D Pupil Mapping for High-Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, R J

    2005-01-01

    Pupil-mapping is a technique whereby a uniformly-illuminated input pupil, such as from starlight, can be mapped into a non-uniformly illuminated exit pupil, such that the image formed from this pupil will have suppressed sidelobes, many orders of magnitude weaker than classical Airy ring intensities. Pupil mapping is therefore a candidate technique for coronagraphic imaging of extrasolar planets around nearby stars. Unlike most other high-contrast imaging techniques, pupil mapping is lossless and preserves the full angular resolution of the collecting telescope. So, it could possibly give the highest signal-to-noise ratio of any proposed single-telescope system for detecting extrasolar planets. Prior analyses based on pupil-to-pupil ray-tracing indicate that a planet fainter than 10^{-10} times its parent star, and as close as about 2 lambda/D, should be detectable. In this paper, we describe the results of careful diffraction analysis of pupil mapping systems. These results reveal a serious unresolved issue....

  10. Multiscale finite element methods for high-contrast problems using local spectral basis functions

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we study multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) using spectral multiscale basis functions that are designed for high-contrast problems. Multiscale basis functions are constructed using eigenvectors of a carefully selected local spectral problem. This local spectral problem strongly depends on the choice of initial partition of unity functions. The resulting space enriches the initial multiscale space using eigenvectors of local spectral problem. The eigenvectors corresponding to small, asymptotically vanishing, eigenvalues detect important features of the solutions that are not captured by initial multiscale basis functions. Multiscale basis functions are constructed such that they span these eigenfunctions that correspond to small, asymptotically vanishing, eigenvalues. We present a convergence study that shows that the convergence rate (in energy norm) is proportional to (H/Λ*)1/2, where Λ* is proportional to the minimum of the eigenvalues that the corresponding eigenvectors are not included in the coarse space. Thus, we would like to reach to a larger eigenvalue with a smaller coarse space. This is accomplished with a careful choice of initial multiscale basis functions and the setup of the eigenvalue problems. Numerical results are presented to back-up our theoretical results and to show higher accuracy of MsFEMs with spectral multiscale basis functions. We also present a hierarchical construction of the eigenvectors that provides CPU savings. © 2010.

  11. The inner environment of Z~CMa: High-Contrast Imaging Polarimetry with NaCo

    CERN Document Server

    Canovas, H; Dougados, C; de Boer, J; Ménard, F; Casassus, S; Schreiber, M R; Cieza, L A; Caceres, C; Girard, J H

    2015-01-01

    Context. Z\\,CMa is a binary composed of an embedded Herbig Be and an FU Ori class star separated by $\\sim100$ au. Observational evidence indicate a complex environment in which each star has a circumstellar disk and drives a jet, and the whole system is embedded in a large dusty envelope. Aims. We aim to probe the circumbinary environment of Z\\,CMa in the inner 400 au in scattered light. Methods. We use high contrast imaging polarimetry with VLT/NaCo at $H$ and $K_s$ bands. Results. The central binary is resolved in both bands. The polarized images show three bright and complex structures: a common dust envelope, a sharp extended feature previously reported in direct light, and an intriguing bright clump located $0\\farcs3$ south of the binary, which appears spatially connected to the sharp extended feature. Conclusions.We detect orbital motion when compared to previous observations, and report a new outburst driven by the Herbig star. Our observations reveal the complex inner environment of Z\\,CMa with unprec...

  12. High-resolution patterning of silver conductive lines by adhesion contrast planography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Koutake, Masayoshi; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2015-09-01

    We developed printed electronics compatible planographic printing methods that enable single-micrometer-order patterning with high rectangularity and thickness uniformity. Instead of conventional planographic printing methods where selective wetting is used for pattern generation, an adhesive latent image produced on a silicone surface is exploited for patterning in the proposed printing methodologies. We further investigated the fundamental mechanisms of the proposed methods by focusing on adhesion contrasts between the blanket, printing area, and non-printing area of a printing plate (PP) and determined that printing is feasible when a simple magnitude relation of adhesions is satisfied for thin layers of size ranging from approximately 50 nm to 100 nm. Latent image formation can be carried out via a simple ultraviolet exposure of the silicone surface, thereby enabling the rapid prototyping of printed device fabrications. The easily preparable, single material-based flat PPs developed in this study have the advantages of flexibility in pattern designs, washing process, fabrication cost, and pattern-rewriting capability compared with the conventional printing methods in which raised surfaces such as stamps or clichés are required for patterning.

  13. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  14. Broadband MEMS-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode 1.3 μm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure incorporating a microelectromechanical system-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror is suggested and numerically investigated. A linear tuning range of 100 nm and a wavelength tuning...... efficiency of 0.203 are predicted. The large tuning range and efficiency are attributed to the incorporation of the tuning air gap as part of the optical cavity and to the use of a short cavity structure. The short cavity length can be achieved by employing a HCG design of which the reflection mechanism does...... not rely on resonant coupling. The absence of resonance coupling leads to a 0.59 λ-thick penetration depth of the HCG and enables to use a 0.25 λ-thick tuning air gap underneath the HCG. This considerably reduces the effective cavity length, leading to larger tuning range and efficiency. The basic...

  15. Phase-contrast tomography of neuronal tissues: from laboratory- to high resolution synchrotron CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Müller, Kristin; Salditt, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the three-dimensional architecture of neuronal tissues with sub-cellular resolution presents a significant analytical challenge. Overcoming the limitations associated with serial slicing, phase-contrast x-ray tomography has the potential to contribute to this goal. Even compact laboratory CT at an optimized liquid-metal jet micro- focus source combined with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms and preparation protocols can yield renderings with single cell sensitivity in millimeter sized brain areas of mouse. Here, we show the capabilities of the setup by imaging a Golgi-Cox impregnated mouse brain. Towards higher resolution we extend these studies at our recently upgraded waveguide-based cone-beam holo-tomography instrument GINIX at DESY. This setup allows high resolution recordings with adjustable field of view and resolution, down to the voxel sizes in the range of a few ten nanometers. The recent results make us confident that important issues of neuronal connectivity can be addressed by these methods, and that 3D (virtual) histology with nanoscale resolution will become an attractive modality for neuroscience research.

  16. High-Contrast Visualization of Upconversion Luminescence in Mice Using Time-Gating Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianlin; Zhu, Xingjun; Lu, Yiqing; Zhao, Jiangbo; Feng, Wei; Jia, Guohua; Wang, Fan; Li, Fuyou; Jin, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Optical imaging through the near-infrared (NIR) window provides deep penetration of light up to several centimeters into biological tissues. Capable of emitting 800 nm luminescence under 980 nm illumination, the recently developed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) suggest a promising optical contrast agent for in vivo bioimaging. However, presently they require high-power lasers to excite when applied to small animals, leading to significant scattering background that limits the detection sensitivity as well as a detrimental thermal effect. In this work, we show that the time-gating approach implementing pulsed illumination from a NIR diode laser and time-delayed imaging synchronized via an optical chopper offers detection sensitivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher than the conventional approach using optical band-pass filters (S/N, 47321/6353 vs 5339/58), when imaging UCNPs injected into Kunming mice. The pulsed laser illumination (70 μs ON in 200 μs period) also reduces the overall thermal accumulation to 35% of that under the continuous-wave mode. Technical details are given on setting up the time-gating unit comprising an optical chopper, a pinhole, and a microscopy eyepiece. Being generally compatible with any camera, this provides a convenient and low cost solution to NIR animal imaging using UCNPs as well as other luminescent probes.

  17. High-relaxivity contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L. [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Mehndiratta, Amit [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany); Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Department of Radiology E010, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Evaluation of brain lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides information that is critical for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic intervention and monitoring response. Conventional contrast-enhanced MR neuroimaging using gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents primarily depicts disruption of the blood-brain barrier, demonstrating location and extent of disease, and also the morphological details at the lesion site. However, conventional imaging results do not always accurately predict tumour aggressiveness. Advanced functional MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted imaging utilise contrast agents to convey physiological information regarding the haemodynamics and neoangiogenic status of the lesion that is often complementary to anatomical information obtained through conventional imaging. Most of the Gd contrast agents available have similar T1 and T2 relaxivities, and thus their contrast-enhancing capabilities are comparable. Exceptions are gadobenate-dimeglumine, Gd-EOB-DTPA, Gadobutrol and gadofosveset, which, owing to their transient-protein-binding capability, possess almost twice (and more) the T1 and T2 relaxivities as other agents at all magnetic field strengths. Numerous comparative studies have demonstrated the advantages of the increased relaxivity in terms of enhanced image contrast, image quality and diagnostic confidence. Here we summarise the benefits of higher relaxivity for the most common neuroimaging applications including MRI, perfusion-weighted imaging and MRA for evaluation of brain tumours, cerebrovascular disease and other CNS lesions. (orig.)

  18. Europium-engineered iron oxide nanocubes with high T1 and T2 contrast abilities for MRI in living subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijiao; Zhou, Zijian; Liu, Hanyu; Wu, Changqiang; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Guoming; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with both positive (T1) and negative (T2) contrast abilities are needed in clinical diagnosis for fault-free accurate detection of lesions. We report a facile synthesis of europium-engineered iron oxide (EuIO) nanocubes as T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI in living subjects. The Eu(iii) oxide-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increase the T1 relaxivity with an enhanced positive contrast effect. EuIO nanocubes with 14 nm in diameter showed a high r1 value of 36.8 mM-1 s-1 with respect to total metal ions (Fe + Eu), which is about 3 times higher than that of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with similar size. Moreover, both r1 and r2 values of EuIO nanocubes can be tuned by varying their sizes and Eu doping ratios. After citrate coating, EuIO nanocubes can provide enhanced T1 and T2 contrast effects in small animals, particularly in the cardiac and liver regions. This work may provide an insightful strategy to design MRI contrast agents with both positive and negative contrast abilities for biomedical applications.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with both positive (T1) and negative (T2) contrast abilities are needed in clinical diagnosis for fault-free accurate detection of lesions. We report a facile synthesis of europium-engineered iron oxide (EuIO) nanocubes as T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI in living subjects. The Eu(iii) oxide-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increase the T1 relaxivity with an enhanced positive contrast effect. EuIO nanocubes with 14 nm in diameter showed a high r1 value of 36.8 mM-1 s-1 with respect to total metal ions (Fe + Eu), which is about 3 times higher than that of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with similar size. Moreover, both r1 and r2 values of EuIO nanocubes can be tuned by varying their sizes and Eu doping ratios. After citrate coating, EuIO nanocubes can provide enhanced T1 and T2 contrast effects in small animals, particularly in the cardiac and liver

  19. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  20. The effects of time, luminance, and high contrast targets: revisiting grating acuity in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daria L; Clark, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    Based on optical clarity and retinal cone density, the cat has a potential acuity of 20-30 cycles per degree (cpd), yet most behavioral studies estimate feline acuity between 3 and 9 cpd. Those studies, however, were limited by restrictive experimental conditions that may have inadvertently lowered the estimated grating acuity. Two domestic cats previously trained on a two-choice visual discrimination task were retrained on a grating detection/discrimination task with unlimited time, high luminance, high contrast targets, and adequate space to prevent poor accommodation from affecting the results. Initially, vertical gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Then, horizontal gratings of increasing cpd were tested until failure. Finally, the finest horizontal grating resolved was confirmed with a third test requiring 24 correct out of 36 consecutive trials, yielding a binomial probability less than 0.02 of non-random occurrence. M1, a 7-year-old male gray tabby with +2.00 OU refraction, tested for a grating detection acuity of 15 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.009). F1, a 2-year-old female gray tabby with +0.25 OU refraction, tested for a grating orientation discrimination acuity of 20 cpd for both vertical and horizontal gratings (binomial probability = 0.004). These results demonstrate that a young cat with good focus is capable of discriminating 20 cpd, in close agreement with the physiologic maximum. Uncorrected focusing errors appear to degrade visual performance. Optimum experimental conditions resulted in better grating acuity measurements than previously reported, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors in feline behavioral testing.

  1. Multilevel markov chain monte carlo method for high-contrast single-phase flow problems

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2014-12-19

    In this paper we propose a general framework for the uncertainty quantification of quantities of interest for high-contrast single-phase flow problems. It is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods. The former provides a hierarchy of approximations of different resolution, whereas the latter gives an efficient way to estimate quantities of interest using samples on different levels. The number of basis functions in the online GMsFEM stage can be varied to determine the solution resolution and the computational cost, and to efficiently generate samples at different levels. In particular, it is cheap to generate samples on coarse grids but with low resolution, and it is expensive to generate samples on fine grids with high accuracy. By suitably choosing the number of samples at different levels, one can leverage the expensive computation in larger fine-grid spaces toward smaller coarse-grid spaces, while retaining the accuracy of the final Monte Carlo estimate. Further, we describe a multilevel Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which sequentially screens the proposal with different levels of approximations and reduces the number of evaluations required on fine grids, while combining the samples at different levels to arrive at an accurate estimate. The framework seamlessly integrates the multiscale features of the GMsFEM with the multilevel feature of the MLMC methods following the work in [26], and our numerical experiments illustrate its efficiency and accuracy in comparison with standard Monte Carlo estimates. © Global Science Press Limited 2015.

  2. Prospective randomized comparison of standard didactic lecture versus high-fidelity simulation for radiology resident contrast reaction management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carolyn L; Schopp, Jennifer G; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Richardson, Michael L; Bush, William H

    2011-06-01

    The objective of our study was to assess whether high-fidelity simulation-based training is more effective than traditional didactic lecture to train radiology residents in the management of contrast reactions. This was a prospective study of 44 radiology residents randomized into a simulation group versus a lecture group. All residents attended a contrast reaction didactic lecture. Four months later, baseline knowledge was assessed with a written test, which we refer to as the "pretest." After the pretest, the 21 residents in the lecture group attended a repeat didactic lecture and the 23 residents in the simulation group underwent high-fidelity simulation-based training with five contrast reaction scenarios. Next, all residents took a second written test, which we refer to as the "posttest." Two months after the posttest, both groups took a third written test, which we refer to as the "delayed posttest," and underwent performance testing with a high-fidelity severe contrast reaction scenario graded on predefined critical actions. There was no statistically significant difference between the simulation and lecture group pretest, immediate posttest, or delayed posttest scores. The simulation group performed better than the lecture group on the severe contrast reaction simulation scenario (p = 0.001). The simulation group reported improved comfort in identifying and managing contrast reactions and administering medications after the simulation training (p ≤ 0.04) and was more comfortable than the control group (p = 0.03), which reported no change in comfort level after the repeat didactic lecture. When compared with didactic lecture, high-fidelity simulation-based training of contrast reaction management shows equal results on written test scores but improved performance during a high-fidelity severe contrast reaction simulation scenario.

  3. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  4. High resolution laboratory grating-based x-ray phase-contrast CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viermetz, Manuel P.; Birnbacher, Lorenz J. B.; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Noel, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) is a promising imaging method for imaging of soft tissue contrast without the need of any contrast agent. The focus of this study is the increase in spatial resolution without loss in sensitivity to allow visualization of pathologies comparable to the convincing results obtained at the synchrotron. To improve the effective pixel size a super-resolution reconstruction based on subpixel shifts involving a deconvolution of the image is applied on differential phase-contrast data. In our study we could achieve an effective pixel sizes of 28mm without any drawback in terms of sensitivity or the ability to measure quantitative data.

  5. Evaluation of fast highly undersampled contrast-enhanced MR angiography (sparse CE-MRA) in intracranial applications - initial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MR Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany); Schlamann, Marc [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Neuroradiology, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Maderwald, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    To assess the image quality of sparsely sampled contrast-enhanced MR angiography (sparse CE-MRA) providing high spatial resolution and whole-head coverage. Twenty-three patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the head, (N = 19 with intracranial pathologies, N = 9 with vascular diseases), were included. Sparse CE-MRA at 3 Tesla was conducted using a single dose of contrast agent. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the data regarding vascular visibility and diagnostic value of overall 24 parameters and vascular segments on a 5-point ordinary scale (5 = very good, 1 = insufficient vascular visibility). Contrast bolus timing and the resulting arterio-venous overlap was also evaluated. Where available (N = 9), sparse CE-MRA was compared to intracranial Time-of-Flight MRA. The overall rating across all patients for sparse CE-MRA was 3.50 ± 1.07. Direct influence of the contrast bolus timing on the resulting image quality was observed. Overall mean vascular visibility and image quality across different features was rated good to intermediate (3.56 ± 0.95). The average performance of intracranial Time-of-Flight was rated 3.84 ± 0.87 across all patients and 3.54 ± 0.62 across all features. Sparse CE-MRA provides high-quality 3D MRA with high spatial resolution and whole-head coverage within short acquisition time. Accurate contrast bolus timing is mandatory. (orig.)

  6. Calibrating apodizer fabrication techniques for high-contrast coronagraphs on segmented and monolithic space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Smith, Randy J.; Xi, Xiaoxiang; Zimmerman, Neil T.

    2013-09-01

    High contrast imaging can use pupil apodizers to suppress diffracted starlight from a bright source in order to observe its environs. Metallic half-tone dot transmissive apodizers were developed for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and ESO SPHERE coronagraphs for use in the near-IR. Dot sizes on the scale of the wavelength of the light often result in unexpected variations in the optical transmission vs. superficial dot density relation. We measured 5 and 10 micron half-tone microdot screens' transmissions between 550 -1050 nm to prepare to fabricate apodizations that mitigate diffraction by segments gaps and spiders on future large space telescopes. We utilized slow test beams (f/40, f/80) to estimate the on-axis (far-field, or zero-order) transmission of test patches using a Fourier Transform Spectrograph on Beamline U10B at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL NSLS). We also modified our previous GPI IR characterization hardware and methods for this experiment. Our measurements show an internal consistency of 0.1% in transmission, a factor of 5 better than our near-IR GPI work on the NSLS U4IR beamline. The systematics of the set-up appeared to limit the absolute calibration for our f/40 data on the 50-patch, maximum Optical Density 3 (OD3), sample. Credible measurements of transmissions down to about 3% transmission were achieved for this sample. Future work on apodizers for obstructed and segmented primary mirror coronagraphs will require configurations that mimic the intended diffractive configurations closely in order to tune apodizer fabrication to any particular application, and measure chromatic effects in representative diffractive regimes. Further experimental refinements are needed to measure the densest test patches which possess transmissions less than a few percent. The new NSLS-II should provide much greater spectral stability of its synchrotron beam, which will improve measurement accuracy and reduce systematics.

  7. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED POLARIZATION IMAGING OF MWC480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer St., Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96402 (United States); Sitko, M. L.; Werren, C.; Day, A. N.; Beerman, L. C. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Muto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Wisniewski, J. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580 Seattle, Washington, DC (United States); Min, M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mayama, S. [Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa (Japan); Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Brafford, S. M. [Brafford and Phillips, Batavia, OH 45103 (United States); Kuzuhara, M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Brandt, T. D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite Le de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' fAzur, 06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W., E-mail: nb.kusakabe@nao.ac.jp [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, 69117 Heidelberg, Koenigstuhl 17 (Germany); and others

    2012-07-10

    One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases when the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in the H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0.''2 to 1.''0 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half-angle for the disk to lie between 1.{sup 0}3 {<=}{theta} {<=} 2.{sup 0}2. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only {approx}30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R {approx} 0.03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.

  8. High origin of a testicular artery: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridakis Ioannis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although variations in the origin of the testicular artery are not uncommon, few reports about a high origin from the abdominal aorta exist in the literature. We discuss the case of a high origin of the testicular artery, its embryology, classification systems, and its clinical significance. Case presentation We report a very rare case of high origin of the left testicular artery in a 68-year-old Caucasian male cadaver. The artery originated from the anterolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta, 2 cm cranially to the ipsilateral renal artery. Approximately 1 cm after its origin, it branched off into the inferior suprarenal artery. During its course, the artery crossed anterior to the left renal artery. Conclusions A knowledge of the variant origin of the testicular artery is important during renal and testicular surgery. The origin and course must be carefully identified in order to preserve normal blood circulation and prevent testicular atrophy. A reduction in gonadal blood flow may lead to varicocele under circumstances. A knowledge of this variant anatomy may be of interest to radiologists and helpful in avoiding diagnostic errors.

  9. The effect of laser contrast on generation of highly charged Fe ions by ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faenov, Anatoly Ya.; Alkhimova, Maria A.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Skobelev, Igor Yu.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Sagisaka, Akito; Dover, Nicholas P.; Kondo, Kotaro; Ogura, Koichi; Fukuda, Yuji; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Andreev, Alexander; Nishitani, Keita; Miyahara, Takumi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Kando, Masaki; Kodama, Ruosuke; Kondo, Kiminori

    2017-07-01

    Experimental studies on the formation of highly charged ions of medium-Z elements using femtosecond laser pulses with different contrast levels were carried out. Multiply charged Fe ions were generated by laser pulses with 35 fs duration and an intensity exceeding 1021 W/cm2. Using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopic methods, bulk electron temperature of the generated plasma has been identified. It is shown that the presence of a laser pre-pulse at a contrast level of 105-106 with respect to the main pulse drastically decreases the degree of Fe ionization. We conclude that an effective source of energetic, multiply charged moderate and high- Z ions based on femtosecond laser-plasma interactions can be created only using laser pulses of ultra-high contrast.

  10. Robust Design by Antioptimization for Parameter Tolerant GaAs/AlOx High Contrast Grating Mirror for VCSEL Application

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, Christyves; Fressengeas, Nicolas; Jacquet, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A GaAs/AlOx high contrast grating structure design which exhibits a 99.5% high reflectivity for a 425nm large bandwidth is reported. The high contrast grating (HCG) structure has been designed in order to enhance the properties of mid-infrared VCSEL devices by replacing the top Bragg mirror of the cavity. A robust optimization algorithm has been implemented to design the HCG structure not only as an efficient mirror but also as a robust structure against the imperfections of fabrication. The design method presented here can be easily adapted for other HCG applications at different wavelengths.

  11. Contrast-enhanced ultra-high-field liver MRI: A feasibility trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umutlu, Lale, E-mail: Lale.Umutlu@uk-essen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Bitz, Andreas K.; Maderwald, Stefan; Orzada, Stephan; Kinner, Sonja; Kraff, Oliver; Brote, Irina; Ladd, Susanne C.; Schroeder, Tobias; Forsting, Michael; Antoch, Gerald; Ladd, Mark E. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics, University Nuernberg-Erlangen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 7 T MRI of the liver using an eight-channel radiofrequency (RF) transmit/receive body-coil. 16 healthy subjects were examined on a 7 T MR system utilizing a custom-built eight-channel RF body-coil suitable for RF-shimming. The following data were acquired: (1) steady state free precession imaging, (2) T2w turbo spin echo imaging, (3) T1w in and opposed-phase imaging, (4) T1w 3D FLASH images pre-contrast and in arterial, portal-venous and venous phase and (5) a fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast 2D FLASH sequence. Visual evaluation of (1) the delineation of liver vasculature, (2) the overall image quality, and (3) artifact presence and consequent image impairment was performed. SNR of the liver parenchyma was measured for the contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D FLASH sequences. For statistical analysis, a Wilcoxon-Rank Test was used. Best delineation of non-enhanced liver vasculature and overall image quality was found for 2D FLASH MRI, with only slight improvement in vessel conspicuity after the application of contrast media. T2-weighted TSE imaging remained strongly impaired, falling short of diagnostic relevance and precluding a clinical application. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and diagnostic potential of dedicated contrast-enhanced 7 T liver MRI as well as the potential for non-contrast-enhanced angiographic application.

  12. One-step patterning of double tone high contrast and high refractive index inorganic spin-on resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G.

    2014-09-01

    A direct one-step and low temperature micro-fabrication process, enabling to realize large area totally inorganic TiO2 micro-patterns from a spin-on resist, is presented. High refractive index structures (up to 2 at 632 nm) without the need for transfer processes have been obtained by mask assisted UV lithography, exploiting photocatalytic titania properties. A distinctive feature not shared by any of the known available resists and boosting the material versatility, is that the system behaves either as a positive or as negative tone resist, depending on the process parameters and on the development chemistry. In order to explain the resist double tone behavior, deep comprehension of the lithographic process parameters optimization and of the resist chemistry and structure evolution during the lithographic process, generally uncommon in literature, is reported. Another striking property of the presented resist is that the negative tone shows a high contrast up to 19, allowing to obtain structures resolution down to 2 μm wide. The presented process and material permit to directly fabricate different titania geometries of great importance for solar cells, photo-catalysis, and photonic crystals applications.

  13. Depiction of normal gastrointestinal anatomy with MDCT: Comparison of low- and high-attenuation oral contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erturk, Sukru Mehmet [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: mehmeterturk@superonline.com; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Oliva, Maria-Raquel; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Silverman, Stuart G. [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cantisani, Vito; Pagliara, Elisa [Department of Radiological Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Ros, Pablo R. [Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: To compare low- and high-attenuation oral contrast media for depiction of normal gastrointestinal anatomy with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: A prospective, randomized study of 90 consecutive patients without known or suspected gastrointestinal disease was conducted after the approval of our Institutional Review Board. All patients underwent IV contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT scans after oral administration of 900 ml of either low- or high-attenuation barium sulphate suspension. Using a five-point scale, two radiologists independently graded distention and wall visualization of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The degree of distention and wall visualization was compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Duodenal, jejunal and ileal distention (p < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001, respectively) and wall visualization (p < 0.05, <0.01, <0.05, respectively) scores with low-attenuation contrast medium were significantly higher than those with high-attenuation barium sulphate preparation, for reader 1. Duodenal and jejunal wall visualization scores with low-attenuation contrast medium (p < 0.05, <0.01, respectively) were significantly higher than those with high-attenuation contrast medium, for reader 2. Interobserver agreement was fair to good for both distention ({kappa}-range: 0.41-0.74) and wall visualization ({kappa}-range: 0.48-0.71). Conclusion: MDCT with low-attenuation contrast medium provides distention and wall visualization of the GI tract that is equal or better than high-attenuation contrast medium.

  14. Europium-engineered iron oxide nanocubes with high T1 and T2 contrast abilities for MRI in living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijiao; Zhou, Zijian; Liu, Hanyu; Wu, Changqiang; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Guoming; Ai, Hua; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-04-21

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with both positive (T1) and negative (T2) contrast abilities are needed in clinical diagnosis for fault-free accurate detection of lesions. We report a facile synthesis of europium-engineered iron oxide (EuIO) nanocubes as T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI in living subjects. The Eu(iii) oxide-embedded iron oxide nanoparticles significantly increase the T1 relaxivity with an enhanced positive contrast effect. EuIO nanocubes with 14 nm in diameter showed a high r1 value of 36.8 mM(-1) s(-1) with respect to total metal ions (Fe + Eu), which is about 3 times higher than that of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with similar size. Moreover, both r1 and r2 values of EuIO nanocubes can be tuned by varying their sizes and Eu doping ratios. After citrate coating, EuIO nanocubes can provide enhanced T1 and T2 contrast effects in small animals, particularly in the cardiac and liver regions. This work may provide an insightful strategy to design MRI contrast agents with both positive and negative contrast abilities for biomedical applications.

  15. A High-Fidelity Solar System Model and High-Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Prototype for Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, A. N.; McElwain, M. W.; Roberge, A.; Nesvold, E.; Stark, C. C.; Kuchner, M. J.; Robinson, T.; Meadows, V. S.; Straughn, A. N.; Turnbull, M. C.; Gong, Q.; Woodgate, B.; Brandt, T.; Staplefelt, K.; Heap, S.; Hilton, G.

    2014-03-01

    As the possibility of discovering habitable, Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars improves, the need for both accurate model representations of such systems and advanced, dedicated high-contrast instrumentation in order to characterize and understand such systems becomes ever more pressing. We present a model and an instrument to address this need. The signals of habitability will be buried within spectral information like needles in haystacks, so we present a complete model of the Solar System we call "Hackstacks" that can be readily placed at various distances and inclinations to simulate an exoplanetary system with a known habitable planet. The Haystacks data product is a three-dimensional spectral cube. The spatial x-y plane spans 150 AU in both directions, centered on the Sun. The spectral zdimension is divided into four hundred slices ranging from 0.3 µm to 2.5 µm, evenly spaced in wavelength, yielding R ~ 200 in the V-band. In the model, we include the Solar System planets, inner (exo)zodiacal dust, outer Kuiper Belt dust, and extragalactic background, all sourced from a combination of observations and models. This makes the Haystacks model the most comprehensive, robust, and detailed model available for prediction of noise levels, confusion, and the ability to measure biomarkers in a directly observed system. The final data cubes are available for download by the public. Any user who accesses our NASA-hosted webpage simply inputs a desire wavelength range, a distance, and an inclination, and they are provided with the corresponding spectral cube. We demonstrate the power of such data cubes with several simulations of observations with various telescopes and instruments using the PROPER suite of algorithms, and present preliminary results on detectability and necessary instrument/telescope capabilities. In order to both detect and analyze an Earth-like planet in another system, we need an instrument dedicated to such a task, with high-contrast imaging

  16. High-resolution contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography in mice retinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Debasish; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Dalal, Roopa; Paulus, Yannis M.; Kim, Tae-Wan; Moshfeghi, Darius M.; de la Zerda, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive interferometric imaging modality providing anatomical information at depths of millimeters and a resolution of micrometers. Conventional OCT images limit our knowledge to anatomical structures alone, without any contrast enhancement. Therefore, here we have, for the first time, optimized an OCT-based contrast-enhanced imaging system for imaging single cells and blood vessels in vivo inside the living mouse retina at subnanomolar sensitivity. We used bioconjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) as exogenous OCT contrast agents. Specifically, we used anti-mouse CD45 coated GNRs to label mouse leukocytes and mPEG-coated GNRs to determine sensitivity of GNR detection in vivo inside mice retinae. We corroborated OCT observations with hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of formalin-fixed histological sections. Our results show that mouse leukocytes that otherwise do not produce OCT contrast can be labeled with GNRs leading to significant OCT intensity equivalent to a 0.5 nM GNR solution. Furthermore, GNRs injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal blood vessels at a sensitivity of ˜0.5 nM, and GNR-labeled cells injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal capillaries by enhanced OCT contrast. We envision the unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of functionalized GNRs coupled with OCT to be adopted for longitudinal studies of retinal disorders.

  17. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-Based High-Contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R

    2011-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar-neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into account the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of nearby stars, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys and express the resulting yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date. Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of planets from RV surveys, our simulations indicate that extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to separations accessible to high-contrast instruments provides excellent agreement bet...

  18. Improved dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy using high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morancy, Tye; Kaplan, Irving; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Rofksy, Neil M.; Holupka, Edward; Oismueller, Renee; Hawliczek, Robert; Helbich, Thomas H.; Bloch, B. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess detailed dosimetry data for prostate and clinical relevant intra- and peri-prostatic structures including neurovascular bundles (NVB), urethra, and penile bulb (PB) from postbrachytherapy computed tomography (CT) versus high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR-CEMRI). Material and methods Eleven postbrachytherapy prostate cancer patients underwent HR-CEMRI and CT imaging. Computed tomography and HR-CEMRI images were randomized and 2 independent expert readers created contours of prostate, intra- and peri-prostatic structures on each CT and HR-CEMRI scan for all 11 patients. Dosimetry data including V100, D90, and D100 was calculated from these contours. Results Mean V100 values from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were as follows: prostate (98.5% and 96.2%, p = 0.003), urethra (81.0% and 88.7%, p = 0.027), anterior rectal wall (ARW) (8.9% and 2.8%, p < 0.001), left NVB (77.9% and 51.5%, p = 0.002), right NVB (69.2% and 43.1%, p = 0.001), and PB (0.09% and 11.4%, p = 0.005). Mean D90 (Gy) derived from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were: prostate (167.6 and 150.3, p = 0.012), urethra (81.6 and 109.4, p = 0.041), ARW (2.5 and 0.11, p = 0.003), left NVB (98.2 and 58.6, p = 0.001), right NVB (87.5 and 55.5, p = 0.001), and PB (11.2 and 12.4, p = 0.554). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that HR-CEMRI facilitates accurate and meaningful dosimetric assessment of prostate and clinically relevant structures, which is not possible with CT. Significant differences were seen between CT and HR-CEMRI, with volume overestimation of CT derived contours compared to HR-CEMRI. PMID:25834576

  19. A multiscale restriction-smoothed basis method for high contrast porous media represented on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møyner, Olav; Lie, Knut-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of multiscale methods have been proposed in the literature to reduce runtime and provide better scaling for the solution of Poisson-type equations modeling flow in porous media. We present a new multiscale restricted-smoothed basis (MsRSB) method that is designed to be applicable to both rectilinear grids and unstructured grids. Like many other multiscale methods, MsRSB relies on a coarse partition of the underlying fine grid and a set of local prolongation operators (multiscale basis functions) that map unknowns associated with the fine grid cells to unknowns associated with blocks in the coarse partition. These mappings are constructed by restricted smoothing: Starting from a constant, a localized iterative scheme is applied directly to the fine-scale discretization to compute prolongation operators that are consistent with the local properties of the differential operators. The resulting method has three main advantages: First of all, both the coarse and the fine grid can have general polyhedral geometry and unstructured topology. This means that partitions and good prolongation operators can easily be constructed for complex models involving high media contrasts and unstructured cell connections introduced by faults, pinch-outs, erosion, local grid refinement, etc. In particular, the coarse partition can be adapted to geological or flow-field properties represented on cells or faces to improve accuracy. Secondly, the method is accurate and robust when compared to existing multiscale methods and does not need expensive recomputation of local basis functions to account for transient behavior: Dynamic mobility changes are incorporated by continuing to iterate a few extra steps on existing basis functions. This way, the cost of updating the prolongation operators becomes proportional to the amount of change in fluid mobility and one reduces the need for expensive, tolerance-based updates. Finally, since the MsRSB method is formulated on top of a cell

  20. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2015-01-01

    A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂) = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis) and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis). The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the understanding of

  1. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez

    Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the

  2. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, S.G.; Steenbergen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical

  3. Evaluation of fast highly undersampled contrast-enhanced MR angiography (sparse CE-MRA) in intracranial applications - initial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Marcel; Schlamann, Marc; Goericke, Sophia; Maderwald, Stefan; Quick, Harald H

    2017-03-01

    To assess the image quality of sparsely sampled contrast-enhanced MR angiography (sparse CE-MRA) providing high spatial resolution and whole-head coverage. Twenty-three patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the head, (N = 19 with intracranial pathologies, N = 9 with vascular diseases), were included. Sparse CE-MRA at 3 Tesla was conducted using a single dose of contrast agent. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the data regarding vascular visibility and diagnostic value of overall 24 parameters and vascular segments on a 5-point ordinary scale (5 = very good, 1 = insufficient vascular visibility). Contrast bolus timing and the resulting arterio-venous overlap was also evaluated. Where available (N = 9), sparse CE-MRA was compared to intracranial Time-of-Flight MRA. The overall rating across all patients for sparse CE-MRA was 3.50 ± 1.07. Direct influence of the contrast bolus timing on the resulting image quality was observed. Overall mean vascular visibility and image quality across different features was rated good to intermediate (3.56 ± 0.95). The average performance of intracranial Time-of-Flight was rated 3.84 ± 0.87 across all patients and 3.54 ± 0.62 across all features. Sparse CE-MRA provides high-quality 3D MRA with high spatial resolution and whole-head coverage within short acquisition time. Accurate contrast bolus timing is mandatory. • Sparse CE-MRA enables fast vascular imaging with full brain coverage. • Volumes with sub-millimetre resolution can be acquired within 10 seconds. • Reader's ratings are good to intermediate and dependent on contrast bolus timing. • The method provides an excellent overview and allows screening for vascular pathologies.

  4. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Federico; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Rodriguez-Rivas, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; del Pozo, Angela; Vázquez, Jesús; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved—all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago—and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles. PMID:26061177

  5. Alternatively Spliced Homologous Exons Have Ancient Origins and Are Highly Expressed at the Protein Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Abascal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of messenger RNA can generate a wide variety of mature RNA transcripts, and these transcripts may produce protein isoforms with diverse cellular functions. While there is much supporting evidence for the expression of alternative transcripts, the same is not true for the alternatively spliced protein products. Large-scale mass spectroscopy experiments have identified evidence of alternative splicing at the protein level, but with conflicting results. Here we carried out a rigorous analysis of the peptide evidence from eight large-scale proteomics experiments to assess the scale of alternative splicing that is detectable by high-resolution mass spectroscopy. We find fewer splice events than would be expected: we identified peptides for almost 64% of human protein coding genes, but detected just 282 splice events. This data suggests that most genes have a single dominant isoform at the protein level. Many of the alternative isoforms that we could identify were only subtly different from the main splice isoform. Very few of the splice events identified at the protein level disrupted functional domains, in stark contrast to the two thirds of splice events annotated in the human genome that would lead to the loss or damage of functional domains. The most striking result was that more than 20% of the splice isoforms we identified were generated by substituting one homologous exon for another. This is significantly more than would be expected from the frequency of these events in the genome. These homologous exon substitution events were remarkably conserved--all the homologous exons we identified evolved over 460 million years ago--and eight of the fourteen tissue-specific splice isoforms we identified were generated from homologous exons. The combination of proteomics evidence, ancient origin and tissue-specific splicing indicates that isoforms generated from homologous exons may have important cellular roles.

  6. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  7. Pair-Wise, Deformable Mirror, Image Plane-Based Diversity Electric Field Estimation for High Contrast Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give'on, Amir; Kern, Brian D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements for high contrast coronagraphic imaging. A deformable mirror (DM) surface is modied with pairs of complementary shapes to create diversity in the image plane of the science camera where the intensity of the light is measured. Along with the Electric Field Conjugation correction algorithm, this estimation method has been used in various high contrast imaging testbeds to achieve the best contrasts to date both in narrow and in broad band light. We present the basic methodology of estimation in easy to follow list of steps, present results from HCIT and raise several open quations we are confronted with using this method.

  8. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT): 2. Design overview and first light results

    CERN Document Server

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Egron, Sylvain; Pueyo, Laurent; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Perrin, Marshall D; Elliot, Erin; Wallace, J Kent; Hugot, Emmanuel; Marcos, Michel; Ferrari, Marc; Long, Chris A; Anderson, Rachel; DiFelice, Audrey; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    We present a new high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions in wavefront sensing, control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes. The testbed was designed to enable a wide range of studies of the effects of such telescope geometries, with primary mirror segmentation, central obstruction, and spiders. The associated diffraction features in the point spread function make high-contrast imaging more challenging. In particular the testbed will be compatible with both AFTA-like and ATLAST-like aperture shapes, respectively on-axis monolithic, and on-axis segmented telescopes. The testbed optical design was developed using a novel approach to define the layout and surface error requirements to minimize amplitude-induced errors at the target contrast level performance. In this communication we compare the as-built surface errors for each optic to their specifications based on end-to-end Fresnel modeling of the testbed. We also report on the testbed optical and optomechani...

  9. Experimental Realisation of High-sensitivity Laboratory X-ray Grating-based Phase-contrast Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Velroyen, Astrid; Marschner, Mathias; Hipp, Alexander; Meiser, Jan; Koch, Frieder; Schröter, Tobias; Kunka, Danays; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-04-04

    The possibility to perform high-sensitivity X-ray phase-contrast imaging with laboratory grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) setups is of great interest for a broad range of high-resolution biomedical applications. However, achieving high sensitivity with laboratory gbPC-CT setups still poses a challenge because several factors such as the reduced flux, the polychromaticity of the spectrum, and the limited coherence of the X-ray source reduce the performance of laboratory gbPC-CT in comparison to gbPC-CT at synchrotron facilities. In this work, we present our laboratory X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry setup operating at 40 kVp and describe how we achieve the high sensitivity yet unrivalled by any other laboratory X-ray phase-contrast technique. We provide the angular sensitivity expressed via the minimum resolvable refraction angle both in theory and experiment, and compare our data with other differential phase-contrast setups. Furthermore, we show that the good stability of our high-sensitivity setup allows for tomographic scans, by which even the electron density can be retrieved quantitatively as has been demonstrated in several preclinical studies.

  10. Stochastic parallel gradient descent based adaptive optics used for high contrast imaging coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bing; Zhang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) system based on stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed to reduce the speckle noises in the optical system of stellar coronagraph in order to further improve the contrast. The principle of SPGD algorithm is described briefly and a metric suitable for point source imaging optimization is given. The feasibility and good performance of SPGD algorithm is demonstrated by experimental system featured with a 140-actuators deformable mirror (DM) and a Hartmann- Shark wavefront sensor. Then the SPGD based AO is applied to a liquid crystal array (LCA) based coronagraph. The LCA can modulate the incoming light to generate a pupil apodization mask in any pattern. A circular stepped pattern is used in our preliminary experiment and the image contrast shows improvement from 10^-3 to 10^-4.5 at angular distance of 2{\\lambda}/D after corrected by SPGD based AO.

  11. Artificial incoherent speckles enable precision astrometry and photometry in high-contrast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Pathak, Prashant; Hagelberg, Janis; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art coronagraphs employed on extreme adaptive optics enabled instruments, are constantly improving the contrast detection limit for companions at ever closer separations to the host star. In order to constrain their properties and ultimately compositions, it is important to precisely determine orbital parameters and contrasts with respect to the stars they orbit. This can be difficult in the post coronagraphic image plane, as by definition the central star has been occulted by the coronagraph. We demonstrate the flexibility of utilizing the deformable mirror in the adaptive optics system in SCExAO to generate a field of speckles for the purposes of calibration. Speckles can be placed up to $22.5~\\lambda/D$ from the star, with any position angle, brightness and abundance required. Most importantly, we show that a fast modulation of the added speckle phase, between $0$ and $\\pi$, during a long science integration renders these speckles effectively incoherent with the underlying halo. We quantitativ...

  12. Topology Optimization Using Multiscale Finite Element Method for High-Contrast Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the applicability of multiscale finite element coarse spaces for reducing the computational burden in topology optimization. The coarse spaces are obtained by solving a set of local eigenvalue problems on overlapping patches covering the computational domain....... The approach is relatively easy for parallelization, due to the complete independence of the subproblems, and ensures contrast independent convergence of the iterative state problem solvers. Several modifications for reducing the computational cost in connection to topology optimization are discussed...

  13. High-Contrast Color-Stripe Pattern for Rapid Structured-Light Range Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Je, Changsoo; Park, Rae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    For structured-light range imaging, color stripes can be used for increasing the number of distinguishable light patterns compared to binary BW stripes. Therefore, an appropriate use of color patterns can reduce the number of light projections and range imaging is achievable in single video frame or in "one shot". On the other hand, the reliability and range resolution attainable from color stripes is generally lower than those from multiply projected binary BW patterns since color contrast is affected by object color reflectance and ambient light. This paper presents new methods for selecting stripe colors and designing multiple-stripe patterns for "one-shot" and "two-shot" imaging. We show that maximizing color contrast between the stripes in one-shot imaging reduces the ambiguities resulting from colored object surfaces and limitations in sensor/projector resolution. Two-shot imaging adds an extra video frame and maximizes the color contrast between the first and second video frames to diminish the ambigui...

  14. Pulsed EM Field Response of a Thin, High-Contrast, Finely Layered Structure With Dielectric and Conductive Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.; Jiang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The response of a thin, high-contrast, finely layered structure with dielectric and conductive properties to an incident, pulsed, electromagnetic field is investigated theoretically. The fine layering causes the standard spatial discretization techniques to solve Maxwell's equations numerically to b

  15. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trade- offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Élodie; Hoffmann, Jordan; Carlotti, Alexis; Mawet, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and / or segment gaps. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to JWST, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for future Extremely Large Telescopes, even when the pupil features a "missing segment" . Because the converging non-linear mappings resulting from our Deformable Mirror shapes damps near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities this solution is particularly appealing in terms of spectral bandwidth. We present preliminary results that illustrate the performances of ACAD in the presence of diffraction for apertures for with secondary support structures of varying width and argue that the ultimate contrast achieved can by combining ACAD with modern wavefront control algorithms.

  16. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare water selective excitation (WSE) and Dixon fat suppression in the context of high-resolution dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the breast at 7 tesla. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers and one patient with a malignant breast lesion were scanned at 7 tesla. The MRI protocol...

  17. Atmospheric characterization of Proxima b by coupling the SPHERE high-contrast imager to the ESPRESSO spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Lovis, C; Mouillet, D; Pepe, F; Wildi, F; Astudillo-Defru, N; Beuzit, J -L; Bonfils, X; Cheetham, A; Conod, U; Delfosse, X; Ehrenreich, D; Figueira, P; Forveille, T; Martins, J H C; Quanz, S; Santos, N C; Schmid, H -M; Ségransan, D; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    Context. The temperate Earth-mass planet Proxima b is the closest exoplanet to Earth and represents what may be our best ever opportunity to search for life outside the Solar System. Aims. We aim at directly detecting Proxima b and characterizing its atmosphere by spatially resolving the planet and obtaining high-resolution reflected-light spectra. Methods. We propose to develop a coupling interface between the SPHERE high-contrast imager and the new ESPRESSO spectrograph, both installed at ESO VLT. The angular separation of 37 mas between Proxima b and its host star requires the use of visible wavelengths to spatially resolve the planet on a 8.2-m telescope. At an estimated planet-to-star contrast of ~10^-7 in reflected light, Proxima b is extremely challenging to detect with SPHERE alone. The use of the high-contrast/high-resolution technique can overcome present limitations by combining a ~10^3-10^4 contrast enhancement from SPHERE to a ~10^4 gain from ESPRESSO. Results. We find that significant but realis...

  18. 80-nm-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL: Proposal and numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Sirbu, Alexei;

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a MEMStunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) is suggested and numerically investigated. A very large 80- nm linear tuning range was obtained as the HCG was actuated by -220...

  19. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick M Staedler

    Full Text Available Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of

  20. Plant tissues in 3D via X-ray tomography: simple contrasting methods allow high resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staedler, Yannick M; Masson, David; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography remains strongly underused in plant sciences despite its high potential in delivering detailed 3D phenotypical information because of the low X-ray absorption of most plant tissues. Existing protocols to study soft tissues display poor performance, especially when compared to those used on animals. More efficient protocols to study plant material are therefore needed. Flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana and Marcgravia caudata were immersed in a selection of contrasting agents used to treat samples for transmission electron microscopy. Grayscale values for floral tissues and background were measured as a function of time. Contrast was quantified via a contrast index. The thick buds of Marcgravia were scanned to determine which contrasting agents best penetrate thick tissues. The highest contrast increase with cytoplasm-rich tissues was obtained with phosphotungstate, whereas osmium tetroxide and bismuth tatrate displayed the highest contrast increase with vacuolated tissues. Phosphotungstate also displayed the best sample penetration. Furthermore, infiltration with phosphotungstate allowed imaging of all plants parts at a high resolution of 3 µm, which approaches the maximum resolution of our equipment: 1.5 µm. The high affinity of phosphotungstate for vasculature, cytoplasm-rich tissue, and pollen causes these tissues to absorb more X-rays than the surrounding tissues, which, in turn, makes these tissues appear brighter on the scan data. Tissues with different brightness can then be virtually dissected from each other by selecting the bracket of grayscale to be visualized. Promising directions for the future include in silico phenotyping and developmental studies of plant inner parts (e.g., ovules, vasculature, pollen, and cell nuclei) via virtual dissection as well as correlations of quantitative phenotypes with omics datasets. Therefore, this work represents a crucial improvement of previous methods, allowing new directions of research to be

  1. Influence of original microstructure on the transformation behavior and mechanical properties of ultra-high-strength TRIP-aided steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xiang Yin; Ai-min Zhao; Zheng-zhi Zhao; Xiao Li; Shuang-jiao Li; Han-jiang Hu; Wei-guang Xia

    2015-01-01

    The transformation behavior and tensile properties of an ultra-high-strength transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel (0.2C–2.0Si–1.8Mn) were investigated by different heat treatments for automobile applications. The results show that F-TRIP steel, a tradi-tional TRIP steel containing as-cold-rolled ferrite and pearlite as the original microstructure, consists of equiaxed grains of intercritical ferrite surrounded by discrete particles of M/RA and B. In contrast, M-TRIP steel, a modified TRIP-aided steel with martensite as the original mi-crostructure, containing full martensite as the original microstructure is comprised of lath-shaped grains of ferrite separated by lath-shaped martensite/retained austenite and bainite. Most of the austenite in F-TRIP steel is granular, while the austenite in M-TRIP steel is lath-shaped. The volume fraction of the retained austenite as well as its carbon content is lower in F-TRIP steel than in M-TRIP steel, and austenite grains in M-TRIP steel are much finer than those in F-TRIP steel. Therefore, M-TRIP steel was concluded to have a higher austenite stability, re-sulting in a lower transformation rate and consequently contributing to a higher elongation compared to F-TRIP steel. Work hardening be-havior is also discussed for both types of steel.

  2. On the origin of differential phase contrast at a locally charged and globally charge-compensated domain boundary in a polar-ordered material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaren, Ian; Wang, LiQiu; McGrouther, Damien; Craven, Alan J.; McVitie, Stephen [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schierholz, Roland [Institute of Energy and Climate Research: Fundamental Electrochemistry (IEK-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Kovács, András [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Barthel, Juri [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope is applied to the study of a charged antiphase domain boundary in doped bismuth ferrite. A clear differential signal is seen, which matches the expected direction of the electric field at the boundary. However, further study by scanned diffraction reveals that there is no measurable deflection of the primary diffraction disc and hence no significant free E-field in the material. Instead, the DPC signal arises from a modulation of the intensity profile within the primary diffraction disc in the vicinity of the boundary. Simulations are used to show that this modulation arises purely from the local change in crystallographic structure at the boundary and not from an electric field. This study highlights the care that is required when interpreting signals recorded from ferroelectric materials using both DPC imaging and other phase contrast techniques. - Highlights: • We show clear differential phase contrast (DPC) at a charged boundary. • Scanning diffraction shows that the discs do not move. • Disc deflection by electric fields is not the source of the DPC signal. • Diffraction contrast within the disc is the source of the DPC signal. • DPC and holography of E fields is difficult due to diffraction contrast.

  3. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-10-12

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC.

  4. High-contrast subcutaneous vein detection and localization using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengtao; Behrooz, Ali; Morris, Michael; Adibi, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Multispectral imaging has shown promise in subcutaneous vein detection and localization in human subjects. While many limitations of single-wavelength methods are addressed in multispectral vein detection methods, their performance is still limited by artifacts arising from background skin reflectance and optimality of postprocessing algorithms. We propose a background removal technique that enhances the contrast and performance of multispectral vein detection. We use images acquired at visible wavelengths as reference for removing skin reflectance background from subcutaneous structures in near-infrared images. Results are validated by experiments on human subjects.

  5. Phase contrast imaging using Betatron x-ray beams produced by a 100 TW high intensity laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, Sylvain; Corde, Sebastien; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Lassonde, Philippe; Martin, Francois; Malka, Victor; Rousse, Antoine; Kieffer, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Development of x-ray phase contrast imaging applications with a laboratory scale source have been limited by the long exposure time needed to obtain one image. We demonstrate, using the Betatron x-ray radiation produced when electrons are accelerated and wiggled in the laser-wakefield cavity, the potential of Betatron x-ray radiation for femtosecond phase contrast imaging. We characterize the x-ray source using a knife edge technique and nylon wires for calibration. We then show that high-quality phase contrast images of complex objects located in air, can be obtained with only a single laser shot. The Betatron x-ray source used in this demonstration experiment has a source diameter of 1.7 microns and produces a synchrotron spectrum with critical energy Ec = 12 . 3 + / - 2 . 5 keV and 109 photons per shot in the whole spectrum.

  6. Production of Structural Colors with High Contrast and Wide Viewing Angles from Assemblies of Polypyrrole Black Coated Polystyrene Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoming; Ge, Dengteng; Wu, Gaoxiang; Liao, Zhiwei; Yang, Shu

    2016-06-29

    Structural color with wide viewing angles has enormous potential applications in pigment, ink formulation, displays, and sensors. However, colors obtained from colloidal assemblies with low refractive index contrast or without black additives typically appear pale. Here, we prepare polypyrrole (PPy) black coated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles and demonstrate well-defined colors with high color contrast and wide viewing angles under ambient light. Depending on the loading of pyrrole during polymerization, PPy nanogranules of different sizes and coverages are grafted to the surface of PS nanoparticles. The bumpy particles can self-assemble into quasi-amorphous arrays, resulting in low angle dependent structure colors under ambient light. The color can be tuned by the size of the PS nanoparticles, and the presence of the PPy black on PS nanoparticles enhances the color contrast by suppressing incoherent and multiple scattering.

  7. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-07

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  8. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Xie, Zhixing; Karamchand, Leshern; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well.

  9. Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for ultrafast high-contrast cellular imaging in flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Terence T W; Ho, Kenneth K Y; Tang, Matthew Y H; Robles, Joseph D F; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Antony C S; Tang, Anson H L; Lam, Edmund Y; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Godfrey C F; Shum, Ho Cheung; Tsia, Kevin K

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating imaging speed in optical microscopy is often realized at the expense of image contrast, image resolution, and detection sensitivity- a common predicament for advancing high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. We here demonstrate a new imaging approach, called asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), which can deliver ultrafast label-free high-contrast flow imaging with well delineated cellular morphological resolution and in-line optical image amplification to overcome the compromised imaging sensitivity at high speed. We show that ATOM can separately reveal the enhanced phase-gradient and absorption contrast in microfluidic live-cell imaging at a flow speed as high as ~10 m/s, corresponding to an imaging throughput of ~100,000 cells/sec. ATOM could thus be the enabling platform to meet the pressing need for intercalating optical microscopy in cellular assay, e.g. imaging flow cytometry- permitting high-throughput access to the morphological information of the individu...

  10. Asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM) for ultrafast high-contrast cellular imaging in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence T. W.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Tang, Matthew Y. H.; Robles, Joseph D. F.; Wei, Xiaoming; Chan, Antony C. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Lam, Edmund Y.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Chan, Godfrey C. F.; Shum, Ho Cheung; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating imaging speed in optical microscopy is often realized at the expense of image contrast, image resolution, and detection sensitivity – a common predicament for advancing high-speed and high-throughput cellular imaging. We here demonstrate a new imaging approach, called asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (ATOM), which can deliver ultrafast label-free high-contrast flow imaging with well delineated cellular morphological resolution and in-line optical image amplification to overcome the compromised imaging sensitivity at high speed. We show that ATOM can separately reveal the enhanced phase-gradient and absorption contrast in microfluidic live-cell imaging at a flow speed as high as ~10 m/s, corresponding to an imaging throughput of ~100,000 cells/sec. ATOM could thus be the enabling platform to meet the pressing need for intercalating optical microscopy in cellular assay, e.g. imaging flow cytometry – permitting high-throughput access to the morphological information of the individual cells simultaneously with a multitude of parameters obtained in the standard assay. PMID:24413677

  11. The Origin of Life--Did It Occur at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature origin of life has been proposed, largely for the reason that the hyperthermophiles are claimed to be the last common ancestor of modern organisms. Even if they are the oldest extant organisms, which is in dispute, their existence can say nothing about the temperatures of the origin of life, the RNA world, and organisms preceding the hyperthermophiles. There is no geological evidence for the physical setting of the origin of life because there are no unmetamorphosed rocks from that period. Prebiotic chemistry points to a low-temperature origin because most biochemicals decompose rather rapidly at temperatures of 100 C (e.g., half-lives are 73 min for ribose, 21 days for cytosine, and 204 days for adenine). Hyperthermophiles may appear at the base of some phylogenetic trees because they outcompeted the mesophiles when they adapted to lower temperatures, possibly due to enhanced production of heat-shock proteins.

  12. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Nicole R.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Laser based methods are well suited for automation and can be used to selectively remove dental caries to minimize the loss of healthy tissues and render the underlying enamel more resistant to acid dissolution. The purpose of this study was to determine which imaging methods are best suited for image-guided ablation of natural non-cavitated carious lesions on occlusal surfaces. Multiple caries imaging methods were compared including near-IR and visible reflectance and quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). In order for image-guided laser ablation to be feasible, chemical and physical modification of tooth surfaces due to laser irradiation cannot greatly reduce the contrast between sound and demineralized dental hard tissues. Sound and demineralized surfaces of 48 extracted human molar teeth with non-cavitated lesions were examined. Images were acquired before and after laser irradiation using visible and near-IR reflectance and QLF at several wavelengths. Polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography was used to confirm that lesions were present. The highest contrast was attained at 1460-nm and 1500-1700-nm, wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption. The reflectance did not decrease significantly after laser irradiation for those wavelengths.

  13. Patients at high risk of adverse events from intravenous contrast media after computed tomography examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddan, Donal [University College Galway Hospitals, Unit 7, Merlin Park Hospital, Galway (Ireland)]. E-mail: donal.reddan@mailn.hse.ie

    2007-05-15

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (CM) may occur and require prompt recognition and treatment. Although adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents cannot be eliminated, an important first step toward reducing their incidence is to identify patients at greatest risk. Prior to examinations using CM, patients should be adequately assessed by obtaining thorough medical histories and using simple screening tests. Studies have demonstrated that patients with a history of asthma, allergy, hyperthyroidism, and previous reaction to CM are at risk for severe reactions to iodinated CM. Renal adverse reactions reportedly occur more frequently in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, especially those with diabetic nephropathy. Patients with congestive heart failure, dehydration, older age, and those who use nephrotoxic medications are also at risk for developing contrast-associated nephropathy. The occurrence of adverse events may be further increased in patients with multiple risk factors. As the number of patients undergoing computed tomography procedures continues to increase, it is essential for physicians to be able to identify patients at risk for adverse events of CM. Patient-related risk factors are discussed and simple tools for risk stratification presented.

  14. Techniques for High Contrast Imaging in Multi-Star Systems I: Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sandrine J; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Extra-solar planets direct imaging is now a reality with the deployment and commissioning of the first generation of specialized ground-based instruments (GPI, SPHERE, P1640 and SCExAO). These systems allow of planets $ 10 ^ 7 $ times fainter than their host star. For space-based missions (EXCEDE, EXO-C, EXO-S, WFIRST), various teams have demonstrated laboratory contrasts reaching $ 10 ^ { -10 } $ within a few diffraction limits from the star. However, all of these current and future systems are designed to detect faint planets around a single host star or unresolved multiples, while most non M-dwarf stars such as Alpha Centauri belong to multi-star systems. Direct imaging around binaries/multiple systems at a level of contrast allowing Earth-like planet detection is challenging because the region of interest is contaminated by the hosts star companion as well as the host Generally, the light leakage is caused by both diffraction and aberrations in the system. Moreover, the region of interest usually falls ou...

  15. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (pcontrast media (pcontrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  16. Pupil remapping for high contrast astronomy: results from an optical testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Kotani, T; Perrin, G; Robertson, G; Tuthill, P

    2009-01-01

    The direct imaging and characterization of Earth-like planets is among the most sought-after prizes in contemporary astrophysics, however current optical instrumentation delivers insufficient dynamic range to overcome the vast contrast differential between the planet and its host star. New opportunities are offered by coherent single mode fibers, whose technological development has been motivated by the needs of the telecom industry in the near infrared. This paper presents a new vision for an instrument using coherent waveguides to remap the pupil geometry of the telescope. It would (i) inject the full pupil of the telescope into an array of single mode fibers, (ii) rearrange the pupil so fringes can be accurately measured, and (iii) permit image reconstruction so that atmospheric blurring can be totally removed. Here we present a laboratory experiment whose goal was to validate the theoretical concepts underpinning our proposed method. We successfully confirmed that we can retrieve the image of a simulated ...

  17. Dark-field hyperlens for high-contrast sub-wavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    By now superresolution imaging using hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structures – hyperlenses – has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The hyperlens operation relies on the fact that HMM allows propagation of waves with very large transverse wavevectors, which would be evanesc......By now superresolution imaging using hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) structures – hyperlenses – has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The hyperlens operation relies on the fact that HMM allows propagation of waves with very large transverse wavevectors, which would...... structure exhibits a cut-off for waves with small transverse wavevectors (low-k waves). This allows the structure to filter out the background illumination, which is contained in low-k waves. We numerically demonstrate that our device achieves superresolution imaging while providing the strong contrast...

  18. High contrast ultrasonic imaging of resin-rich regions in graphite/epoxy composites using entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael S.; McCarthy, John E.; Bruillard, Paul. J.; Marsh, Jon N.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2016-02-01

    This study compares different approaches for imaging a near-surface resin-rich defect in a thin graphite/epoxy plate using backscattered ultrasound. The specimen was created by cutting a circular hole in the second ply; this region filled with excess resin from the graphite/epoxy sheets during the curing process. Backscat-tered waveforms were acquired using a 4 in. focal length, 5MHz center frequency broadband transducer, scanned on a 100 × 100 grid of points that were 0.03 × 0.03 in. apart. The specimen was scanned with the defect side closest to the transducer. Consequently, the reflection from the resin-rich region cannot be gated from the large front-wall echo. At each point in the grid 256 waveforms were averaged together and subsequently used to produce peak-to-peak, Signal Energy (sum of squared digitized waveform values), as well as entropy images of two different types (a Renyi entropy, and a joint entropy). As the figure shows, all of the entropy images exhibit better border delineation and defect contrast than the either the peak-to-peak or Signal Energy. The best results are obtained using the joint entropy of the backscattered waveforms with a reference function. Two different references are examined. The first is a reflection of the insonifying pulse from a stainless steel reflector. The second is an approximate optimum obtained from an iterative parametric search. The joint entropy images produced using this reference exhibit three times the contrast obtained in previous studies.

  19. Comparison of native high-resolution 3D and contrast-enhanced MR angiography for assessing the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Gruettner, Henriette; Trauzeddel, Ralf F; Greiser, Andreas; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-06-01

    To omit risks of contrast agent administration, native magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is desired for assessing the thoracic aorta. The aim was to evaluate a native steady-state free precession (SSFP) three-dimensional (3D) MRA in comparison with contrast-enhanced MRA as the gold standard. Seventy-six prospective patients with known or suspicion of thoracic aortic disease underwent MRA at 1.5 T using (i) native 3D SSFP MRA with ECG and navigator gating and high isotropic spatial resolution (1.3 × 1.3 × 1.3 mm(3)) and (ii) conventional contrast-enhanced ECG-gated gradient-echo 3D MRA (1.3 × 0.8 × 1.8 mm(3)). Datasets were compared at nine aortic levels regarding image quality (score 0-3: 0 = poor, 3 = excellent) and aortic diameters, as well as observer dependency and final diagnosis. Statistical tests included paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. Native 3D MRA was acquired successfully in 70 of 76 subjects (mean acquisition time 8.6 ± 2.7 min), while irregular breathing excluded 6 of 76 subjects. Aortic diameters agreed close between both methods at all aortic levels (r = 0.99; bias ± SD -0.12 ± 1.2 mm) with low intra- and inter-observer dependency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.99). Native MRA studies resulted in the same final diagnosis as the contrast-enhanced MRA. The mean image quality score was superior with native compared with contrast-enhanced MRA (2.4 ± 0.6 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5; P contrast-enhanced MRA to assess the thoracic aorta. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Optimized Si/SiO2 high contrast grating mirror design for mid-infrared wavelength range: robustness enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, Christyves; Jacquet, Joel; Fressengeas, Nicolas; 10.1016/j.optlastec.2011.09.010

    2011-01-01

    A high reflectivity and polarization selective high contrast grating mirror has been designed with the use of an automated optimization algorithm. Through a precise study of the tolerance of the different lengths of the structure, the robustness with respect to the fabrication errors has been enhanced to high tolerance values between 5 % and 210 %. This adjustment of the dimensions of the structure leads to a 250 nm large bandwidth mirror well adapted for a VCSEL application at \\lambda = 2.65 $\\mu$m and can easily be scaled for other wavelengths.

  2. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2014-07-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of nectar pseudomonads reveals high genetic diversity and contrasting recombination patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez-Pérez

    Full Text Available The genetic and evolutionary relationships among floral nectar-dwelling Pseudomonas 'sensu stricto' isolates associated to South African and Mediterranean plants were investigated by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA of four core housekeeping genes (rrs, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD. A total of 35 different sequence types were found for the 38 nectar bacterial isolates characterised. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of three main clades [nectar groups (NGs 1, 2 and 3] of nectar pseudomonads, which were closely related to five intrageneric groups: Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (NG 1; P. fluorescens, P. lutea and P. syringae (NG 2; and P. rhizosphaerae (NG 3. Linkage disequilibrium analysis pointed to a mostly clonal population structure, even when the analysis was restricted to isolates from the same floristic region or belonging to the same NG. Nevertheless, signatures of recombination were observed for NG 3, which exclusively included isolates retrieved from the floral nectar of insect-pollinated Mediterranean plants. In contrast, the other two NGs comprised both South African and Mediterranean isolates. Analyses relating diversification to floristic region and pollinator type revealed that there has been more unique evolution of the nectar pseudomonads within the Mediterranean region than would be expected by chance. This is the first work analysing the sequence of multiple loci to reveal geno- and ecotypes of nectar bacteria.

  4. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  5. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  6. High-frequency subharmonic pulsed-wave Doppler and color flow imaging of microbubble contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, A; Goertz, D E; Karshafian, R; Cherin, E; Brown, A S; Burns, P N; Foster, F S

    2008-07-01

    A recent study has shown the feasibility of subharmonic (SH) flow imaging at a transmit frequency of 20 MHz. This paper builds on these results by examining the performance of SH flow imaging as a function of transmit pressure. Further, we also investigate the feasibility of SH pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) imaging. In vitro flow experiments were performed with a 1-mm-diameter wall-less vessel cryogel phantom using the ultrasound contrast agent Definity and an imaging frequency of 20 MHz. The phantom results show that there is an identifiable pressure range where accurate flow velocity and power estimates can be made with SH imaging at 10 MHz (SH10), above which velocity estimates are biased by radiation force effects and unstable bubble behavior, and below which velocity and power estimates are degraded by poor SNR. In vivo validation of SH PWD was performed in an arteriole of a rabbit ear, and blood velocity estimates compared well with fundamental (F20) mode PWD. The ability to suppress tissue signals using SH signals may enable the use of higher frame rates and improve sensitivity to microvascular flow or slow velocities near large vessel walls by reducing or eliminating the need for clutter filters.

  7. Effects of differential wavefront sensor bias drifts on high contrast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakuni, Naru; Palmer, David W; Poyneer, Lisa A; Max, Claire E; Savransky, Dmitry; Thomas, Sandrine J; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Serio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility, extreme adaptive optics (AO), coronagraphic instrument, currently being integrated onto the 8-meter Gemini South telescope, with the ultimate goal of directly imaging extrasolar planets. To achieve the contrast required for the desired science, it is necessary to quantify and mitigate wavefront error (WFE). A large source of potential static WFE arises from the primary AO wavefront sensor (WFS) detector's use of multiple readout segments with independent signal chains including on-chip preamplifiers and external amplifiers. Temperature changes within GPI's electronics cause drifts in readout segments' bias levels, inducing an RMS WFE of 1.1 nm and 41.9 nm over 4.44 degrees Celsius, for magnitude 4 and 11 stars, respectively. With a goal of $<$2 nm of static WFE, these are significant enough to require remedial action. Simulations imply a requirement to take fresh WFS darks every 2 degrees Celsius of temperature change, for a magnitude 6 star; similarly, for...

  8. A general tool for evaluating high-contrast coronagraphic telescope performance error budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchen, Luis F.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a general purpose Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool that we have developed under the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program. The CPEB automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. It operates in 3 steps: first, a CodeV or Zemax prescription is converted into a MACOS optical prescription. Second, a Matlab program calls ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-ofsight pointing, with and without controlled coarse and fine-steering mirrors. Third, the sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007 where the error budget is created. Once created, the user specifies the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions and combines them with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. The user can easily modify the motion allocations to perform trade studies.

  9. The SPEED Project: SPEEDing up Research and Development towards High-contrast Imaging Instruments for the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, P.; Preis, O.; Gouvret, C.; Dejongue, J.; Daban, J.-B.; Spang, A.; Martinache, F.; Beaulieu, M.; Janin-Potiron, P.; Abe, L.; Fantei-Cujolle, Y.; Ottogalli, S.; Mattei, D.; Carbillet, M.

    2015-03-01

    An overview is presented of the Segmented Pupil Experiment for Exoplanet Detection (SPEED) testbench. This is an advanced facility in development at the Lagrange Laboratory that will address several of the most critical issues affecting high-contrast imaging for the next generation of optical/near-infrared telescopes. The SPEED testbed can be used to investigate practical solutions for broadband coronography on asymmetric, unfriendly apertures, enabling algorithmic or optical approaches to be developed to minimise segment effects and pupil discontinuity.

  10. Photonic heterostructure High Contrast Grating as a novel polarization control and light confinement system in HCG VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, M.; Dems, M.; Chen, J.; Qijie, W.; Dao Hua, Z.; Czyszanowski, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present results of computer optical simulations of VCSEL with modified high refractive index contrast grating (HCG) as a top mirror. We consider the HCG of two different designs which determine the lateral aperture. Such HCG mirror provides selective guiding effect. We show that proper design of aperture of HCG results in almost sixfold increase in cavity Q-factor for zero order mode and a discrimination of higher order modes.

  11. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy of Individual Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The germination of multiple individual Bacillus subtilis spores by a high pressure (HP) of 140-150 (unless noted...otherwise) megaPascals (MPa) that activates spore germinant receptors (GRs) was monitored by phase contrast microscopy in a diamond anvil cell. Major...conclusions were that: i) >95% of spores germinated in 40 min; ii) individual spore’s HP germination kinetics were very similar to those for nutrient

  12. Lumazine Synthase Protein Nanoparticle-Gd(III)-DOTA Conjugate as a T1 contrast agent for high-field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, YoungKyu; Kang, Young Ji; Jung, Hoesu; Kim, Hansol; Kang, Sebyung; Cho, HyungJoon

    2015-10-23

    With the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at higher magnetic fields increasing, there is demand for MRI contrast agents with improved relaxivity at higher magnetic fields. Macromolecule-based contrast agents, such as protein-based ones, are known to yield significantly higher r1 relaxivity at low fields, but tend to lose this merit when used as T1 contrast agents (r1/r2 = 0.5 ~ 1), with their r1 decreasing and r2 increasing as magnetic field strength increases. Here, we developed and characterized an in vivo applicable magnetic resonance (MR) positive contrast agent by conjugating Gd(III)-chelating agent complexes to lumazine synthase isolated from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS). The r1 relaxivity of Gd(III)-DOTA-AaLS-R108C was 16.49 mM(-1)s(-1) and its r1/r2 ratio was 0.52 at the magnetic field strength of 7 T. The results of 3D MR angiography demonstrated the feasibility of vasculature imaging within 2 h of intravenous injection of the agent and a significant reduction in T1 values were observed in the tumor region 7 h post-injection in the SCC-7 flank tumor model. Our findings suggest that Gd(III)-DOTA-AaLS-R108C could serve as a potential theranostic nanoplatform at high magnetic field strength.

  13. Long-Lasting and Efficient Tumor Imaging Using a High Relaxivity Polysaccharide Nanogel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Minnie; Lux, Jacques; Nishimura, Tomoki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Almutairi, Adah

    2015-09-14

    Clinically approved small-molecule magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are all rapidly cleared from the body and offer weak signal enhancement. To avoid repeated administration of contrast agent and improve signal-to-noise ratios, agents with stronger signal enhancement and better retention in tumors are needed. Therefore, we focused on hydrogels because of their excellent water accessibility and biodegradability. Gadolinium (Gd)-chelating cross-linkers were incorporated into self-assembled pullulan nanogels to both impart magnetic properties and to stabilize this material that has been extensively studied for medical applications. We show that these Gd-chelating pullulan nanogels (Gd-CHPOA) have the highest reported relaxivity for any hydrogel-based particles and accumulate in the 4T1 tumors in mice at high levels 4 h after injection. This combination offers high signal enhancement and lasts up to 7 days to delineate the tumor clearly for longer imaging time scales. Importantly, this long-term accumulation does not cause any damage or toxicity in major organs up to three months after injection. Our work highlights the clinical potential of Gd-CHPOA as a tumor-imaging MRI contrast agent, permitting tumor identification and assessment with a high signal-to-background ratio.

  14. Experimental verification of beam quality in high-contrast imaging with orthogonal bremsstrahlung photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Jabbari, Keyvan; Seuntjens, Jan; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2007-07-01

    Since taken with megavoltage, forward-directed bremsstrahlung beams, the image quality of current portal images is inferior to that of diagnostic quality images produced by kilovoltage beams. In this paper, the beam quality of orthogonal bremsstrahlung beams defined as the 90 degrees component of the bremsstrahlung distribution produced from megavoltage electron pencil beams striking various targets is presented, and the suitability of their use for improved radiotherapy imaging is evaluated. A 10 MeV electron beam emerging through the research port of a Varian Clinac-18 linac was made to strike targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper. PDD and attenuation measurements of both the forward and orthogonal beams were carried out, and the results were also used to estimate the effective and mean energy of the beams. The mean energy of a spectrum produced by a carbon target dropped by 83% from 1296 keV in the forward direction to 217 keV in the orthogonal direction, while for an aluminum target it dropped by 77% to 412 keV, and for a copper target by 65% to 793 keV. An in-depth Monte Carlo study of photon yield and electron contamination was also performed. Photon yield and effective energy are lower for orthogonal beams than for forward beams, and the differences are more pronounced for targets of lower atomic number. Using their relatively low effective energy, orthogonal bremsstrahlung beams produced by megavoltage electrons striking low atomic number targets yield images with a higher contrast in comparison with forward bremsstrahlung beams.

  15. Bespoke contrast-matched diblock copolymer nanoparticles enable the rational design of highly transparent Pickering double emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymaruk, Matthew J.; Thompson, Kate L.; Derry, Matthew J.; Warren, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, Liam P. D.; Williams, Clive N.; Brown, Steven L.; Armes, Steven P.

    2016-07-01

    We report the preparation of highly transparent oil-in-water Pickering emulsions using contrast-matched organic nanoparticles. This is achieved via addition of judicious amounts of either sucrose or glycerol to an aqueous dispersion of poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)500 [PGMA-PTFEMA] diblock copolymer nanoparticles prior to high shear homogenization with an equal volume of n-dodecane. The resulting Pickering emulsions comprise polydisperse n-dodecane droplets of 20-100 μm diameter and exhibit up to 96% transmittance across the visible spectrum. In contrast, control experiments using non-contrast-matched poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)56-poly(benzyl methacrylate)300 [PGMA56-PBzMA300] diblock copolymer nanoparticles as a Pickering emulsifier only produced conventional highly turbid emulsions. Thus contrast-matching of the two immiscible phases is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the preparation of highly transparent Pickering emulsions: it is essential to use isorefractive nanoparticles in order to minimize light scattering. Furthermore, highly transparent oil-in-water-in-oil Pickering double emulsions can be obtained by homogenizing the contrast-matched oil-in-water Pickering emulsion prepared using the PGMA56-PTFEMA500 nanoparticles with a contrast-matched dispersion of hydrophobic poly(lauryl methacrylate)39-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate)800 [PLMA39-PTFEMA800] diblock copolymer nanoparticles in n-dodecane. Finally, we show that an isorefractive oil-in-water Pickering emulsion enables fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor the transport of water-insoluble small molecules (pyrene and benzophenone) between n-dodecane droplets. Such transport is significantly less efficient than that observed for the equivalent isorefractive surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Conventional turbid emulsions do not enable such a comparison to be made because the intense light scattering leads to substantial spectral

  16. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT). 4. Status and wavefront control development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Riggs, A. J. E.; Egron, Sylvain; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Elodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Kasdin, Jeremy; Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    Segmented telescopes are a possible approach to enable large-aperture space telescopes for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of habitable worlds. However, the increased complexity of their aperture geometry, due to their central obstruction, support structures and segment gaps, makes high-contrast imaging very challenging. The High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT) was designed to study and develop solutions for such telescope pupils using wavefront control and starlight suppression. The testbed design has the flexibility to enable studies with increasing complexity for telescope aperture geometries starting with off-axis telescopes, then on-axis telescopes with central obstruction and support structures (e.g. the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]), up to on-axis segmented telescopes e.g. including various concepts for a Large UV, Optical, IR telescope (LUVOIR), such as the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST). We completed optical alignment in the summer of 2014 and a first deformable mirror was successfully integrated in the testbed, with a total wavefront error of 13nm RMS over a 18mm diameter circular pupil in open loop. HiCAT will also be provided with a segmented mirror conjugated with a shaped pupil representing the HDST configuration, to directly study wavefront control in the presence of segment gaps, central obstruction and spider. We recently applied a focal plane wavefront control method combined with a classical Lyot coronagraph on HiCAT, and we found limitations on contrast performance due to vibration effect. In this communication, we analyze this instability and study its impact on the performance of wavefront control algorithms. We present our Speckle Nulling code to control and correct for wavefront errors both in simulation mode and on testbed mode. This routine is first tested in simulation mode without instability to validate our code. We then add simulated vibrations to study the degradation of contrast

  17. Microstructured Air Cavities as High-Index Contrast Substrates with Strong Diffraction for Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yoon-Jong; Moon, Daeyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Na, Jin-Young; Song, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Min-Kyo; Kim, Sunghee; Bae, Dukkyu; Park, Eun Hyun; Park, Yongjo; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional high-index-contrast dielectric gratings exhibit unconventional transmission and reflection due to their morphologies. For light-emitting devices, these characteristics help guided modes defeat total internal reflections, thereby enhancing the outcoupling efficiency into an ambient medium. However, the outcoupling ability is typically impeded by the limited index contrast given by pattern media. Here, we report strong-diffraction, high-index-contrast cavity engineered substrates (CESs) in which hexagonally arranged hemispherical air cavities are covered with a 80 nm thick crystallized alumina shell. Wavelength-resolved diffraction measurements and Fourier analysis on GaN-grown CESs reveal that the high-index-contrast air/alumina core/shell patterns lead to dramatic excitation of the low-order diffraction modes. Large-area (1075 × 750 μm(2)) blue-emitting InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on a 3 μm pitch CES exhibit ∼39% enhancement in the optical power compared to state-of-the-art, patterned-sapphire-substrate LEDs, while preserving all of the electrical metrics that are relevant to LED devices. Full-vectorial simulations quantitatively demonstrate the enhanced optical power of CES LEDs and show a progressive increase in the extraction efficiency as the air cavity volume is expanded. This trend in light extraction is observed for both lateral- and flip-chip-geometry LEDs. Measurements of far-field profiles indicate a substantial beaming effect for CES LEDs, despite their few-micron-pitch pattern. Near-to-far-field transformation simulations and polarization analysis demonstrate that the improved extraction efficiency of CES LEDs is ascribed to the increase in emissions via the top escape route and to the extraction of transverse-magnetic polarized light.

  18. High-resolution motion compensated MRA in patients with congenital heart disease using extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabir Darius

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using first-pass MRA (FP-MRA spatial resolution is limited by breath-hold duration. In addition, image quality may be hampered by respiratory and cardiac motion artefacts. In order to overcome these limitations an ECG- and navigator-gated high-resolution-MRA sequence (HR-MRA with slow infusion of extracellular contrast agent was implemented at 3 Tesla for the assessment of congenital heart disease and compared to standard first-pass-MRA (FP-MRA. Methods 34 patients (median age: 13 years with congenital heart disease (CHD were prospectively examined on a 3 Tesla system. The CMR-protocol comprised functional imaging, FP- and HR-MRA, and viability imaging. After the acquisition of the FP-MRA sequence using a single dose of extracellular contrast agent the motion compensated HR-MRA sequence with isotropic resolution was acquired while injecting the second single dose, utilizing the timeframe before viability imaging. Qualitative scores for image quality (two independent reviewers as well as quantitative measurements of vessel sharpness and relative contrast were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameters were compared using the Bland-Altman test. Results The mean image quality score revealed significantly better image quality of the HR-MRA sequence compared to the FP-MRA sequence in all vessels of interest (ascending aorta (AA, left pulmonary artery (LPA, left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV, coronary sinus (CS, and coronary ostia (CO; all p  Conclusions An ECG- and navigator-gated HR-MRA-protocol with infusion of extracellular contrast agent at 3 Tesla is feasible. HR-MRA delivers significantly better image quality and vessel sharpness compared to FP-MRA. It may be integrated into a standard CMR-protocol for patients with CHD without the need for additional contrast agent injection and without any additional examination time.

  19. General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchen, Luis F.

    2011-01-01

    The Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. The tool uses a Code V prescription of the optical train, and uses MATLAB programs to call ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled fine-steering mirrors (FSMs). The sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007, where the error budget is evaluated. The user specifies the particular optics of interest, and chooses the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions, and combines that with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. CPEB also contains a combination of form and ActiveX controls with Visual Basic for Applications code to allow for user interaction in which the user can perform trade studies such as changing engineering requirements, and identifying and isolating stringent requirements. It contains summary tables and graphics that can be instantly used for reporting results in view graphs. The entire process to obtain a coronagraphic telescope performance error budget has been automated into three stages: conversion of optical prescription from Zemax or Code V to MACOS (in-house optical modeling and analysis tool), a linear models process, and an error budget tool process. The first process was improved by developing a MATLAB package based on the Class Constructor Method with a number of user-defined functions that allow the user to modify the MACOS optical prescription. The second process was modified by creating a MATLAB package that contains user-defined functions that automate the process. The user interfaces with the process by utilizing an initialization file where the user defines the parameters of the linear model

  20. Robust design of Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror for mid-infrared VCSEL application

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, Christyves; Genty, Frédéric; Jacquet, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror has been designed for a VCSEL integration in mid-infrared ({\\lambda} = 2.65 $\\mu$m). The use of an optimization algorithm which maximizes a VCSEL mirror quality factor allowed the adjustment of the grating parameters while keeping large and shallow grating pattern. The robustness with respect to fabrication error has been enhanced thanks to a precise study of the grating dimension tolerances. The final mirror exhibits large high reflectivity bandwidth with a polarization selectivity and several percent of tolerance on the grating dimensions.

  1. High-contrast imager for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT): APLC/shaped-pupil hybrid coronagraph designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Egron, Sylvain; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Perrin, Marshall D.; Wallace, J. Kent; Long, Chris; Lajoie, Rachel; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Groff, Tyler Dean; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Mawet, Dimitri; Macintosh, Bruce; Shaklan, Stuart; Soummer, Remi

    2015-01-01

    HiCAT is a high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions in wavefront sensing, control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes. Primary mirror segmentation, central obstruction and spiders in the pupil of an on-axis telescope introduces additional diffraction features in the point spread function, which make high-contrast imaging very challenging. The testbed alignment was completed in the summer of 2014, exceeding specifications with a total wavefront error of 12nm rms with a 18mm pupil. Two deformable mirrors are to be installed for wavefront control in the fall of 2014. In this communication, we report on the first testbed results using a classical Lyot coronagraph. We have developed novel coronagraph designs combining an Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) with shaped-pupil type optimizations. We present the results of these new APLC-type solutions with two-dimensional shaped-pupil apodizers for the HiCAT geometry. These solutions render the system quasi-insensitive to jitter and low-order aberrations, while improving the performance in terms of inner working angle, bandpass and contrast over a classical APLC.

  2. Combined T2 and T1 measurements for improved perfusion and permeability studies in high field using dynamic contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazelaire, Cedric de [Saint Louis Hospital, Radiology Department, Paris, Cedex 10 (France); Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rofsky, Neil M.; Duhamel, Guillaume; Zhang, Jingbo; Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Michaelson, M.D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); George, Daniel [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Adult Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    This study analyzed the T2* effect of extracellularly distributed gadolinium contrast agents in arterial blood during tumor studies using T1-weighted sequences at high field strength. A saturation-prepared dual echo sequence with echo times of 1.5 and 3.5 ms was employed at 3 T to simultaneously characterize T1 and T2* of arterial blood during bolus administration of Gd-DTPA in 28 patients with body tumors. T2* effect and T1 effect of Gd-DTPA on image intensity of whole blood were calibrated in human blood samples with different concentrations of contrast agent. T2* was used to estimate concentration near the peak of the bolus. T1 was used to measure lower concentrations when T2* was not significant. T2* was measurable on calibration curves for Gd-DTPA concentrations higher than 4 mM. This concentration was exceeded in 18 patients. The mean signal intensity reduction because of T2* effect was estimated at 22{+-}14% of the T2* compensated signal. Using T2* measurements reduced underestimations of peak arterial Gd-DTPA concentration (59{+-}38%) and overestimation of permeability K{sup trans} (58%). The T2* effect of gadolinium contrast agents should therefore be accounted for when performing tumors study with T1-weighted sequences at high field strength. (orig.)

  3. Contrasted sensitivity of DMSP production to high light exposure in two Arctic under-ice blooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo, Virginie; Levasseur, Maurice; Mundy, Christopher John; Gosselin, Michel; Scarratt, Michael; Papakyriakou, Tim; Stefels, Jacqueline; Gale, Matthew A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Lizotte, Martine

    In polar regions, low-light acclimated phytoplankton thriving under sea ice may be suddenly exposed to high irradiance when ice pack breaks or surface currents carry them into adjacent ice-free areas. Here we experimentally determined how rapid shifts in light regime affect the phytoplankton and the

  4. VCSELs with a high-index-contrast grating for mode-division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    to excite a specific transverse mode, while its transmission phase is kept spatially constant. This laser can provide the selective excitation of a specific transverse mode, leading to a high coupling efficiency to a few mode fiber. Compared to the phase plate approach in current SDM systems, the HCG...

  5. A Simplified Method for Upscaling Composite Materials with High Contrast of the Conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ewing, R.

    2009-01-01

    A large class of industrial composite materials, such as metal foams, fibrous glass materials, mineral wools, and the like, are widely used in insulation and advanced heat exchangers. These materials are characterized by a substantial difference between the thermal properties of the highly conductive materials (glass or metal) and the insulator (air) as well as low volume fractions and complex network-like structures of the highly conductive components. In this paper we address the important issue for the engineering practice of developing fast, reliable, and accurate methods for computing the macroscopic (upscaled) thermal conductivities of such materials. We assume that the materials have constant macroscopic thermal conductivity tensors, which can be obtained by upscaling techniques based on the postprocessing of a number of linearly independent solutions of the steady-state heat equation on representative elementary volumes (REVs). We propose, theoretically justify, and computationally study a numerical method for computing the effective conductivities of materials for which the ratio δ of low and high conductivities satisfies δ ≪ 1. We show that in this case one needs to solve the heat equation in the region occupied by the highly conductive media only. Further, we prove that under certain conditions on the microscale geometry the proposed method gives an approximation that is O(δ)-close to the upscaled conductivity. Finally, we illustrate the accuracy and the limitations of the method on a number of numerical examples. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Repeated, long-distance migrations by a philopatric predator targeting highly contrasting ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S. E.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Queiroz, Nuno; Burnie, Neil; Aming, Choy; Sousa, Lara L.; Mucientes, Gonzalo R.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Harvey, Guy M.; Sims, David W.; Shivji, Mahmood S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-distance movements of animals are an important driver of population spatial dynamics and determine the extent of overlap with area-focused human activities, such as fishing. Despite global concerns of declining shark populations, a major limitation in assessments of population trends or spatial management options is the lack of information on their long-term migratory behaviour. For a large marine predator, the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier, we show from individuals satellite-tracked for multiple years (up to 1101 days) that adult males undertake annually repeated, round-trip migrations of over 7,500 km in the northwest Atlantic. Notably, these migrations occurred between the highly disparate ecosystems of Caribbean coral reef regions in winter and high latitude oceanic areas in summer, with strong, repeated philopatry to specific overwintering insular habitat. Partial migration also occurred, with smaller, immature individuals displaying reduced migration propensity. Foraging may be a putative motivation for these oceanic migrations, with summer behaviour showing higher path tortuosity at the oceanic range extremes. The predictable migratory patterns and use of highly divergent ecosystems shown by male tiger sharks appear broadly similar to migrations seen in birds, reptiles and mammals, and highlight opportunities for dynamic spatial management and conservation measures of highly mobile sharks.

  7. Contrasted sensitivity of DMSP production to high light exposure in two Arctic under-ice blooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo, Virginie; Levasseur, Maurice; Mundy, Christopher John; Gosselin, Michel; Scarratt, Michael; Papakyriakou, Tim; Stefels, Jacqueline; Gale, Matthew A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Lizotte, Martine

    2016-01-01

    In polar regions, low-light acclimated phytoplankton thriving under sea ice may be suddenly exposed to high irradiance when ice pack breaks or surface currents carry them into adjacent ice-free areas. Here we experimentally determined how rapid shifts in light regime affect the phytoplankton and the

  8. High-contrast Near-infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY TAU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takami, M.; Karr, J.L.; Hashimoto, J.; Kim, H.; Wisniewski, J.; Henning, T.; Grady, C.A.; Kandori, R.; Hodapp, K.W.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Chou, M.-Y.; Itoh, Y.; Momose, M.; Mayama, S.; Currie, T.; Follette, K.B.; Kwon, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.D.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.E.; Feldt, M.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Knapp, G.R.; Kuzuhara, M.; McElwain, M.W.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.L.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution (~0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distri

  9. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor: a hybrid focal-plane sensor for the high-contrast imaging of circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wilby, Michael J; Snik, Frans; Korkiakoski, Visa; Pietrow, Alexander G M

    2016-01-01

    The raw coronagraphic performance of current high-contrast imaging instruments is limited by the presence of a quasi-static speckle (QSS) background, resulting from instrumental non-common path errors (NCPEs). Rapid development of efficient speckle subtraction techniques in data reduction has enabled final contrasts of up to 10-6 to be obtained, however it remains preferable to eliminate the underlying NCPEs at the source. In this work we introduce the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS), a new wavefront sensor suitable for real-time NCPE correction. This pupil-plane optic combines the apodizing phase plate coronagraph with a holographic modal wavefront sensor, to provide simultaneous coronagraphic imaging and focal-plane wavefront sensing using the science point spread function. We first characterise the baseline performance of the cMWS via idealised closed-loop simulations, showing that the sensor successfully recovers diffraction-limited coronagraph performance over an effective dynamic range of +/...

  10. Polaritonic-to-Plasmonic Transition in Optically Resonant Bismuth Nanospheres for High-Contrast Switchable Ultraviolet Meta-Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Cuadrado, Alexander; Serna, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    In the quest aimed at unveiling alternative plasmonic elements overcoming noble metals for selected applications in photonics, we investigate by numerical simulations the near ultraviolet-to-near infrared optical response of solid and liquid Bi nanospheres embedded in a dielectric matrix. We also determine the resulting transmission contrast upon reversible solid-liquid phase transition to evaluate their potential for switchable optical filtering. The optical response of the solid (liquid) Bi nanospheres is ruled by localized polaritonic (plasmonic) resonances tunable by controlling the diameter. For a selected diameter between 20 nm and 50 nm, both solid and liquid nanospheres present a dipolar resonance inducing a strong peak extinction in the near ultraviolet, however at different photon energies. This enables a high transmission contrast at selected near ultraviolet photon energies. It is estimated that a two-dimensional assembly of 20 nm solid Bi nanospheres with a surface coverage of 28% will totally ex...

  11. High spatial resolution hard X-ray microscope using X-ray refractive lens and phase contrast imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Takeuchi, A; Takano, H; Suzuki, Y; Ishikawa, T; Ohigashi, T; Yokosuka, H

    2001-01-01

    A high spatial resolution X-ray microscope was constructed using an X-ray refractive lens as an objective. The spatial resolution was tested using 18 keV X-ray. A 0.4 mu m line and 0.4 mu m space tantalum test pattern was successfully resolved. Using the similar setup with the addition of a phase plate, a Zernike type phase-contrast microscopy experiment was carried out for the phase retrieval of the samples. Two-dimensional phase-contrast images were successfully taken for the first time in the hard X-ray region. Images of a gold mesh sample were analyzed and the validity of this method was indicated. An improvement of the lens, however, is required for the precise phase retrieval of the samples.

  12. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  13. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy eFancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing music in public is widely recognised as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects glucocorticoid responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance.

  14. High Resolutions Obtained by Microspheres, and Phase Contrast Microscope with a Microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Aryeh, Y

    2015-01-01

    High resolutions obtained in optical systems with microspheres are studied by Helmholtz equation and boundary conditions for the EM fields. The large lateral spatial wave vectors of the evanescent waves, which include information on the fine structures of the object, are converted at the microsphere surface to smaller spatial wave vectors. Due to reduction in the magnitudes of these spatial wave vectors a part of the EM waves propagate in the microsphere without decay, but preserve the fine structures which can be recovered in the image plane. A new method for measuring phase objects, like those of semi-transparent biological tissues, with high resolutions is described by an optical system composed of a combination of the microsphere with an interferometer.

  15. High-contrast single-particle tracking by selective focal plane illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Jörg G; Veith, Roman; Siebrasse, Jan-Peter; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2008-05-12

    Wide-field single molecule microscopy is a versatile tool for analyzing dynamics and molecular interactions in biological systems. In extended three-dimensional systems, however, the method suffers from intrinsic out-of-focus fluorescence. We constructed a high-resolution selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM) to efficiently solve this problem. The instrument is an optical sectioning microscope featuring the high speed and high sensitivity of a video microscope. We present theoretical calculations and quantitative measurements of the illumination light sheet thickness yielding 1.7 microm (FWHM) at 543 nm, 2.0 microm at 633 nm, and a FWHM of the axial point spread function of 1.13 microm. A direct comparison of selective plane and epi-illumination of model samples with intrinsic background fluorescence illustrated the clear advantage of SPIM for such samples. Single fluorescent quantum dots in aqueous solution are readily visualized and tracked proving the suitability of our setup for the study of fast and dynamic processes in spatially extended biological specimens.

  16. High-contrast fluorescence sensing of aqueous Cu(I) with triarylpyrazoline probes: dissecting the roles of ligand donor strength and excited state proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Thomas; Bagchi, Pritha; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2013-03-07

    Cu(I)-responsive fluorescent probes based on a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism generally show incomplete fluorescence recovery relative to the intrinsic quantum yield of the fluorescence reporter. Previous studies on probes with an N-aryl thiazacrown Cu(I)-receptor revealed that the recovery is compromised by incomplete Cu(I)-N coordination and resultant ternary complex formation with solvent molecules. Building upon a strategy that successfully increased the fluorescence contrast and quantum yield of Cu(I) probes in methanol, we integrated the arylamine PET donor into the backbone of a hydrophilic thiazacrown ligand with a sulfonated triarylpyrazoline as a water-soluble fluorescence reporter. This approach was not only expected to disfavor ternary complex formation in aqueous solution but also to maximize PET switching through a synergistic Cu(I)-induced conformational change. The resulting water-soluble probe 1 gave a strong 57-fold fluorescence enhancement upon saturation with Cu(I) with high selectivity over other cations, including Cu(II), Hg(II), and Cd(II); however, the recovery quantum yield did not improve over probes with the original N-aryl thiazacrown design. Concluding from detailed photophysical data, including responses to acidification, solvent isotope effects, quantum yields, and time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles, the fluorescence contrast of 1 is compromised by inadequate coordination of Cu(I) to the weakly basic arylamine nitrogen of the PET donor and by fluorescence quenching via two distinct excited state proton transfer pathways operating under neutral and acidic conditions.

  17. Contrasting vulnerability of drained tropical and high-latitude peatlands to fluvial loss of stored carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris D.; Page, Susan E.; Jones, Tim; Moore, Sam; Gauci, Vincent; Laiho, Raija; Hruška, Jakub; Allott, Tim E. H.; Billett, Michael F.; Tipping, Ed; Freeman, Chris; Garnett, Mark H.

    2014-11-01

    Carbon sequestration and storage in peatlands rely on consistently high water tables. Anthropogenic pressures including drainage, burning, land conversion for agriculture, timber, and biofuel production, cause loss of pressures including drainage, burning, land conversion for agriculture, timber, and biofuel production, cause loss of peat-forming vegetation and exposure of previously anaerobic peat to aerobic decomposition. This can shift peatlands from net CO2 sinks to large CO2 sources, releasing carbon held for millennia. Peatlands also export significant quantities of carbon via fluvial pathways, mainly as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We analyzed radiocarbon (14C) levels of DOC in drainage water from multiple peatlands in Europe and Southeast Asia, to infer differences in the age of carbon lost from intact and drained systems. In most cases, drainage led to increased release of older carbon from the peat profile but with marked differences related to peat type. Very low DOC-14C levels in runoff from drained tropical peatlands indicate loss of very old (centuries to millennia) stored peat carbon. High-latitude peatlands appear more resilient to drainage; 14C measurements from UK blanket bogs suggest that exported DOC remains young (hydraulic conductivity and temperature, as well as the extent of disturbance associated with drainage, notably land use changes in the tropics. Data from the UK Peak District, an area where air pollution and intensive land management have triggered Sphagnum loss and peat erosion, suggest that additional anthropogenic pressures may trigger fluvial loss of much older (>500 year) carbon in high-latitude systems. Rewetting at least partially offsets drainage effects on DOC age.

  18. Atomic physics of relativistic high contrast laser-produced plasmas in experiments on Leopard laser facility at UNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Faenov, A. Y.; Safronova, U. I.; Wiewior, P.; Renard-Le Galloudec, N.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Wilcox, P.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Chalyy, O.; Paudel, Y.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the recent experiments focused on study of x-ray radiation from multicharged plasmas irradiated by relativistic (I > 1019 W/cm2) sub-ps laser pulses on Leopard laser facility at NTF/UNR are presented. These shots were done under different experimental conditions related to laser pulse and contrast. In particular, the duration of the laser pulse was 350 fs or 0.8 ns and the contrast was varied from high (10-7) to moderate (10-5). The thin laser targets (from 4 to 750 μm) made of a broad range of materials (from Teflon to iron and molybden to tungsten and gold) were utilized. Using the x-ray diagnostics including the high-precision spectrometer with resolution R ˜ 3000 and a survey spectrometer, we have observed unique spectral features that are illustrated in this paper. Specifically, the observed L-shell spectra for Fe targets subject to high intensity lasers (˜1019 W/cm2) indicate electron beams, while at lower intensities (˜1016 W/cm2) or for Cu targets there is much less evidence for an electron beam. In addition, K-shell Mg features with dielectronic satellites from high-Rydberg states, and the new K-shell F features with dielectronic satellites including exotic transitions from hollow ions are highlighted.

  19. High-Contrast Electro-Optic Modulation of a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity by Electrical Gating of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Xuetao; Gao, Yuanda; Mak, Kin Fai; Yao, Xinwen; Li, Luozhou; Szep, Attila; Walker, Dennis; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F; Englund, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-contrast electro-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity integrated with an electrically gated monolayer graphene. A high quality (Q) factor air-slot nanocavity design is employed for high overlap between the optical field and graphene sheet. Tuning of graphene's Fermi level up to 0.8 eV enables efficient control of its complex dielectric constant, which allows modulation of the cavity reflection in excess of 10 dB for a swing voltage of only 1.5 V. We also observe a controllable resonance wavelength shift close to 2 nm around a wavelength of 1570 nm and a Q factor modulation in excess of three. These observations allow cavity-enhanced measurements of the graphene complex dielectric constant under different chemical potentials, in agreement with a theoretical model of the graphene dielectric constant under gating. This graphene-based nanocavity modulation demonstrates the feasibility of high-contrast, low-power frequency-selective electro-optic nanocavity modulators in graphene...

  20. Facile Preparation of a New Gadofullerene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent with High 1H Relaxivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chunying; Corwin, Frank D.; Zhang, Jianfei; Chen, Zhijian; Reid, Jonathan E.; Sun, Minghao; Xu, Wei; Sim, Jae Hyun; Wang, Chunru; Fatouros, Panos P.; Esker, Alan R.; Gibson, Harry W.; Dorn, Harry C.

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on the trimetallic nitride templated (TNT) metallofullerene, Gd3N@C80, was synthesized by a facile method in high yield. The observed longitudinal and transverse relaxivities, r1 and r2, for water hydrogens in the presence of the water-soluble gadofullerene 2, Gd3N@C80(OH)~26(CH2CH2COOM)~16 (M = Na or H), are 207 and 282 mM-1s-1 (per C80 cage) at 2.4 T, respectively; these values are 50 times larger than those of Gd3+ poly(aminocarboxylate) complexes, such as commercial Omniscan® and Magnevist®. This high 1H relaxivity for this new hydroxylated and carboxylated gadofullerene derivative provides high signal enhancement at significantly lower Gd concentration as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo MRI studies. Dynamic light scattering data reveal a unimodal size distribution with an average hydrodynamic radius of ca. 78 nm in pure water (pH = 7), which is significantly different from other hydroxylated or carboxylated fullerene and metallofullerene derivatives reported to date. Agarose gel infusion results indicate that the gadofullerene 2 displayed diffusion properties different from that of commercial Omniscan® and those of PEG5000 modified Gd3N@C80. The reactive carboxyl functionality present on this highly efficient contrast agent may also serve as a precursor for biomarker tissue-targeting purposes. PMID:19445504

  1. The architecture of the LkCa 15 transitional disk revealed by high-contrast imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Thalmann, C; Hodapp, K; Janson, M; Grady, C A; Min, M; Ovelar, M de Juan; Carson, J; Brandt, T; Bonnefoy, M; McElwain, M W; Leisenring, J; Dominik, C; Henning, T; Tamura, M

    2014-01-01

    We present four new epochs of Ks-band images of the young pre-transitional disk around LkCa 15, and perform extensive forward modeling to derive the physical parameters of the disk. We find indications of strongly anisotropic scattering (Henyey-Greenstein g = 0.67 [-0.11,+0.18]) and a significantly tapered gap edge ('round wall'), but see no evidence that the inner disk, whose existence is predicted by the spectral energy distribution, shadows the outer regions of the disk visible in our images. We marginally confirm the existence of an offset between the disk center and the star along the line of nodes; however, the magnitude of this offset (x = 27 [-20,+19] mas) is notably lower than that found in our earlier H-band images (Thalmann et al. 2010). Intriguingly, we also find, at high significance, an offset of y = 69 [-25, +49] mas perpendicular to the line of nodes. If confirmed by future observations, this would imply a highly elliptical -- or otherwise asymmetric -- disk gap with an effective eccentricity ...

  2. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Todd A; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V; Elices, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers.

  3. Sequential origin in the high performance properties of orb spider dragline silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Todd A.; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Plaza, Gustavo R.; Perea, Belén; Navarro, Andrés; Guinea, Gustavo V.; Elices, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Major ampullate (MA) dragline silk supports spider orb webs, combining strength and extensibility in the toughest biomaterial. MA silk evolved ~376 MYA and identifying how evolutionary changes in proteins influenced silk mechanics is crucial for biomimetics, but is hindered by high spinning plasticity. We use supercontraction to remove that variation and characterize MA silk across the spider phylogeny. We show that mechanical performance is conserved within, but divergent among, major lineages, evolving in correlation with discrete changes in proteins. Early MA silk tensile strength improved rapidly with the origin of GGX amino acid motifs and increased repetitiveness. Tensile strength then maximized in basal entelegyne spiders, ~230 MYA. Toughness subsequently improved through increased extensibility within orb spiders, coupled with the origin of a novel protein (MaSp2). Key changes in MA silk proteins therefore correlate with the sequential evolution high performance orb spider silk and could aid design of biomimetic fibers.

  4. Retooling Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis Algorithm to Enhance Non-Invasive High Resolution Laser Speckle Functional Imaging of Cutaneous Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Surya C.; Blum, Kevin; Pal, Durba; Ghatak, Subhadip; Khanna, Savita; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous microvasculopathy complicates wound healing. Functional assessment of gated individual dermal microvessels is therefore of outstanding interest. Functional performance of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) systems is compromised by motion artefacts. To address such weakness, post-processing of stacked images is reported. We report the first post-processing of binary raw data from a high-resolution LSCI camera. Sharp images of low-flowing microvessels were enabled by introducing inverse variance in conjunction with speckle contrast in Matlab-based program code. Extended moving window averaging enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Functional quantitative study of blood flow kinetics was performed on single gated microvessels using a free hand tool. Based on detection of flow in low-flow microvessels, a new sharp contrast image was derived. Thus, this work presents the first distinct image with quantitative microperfusion data from gated human foot microvasculature. This versatile platform is applicable to study a wide range of tissue systems including fine vascular network in murine brain without craniotomy as well as that in the murine dorsal skin. Importantly, the algorithm reported herein is hardware agnostic and is capable of post-processing binary raw data from any camera source to improve the sensitivity of functional flow data above and beyond standard limits of the optical system. PMID:28106129

  5. Max CAPR: High-Resolution 3D Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography With Acquisition Times Under 5 Seconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Borisch, Eric A.; Glockner, James F.; Mostardi, Petrice M.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Young, Phillip M.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method. PMID:20715291

  6. Ultrasonograpy of VX-2 Liver Tumor in Rabbit Treated by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Combined with Microbubble Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojuan, Ji; Jinqing, Li; Zhibiao, Wang; Jianzhong, Zou; Wenzhi, Chen; Jin, Bai

    2007-05-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sonographic appearance and to investigate the sonographic character of VX-2 liver tumor in rabbit treated by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubble contrast agent. Methods: Forty-five rabbits bearing VX-2 tumors were randomly averagely assigned into three groups. In group A irradiation was sustained until the target region became hyperechoic. In group B therapy was stopped as soon as hyperecho occurred, and in group C irradiation time was prolonged to ensure the occurrence of coagulation necrosis. Results: Exposure duration for tumors treated purely with HIFU was the longest, whilst the use of microbubble contrast agent combined with HIFU shortened the exposure duration significantly. The gross examination and ultrasonogram coagulation necrosis area measurements correlated strongly (r=0.986,P<0.05) in the microbubble-enhanced HIFU group. Conclusion: It was feasible to enhance HIFU therapy with microbubble contrast agent. The characteristic change in the ultrasound images made it possible to assess the enhanced HIFU therapeutic efficacy in order to adjust the treatment program.

  7. High-contrast linear optical pulse compression using a temporal hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Fernández-Ruiz, Maria R; Lou, Shuqin; Azaña, José

    2015-03-01

    Temporal holograms can be realized by temporal amplitude-only modulation devices and used for generation and processing of complex (amplitude and phase) time-domain signals. Based on the temporal hologram concept, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel design for linear optical pulse compression using temporal modulation of continuous-wave light combined with dispersion. The newly introduced scheme overcomes the undesired background problem that is intrinsic to designs based on temporal zone plates, while also offering an energy efficiency of ~25%. This pulse compression scheme can ideally provide an arbitrarily high time-bandwidth product using a low peak-power modulation driving signal, though in practice it is limited by the achievable modulation bandwidth and dispersion amount.

  8. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Takami, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisnewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol A; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Chou, Mei-Yin; Itoh, Yoichi; Momose, Munetake; Mayama, Satoshi; Currie, Thayne; Follette, Katherine B; Kwon, Jungmi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (~0".05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, S...

  9. Applications of Three Dithienylpyrroles-Based Electrochromic Polymers in High-Contrast Electrochromic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three dithienylpyrroles (1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPS, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (MPO, and 4-(2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-ylbenzonitrile (ANIL were synthesized and their corresponding polydithienylpyrroles (PSNS were electrosynthesized using electrochemical polymerization. Spectroelectrochemical studies indicated that poly(1-(4-(methylthiophenyl-2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl-pyrrole (PMPS film was green, dark green, and brown in the neutral, oxidation, and highly oxidized state, respectively. The incorporation of a MPS unit into the PSNS backbone gave rise to a darker color than those of the MPO and ANIL units in the highly oxidized state. The PMPS film showed higher ΔTmax (54.47% at 940 nm than those of the PMPO (43.87% at 890 nm and PANIL (44.63% at 950 nm films in an ionic liquid solution. Electrochromic devices (ECDs employing PMPS, PMPO, and PANIL as anodic layers and poly(3,4-(2,2-diethypropylenedioxythiophene(PProDOT-Et2 as a cathodic layer were constructed. PMPO/PProDOT-Et2 ECD showed the highest ΔTmax (41.13% and coloration efficiency (674.67 cm2·C−1 at 626 nm, whereas PMPS/PProDOT-Et2 ECD displayed satisfactory ΔTmax (32.51% and coloration efficiency (637.25 cm2·C−1 at 590 nm. Repeated cyclic voltammograms of PMPS/PProDOT-Et2, PMPO/PProDOT-Et2, and PANIL/PProDOT-Et2 ECDs indicated that ECDs had satisfactory redox stability.

  10. HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES FLUX ORIGIN IN THE CLOUDS, DARK LIGHTNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem of high-energy particles flux origin in clouds is discussed. Conditions in which dark lightning preceding the ordinary one and creating additional ionization, fluxes of fast electrons with MeV energy prior to the earthquake detected among lightning initiating ball-lightning, glow, sprites are considered. All above phenomena appear to be of general nature founded on quantum entanglement of hydrogen bonds protons in water clasters inside clouds.

  11. Emission from the Galaxy NGC 1275 at High and Very High Energies and its Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Sinitsyna, V G

    2014-01-01

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 is the central, dominant galaxy in the Perseus cluster of galaxies. NGC1275 is known as a powerful source of radio and X-ray emission. The well-known extragalactic object NGC 1275 has been observed by the SHALON high-altitude mirror Cherenkov telescopes within the framework of long-term studies of metagalactic gamma-ray sources. In 1996, the SHALON observations revealed a new metagalactic source of very high energy gamma-ray emission coincident in its coordinates with the galaxy NGC 1275. Having analyzed the SHALON data, we have determined such characteristics of NGC 1275 as the spectral energy distributions and images at energies >800 GeV for the first time. The results obtained at high and very high energies are needed for understanding the emission generation processes in an entire wide energy range.

  12. Nitrogen retention in contrasting temperate forests exposed to high nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staelens, J.; Adriaenssens, S.; Wuyts, K.; Verheyen, K.; Boeckx, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    A better understanding of factors affecting nitrogen (N) retention is needed to assess the impact of changing anthropogenic N emissions and climatic conditions on N cycling and N loss by terrestrial ecosystems. Retention of N has been demonstrated for a wide range of forests, including ecosystems exposed to chronically enhanced N deposition, but it is still unclear which factors determine this N retention capacity. Therefore, we examined the possible effects of forest type on N retention using stable N isotopes. The study was carried out in adjacent equal-aged deciduous (pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.)) and coniferous (Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)) stands with a similar stand history and growing on a well-drained sandy soil in a region with enhanced N deposition (Belgium). The N input-output budgets and gross soil N transformation rates differed significantly between the two stands. The forest floor was exposed to a high inorganic N input from atmospheric deposition, which was nearly twice as high in the pine stand (33 ± 2 kg N ha-1 yr-1; mean ± standard error) as in the oak stand (18 ± 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1). The N input was reflected in the soil solution under the rooting zone, but the mean nitrate concentration was eight times higher under pine (19 ± 5 mg N L-1) than under oak (2.3 ± 0.9 mg N L-1). Gross N dynamics in the mineral topsoil were determined by in situ 15N labelling of undisturbed soil cores combined with numerical data analysis. Gross N mineralization was two times faster in the oak soil while nitrate production was two times faster in the pine soil, indicating a dominant effect of vegetation cover on soil N cycling. The higher gross nitrification, particularly due to oxidation of organic N, in the pine soil compared to the oak soil, combined with negligible nitrate immobilization, was in line with the higher nitrate leaching under the pine forest. On a larger spatial and temporal scale, the fate of dissolved inorganic N within these forests

  13. Grating-based X-ray phase-contrast tomography of atherosclerotic plaque at high photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, Holger; Fill, Sandra [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Herzen, Julia [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept. und Inst. fuer Medizintechnik; Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany). Zentrum fuer Materialforschung] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Background: Tissue characterization of atherosclerosis by absorption-based imaging methods is limited due to low soft-tissue contrast. Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) may become an alternative for plaque assessment if the phase signal can be retrieved at clinically applicable photon energies. The aims of this feasibility study were (i) to characterize arterial vessels at low and high photon energies, (ii) to extract qualitative features and (iii) quantitative phase-contrast Hounsfield units (HU-phase) of plaque components at 53 keV using histopathology as gold standard. Materials and methods: Five human carotid artery specimens underwent grating-based PC-CT using synchrotron radiation of either 23 keV or 53 keV and histological work-up. Specimens without advanced atherosclerosis were used to extract signal criteria of vessel layers. Diseased specimens were screened for important plaque components including fibrous tissue (FT), lipid (LIP), necrotic core (NEC), intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), inflammatory cell infiltration (INF) and calcifications (CA). Qualitative features as well as quantitative HU-phase were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three regions in 6 corresponding PC-CT scans and histology sections were identified. Healthy samples had the same signal characteristics at 23 keV and 53 keV with bright tunica intima and adventitia and dark media. Plaque components showed differences in signal intensity and texture at 53 keV. Quantitative analysis demonstrated the highest HU-phase of soft plaque in dense FT. Less organized LIP, NEC and INF were associated with lower HU-phase values. The highest HU-phase were measured in CA. Conclusion: PC-CT of atherosclerosis is feasible at high, clinically relevant photon energies and provides detailed information about plaque structure including features of high risk vulnerable plaques. (orig.)

  14. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  15. Strong coupling and high contrast all optical modulation in atomic cladding waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Liron; Mazurski, Noa; Levy, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    In recent years we are witnessing a flourish in research aimed to facilitate alkali vapors in guided wave configurations. Owing to the significant reduction in device dimensions, the increase in density of states, the interaction with surfaces and primarily the high intensities carried along the structure, a rich world of light vapor interactions can be studied, and new functionalities, e.g. low power nonlinear light-matter interactions can be achieved. One immense remaining challenge is to study the effects of quantum coherence and shifts in such nano-scale waveguides, characterized by ultra-small mode areas and fast dynamics. Here, we construct a serpentine silicon-nitride wave guide, having atomic vapor as its cladding. The unprecedented mode volume of 5e-13 m^3 supported over a length of 17 mm is used to demonstrate efficient linear and non-linear spectroscopy. Fascinating and important phenomena such as van der Waals shifts, dynamical stark shifts, and coherent effects such as strong coupling (in the for...

  16. Feasible optimal deformable mirror shaping algorithm for high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give'on, Amir; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Spergel, David N.; Littman, Michael G.; Gurfil, Pini

    2003-12-01

    The Princeton University Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) group has been working on a novel method for direct imaging of extra solar planets using a shaped-pupil coronagraph. The entrance pupil of the coronagraph is optimized to have a point spread function (PSF) that provides the suppression level needed at the angular separation required for detection of extra solar planets. When integration time is to be minimized, the photon count at the planet location in the image plane is a Poisson distributed random process. The ultimate limitation of these high-dynamic-range imaging systems comes from scattering due to imperfections in the optical surfaces of the collecting system. The first step in correcting the wavefront errors is the estimation of the phase aberrations. The phase aberration caused by these imperfections is assumed to be a sum of two-dimensional sinusoidal functions. Assuming one uses a deformable mirror to correct these aberrations, we propose an algorithm that optimally decreases the scattering level in specified localized areas in the image plane independent of the choice of influence function of the deformable mirror.

  17. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  18. High-density speckle contrast optical tomography (SCOT) for three dimensional tomographic imaging of the small animal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojević, Tanja; Varma, Hari M; Hollmann, Joseph L; Valdes, Claudia P; Culver, Joseph P; Justicia, Carles; Durduran, Turgut

    2017-06-01

    High-density speckle contrast optical tomography (SCOT) utilizing tens of thousands of source-detector pairs, was developed for in vivo imaging of blood flow in small animals. The reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to local ischemic stroke in a mouse brain was transcanially imaged and reconstructed in three dimensions. The reconstructed volume was then compared with corresponding magnetic resonance images demonstrating that the volume of reduced CBF agrees with the infarct zone at twenty-four hours. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile Preparation of a New Gadofullerene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent with High 1H Relaxivity

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Chunying; Corwin, Frank D.; Zhang, Jianfei; Chen, Zhijian; Reid, Jonathan E.; Sun, Minghao; Xu, Wei; Sim, Jae Hyun; Wang, Chunru; Fatouros, Panos P.; Alan R Esker; Gibson, Harry W.; Dorn, Harry C.

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on the trimetallic nitride templated (TNT) metallofullerene, Gd3N@C80, was synthesized by a facile method in high yield. The observed longitudinal and transverse relaxivities, r1 and r2, for water hydrogens in the presence of the water-soluble gadofullerene 2, Gd3N@C80(OH)~26(CH2CH2COOM)~16 (M = Na or H), are 207 and 282 mM-1s-1 (per C80 cage) at 2.4 T, respectively; these values are 50 times larger than those of Gd3+ poly(aminocarbo...

  20. A multi-wavelength, high-contrast contact radiography system for the study of low-density aerogel foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opachich, Y P; Koch, J A; Haugh, M J; Romano, E; Lee, J J; Huffman, E; Weber, F A; Bowers, J W; Benedetti, L R; Wilson, M; Prisbrey, S T; Wehrenberg, C E; Baumann, T F; Lenhardt, J M; Cook, A; Arsenlis, A; Park, H-S; Remington, B A

    2016-07-01

    A multi-wavelength, high contrast contact radiography system has been developed to characterize density variations in ultra-low density aerogel foams. These foams are used to generate a ramped pressure drive in materials strength experiments at the National Ignition Facility and require precision characterization in order to reduce errors in measurements. The system was used to characterize density variations in carbon and silicon based aerogels to ∼10.3% accuracy with ∼30 μm spatial resolution. The system description, performance, and measurement results collected using a 17.8 mg/cc carbon based JX-6 (C20H30) aerogel are discussed in this manuscript.

  1. Acrylic-based 1×2 Y-Branch POF coupler with high index contrast waveguide taper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, A. A.; Abd Rahman, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic-based 1x2 Y-Branch POF coupler consists of input POF waveguide, a middle high index contrast waveguide taper and output POF waveguides has been developed. The optical device is based on a 1x2 Y-branch coupler design with a middle high index contrast waveguide taper. Device modeling has been performed using non-sequential ray tracing with an insertion loss of 4.68 dB and coupling ratio of 50:50. Low cost acrylic material has been used for the device substrate. This middle waveguide taper region is constructed on the acrylic block itself without using any additional optical waveguiding medium injected into the engraved taper region. Fabrication of the devices is done by producing the device structures on an acrylic block using high speed CNC machining tool. Input and output POF fibers are inserted in to this device structure in such a way that they are passively aligned to the middle waveguide taper structure. The measured insertion loss is 7.5 dB and with a splitting ratio of 50:50.

  2. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics system: enabling high-contrast imaging on solar-system scales

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanovic, N; Guyon, O; Clergeon, C; Singh, G; Kudo, T; Garrel, V; Newman, K; Doughty, D; Lozi, J; Males, J; Minowa, Y; Hayano, Y; Takato, N; Morino, J; Kuhn, J; Serabyn, E; Norris, B; Tuthill, P; Schworer, G; Stewart, P; Close, L; Huby, E; Perrin, G; Lacour, S; Gauchet, L; Vievard, S; Murakami, N; Oshiyama, F; Baba, N; Matsuo, T; Nishikawa, J; Tamura, M; Lai, O; Marchis, F; Duchene, G; Kotani, T; Woillez, J

    2015-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument is a multipurpose high-contrast imaging platform designed for the discovery and detailed characterization of exoplanetary systems and serves as a testbed for high-contrast imaging technologies for ELTs. It is a multi-band instrument which makes use of light from 600 to 2500nm allowing for coronagraphic direct exoplanet imaging of the inner 3 lambda/D from the stellar host. Wavefront sensing and control are key to the operation of SCExAO. A partial correction of low-order modes is provided by Subaru's facility adaptive optics system with the final correction, including high-order modes, implemented downstream by a combination of a visible pyramid wavefront sensor and a 2000-element deformable mirror. The well corrected NIR (y-K bands) wavefronts can then be injected into any of the available coronagraphs, including but not limited to the phase induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs, both of which offer an inner worki...

  3. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trades offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin Arthur; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper we discussed a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach, named Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) relies on two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum. In particular we showed that broadband high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies for a variety of telescope pupil geometries. In this paper we first focus on the fundamental limits and practical trade-offs associated with ACAD. In a first part we will study the fundamental limits and practical tradeoffs associated with ACAD, regardless of the downstream coronagraphic architecture. The mathematical techniques to finding ACAD DM shapes require to solve a complex differential equation. We will first discuss the scaling laws underlying this non-linear solution and their impact of DM placement and geometry wishing the optical design of an instrument. We will then consider the sensitivity to low order aberrations: in principle an ACAD solution that comprises large strokes will be more sensitive to these aberrations than one with smaller strokes. As a consequence, we will quantify this sensitive both using analytical models and numerical simulations. We will present diffractive end to end simulations and quantify the ultimate contrast and bandwidth achievable with ACAD, which can be reached by superposing using a classical linear wavefront control algorithms on top of the Monge Ampere solution. Finally, recent work has shown that coronagraph designs can also accommodate for secondary support structures and/or segments gaps, at a

  4. High-angle triple-axis specimen holder for three-dimensional diffraction contrast imaging in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, S., E-mail: hata.satoshi.207@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyazaki, H. [Mel-Build, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0052 (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Mitsuhara, M. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Kaneko, K.; Higashida, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Nakashima, H. [Department of Electrical and Materials Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Matsumura, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Sharp, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Electron tomography requires a wide angular range of specimen-tilt for a reliable three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Although specimen holders are commercially available for tomography, they have several limitations, including tilting capability in only one or two axes at most, e.g. tilt-rotate. For amorphous specimens, the image contrast depends on mass and thickness only and the single-tilt holder is adequate for most tomographic image acquisitions. On the other hand, for crystalline materials where image contrast is strongly dependent on diffraction conditions, current commercially available tomography holders are inadequate, because they lack tilt capability in all three orthogonal axes needed to maintain a constant diffraction condition over the whole tilt range. We have developed a high-angle triple-axis (HATA) tomography specimen holder capable of high-angle tilting for the primary horizontal axis with tilting capability in the other (orthogonal) horizontal and vertical axes. This allows the user to trim the specimen tilt to obtain the desired diffraction condition over the whole tilt range of the tomography series. To demonstrate its capabilities, we have used this triple-axis tomography holder with a dual-axis tilt series (the specimen was rotated by 90{sup o} ex-situ between series) to obtain tomographic reconstructions of dislocation arrangements in plastically deformed austenitic steel foils. -- Highlights: {yields} A double tilt-rotate specimen holder for diffraction contrast imaging in electron tomography. {yields} Precise alignment of a diffraction condition for tilt-series acquisition of TEM/STEM images. {yields} Complete visualization of 3D dislocation arrangements by dual-axis STEM tomography.

  5. Sub-GHz-resolution C-band Nyquist-filtering interleaver on a high-index-contrast photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Zhu, Chen; Corcoran, Bill; Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Leinse, Arne; Schröder, Jochen; Lowery, Arthur J

    2016-03-21

    Modern optical communications rely on high-resolution, high-bandwidth filtering to maximize the data-carrying capacity of fiber-optic networks. Such filtering typically requires high-speed, power-hungry digital processes in the electrical domain. Passive optical filters currently provide high bandwidths with low power consumption, but at the expense of resolution. Here, we present a passive filter chip that functions as an optical Nyquist-filtering interleaver featuring sub-GHz resolution and a near-rectangular passband with 8% roll-off. This performance is highly promising for high-spectral-efficiency Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (N-WDM) optical super-channels. The chip provides a simple two-ring-resonator-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has a sub-cm2 footprint owing to the high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2 waveguide, while manifests low wavelength-dependency enabling C-band (> 4 THz) coverage with more than 160 effective free spectral ranges of 25 GHz. This device is anticipated to be a critical building block for spectrally-efficient, chip-scale transceivers and ROADMs for N-WDM super-channels in next-generation optical communication networks.

  6. A note on variational multiscale methods for high-contrast heterogeneous porous media flows with rough source terms

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-09-01

    In this short note, we discuss variational multiscale methods for solving porous media flows in high-contrast heterogeneous media with rough source terms. Our objective is to separate, as much as possible, subgrid effects induced by the media properties from those due to heterogeneous source terms. For this reason, enriched coarse spaces designed for high-contrast multiscale problems are used to represent the effects of heterogeneities of the media. Furthermore, rough source terms are captured via auxiliary correction equations that appear in the formulation of variational multiscale methods [23]. These auxiliary equations are localized and one can use additive or multiplicative constructions for the subgrid corrections as discussed in the current paper. Our preliminary numerical results show that one can capture the effects due to both spatial heterogeneities in the coefficients (such as permeability field) and source terms (e.g., due to singular well terms) in one iteration. We test the cases for both smooth source terms and rough source terms and show that with the multiplicative correction, the numerical approximations are more accurate compared to the additive correction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Three-photon luminescence of gold nanorods and its applications for high contrast tissue and deep in vivo brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Xi, Wang; Cai, Fuhong; Zhao, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhengping; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents for bio-imaging applications. Here we studied multi-photon luminescence (MPL) of gold nanorods (GNRs), under the excitation of femtosecond (fs) lasers. GNRs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules have high chemical and optical stability, and can be used as multi-photon luminescent nanoprobes for deep in vivo imaging of live animals. We have found that the depth of in vivo imaging is dependent upon the transmission and focal capability of the excitation light interacting with the GNRs. Our study focused on the comparison of MPL from GNRs with two different aspect ratios, as well as their ex vivo and in vivo imaging effects under 760 nm and 1000 nm excitation, respectively. Both of these wavelengths were located at an optically transparent window of biological tissue (700-1000 nm). PEGylated GNRs, which were intravenously injected into mice via the tail vein and accumulated in major organs and tumor tissue, showed high image contrast due to distinct three-photon luminescence (3PL) signals upon irradiation of a 1000 nm fs laser. Concerning in vivo mouse brain imaging, the 3PL imaging depth of GNRs under 1000 nm fs excitation could reach 600 μm, which was approximately 170 μm deeper than the two-photon luminescence (2PL) imaging depth of GNRs with a fs excitation of 760 nm.

  8. Observers' Judgments of the Effects of Glare on Their Visual Acuity for High and Low Contrast Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Ashley A Stafford; Borzendowski, Stephanie A Whetsel; Tyrrell, Richard A; Stephens, Benjamin R; Rosopa, Patrick J

    2016-07-01

    Disability glare refers to a reduction in the ability to discern a stimulus that is positioned near another stimulus that has a much higher luminance. While it is common for drivers to report that they have been "blinded" by oncoming headlights, it is unclear whether observers can accurately judge when they are visually disabled by glare. This experiment sought to quantify the accuracy with which observers can judge when a glare source reduces their visual acuity. Seventeen observers estimated their disability glare threshold (DGT)-the luminance of a glare source that would be just sufficient to impair their ability to discern the orientation of a Landolt C that was surrounded by the glare source. These estimated DGTs were compared to the participant's actual DGTs. Participants consistently underestimated the intensity of glare that was required to impair their acuity. On average, estimates of glare threshold were 88% lower than actual glare threshold intensities. Participants' judgments were affected by stimulus size but not stimulus contrast. These results suggest that observers can exaggerate the debilitating effects of glare and that they can fail to appreciate that high contrast stimuli are more robust to glare. A driver who believes that even the lowest intensities of headlight glare can visually impair an oncoming driver may be reluctant to use high beam headlamps, despite their significant visibility advantages.

  9. Robust high-contrast companion detection from interferometric observations. The CANDID algorithm and an application to six binary Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Kervella, P; Monnier, J D; Schaefer, G H; Baron, F; Breitfelder, J; Bouquin, J B Le; Roettenbacher, R M; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G; McAlister, H; Brummelaar, T ten; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N; Ridgway, S; Kraus, S

    2015-01-01

    Long-baseline interferometry is an important technique to spatially resolve binary or multiple systems in close orbits. By combining several telescopes together and spectrally dispersing the light, it is possible to detect faint components around bright stars. Aims. We provide a rigorous and detailed method to search for high-contrast companions around stars, determine the detection level, and estimate the dynamic range from interferometric observations. We developed the code CANDID (Companion Analysis and Non-Detection in Interferometric Data), a set of Python tools that allows us to search systematically for point-source, high-contrast companions and estimate the detection limit. The search pro- cedure is made on a N x N grid of fit, whose minimum needed resolution is estimated a posteriori. It includes a tool to estimate the detection level of the companion in the number of sigmas. The code CANDID also incorporates a robust method to set a 3{\\sigma} detection limit on the flux ratio, which is based on an a...

  10. High-Resolution Profiling of Drosophila Replication Start Sites Reveals a DNA Shape and Chromatin Signature of Metazoan Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Comoglio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At every cell cycle, faithful inheritance of metazoan genomes requires the concerted activation of thousands of DNA replication origins. However, the genetic and chromatin features defining metazoan replication start sites remain largely unknown. Here, we delineate the origin repertoire of the Drosophila genome at high resolution. We address the role of origin-proximal G-quadruplexes and suggest that they transiently stall replication forks in vivo. We dissect the chromatin configuration of replication origins and identify a rich spatial organization of chromatin features at initiation sites. DNA shape and chromatin configurations, not strict sequence motifs, mark and predict origins in higher eukaryotes. We further examine the link between transcription and origin firing and reveal that modulation of origin activity across cell types is intimately linked to cell-type-specific transcriptional programs. Our study unravels conserved origin features and provides unique insights into the relationship among DNA topology, chromatin, transcription, and replication initiation across metazoa.

  11. High-resolution profiling of Drosophila replication start sites reveals a DNA shape and chromatin signature of metazoan origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoglio, Federico; Schlumpf, Tommy; Schmid, Virginia; Rohs, Remo; Beisel, Christian; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    At every cell cycle, faithful inheritance of metazoan genomes requires the concerted activation of thousands of DNA replication origins. However, the genetic and chromatin features defining metazoan replication start sites remain largely unknown. Here, we delineate the origin repertoire of the Drosophila genome at high resolution. We address the role of origin-proximal G-quadruplexes and suggest that they transiently stall replication forks in vivo. We dissect the chromatin configuration of replication origins and identify a rich spatial organization of chromatin features at initiation sites. DNA shape and chromatin configurations, not strict sequence motifs, mark and predict origins in higher eukaryotes. We further examine the link between transcription and origin firing and reveal that modulation of origin activity across cell types is intimately linked to cell-type-specific transcriptional programs. Our study unravels conserved origin features and provides unique insights into the relationship among DNA topology, chromatin, transcription, and replication initiation across metazoa.

  12. Sheet-like and plume-like thermal flow in a spherical convection experiment with high viscosity contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterer, Birgit; Zaussinger, Florian; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Krebs, Andreas; Egbers, Christoph; Breuer, Doris

    2013-04-01

    We introduce our spherical experiments on electro-hydrodynamical driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection that have been performed either with temperature-independent properties of the fluid, called 'GeoFlow I', or with temperature-dependent properties, called 'GeoFlow II'. To set up a self-gravitating force field with radial directed buoyancy, we use a high voltage potential between the inner and outer boundaries and a dielectric insulating liquid and perform the experiment in the microgravity conditions of the ISS [1, 2]. We further run numerical simulations in a 3D spherical geometry to reproduce the results obtained in the GeoFlow experiments. In the experiment the used optical method for flow visualization as delivered by the Optical Diagnostics Module ODM of the Fluid Science Laboratory, is the so called Wollaston-Prism shearing interferometry WSI, which produces fringe pattern images. For the numerical simulations we compute from the temperature field a fringe pattern of convection to compare it then to the experiment data. In this work, we present the flow imaging techniques and their numerical analogues, which were used to compare experimental results with numerical solutions. An important finding is the difference in the flow pattern between our two experiments. We see a sheet-like thermal flow, if the physical properties of the fluid are not varying with temperature - a result from 'GeoFlow I'. In this case the convection patterns have been successfully reproduced by 3D numerical simulations using both the RESPECT [3] and GAIA [4] codes. If we use a liquid with varying (electro-hydrodynamic) volume expansion and temperature-dependent viscosity (GeoFlow II), for which the viscosity contrast measured in the experiment is 2, the structures change significantly and are plume-like. This result is not expected, since the viscosity contrast seems to be too small for this type of solution according to numerical simulations. However, using a viscosity contrast of two

  13. Design of LCPG-type polarization-independent shutter with diffractive efficiency and high contrast at wavelength 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud; Sajad Mousavi Fard, Sayed

    2017-02-01

    We have designed liquid crystal (LC) shutter of LCPG type with high diffractive efficiency and transmission rate of more than 99.747% for modulation of non-polar light with wavelength 532 nm and high contrast in this article. Compared to other similar cases, the advantages of this design include maximization of transmission percent of diffractive element (particularly first-order diffraction) and minimization of light leakage rate caused by zero-order, and other unwanted diffractive orders. The conditions have been prepared for using diffractive elements (gratings) with shorter periods and acquisition of diffraction orders with greater diffraction angles by benefitting from suitable compounds of LC in the given design. Similarly, required measures have been taken for the deletion of adverse effects caused by reflection from optic surfaces so that very appropriate status is prepared for the function of LCPG shutter.

  14. A method for high-energy, low-dose mammography using edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemoz, Paul C.; Bravin, Alberto; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Ruat, Marie; Grandl, Susanne; Mayr, Doris; Auweter, Sigrid; Mittone, Alberto; Brun, Emmanuel; Ponchut, Cyril; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Coan, Paola; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    Since the breast is one of the most radiosensitive organs, mammography is arguably the area where lowering radiation dose is of the uttermost importance. Phase-based x-ray imaging methods can provide opportunities in this sense, since they do not require x-rays to be stopped in tissue for image contrast to be generated. Therefore, x-ray energy can be considerably increased compared to those usually exploited by conventional mammography. In this article we show how a novel, optimized approach can lead to considerable dose reductions. This was achieved by matching the edge-illumination phase method, which reaches very high angular sensitivity also at high x-ray energies, to an appropriate image processing algorithm and to a virtually noise-free detection technology capable of reaching almost 100% efficiency at the same energies. Importantly, while proof-of-concept was obtained at a synchrotron, the method has potential for a translation to conventional sources.

  15. New circumstellar structure in the T Tauri system. A near-infrared high-contrast imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, M.; Santhakumari, K. K. R.; Herbst, T. M.; Köhler, R.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: The immediate vicinity of T Tauri was observed with the new high-contrast imaging instrument SPHERE at the VLT to resolve remaining mysteries of the system, such as the putative small edge-on disk around T Tauri Sa and the assignment of the complex outflow patterns to the individual stars. Methods: We used SPHERE IRDIS narrow-band classical imaging in Paβ, Brγ, and the ν = 1-0 S(1) line of H2, as well as in the nearby continua to obtain high spatial resolution and high-contrast images over the near-infrared spectral range. Line maps were created by subtracting the nearby continuum. We also reanalyzed coronagraphic data taken with SPHERE's integral field spectrograph in J- and H-band with the goal of obtaining a precise extinction estimate to T Tauri Sb, and of verifying the recently reported claim of another stellar or substellar object in the system. Results: A previously unknown coiling structure is observed southwest of the stars in reflected light, which points to the vicinity of T Tauri N. We map the circumbinary emission from T Tauri S in J- and H-band scattered light for the first time, showing a morphology that differs significantly from that observed in K-band. Molecular Hydrogen emission is found southwest of the stars, near the coiling structure. We also detect the H2 emitting region T Tauri NW. The motion of T Tauri NW with respect to T Tauri N and S between previous images and our 2014 data provides strong evidence that the southeast-northwest outflow triggering T Tauri NW is likely to be associated with T Tauri S. We also present accurate relative photometry of the stars, which confirms that T Tauri Sa is brightening again. Our analysis rules out the presence of the recently proposed companion to T Tauri N with high confidence.

  16. A laboratory measurement method for pressure sensitive adhesives in agglomeration deinking of mixed office waste paper: The high-low scanning contrast method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin Tong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple measurement method for pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA in an agglomeration deinking system of mixed office waste paper was studied. This method was based on the different scanning performance of ink and PSA specks in hot-pressed and oven-dried handsheets with the change of contrast values that had been selected and set in the image analysis software. The numbers of ink specks per square meter (NPM were well recognized at both low and high contrast values and exhibited a very good linear relationship within a range of contrast values. The PSA specks, on the other hand, could not be recognized at the low contrast values and could only be recognized at high contrast values. The NPM value of the ink specks was found to have the highest values at the high contrast values and could be accurately predicted by its NPM value at the low contrast values. Thus, the NPM value of the PSA specks could be easily calculated by the total NPM of the handsheet at the high contrast value minus the projected NPM of the ink specks from its low contrast conditions. Compared to the dye method, which was also used on the measurement of microstickies, this method is suggested as a simple and quick laboratory tool to measure the relative quantity of PSA in the mixed office waste paper with minimum interference from the residual toner ink.

  17. Atmospheric characterization of Proxima b by coupling the SPHERE high-contrast imager to the ESPRESSO spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, C.; Snellen, I.; Mouillet, D.; Pepe, F.; Wildi, F.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Bonfils, X.; Cheetham, A.; Conod, U.; Delfosse, X.; Ehrenreich, D.; Figueira, P.; Forveille, T.; Martins, J. H. C.; Quanz, S. P.; Santos, N. C.; Schmid, H.-M.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The temperate Earth-mass planet Proxima b is the closest exoplanet to Earth and represents what may be our best ever opportunity to search for life outside the Solar System. Aims: We aim at directly detecting Proxima b and characterizing its atmosphere by spatially resolving the planet and obtaining high-resolution reflected-light spectra. Methods: We propose to develop a coupling interface between the SPHERE high-contrast imager and the new ESPRESSO spectrograph, both installed at ESO VLT. The angular separation of 37 mas between Proxima b and its host star requires the use of visible wavelengths to spatially resolve the planet on a 8.2-m telescope. At an estimated planet-to-star contrast of 10-7 in reflected light, Proxima b is extremely challenging to detect with SPHERE alone. However, the combination of a 103-104 contrast enhancement from SPHERE to the high spectral resolution of ESPRESSO can reveal the planetary spectral features and disentangle them from the stellar ones. Results: We find that significant but realistic upgrades to SPHERE and ESPRESSO would enable a 5σ detection of the planet and yield a measurement of its true mass and albedo in 20-40 nights of telescope time, assuming an Earth-like atmospheric composition. Moreover, it will be possible to probe the O2 bands at 627, 686 and 760 nm, the water vapour band at 717 nm, and the methane band at 715 nm. In particular, a 3.6σ detection of O2 could be made in about 60 nights of telescope time. Those would need to be spread over three years considering optimal observability conditions for the planet. Conclusions: The very existence of Proxima b and the SPHERE-ESPRESSO synergy represent a unique opportunity to detect biosignatures on an exoplanet in the near future. It is also a crucial pathfinder experiment for the development of extremely large telescopes and their instruments, in particular the E-ELT and its high-resolution visible and near-IR spectrograph.

  18. On the Potential Origins of the High Stability of Reconstructed Ancestral Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Devin L; Kaltenbach, Miriam; Tawfik, Dan S

    2016-10-01

    Ancestral reconstruction provides instrumental insights regarding the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of past proteins. A striking observation relates to the remarkably high thermostability of reconstructed ancestors. The latter has been linked to high environmental temperatures in the Precambrian era, the era relating to most reconstructed proteins. We found that inferred ancestors of the serum paraoxonase (PON) enzyme family, including the mammalian ancestor, exhibit dramatically increased thermostabilities compared with the extant, human enzyme (up to 30 °C higher melting temperature). However, the environmental temperature at the time of emergence of mammals is presumed to be similar to the present one. Additionally, the mammalian PON ancestor has superior folding properties (kinetic stability)-unlike the extant mammalian PONs, it expresses in E. coli in a soluble and functional form, and at a high yield. We discuss two potential origins of this unexpectedly high stability. First, ancestral stability may be overestimated by a "consensus effect," whereby replacing amino acids that are rare in contemporary sequences with the amino acid most common in the family increases protein stability. Comparison to other reconstructed ancestors indicates that the consensus effect may bias some but not all reconstructions. Second, we note that high stability may relate to factors other than high environmental temperature such as oxidative stress or high radiation levels. Foremost, intrinsic factors such as high rates of genetic mutations and/or of transcriptional and translational errors, and less efficient protein quality control systems, may underlie the high kinetic and thermodynamic stability of past proteins.

  19. High-contrast imager for complex aperture telescopes (HiCAT): 3. first lab results with wavefront control

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mazoyer, Johan; Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Egron, Sylvain; Leboulleux, Lucie; Levecq, Olivier; Carlotti, Alexis; Long, Chris A.; Lajoie, Rachel; Soummer, Rémi

    2015-09-01

    HiCAT is a high-contrast imaging testbed designed to provide complete solutions in wavefront sensing, control and starlight suppression with complex aperture telescopes. The pupil geometry of such observatories includes primary mirror segmentation, central obstruction, and spider vanes, which make the direct imaging of habitable worlds very challenging. The testbed alignment was completed in the summer of 2014, exceeding specifications with a total wavefront error of 12nm rms over a 18mm pupil. The installation of two deformable mirrors for wavefront control is to be completed in the winter of 2015. In this communication, we report on the first testbed results using a classical Lyot coronagraph. We also present the coronagraph design for HiCAT geometry, based on our recent development of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC) with shaped-pupil type optimizations. These new APLC-type solutions using two-dimensional shaped-pupil apodizer render the system quasi-insensitive to jitter and low-order aberrations, while improving the performance in terms of inner working angle, bandpass and contrast over a classical APLC.

  20. Digital adaptive coronagraphy using SLMs: promising prospects of a novel approach, including high-contrast imaging of multiple stars systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Jonas; Patapis, Polychronis

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new technological framework for high-contrast coronagraphy, namely digital adaptive coronagraphy (DAC) using spatial light modulators (SLMs), taking advantage of recent advances in this technology. We present proof-of-principle experimental results in the visible, using a transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal SLM display to show that SLMs can be successfully implemented as focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs (4QPM, 8OPM,...), and that the technology is essentially in place to address realistic instrumental configurations. We explore a specific application where SLM-based adaptive coronagraphy might be particularly competitive, which is direct imaging of multiple stars systems, by simultaneously nulling multiple point sources in the field. Using a simple approach to compute a brightness-weighted synthetized coronagraphic phase map, we show that in the case of binaries the contrast gain over using a regular phase map can exceed 4 stellar magnitudes for a 1:1 binaries down to separation as close as 1 λ/D. Thanks to video-rate update frequency of the SLM, the technique is in principle compatible with sky rotation in the case of altitude-azimuth telescope mounts, and can address multiple target configurations with no actual mechanical or hardware change.

  1. Contrast sensitivity test and conventional and high frequency audiometry: information beyond that required to prescribe lenses and headsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Simon, J. M.; Angarano, C.; Dominguez, S.; Luzzi, F.; Lanusse, M.; Ranieri, M. V.; Boccio, C. M.

    2008-04-01

    In Optometry and in Audiology, the routine tests to prescribe correction lenses and headsets are respectively the visual acuity test (the first chart with letters was developed by Snellen in 1862) and conventional pure tone audiometry (the first audiometer with electrical current was devised by Hartmann in 1878). At present there are psychophysical non invasive tests that, besides evaluating visual and auditory performance globally and even in cases catalogued as normal according to routine tests, supply early information regarding diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, cardiovascular problems, etc. Concerning Optometry, one of these tests is the achromatic luminance contrast sensitivity test (introduced by Schade in 1956). Concerning Audiology, one of these tests is high frequency pure tone audiometry (introduced a few decades ago) which yields information relative to pathologies affecting the basal cochlea and complements data resulting from conventional audiometry. These utilities of the contrast sensitivity test and of pure tone audiometry derive from the facts that Fourier components constitute the basis to synthesize stimuli present at the entrance of the visual and auditory systems; that these systems responses depend on frequencies and that the patient's psychophysical state affects frequency processing. The frequency of interest in the former test is the effective spatial frequency (inverse of the angle subtended at the eye by a cycle of a sinusoidal grating and measured in cycles/degree) and, in the latter, the temporal frequency (measured in cycles/sec). Both tests have similar duration and consist in determining the patient's threshold (corresponding to the inverse multiplicative of the contrast or to the inverse additive of the sound intensity level) for each harmonic stimulus present at the system entrance (sinusoidal grating or pure tone sound). In this article the frequencies, standard normality curves and abnormal threshold shifts

  2. Origin of the high Neel temperature in SrTcO3

    OpenAIRE

    Mravlje, J.; Aichhorn, M; Georges, A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the high Neel temperature recently found in Tc perovskites. The electronic structure in the magnetic state of SrTcO3 and its 3d analogue SrMnO3 is calculated within a framework combining band-structure and many-body methods. In agreement with experiment, the Neel temperature of SrTcO3 is found to be four times larger than that of SrMnO3. We show that this is because the Tc-compound lies on the verge of the itinerant-to-localized transition, and also has a larger b...

  3. On the origin of very high energy gamma-rays from radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Radio galaxies have emerged as a new gamma-ray emitting source class on the extragalactic sky. With their jets misaligned, i.e. not directly pointing towards us, they offer a unique tool to probe some of the fundamental (and otherwise hidden) non-thermal processes in AGN. This contribution briefly summarizes the observed characteristics of the four radio galaxies detected so far at very high energies (VHE). Given its prominence, particular attention is given to the origin of the variable VHE emission in M87. We discuss some of the theoretical progress achieved for this source within recent years highlighting, amongst others, the relevance of magnetospheric particle acceleration and emission models.

  4. SGLT1-mediated transport in Caco-2 cells is highly dependent on cell bank origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, B; Pedersen, Maria; Laghmoch, A M

    2017-01-01

    The Caco-2 cell line is a well-established in vitro model for studying transport phenomena for prediction of intestinal nutrient and drug absorption. However, for substances depending on transporters such predictions are complicated due to variable transporter expression and limited knowledge about...... permeability (PSGLT1). Here, the objective was to characterize and compare SGLT1-mediated uptake in Caco-2 cells obtained from different cell banks. SGLT1-mediated uptake of the standard SGLT1 substrate, α-MDG, in Caco-2 cells was shown to be highly dependent on cell bank origin. The most robust and reliable...

  5. Contrastive Lexicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  6. Phase contrast imaging of high-intensity laser hole boring of solid-density wires at LCLS-MEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, W.; Brown, S.; Curry, C.; Gauthier, M.; Gamboa, E.; Goede, S.; Fletcher, L.; Kim, J.; MacDonald, M.; Mishra, R.; Roedel, C.; Glenzer, S.; Fiuza, F.; Granados, E.; Nagler, B.; Zhou, Z.; MacKinnon, A.; Obst, L.; Ziel, K.; Pak, A.; Williams, G.; Fajardo, M.

    2016-10-01

    High-intensity, relativistic (a0 > 1) laser plasma interactions on solid surfaces produce a rich mix of dynamics on the laser timescale (Weibel instabilities, surface effects, sheath formation, etc.) and hydrodynamic timescale (hole-boring, shocks, etc.). Probing these interactions optically is difficult due to critical density layer obscuring the surface of the target, whereas probing with hard X-rays from K-alpha sources does not sufficiently resolve these interactions temporally as they are typically many ps in duration. Presented here are the first experimental measurements of laser hole-boring on a carbon wire surfaces performed at the LCLS-MEC facility. With laser intensities of up to 1019 W / cm2 , we observe the dissociation of micron-sized wires over 100 ps timescale with peak hole boring velocities up to 0.001 c using phase-contrast imaging. This work was funded by DOE FES under FWP #100182.

  7. Simultaneous generation of ions and high-order harmonics from thin conjugated polymer foil irradiated with ultrahigh contrast laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, I. W.; Kim, I J.; Pae, K. H.; Nam, K. H.; Lee, C.-L.; Yun, H.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, J. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Daido, H. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2011-10-31

    We report the manufacturing of an (ultra-)thin foil target made of conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and the simultaneous observation of laser-accelerated ions and second harmonic radiation, when irradiated with ultrahigh-contrast laser pulse at a maximum intensity of 4 x 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}. Maximum proton energy of 8 MeV is achieved along the target normal direction. Strong second harmonic with over 6% energy ratio compared to fundamental is emitted along the specular direction. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the simultaneous generation of protons and high-order harmonics, which demonstrates the feasibility of applications requiring particle and radiation sources at once, effectively using the same laser and target.

  8. Orbital Differential Imaging: A New High-Contrast Post-Processing Technique For Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Males, Jared R; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Current post-processing techniques in high contrast imaging depend on some source of diversity between the exoplanet signal and the residual star light at that location. The two main techniques are angular differential imaging (ADI), which makes use of parallactic sky rotation to separate planet from star light, and spectral differential imaging (SDI), which makes use of differences in the spectrum of planet and star light and the wavelength dependence of the point spread function (PSF). Here we introduce our technique for exploiting another source of diversity: orbital motion. Given repeated observations of an exoplanetary system with sufficiently short orbital periods, the motion of the planets allows us to discriminate them from the PSF. In addition to using powerful PSF subtraction algorithms, such an observing strategy enables temporal filtering. Once an orbit is determined, the planet can be ``de-orbited'' to further increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We call this collection of techniques Orbital Diffe...

  9. Comparison between diffraction contrast tomography and high-energy diffraction microscopy on a slightly deformed aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renversade, Loïc; Quey, Romain; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Menasche, David; Maddali, Siddharth; Suter, Robert M; Borbély, András

    2016-01-01

    The grain structure of an Al-0.3 wt%Mn alloy deformed to 1% strain was reconstructed using diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) and high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM). 14 equally spaced HEDM layers were acquired and their exact location within the DCT volume was determined using a generic algorithm minimizing a function of the local disorientations between the two data sets. The microstructures were then compared in terms of the mean crystal orientations and shapes of the grains. The comparison shows that DCT can detect subgrain boundaries with disorientations as low as 1° and that HEDM and DCT grain boundaries are on average 4 µm apart from each other. The results are important for studies targeting the determination of grain volume. For the case of a polycrystal with an average grain size of about 100 µm, a relative deviation of about ≤10% was found between the two techniques.

  10. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makito, K.; Shin, J.-H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Masuda, S. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of {approx}3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  11. Ionization effects in the generation of wake-fields by ultra-high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in argon gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makito, K.; Zhidkov, A.; Hosokai, T.; Shin, J.-H.; Masuda, S.; Kodama, R.

    2012-10-01

    Difference in mechanisms of wake-field generation and electron self-injection by high contrast femtosecond laser pulses in an initially neutral Argon gas and in pre-ionized plasma without ionization is studied via 2D particle-in-cell simulations including optical ionization of the media. For shorter laser pulses, 40 fs, ionization results only in an increase of the charge of accelerated electrons by factor of ˜3 with qualitatively the same energy distribution. For longer pulses, 80 fs, a more stable wake field structure is observed in the neutral gas with the maximal energy of the accelerated electrons exceeding that in the fixed density plasma. In higher density Argon, an ionizing laser pulse converts itself to a complex system of solitons at a self-induced, critical density ramp.

  12. High contrast all-optical diode based on direction-dependent optical bistability within asymmetric ring cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Wen; Zhang, Xin-Qin; Xu, Jing-Ping; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2016-08-01

    We propose a simple all-optical diode which is comprised of an asymmetric ring cavity containing a two-level atomic ensemble. Attributed to spatial symmetry breaking of the ring cavity, direction-dependent optical bistability is obtained in a classical bistable system. Therefore, a giant optical non-reciprocity is generated, which guarantees an all-optical diode with a high contrast up to 22 dB. Furthermore, its application as an all-optical logic AND gate is also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274242, 11474221, and 11574229), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1330203), and the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB922203 and 2013CB632701).

  13. Comparison between diffraction contrast tomography and high-energy diffraction microscopy on a slightly deformed aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Renversade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain structure of an Al–0.3 wt%Mn alloy deformed to 1% strain was reconstructed using diffraction contrast tomography (DCT and high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM. 14 equally spaced HEDM layers were acquired and their exact location within the DCT volume was determined using a generic algorithm minimizing a function of the local disorientations between the two data sets. The microstructures were then compared in terms of the mean crystal orientations and shapes of the grains. The comparison shows that DCT can detect subgrain boundaries with disorientations as low as 1° and that HEDM and DCT grain boundaries are on average 4 µm apart from each other. The results are important for studies targeting the determination of grain volume. For the case of a polycrystal with an average grain size of about 100 µm, a relative deviation of about ≤10% was found between the two techniques.

  14. Degradation of different pectins by fungi: correlations and contrasts between the pectinolytic enzyme sets identified in genomes and the growth on pectins of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pectins are diverse and very complex biomolecules and their structure depends on the plant species and tissue. It was previously shown that derivatives of pectic polymers and oligosaccharides from pectins have positive effects on human health. To obtain specific pectic oligosaccharides, highly defined enzymatic mixes are required. Filamentous fungi are specialized in plant cell wall degradation and some produce a broad range of pectinases. They may therefore shed light on the enzyme mixes needed for partial hydrolysis. Results The growth profiles of 12 fungi on four pectins and four structural elements of pectins show that the presence/absence of pectinolytic genes in the fungal genome clearly correlates with their ability to degrade pectins. However, this correlation is less clear when we zoom in to the pectic structural elements. Conclusions This study highlights the complexity of the mechanisms involved in fungal degradation of complex carbon sources such as pectins. Mining genomes and comparative genomics are promising first steps towards the production of specific pectinolytic fractions.

  15. Highly specific spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging of dynamic optical absorption shifts of an antibody-ICG contrast agent (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen C.; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Juergen K.

    2017-03-01

    Improved techniques for breast cancer screening are critically needed as current methods lack diagnostic accuracy. Using spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) molecular imaging with a priori knowledge of optical absorption spectra allows suppression of endogenous background signal, increasing the overall sensitivity and specificity of the modality to exogenous contrast agents. Here, sPA imaging was used to monitor antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates as they undergo optical absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation to allow differentiation between normal murine mammary glands from breast cancer by enhancing molecular imaging signal from target (B7-H3)-bound antibody-ICG. First, B7-H3 was shown to have highly specific (AUC of 0.93) expression on both vascular endothelium and tumor stroma in malignant lesions through quantitative immunohistochemical staining of B7-H3 on 279 human samples (normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=182), breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97)), making B7-H3 a promising target for sPA imaging. Second, absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control (Iso-ICG) were characterized through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was imaged, and sPA imaging in found a 3.01 (IQR 2.63, 3.38, Panimals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)) despite significant tumor accumulation of Iso-ICG, confirmed through ex vivo histology. Overall, leveraging anti-B7-H3 antibody-ICG contrast agents, which have dynamic optical absorption spectra representative of molecular interactions, allows for highly specific sPA imaging of murine breast cancer.

  16. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  17. The Moving Group Targets of the SEEDS High-contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, T.D.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~105 at 1'' and ~106

  18. The Moving Group Targets of the SEEDS High-contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: Results and Observations from the First Three Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, T.D.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~105 at 1'' and ~106 be

  19. Highly biocompatible TiO2:Gd3+ nano-contrast agent with enhanced longitudinal relaxivity for targeted cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Sasidharan, Abhilash; Ashokan, Anusha; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-10-01

    We report the development of a novel magnetic nano-contrast agent (nano-CA) based on Gd3+ doped amorphous TiO2 of size ~25 nm, exhibiting enhanced longitudinal relaxivity (r1) and magnetic resonance (MR) contrasting together with excellent biocompatibility. Quantitative T1 mapping of phantom samples using a 1.5 T clinical MR imaging system revealed that the amorphous phase of doped titania has the highest r1 relaxivity which is ~2.5 fold higher than the commercially used CA Magnevist™. The crystalline (anatase) samples formed by air annealing at 250 °C and 500 °C showed significant reduction in r1 values and MR contrast, which is attributed to the loss of proton-exchange contribution from the adsorbed water and atomic re-arrangement of Gd3+ ions in the crystalline host lattice. Nanotoxicity studies including cell viability, plasma membrane integrity, reactive oxygen stress and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, performed on human primary endothelial cells (HUVEC), human blood derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cell line showed excellent biocompatibility up to relatively higher doses of 200 μg ml-1. The potential of this nano-CA to cause hemolysis, platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation were studied using human peripheral blood samples and found no adverse effects, illustrating the possibility of the safe intravenous administration of these agents for human applications. Furthermore, the ability of these agents to specifically detect cancer cells by targeting molecular receptors on the cell membrane was demonstrated on folate receptor (FR) positive oral carcinoma (KB) cells, where the folic acid conjugated nano-CA showed receptor specific accumulation on cell membrane while leaving the normal fibroblast cells (L929) unstained. This study reveals that the Gd3+ doped amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles having enhanced magnetic resonance contrast and high biocompatibility is a promising candidate for

  20. Compact, simple and robust cross polarized wave generation source of few-cycle, high-contrast pulses for seeding petawatt-class laser systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Patricia; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Hanna, Marc; Pellegrina, Alain; Friebel, Florence; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A compact and robust, dual-crystal cross polarized wave generation setup combined with a hollow waveguide filter is implemented to deliver few-cycle, high-contrast laser pulses sourced from a commercial multipass Ti:Sa amplifier. The initial 25-fs pulses with a temporal contrast of 108 are shortened to 10 fs with an improved contrast of at least 10^10. The single nonlinear stage for spectral broadening and contrast enhancement of a commercial amplifier serves as an ide...

  1. High-intensity, high-contrast laser pulses generated from the fully diode-pumped Yb:glass laser system POLARIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Marco; Keppler, Sebastian; Bödefeld, Ragnar; Kessler, Alexander; Liebetrau, Hartmut; Körner, Jörg; Hellwing, Marco; Schorcht, Frank; Jäckel, Oliver; Sävert, Alexander; Polz, Jens; Arunachalam, Ajay Kawshik; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2013-03-01

    We report on the first generation of high-contrast, 164 fs duration pulses from the laser system POLARIS reaching focused peak intensities in excess of 2×10(20) W/cm2. To our knowledge, this is the highest peak intensity reported so far that has been achieved with a diode-pumped, solid-state laser. Several passive contrast enhancement techniques have been specially developed and implemented, achieving a relative prepulse intensity smaller than 10(-8) at t=-30 ps before the main pulse. Furthermore a closed-loop adaptive-optics system has been installed. Together with angular chirp compensation, this method has led to a significant reduction of the focal spot size and an increase of the peak intensity.

  2. The Origin and Evolution of Interstellar Dust in the Local and High-redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2012-01-01

    In this talk I will begin by reviewing our current state of knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the local solar neighborhood. using chemical evolution models, I will discuss their many different input parameters and their uncertainties. An important consequence of these models is the delayed injection of dust from AGB stars, compared to supernova-condensed dust, into the interstellar medium. I will show that these stellar evolutionary effects on dust composition are manifested in the infrared spectra of local galaxies. The delayed production of dust in AGB stars has also important consequences for the origin of the large amount of dust detected in high-redshift galaxies, when the universe was less that approx. 1 Gyr old. Supernovae may have been the only viable dust sources in those galaxies. Recent observations of sN1987a show a significant mass of dust in the ejecta of this SN. Is that production rate high enough to account for the observed dust mass in these galaxies? If not, what are the alternative viable sources of dust, and how do they depend on the nature of the galaxy (starburst or AGN) and its star formation history .

  3. Fortuitous description of hemoglobin Hope in a high-level Tunisian athlete: molecular diagnosis and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Amina; Touhemi, Imed; Sahli, Chaima; Siala, Hajer; Bartagi, Zakia; Koubaa, Donia; Le Gallais, Daniel; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Messaoud, Taieb

    2012-01-01

    In this study we report the fortuitous description of hemoglobin (Hb) Hope in a Tunisian athlete. This Hb is one of hemoglobin variants that show a lower stability and oxygen affinity that is beneficial to tissue oxygen delivery. Hb Hope was isolated by automated high performance liquid chromatography and was unequivocally found to be Hb Hope using DNA-based methods: polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, direct DNA sequencing. Restriction haplotype showed that this Hb was supported by the Mediterranean haplotype I. Hb Hope was identified at first in a black African-American family and later in several other black and non black ethnic groups. All these descriptions raise the question of the Hb Hope origin. Recently, Hb Hope was reported in Thai in association with the same Mediterranean haplotype I. This favors that Tunisian and Thai Hb Hope would share a common Mediterranean origin, thus suggesting the possibility of a Mediterranean gene flow. On another hand, the observation of Hb Hope in a high level athlete would suggest a selection pressure of this Hb variant due to higher physical aptitude.

  4. A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R; Schneider, R; Oliva, E; Bianchi, S; Ferrara, A; Mannucci, F; Pedani, M; Sogorb, M Roca

    2004-09-30

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of the Universe by assisting the formation of molecules, by triggering the formation of the first low-mass stars, and by absorbing stellar ultraviolet-optical light and subsequently re-emitting it at infrared/millimetre wavelengths. Dust is thought to be produced predominantly in the envelopes of evolved (age >1 Gyr), low-mass stars. This picture has, however, recently been brought into question by the discovery of large masses of dust in the host galaxies of quasars at redshift z > 6, when the age of the Universe was less than 1 Gyr. Theoretical studies, corroborated by observations of nearby supernova remnants, have suggested that supernovae provide a fast and efficient dust formation environment in the early Universe. Here we report infrared observations of a quasar at redshift 6.2, which are used to obtain directly its dust extinction curve. We then show that such a curve is in excellent agreement with supernova dust models. This result demonstrates a supernova origin for dust in this high-redshift quasar, from which we infer that most of the dust at high redshifts probably has the same origin.

  5. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-01-01

    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  6. The Origin of High Thermal Conductivity and Ultralow Thermal Expansion in Copper-Graphite Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkowska, Izabela; Boden, André; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2015-07-08

    We developed a nanocomposite with highly aligned graphite platelets in a copper matrix. Spark plasma sintering ensured an excellent copper-graphite interface for transmitting heat and stress. The resulting composite has superior thermal conductivity (500 W m(-1) K(-1), 140% of copper), which is in excellent agreement with modeling based on the effective medium approximation. The thermal expansion perpendicular to the graphite platelets drops dramatically from ∼20 ppm K(-1) for graphite and copper separately to 2 ppm K(-1) for the combined structure. We show that this originates from the layered, highly anisotropic structure of graphite combined with residual stress under ambient conditions, that is, strain-engineering of the thermal expansion. Combining excellent thermal conductivity with ultralow thermal expansion results in ideal materials for heat sinks and other devices for thermal management.

  7. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Attallah, Reda

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation. It provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source astrophysical scenario.

  8. Probing the astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, R.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons reveal some remarkable spectral features, the most noteworthy of which is the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV. Due to strong energy loss during propagation, these particles can reach Earth only from nearby sources. Yet, the exact nature of these sources, which most likely manifest themselves in the observed anomalies, remains elusive. The many explanations put forward to resolve this case range from standard astrophysics to exotic physics. In this paper, we discuss the possible astrophysical origin of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons through a fully three-dimensional time-dependent Monte Carlo simulation. This approach, which takes advantage of the intrinsic random nature of cosmic-ray diffusive propagation, provides valuable information on the electron-by-electron fluctuations, making it particularly suitable for analyzing in depth the single-source scenario.

  9. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2016-10-27

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  10. Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant impact origin of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-10-01

    The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the origin of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant impact event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact model for the origin of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a ‘palaeo-barometer’ to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.

  11. The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 `MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, MBH, med(M*). All MBH(M*)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and MBH ˜ 108 M⊙. They have all become outliers due to a combination of tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr and early formation times leading to rapid BH growth at high redshift, with the former mechanism being most important for 67 per cent of these outliers. The same mechanisms also cause the MBH(M*)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal candidates for ultracompact dwarf galaxy progenitors. The 10 most extreme central galaxies found at z = 0 (with log10(MBH/MBH, med(M*)) ∈ [1.2, 1.5]) grow rapidly in MBH to lie well above the present-day MBH - M* relation at early times (z ≳ 2), and either continue to evolve parallel to the z = 0 relation or remain unchanged until the present day, making them `relics' of the high-redshift universe. This high-z formation mechanism may help to explain the origin of observed MBH(M*)-outliers with extended dark matter haloes and undisturbed morphologies.

  12. Visualization and quantification of whole rat heart laminar structure using high-spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen H; Benoist, David; Benson, Alan P; White, Ed; Tanner, Steven F; Holden, Arun V; Dobrzynski, Halina; Bernus, Olivier; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown by histology that cardiac myocytes are organized into laminae and this structure is important in function, both influencing the spread of electrical activation and enabling myocardial thickening in systole by laminar sliding. We have carried out high-spatial resolution three-dimensional MRI of the ventricular myolaminae of the entire volume of the isolated rat heart after contrast perfusion [dimeglumine gadopentate (Gd-DTPA)]. Four ex vivo rat hearts were perfused with Gd-DTPA and fixative and high-spatial resolution MRI was performed on a 9.4T MRI system. After MRI, cryosectioning followed by histology was performed. Images from MRI and histology were aligned, described, and quantitatively compared. In the three-dimensional MR images we directly show the presence of laminae and demonstrate that these are highly branching and are absent from much of the subepicardium. We visualized these MRI volumes to demonstrate laminar architecture and quantitatively demonstrated that the structural features observed are similar to those imaged in histology. We showed qualitatively and quantitatively that laminar architecture is similar in the four hearts. MRI can be used to image the laminar architecture of ex vivo hearts in three dimensions, and the images produced are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with histology. We have demonstrated in the rat that: 1) laminar architecture is consistent between hearts; 2) myolaminae are absent from much of the subepicardium; and 3) although localized orthotropy is present throughout the myocardium, tracked myolaminae are branching structures and do not have a discrete identity.

  13. A novel approach to contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening: high-resolution ultrafast dynamic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ritse M; Mus, Roel D; van Zelst, Jan; Geppert, Christian; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-09-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as screening tool has been stalled by high examination costs. Scan protocols have lengthened to optimize specificity. Modern view-sharing sequences now enable ultrafast dynamic whole-breast MRI, allowing much shorter and more cost-effective procedures. This study evaluates whether dynamic information from ultrafast breast MRI can be used to replace standard dynamic information to preserve accuracy. We interleaved 20 ultrafast time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectory (TWIST) acquisitions (0.9 × 1 × 2.5 mm, temporal resolution, 4.3 seconds) during contrast inflow in a regular high-resolution dynamic MRI protocol. A total of 160 consecutive patients with 199 enhancing abnormalities (95 benign and 104 malignant) were included. The maximum slope of the relative enhancement versus time curve (MS) obtained from the TWIST and curve type obtained from the regular dynamic sequence as defined in the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) lexicon were recorded. Diagnostic performance was compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. All lesions were visible on both the TWIST and standard series. Maximum slope allows discrimination between benign and malignant disease with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0.829). Types of MS were defined in analogy to BIRADS curve types: MS type 3 implies a high risk of malignancy (MS >13.3%/s; specificity, 85%), MS type 2 yields intermediate risk (MS 6.4%/s), and MS type 1 implies a low risk (MS BIRADS curve type analysis does (area under the curve, 0.812 vs 0.692; P = 0.0061). Ultrafast dynamic breast MRI allows detection of breast lesions and classification with high accuracy using MS. This allows substantial shortening of scan protocols and hence reduces imaging costs, which is beneficial especially for screening.

  14. MR imaging in recurrent pain after back surgery. A comparative study using standard and high doses of gadolinium contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakeson, P. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Annertz, M. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Kristoffersen, D.T. [Nycomed Imaging AS, Oslo (Norway); Jonsson, E. [Nycomed AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Holtaas, S. [Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic results following injection of (a) a high dose (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.) of gadodiamide injection and (b) the standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg b.w.) of Gd-DTPA, in patients with recurrent symptoms after surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with recurrent or sustained symptoms after surgery for lumbar disc herniations were examined. MR imaging (0.3 T) was first performed before and after Gd-DTPA at 0.1 mmol/kg b.w., and then within one month (17 patients) or within 3 months (3 patients) before and after gadodiamide injection at 0.3 mmol/kg b.w. The examinations were first evaluated by 2 neuroradiologists blinded to dose but not to patient as the images were presented in pairs. Six months later the same investigators evaluated the examinations again, this time blinded to both dose and patient. Results: At the evaluation in pairs (with the investigators blinded to dose only) the high-dose examinations were considered the most informative (p=0.05). However, at the later evaluation (with the investigators blinded both to dose and patient) no significant difference between high and standard dose was found regarding diagnosis or diagnostic certainty. Conclusion: In this study the high-dose contrast enhancement of MR imaging at 0.3 T did not increase the diagnostic information for differentiating between scar and recurrent hernia. The high-dose images were considered more informative when evaluated in pairs, but gave no additional or different information when evaluated separately. The study also indicated that comparisons in pairs should be interpreted with caution. (orig.).

  15. Origin of Li-F-rich granite:Evidence from high P-T experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuchun; ZHU Jinchu; RAO Bing; JIN Zhangdong; ZHANG Linsong

    2004-01-01

    Though magmatic origin of Li-F-rich granite has been supported effectively by the existence of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks and melt inclusions trapped in them with similar chemical compositions, evidence from high T-P experiments is poor up to now. To simulate the evolution process of Li-F-rich granite and to interpret its forming mechanism, a series of meltingcrystallization experiments were carried out. Under the conditions of 1x108 Pa and 570-700℃,a magmatic mineral association of quartz + alkali feldspar + lithium muscovite/ferromuscovite ±fluorite ± cassiterite is found in leucogranite-HF-H2O system. This indicates the following points:(i) Fluorite, light-colored muscovite and cassiterite can crystallize directly from the Li-F-rich granitic melt. (ii) The coexistence of dark-colored micas (e.g. biotite) and light-colored micas (e.g.lithium muscovite and ferromuscovite) suggests that the muscovite granite and two-mica granite can be formed under magmatic condition. The zonal texture of micas is not the sole feature for the micas of hydrothermal origin. (iii) As crystallization proceeds, the SiO2 concentration of the residual melt decreases, while the Al2O3 and F concentrations and A/CNK, NKA/Si ratios of the melt incerese, favoring the formation of Li-F-rich granites. Our experiment results are well consistent with the vertical zonation widely observed in rare metal bearing granites, and therefore provide strong experimental evidence for magmatic origin of Li-F-rich granite.

  16. Origin of Li-F-rich granite: Evidence from high P-T experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Fuchun; ZHU; Jinchu; RAO; Bing; JIN; Zhangdong; ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Though magmatic origin of Li-F-rich granite has been supported effectively by the existence of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks and melt inclusions trapped in them with similar chemical compositions, evidence from high T-P experiments is poor up to now. To simulate the evolution process of Li-F-rich granite and to interpret its forming mechanism, a series of meltingcrystallization experiments were carried out. Under the conditions of 1x108 Pa and 570-700℃,a magmatic mineral association of quartz + alkali feldspar + lithium muscovite/ferromuscovite ±fluorite ± cassiterite is found in leucogranite-HF-H2O system. This indicates the following points:(i) Fluorite, light-colored muscovite and cassiterite can crystallize directly from the Li-F-rich granitic melt. (ii) The coexistence of dark-colored micas (e.g. biotite) and light-colored micas (e.g.lithium muscovite and ferromuscovite) suggests that the muscovite granite and two-mica granite can be formed under magmatic condition. The zonal texture of micas is not the sole feature for the micas of hydrothermal origin. (iii) As crystallization proceeds, the SiO2 concentration of the residual melt decreases, while the Al2O3 and F concentrations and A/CNK, NKA/Si ratios of the melt incerese, favoring the formation of Li-F-rich granites. Our experiment results are well consistent with the vertical zonation widely observed in rare metal bearing granites, and therefore provide strong experimental evidence for magmatic origin of Li-F-rich granite.

  17. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  18. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  19. High sensitive troponin T in individuals with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Giovanni; Lentini, Margherita; Gallo, Luigia; Lucia, Fortunata G; Giacinto Carinci, Lorenzina; Mancuso, Serafina; Biondi, Rosa A; Sinopoli, Raffaella; Casadonte, Rita; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario; Mongiardo, Annalisa; Iaconetti, Claudio; Bochicchio, Angela; Curcio, Antonio; Torella, Daniele; Ricci, Pietroantonio; Indolfi, Ciro; Costanzo, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the bias of high sensitive cardiac troponin T vs. the standard cardiac troponin T in a selected population with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Serum cTnT was determined in 132 patients and in 106 apparently healthy controls by both assays. The hs-cTnT outperformed the standard generation assay by: i) allowing a larger and earlier diagnosis of AMI (74.2 percent vs. 64.3 percent patients resulted positive at the final diagnosis of AMI when tested with the hs-cTnT or the std-cTnT assay, respectively); ii) showing a better time-dependent dynamics in patients with AMI due to a higher precision at low concentrations; iii) identifying, within the controls, 6 subjects in whom a further examination revealed the presence of chronic asymptomatic cardiac ischemia. The results underscore the excellent performance of the hs-cTnT assay in our population. The use of this test can thus be strongly recommended in subjects presenting to the emergency unit with chest pain of presumed ischemic origin in order to increase the probability of earlier diagnosis of AMI, especially in non-STEMI.

  20. High contrast microstructural visualization of natural acellular matrices by means of phase-based x-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Totonelli, Giorgia; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Acellular scaffolds obtained via decellularization are a key instrument in regenerative medicine both per se and to drive the development of future-generation synthetic scaffolds that could become available off-the-shelf. In this framework, imaging is key to the understanding of the scaffolds’ internal structure as well as their interaction with cells and other organs, including ideally post-implantation. Scaffolds of a wide range of intricate organs (esophagus, lung, liver and small intestine) were imaged with x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (PC-CT). Image quality was sufficiently high to visualize scaffold microarchitecture and to detect major anatomical features, such as the esophageal mucosal-submucosal separation, pulmonary alveoli and intestinal villi. These results are a long-sought step for the field of regenerative medicine; until now, histology and scanning electron microscopy have been the gold standard to study the scaffold structure. However, they are both destructive: hence, they are not suitable for imaging scaffolds prior to transplantation, and have no prospect for post-transplantation use. PC-CT, on the other hand, is non-destructive, 3D and fully quantitative. Importantly, not only do we demonstrate achievement of high image quality at two different synchrotron facilities, but also with commercial x-ray equipment, which makes the method available to any research laboratory.

  1. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one - possibly two - faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 7588 has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. 8ased on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 7588 has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx.10-20 Mj if it is approx.1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 7588 is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 7588 is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  2. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, M; Sun, T; Parab, N; Guo, Z; Fezzaa, K; Luo, S; Chen, W

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s(-1) and 5000 s(-1) strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imaged via phase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffraction via in-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystal d-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.

  3. High-contrast dark resonances with linearly polarized light on the D1 line of alkali atoms with large nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Ken-Ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ohshima, Shin-Ichi; Knappe, Svenja

    2009-02-20

    High-contrast coherent population trapping signals were observed on the Cs D1 line by use of a bichromatic linear polarized light (lin‖lin field). A maximum absorption contrast of about 10% was obtained. This was nearly twice as high as that measured with the standard configuration of bichromatic circularly polarized light (σ-σ field). The results are compared with density matrix calculations of 4 and 5 level systems.

  4. High-3He plume origin and temporal-spatial evolution of the Siberian flood basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Poreda, R.J.; Renne, P.R.; Teichmann, F.; Vasiliev, Y.R.; Sobolev, N.V.; Turrin, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    An olivine nephelinite from the lower part of a thick alkalic ultrabasic and mafic sequence of volcanic rocks of the northeastern part of the Siberian flood basalt province (SFBP) yielded a 40ArX39Ar plateau age of 253.3 ?? 2.6 million years, distinctly older than the main tholeiitic pulse of the SFBP at 250.0 million years. Olivine phenocrysts of this rock showed 3He/4He ratios up to 12.7 times the atmospheric ratio; these values suggest a lower mantle plume origin. The neodymium and strontium isotopes, rare earth element concentration patterns, and cerium/lead ratios of the associated rocks were also consistent with their derivation from a near-cnondritic, primitive plume. Geochemical data from the 250-million-year-old volcanic rocks higher up in the sequence indicate interaction of this high-3He SFBP plume with a suboceanic-type upper mantle beneath Siberia.

  5. On the mesoscopic origins of high viscosities in some polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.hoffmann@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Farago, Bela; Schweins, Ralf; Falus, Peter; Sharp, Melissa [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin (ILL), F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Prévost, Sylvain [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Gradzielski, Michael, E-mail: michael.gradzielski@tu-berlin.de [Stranski-Laboratorium für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 124, Sekr. TC 7, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte (PE) surfactant mixtures allow the control of rheological parameters of a solution even at fairly low concentrations. For example, addition of 0.3 wt. % of anionic surfactant to a 1 wt. % solution of the polycation JR 400 increases the viscosity by 4 orders of magnitude. Recently, we could show that this increase is related to the formation of mixed, rod-like PE/surfactant aggregates which interconnect several polyelectrolyte chains [Hoffmann et al., Europhys. Lett. 104, 28001 (2013)]. In this paper, we refine our structural model of the aggregates to obtain a more consistent picture of their internal structure for different anionic surfactants. Combining small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin-echo (NSE) allows us to determine the size of the aggregates. By comparing different contrasts, the internal structure of the aggregates can be elucidated and it is seen that the PE in the aggregates retains a relatively high freedom of movement. We proceeded to investigate the influence of the surfactant concentration and the surfactant type on structure and dynamics of the mixed aggregates. It is seen that the structural parameters of the aggregates depend very little on the surfactant concentration and headgroup. However, it is crucial to incorporate a sufficient amount of PE in the aggregates to increase the viscosity of the aggregates. By comparing viscous samples at 1 wt. % PE concentration with samples at a PE concentration of 0.3 wt. %, where no significant increase in viscosity is observed, we find that similar aggregates are formed already at this lower PE concentrations. However, the amount of PE incorporated in them is insufficient to interconnect several PE chains and therefore, they do not increase viscosity. So, our detailed investigation combining contrast variation SANS and NSE does not only allow to explain the viscosity behavior but also to deduced detailed information regarding the structures and

  6. Atomistic Origins of High-Performance in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The performance of organometallic perovskite solar cells has rapidly surpassed that of both conventional dye-sensitized and organic photovoltaics. High-power conversion efficiency can be realized in both mesoporous and thin-film device architectures. We address the origin of this success in the context of the materials chemistry and physics of the bulk perovskite as described by electronic structure calculations. In addition to the basic optoelectronic properties essential for an efficient photovoltaic device (spectrally suitable band gap, high optical absorption, low carrier effective masses), the materials are structurally and compositionally flexible. As we show, hybrid perovskites exhibit spontaneous electric polarization; we also suggest ways in which this can be tuned through judicious choice of the organic cation. The presence of ferroelectric domains will result in internal junctions that may aid separation of photoexcited electron and hole pairs, and reduction of recombination through segregation of charge carriers. The combination of high dielectric constant and low effective mass promotes both Wannier-Mott exciton separation and effective ionization of donor and acceptor defects. The photoferroic effect could be exploited in nanostructured films to generate a higher open circuit voltage and may contribute to the current–voltage hysteresis observed in perovskite solar cells. PMID:24684284

  7. Time-Evolution Contrast of Target MRI Using High-Stability Antibody Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, high-quality antibody functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized. Such physical characterizations as particle morphology, particle size, stability, and relaxivity of magnetic particles are investigated. The immunoreactivity of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles is examined by utilizing immunomagnetic reduction. The results show that the mean diameter of antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles is around 50 nm, and the relaxivity of the magnetic particles is 145 (mM·s−1. In addition to characterizing the magnetic nanoparticles, the feasibility of using the antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the contrast medium of target magnetic resonance imaging is investigated. These antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles are injected into mice bearing with tumor. The tumor magnetic-resonance image becomes darker after the injection and then recovers 50 hours after the injection. The tumor magnetic-resonance image becomes the darkest at around 20 hours after the injection. Thus, the observing time window for the specific labeling of tumors with antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was found to be 20 hours after injecting biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles into mice. The biopsy of tumor is stained after the injection to prove that the long-term darkness of tumor magnetic-resonance image is due to the specific anchoring of antibody functionalized magnetic nanoparticles at tumor.

  8. Sequence-Specific Covalent Capture Coupled with High-Contrast Nanopore Detection of a Disease-Derived Nucleic Acid Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Maryam Imani; Shi, Ruicheng; Zhang, Xinyue; Gu, Li-Qun; Gates, Kent S

    2017-07-18

    Hybridization-based methods for the detection of nucleic acid sequences are important in research and medicine. Short probes provide sequence specificity, but do not always provide a durable signal. Sequence-specific covalent crosslink formation can anchor probes to target DNA and might also provide an additional layer of target selectivity. Here, we developed a new crosslinking reaction for the covalent capture of specific nucleic acid sequences. This process involved reaction of an abasic (Ap) site in a probe strand with an adenine residue in the target strand and was used for the detection of a disease-relevant T→A mutation at position 1799 of the human BRAF kinase gene sequence. Ap-containing probes were easily prepared and displayed excellent specificity for the mutant sequence under isothermal assay conditions. It was further shown that nanopore technology provides a high contrast-in essence, digital-signal that enables sensitive, single-molecule sensing of the cross-linked duplexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Investigation of high-contrast velocity selective optical pumping resonance at the cycling transition of Cs using fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Saswati; Ray, Biswajit; Ghosh, Pradip Narayan; Cartaleva, Stefka; Slavov, Dimitar

    2015-12-01

    A high contrast (∼48%) Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) resonance at the closed transition Fg=4→Fe=5 of Cs-D2 line is obtained in the fluorescence signal under co-propagating pump-probe configuration. We use a 5.2 μm cell operating at reduced temperature (∼55 °C) and the intensity of the pump-laser is kept lower than that of the probe-laser. The observed sharp narrow structure is suitable for side-arms frequency-locking of the cooling- (i.e. probe-) laser in a cold atom experiment, with possibility for "-Γ" to "-4Γ" red-detuning and "+Γ" to "+10Γ" blue-detuning using the standard properties of the commercially available electronics. We have developed a theoretical model corresponding to the thin cell, incorporating the atomic time-of-flight dependent optical pumping decay rate to describe the dimensional anisotropy of the thin cell. The model shows good qualitative agreement with the observation and simulates as well the cases of cells with smaller thickness. It also describes correctly the temperature dependence of the line broadening and shows the potential for further optimization and red-shift detuning above "-4Γ". It may be of interest for further development of miniaturized modules, like the recently developed portable small magneto-optical traps.

  10. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. VI. Discovery of a Mass, Age, and Metallicity Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Bechter, Eric B; Montet, Benjamin T; Johnson, John Asher; Piskorz, Danielle; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mass and age of substellar objects are degenerate parameters leaving the evolutionary state of brown dwarfs ambiguous without additional information. Theoretical models are normally used to help distinguish between old, massive brown dwarfs and young, low mass brown dwarfs but these models have yet to be properly calibrated. We have carried out an infrared high-contrast imaging program with the goal of detecting substellar objects as companions to nearby stars to help break degeneracies in inferred physical properties such as mass, age, and composition. Rather than using imaging observations alone, our targets are pre-selected based on the existence of dynamical accelerations informed from years of stellar radial velocity (RV) measurements. In this paper, we present the discovery of a rare benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the nearby ($d=18.69\\pm0.19$ pc), solar-type (G9V) star HD 4747 ([Fe/H]=$-0.22\\pm0.04$) with a projected separation of only $\\rho=11.3\\pm0.2$ AU ($\\theta \\approx$ 0.6''). Precise Doppler m...

  11. Characterization of a custom-built RF coil for a high-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byungkuen; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    For the use of clinical purpose magnetic resonance velocimeter (MRV) is a versatile flow visualization technique in that it allows opaque flow, complex geometry, no use of tracer particles and facile fast non-invasive measurements of 3 dimensional and 3 component velocity vectors. However, the spatial resolution of a commercial MR machine is lower than optics-based techniques like PIV. On the other hand, the use of MRV for clinical purposes like cardiovascular flow visualization requires accurate measurements or estimations on wall shear stress (WSS) with a high spatial resolution. We developed a custom-built solenoid RF coil for phase-contrast (PC) MRV to improve its resolution. We compared signal-to-noise ratio, WSS estimations, partial volume effects near wall between the custom RF coil and a commercial coil. Also, a Hagen-Poiseuille flow was analyzed with the custom RF coil. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  12. Insight into STM image contrast of n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane molecules on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Ke; Yu, Ai-Fang; Hao, Yan-Zhong; Xie, Si-Shen; Sun, Jie-Lin

    2011-02-01

    Two-dimensional ordered patterns of n-tetradecane (n-C14H30) and n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) molecules at liquid/graphite interface have been directly imaged using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under ambient conditions. STM images reveal that the two different kinds of molecules self-organize into ordered lamellar structures in which alkane chains of the molecules extend along one of three equivalent lattice axes of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) basal plane. For n-C14H30 molecules, the molecular axes are observed to tilt by 60° with respect to inter-lamellar trough lines and the carbon backbones of the alkane chains are perpendicular to the HOPG basal plane in an all-trans conformation. However, for n-C16H34 molecules, the molecular axes are perpendicular to lamellar borders (90°) and the planes of the all-trans carbon skeletons are parallel to the graphite basal plane. The results clearly indicate that outmost hydrogen atoms of the alkane chains dominate atom-scaled features of the STM images. That is, in the case of long-chain alkane molecules, topographic effects dominantly determine STM image contrast of the methylene regions of the alkane chains that are adsorbed on HOPG.

  13. Characterization of a photon counting EMCCD for space-based high contrast imaging spectroscopy of extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Ashlee N; Norton, Timothy J; Rauscher, Bernard J; Rothe, Johannes F; Malatesta, Michael; Hilton, George M; Bubeck, James R; Grady, Carol A; Lindler, Don J

    2014-01-01

    We present the progress of characterization of a low-noise, photon counting Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Device (EMCCD) operating in optical wavelengths and demonstrate possible solutions to the problems of Clock-Induced Charge (CIC) and other trapped charge through sub-bandgap illumination. Such a detector will be vital to the feasibility of future space-based direct imaging and spectroscopy missions for exoplanet characterization, and is scheduled to fly on-board the AFTA-WFIRST mission. The 512$\\times$512 EMCCD is an e2v detector housed and clocked by a N\\"uv\\"u Cameras controller. Through a multiplication gain register, this detector produces as many as 5000 electrons for a single, incident-photon-induced photoelectron produced in the detector, enabling single photon counting operation with read noise and dark current orders of magnitude below that of standard CCDs. With the extremely high contrasts (Earth-to-Sun flux ratio is $\\sim$ 10$^{-10}$) and extremely faint targets (an Earth analog would m...

  14. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor: a hybrid focal-plane sensor for the high-contrast imaging of circumstellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Snik, F.; Korkiakoski, V.; Pietrow, A. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The raw coronagraphic performance of current high-contrast imaging instruments is limited by the presence of a quasi-static speckle (QSS) background, resulting from instrumental Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs). Rapid development of efficient speckle subtraction techniques in data reduction has enabled final contrasts of up to 10-6 to be obtained, however it remains preferable to eliminate the underlying NCPEs at the source. In this work we introduce the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS), a new wavefront sensor suitable for real-time NCPE correction. This combines the Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph with a holographic modal wavefront sensor to provide simultaneous coronagraphic imaging and focal-plane wavefront sensing with the science point-spread function. We first characterise the baseline performance of the cMWS via idealised closed-loop simulations, showing that the sensor is able to successfully recover diffraction-limited coronagraph performance over an effective dynamic range of ±2.5 radians root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error within 2-10 iterations, with performance independent of the specific choice of mode basis. We then present the results of initial on-sky testing at the William Herschel Telescope, which demonstrate that the sensor is capable of NCPE sensing under realistic seeing conditions via the recovery of known static aberrations to an accuracy of 10 nm (0.1 radians) rms error in the presence of a dominant atmospheric speckle foreground. We also find that the sensor is capable of real-time measurement of broadband atmospheric wavefront variance (50% bandwidth, 158 nm rms wavefront error) at a cadence of 50 Hz over an uncorrected telescope sub-aperture. When combined with a suitable closed-loop adaptive optics system, the cMWS holds the potential to deliver an improvement of up to two orders of magnitude over the uncorrected QSS floor. Such a sensor would be eminently suitable for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of

  15. High contrast tumor imaging with radio-labeled antibody Fab fragments tailored for optimized pharmacokinetics via PASylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Claudia T; Friedrich, Lars; Laitinen, Iina; Schlapschy, Martin; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Skerra, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Although antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) of antibodies constitute established tracers for in vivo radiodiagnostics, their functionality is hampered by a very short circulation half-life. PASylation, the genetic fusion with a long, conformationally disordered amino acid chain comprising Pro, Ala and Ser, provides a convenient way to expand protein size and, consequently, retard renal filtration. Humanized αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs were systematically fused with 100 to 600 PAS residues and produced in E. coli. Cytofluorimetric titration analysis on tumor cell lines confirmed that antigen-binding activities of the parental antibodies were retained. The radio-iodinated PASylated Fabs were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution analysis in mouse tumor xenograft models. While the unmodified αHER2 and αCD20 Fabs showed weak tumor uptake (0.8% and 0.2% ID/g, respectively; 24 h p.i.) tumor-associated radioactivity was boosted with increasing PAS length (up to 9 and 26-fold, respectively), approaching an optimum for Fab-PAS400. Remarkably, 6- and 5-fold higher tumor-to-blood ratios compared with the unmodified Fabs were measured in the biodistribution analysis (48 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200, respectively. These findings were confirmed by PET studies, showing high imaging contrast in line with tumor-to-blood ratios of 12.2 and 5.7 (24 h p.i.) for αHER2 Fab-PAS100 and Fab-PAS200. Even stronger tumor signals were obtained with the corresponding αCD20 Fabs, both in PET imaging and biodistribution analysis, with an uptake of 2.8% ID/g for Fab-PAS100 vs. 0.24% ID/g for the unmodified Fab. Hence, by engineering Fabs via PASylation, plasma half-life can be tailored to significantly improve tracer uptake and tumor contrast, thus optimally matching reagent/target interactions.

  16. Different origins of garnet in high pressure to ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiong-Xia; Zhou, Li-Gang

    2017-09-01

    Garnet in high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in subduction zone commonly shows considerable zonation in major and trace elements as well as mineral inclusions, which bears information on its growth mechanism via metamorphic or peritectic reactions in coexistence with relic minerals and metamorphic fluids or anatectic melts at subduction-zone conditions. It provides an important target to retrieve physicochemical changes in subduction-zone processes, including those not only in pressure and temperature but also in the durations of metamorphism and anatexis. Garnet from different compositions of HP to UHP metamorphic rocks may show different types of major and trace element zonation, as well as mineral inclusions. Discrimination between the different origins of garnet provides important constraints on pressure and temperature and the evolution history for the HP to UHP metamorphic rocks. Magmatic garnet may occur as relics in granitic gneisses despite metamorphic modification at subduction-zone conditions, with spessartine-increasing or flat major element profiles from inner to outer core and exceptionally higher contents of trace elements than metamorphic mantle and rim. Metamorphic garnet can grow at different metamorphic stages during prograde subduction and retrograde exhumation, with spessartine-decreasing from core to rim if the intracrystalline diffusion is not too fast. The compositional profiles of metamorphic garnet in the abundances of grossular, almandine and pyrope are variable depending on the composition of host rocks and co-existing minerals. Peritectic garnet grows through peritectic reactions during partial melting of HP to UHP rocks, with the composition of major elements to be controlled by anatectic P-T conditions and the compositions of parental rocks and anatectic melts. Trace element profiles in garnet with different origins are also variable depending on the coexisting mineral assemblages, the garnet

  17. On The Origin Of High Energy Correlations in Gamma-ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel

    2012-04-03

    I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and co-moving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame Epk and Eiso for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an

  18. High-Cadence, High-Contrast Imaging for Exoplanet Mapping: Observations of the HR 8799 Planets with VLT/SPHERE Satellite Spot-Corrected Relative Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Apai, Daniel; Skemer, Andrew; Hanson, Jake R; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Biller, Beth A; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Buenzli, Esther; Vigan, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved photometry is an important new probe of the physics of condensate clouds in extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Extreme adaptive optics systems can directly image planets, but precise brightness measurements are challenging. We present VLT/SPHERE high-contrast, time-resolved broad H-band near-infrared photometry for four exoplanets in the HR 8799 system, sampling changes from night to night over five nights with relatively short integrations. The photospheres of these four planets are often modeled by patchy clouds and may show large-amplitude rotational brightness modulations. Our observations provide high-quality images of the system. We present a detailed performance analysis of different data analysis approaches to accurately measure the relative brightnesses of the four exoplanets. We explore the information in satellite spots and demonstrate their use as a proxy for image quality. While the brightness variations of the satellite spots are strongly correlated, we also identify a second-ord...

  19. Prognostic value of preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI perfusion parameters for high-grade glioma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyte, Agne [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius (Lithuania); Katsaros, Vasileios K. [General Anticancer and Oncological Hospital ' ' St. Savvas' ' , Department of Advanced Imaging Modalities - CT and MRI, Athens (Greece); University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); Liouta, Evangelia; Stranjalis, Georgios [University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); Boskos, Christos [University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); General Anticancer and Oncological Hospital ' ' St. Savvas' ' , Department of Radiation Oncology, Athens (Greece); Papanikolaou, Nickolas [Champalimaud Foundation, Department of Radiology, Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon (Portugal); Usinskiene, Jurgita [National Cancer Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania); Affidea Lietuva, Vilnius (Lithuania); Bisdas, Sotirios [University College London Hospitals, Department of Neuroradiology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    The prognostic value of the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI perfusion and its histogram analysis-derived metrics is not well established for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate DCE perfusion transfer coefficient (K{sup trans}), vascular plasma volume fraction (v{sub p}), extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}), reverse transfer constant (k{sub ep}), and initial area under gadolinium concentration time curve (IAUGC) as predictors of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG patients. Sixty-nine patients with suspected anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma underwent preoperative DCE-MRI scans. DCE perfusion whole tumor region histogram parameters, clinical details, and PFS and OS data were obtained. Univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were conducted. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to identify perfusion parameters with the best differentiation performance. On univariate analysis, v{sub e} and skewness of v{sub p} had significant negative impacts, while k{sub ep} had significant positive impact on OS (P < 0.05). v{sub e} was also a negative predictor of PFS (P < 0.05). Patients with lower v{sub e} and IAUGC had longer median PFS and OS on Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.05). K{sup trans} and v{sub e} could also differentiate grade III from IV gliomas (area under the curve 0.819 and 0.791, respectively). High v{sub e} is a consistent predictor of worse PFS and OS in HGG glioma patients. v{sub p} skewness and k{sub ep} are also predictive for OS. K{sup trans} and v{sub e} demonstrated the best diagnostic performance for differentiating grade III from IV gliomas. (orig.)

  20. Documentation of normal and leukemic myelopoietic progenitor cells with high-resolution phase-contrast time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, I T

    2001-08-01

    The high-resolution phase-contrast, time-lapse cinematography using oil immersion lenses and 16-mm film demonstrates the kinetic cell events as maturation, locomotion, mitosis, and apoptosis of cells cultivated at 37 degrees C for up to 10 days. 0.5 v/v frozen-thawed sera with presumably high cytokine concentrations were added to the plasma or agar clot. Vital progenitor cells from human bone marrow and blood have a large, bright, unstructured nucleus with a large nucleolus and a narrow rim of cytoplasm (nuclear/cytoplasmic volume ratio = 0.7). Their nuclei are 6-14 micrometer in diameter and double their volume within 8 h. Many (70%) move at a mean speed of 2 micrometer/min, and many (30%) multiply with alpha-2alpha mitoses, generating progenitor cell families. Various disturbances during the course of mitosis lead to the formation of polyploid cells, thereby yielding the megakaryocytic cell line. Some of the progenitor cells undergo asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses: One of the two initially identical daughter cells remains a progenitor cell in the morphological sense, whereas the other daughter cell - depending on the size of its mother cell - matures in the same culture medium to form a granulocytopoietic, monocytopoietic or erythrocytopoietic cell line. - In acute myeloid leukemias (AML), the blasts and their nuclei are slightly larger than the corresponding progenitor cells and move faster (5 micrometer/min). Symmetric alpha-2alpha mitoses permit unlimited multiplication of the leukemic blasts if contact with cytotoxic lymphocytes does not render them apoptotic. This results in more stromal cells than normal. Granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and anemia occur due to the genetic impairment of signaling control for asymmetric alpha-alphan mitoses, and thrombocytopenia occurs due to the reduction in polyploidization.

  1. Application of High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy to Define the Cell Uptake of MRI Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, Luisella; Alfieri, Goffredo; Biondi, Luca; De Miranda, Mario; Paleari, Lino; Ghelli, Stefano

    2002-06-01

    A new method, based on proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning ( 1H HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, has been employed to study the cell uptake of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI-CAs). The method was tested on human red blood cells (HRBC) and white blood cells (HWBC) by using three gadolinium complexes, widely used in diagnostics, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DOTA, and the analogous complexes obtained by replacing Gd(III) with Dy(III), Nd(III), and Tb(III) (i.e., complexes isostructural to the ones of gadolinium but acting as shift agents). The method is based on the evaluation of the magnetic effects, line broadening, or induced lanthanide shift (LIS) caused by these complexes on NMR signals of intra- and extracellular water. Since magnetic effects are directly linked to permeability, this method is direct. In all the tests, these magnetic effects were detected for the extracellular water signal only, providing a direct proof that these complexes are not able to cross the cell membrane. Line broadening effects (i.e., the use of gadolinium complexes) only allow qualitative evaluations. On the contrary, LIS effects can be measured with high precision and they can be related to the concentration of the paramagnetic species in the cellular compartments. This is possible because the HR-MAS technique provides the complete elimination of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift and the differentiation of extra- and intracellular water signals. Thus with this method, the rapid quantification of the MRI-CA amount inside and outside the cells is actually feasible.

  2. Short-term Rosuvastatin Treatment for the Prevention of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Receiving Moderate or High Volumes of Contrast Media: A Sub-analysis of the TRACK-D Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current randomized trials have demonstrated the effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI. However, the consistency of these effects on patients administered different volumes of contrast media is unknown. Methods: In the TRACK-D trial, 2998 patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD who underwent coronary/peripheral arterial angiography with or without percutaneous intervention were randomized to short-term (2 days before and 3 days after procedure rosuvastatin therapy or standard-of-care. This prespecified analysis compared the effects of rosuvastatin versus standard therapy in patients exposed to (moderate contrast volume [MCV], 200-300 ml, n = 712 or (high contrast volume [HCV], ≥300 ml, n = 220. The primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. The secondary outcome was a composite of death, dialysis/hemofiltration or worsened heart failure at 30 days. Results: Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in CIAKI compared with the controls (2.1% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.050 in the overall cohort and in patients with MCV (1.7% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.029, whereas no benefit was observed in patients with HCV (3.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.834. The incidence of secondary outcomes was significantly lower in the rosuvastatin group compared with control group (2.7% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.049 in the overall cohort, but it was similar between the patients with MCV (2.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.081 or HCV (5.1% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.273. Conclusions: Periprocedural short-term rosuvastatin treatment is effective in reducing CIAKI and adverse clinical events for patients with diabetes and CKD after their exposure to a moderate volume of contrast medium.

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/contrast enhanced CT in the standard surveillance of high risk colorectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez Londoño, Germán Andrés, E-mail: gjimenez91@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); García Vicente, Ana María [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Sánchez Pérez, Victoria [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Jiménez Aragón, Fátima [Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); León Martin, Alberto [Investigation Unit, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Cano Cano, Juana María [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Domínguez Ferreras, Esther [Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Gómez López, Ober Van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Espinosa Arranz, Javier [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain); Soriano Castrejón, Ángel María [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We assessed the accuracy of FDG-PET/contrast enhanced CT (FDG-PET/ceCT) in the detection of unsuspected recurrence of colorectal cancer. In regard to our knowledge, no previous experience has been reported about the combined acquisition and interpretation of a FDG-PET/ceCT in the surveillance of colorectal cancer. • We designed a prospective study and performed an individual and combined assessment of both techniques (PET and ceCT), in a patient-based analysis and a lesion-based analysis. • The value of PET and ceCT was found to be similar in the detection of unsuspected recurrence of CRC in a patient-based analysis. The most interesting of our result, is that the combined assessment of PET/ceCT improves the accuracy in the lesion-based analysis. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the accuracy of FDG-PET/contrast enhanced CT (FDG-PET/ceCT) in the detection of unsuspected recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with high risk of relapse. Methods: Thirty-three patients (14 females and 19 males, mean age: 62, range: 41–78), with CRC in complete remission, were prospectively included. All patients underwent FDG-PET/ceCT (58 studies). FDG-PET/ceCT was requested in the surveillance setting, and performed following a standardized protocol. A portal venous phase CT scan was performed after the injection of iodinated contrast agent. An individual and combined assessment of both techniques (PET and ceCT) was performed. Concordant and discordant findings of PET, ceCT and FDG-PET/ceCT were compared in a patient-based and a lesion-based analysis. The final diagnosis, recurrence or disease free status (DFS), were established by histopathology or clinical/radiological follow-up of at least 6 months. Results: Seven out of 33 patients had a confirmed recurrence and the rest of patients had a DFS. In a patient-based analysis the sensitivity and specificity of PET, ceCT and PET/ceCT was of 86% and 88%, 86% and 92%, 86% and 85%, respectively. Attending to

  4. A benzene-core trinuclear GdIII complex: towards the optimization of relaxivity for MRI contrast agent applications at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livramento, João Bruno; Helm, Lothar; Sour, Angélique; O'Neil, Conlin; Merbach, André E; Tóth, Eva

    2008-03-07

    A novel ligand, H(12)L, based on a trimethylbenzene core bearing three methylenediethylenetriamine-N,N,N'',N''-tetraacetate moieties (-CH(2)DTTA(4-)) for Gd(3+) chelation has been synthesized, and its trinuclear Gd(3+) complex [Gd(3)L(H(2)O)(6)](3-) investigated with respect to MRI contrast agent applications. A multiple-field, variable-temperature (17)O NMR and proton relaxivity study on [Gd(3)L(H(2)O)(6)](3-) yielded the parameters characterizing water exchange and rotational dynamics. On the basis of the (17)O chemical shifts, bishydration of Gd(3+) could be evidenced. The water exchange rate, k(ex)(298)=9.0+/-3.0 s(-1) is around twice as high as k(ex)(298) of the commercial [Gd(DTPA)(H(2)O)](2-) and comparable to those on analogous Gd(3+)-DTTA chelates. Despite the relatively small size of the complex, the rotational dynamics had to be described with the Lipari-Szabo approach, by separating global and local motions. The difference between the local and global rotational correlation times, tau(lO)(298)=170+/-10 ps and tau(gO)(298)=540+/-100 ps respectively, shows that [Gd(3)L(H(2)O)(6)](3-) is not fully rigid; its flexibility originates from the CH(2) linker between the benzene core and the poly(amino carboxylate) moiety. As a consequence of the two inner-sphere water molecules per Gd(3+), their close to optimal exchange rate and the appropriate size and limited flexibility of the molecule, [Gd(3)L(H(2)O)(6)](3-) has remarkable proton relaxivities when compared with commercial contrast agents, particularly at high magnetic fields (r(1)=21.6, 17.0 and 10.7 mM(-1)s(-1) at 60, 200 and 400 MHz respectively, at 25 degrees C; r(1) is the paramagnetic enhancement of the longitudinal water proton relaxation rate, referred to 1 mM concentration of Gd(3+)).

  5. The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Christopher; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, M_BH, relative to their stellar mass, M_star, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a LCDM context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 "M_BH(M_star)-outlier" galaxies, defined as having M_BH more than 1.5 dex above the median M_BH(M_star) relation in the simulation, M_{BH,med}. All M_BH(M_star)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M_star ~ 10^10 M_sun and M_BH ~ 10^8 M_sun. They have all become outliers primarily due to tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr, with a secondary effect of rapid BH growth at high-z causing some to lie approximately 1 dex above the z=0 relation prior to stripping. The same mechanisms also cause the M_BH(M_star)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal can...

  6. Origin of highly efficient photoluminescence in AgIn5S8 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noh Soo; Yoon, Hee Chang; Jeong, Seonghyun; Oh, Ji Hye; Park, Seung Min; Do, Young Rag; Song, Jae Kyu

    2017-07-27

    The photoluminescence of AgIn5S8 nanoparticles was examined to clarify the emissive relaxation processes of defect states and to explain the highly efficient photoluminescence of defect states. The large Stokes shift of the defect emission was explained by strong electron-phonon coupling in the nanoparticles. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy indicated two emissive defect states with characteristic emission energies and lifetimes. Change of the surface-to-volume ratio in the nanoparticles affected the relative contribution of the two states, implying that defect emission in higher energy was attributable to surface-related defects. The defect emission in lower energy was attributable to intrinsic defects, which were also present in bulk. The quantum yield of the surface defects was larger than that of the intrinsic defects, which accounted for the unusually high quantum yield of AgIn5S8 nanoparticles, although the origin of emission was the defect states, not the exciton recombination found in typical semiconductor nanoparticles.

  7. High-Contrast Fluorescence Microscopy for a Biomolecular Analysis Based on Polarization Techniques Using an Optical Interference Mirror Slide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Yasuda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence microscopy with an improved contrast for fluorescence images is developed using an optical interference mirror (OIM slide, which can enhance the fluorescence from a fluorophore as a result of the double interference of the excitation light and emission light. To improve the contrast of a fluorescence image using an OIM slide, a linearly-polarized excitation light was employed, and the fluorescence emission polarized perpendicular to the polarization of the excitation light was detected. The image contrast with this optical system was improved 110-fold for rhodamine B spotted on the OIM, in comparison with a glass slide using a general fluorescence microscopy optical system. Moreover, a 24-fold improvement of the image contrast was achieved for the detection of Cy3-labeled streptavidin bound to immobilize biotin.

  8. Analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images using high-dimensional texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Wismueller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were used to classify the character of suspicious breast lesions as benign or malignant on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies. Lesions were identified and annotated by an experienced radiologist on 54 MRI exams of female patients where histopathological reports were available prior to this investigation. GLCMs were then extracted from these 2D regions of interest (ROI) for four principal directions (0°, 45°, 90° & 135°) and used to compute Haralick texture features. A fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (k- NN) classifier was optimized in ten-fold cross-validation for each texture feature and the classification performance was calculated on an independent test set as a function of area under the ROC curve. The lesion ROIs were characterized by texture feature vectors containing the Haralick feature values computed from each directional-GLCM; and the classifier results obtained were compared to a previously used approach where the directional-GLCMs were summed to a nondirectional GLCM which could further yield a set of texture feature values. The impact of varying the inter-pixel distance while generating the GLCMs on the classifier's performance was also investigated. Classifier's AUC was found to significantly increase when the high-dimensional texture feature vector approach was pursued, and when features derived from GLCMs generated using different inter-pixel distances were incorporated into the classification task. These results indicate that lesion character classification accuracy could be improved by retaining the texture features derived from the different directional GLCMs rather than combining these to yield a set of scalar feature values instead.

  9. In situ observation of fracture processes in high-strength concretes and limestone using high-speed X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Guo, Zherui; Hudspeth, Matthew; Claus, Benjamin; Lim, Boon Him; Sun, Tao; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Chen, Weinong W.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of geomaterials and construction materials such as concrete are reported to be dependent on the loading rates. However, the in situ cracking inside such specimens cannot be visualized using traditional optical imaging methods since the materials are opaque. In this study, the in situ sub-surface failure/damage mechanisms in Cor-Tuf (a reactive powder concrete), a high-strength concrete (HSC) and Indiana limestone under dynamic loading were investigated using high-speed synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast imaging. Dynamic compressive loading was applied using a modified Kolsky bar and fracture images were recorded using a synchronized high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging set-up. Three-dimensional synchrotron X-ray tomography was also performed to record the microstructure of the specimens before dynamic loading. In the Cor-Tuf and HSC specimens, two different modes of cracking were observed: straight cracking or angular cracking with respect to the direction of loading. In limestone, cracks followed the grain boundaries and voids, ultimately fracturing the specimen. Cracks in HSC were more tortuous than the cracks in Cor-Tuf specimens. The effects of the microstructure on the observed cracking behaviour are discussed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  10. In situ observation of fracture processes in high-strength concretes and limestone using high-speed X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Guo, Zherui; Hudspeth, M.; Claus, Benjamin; Lim, Boon Him; Sun, Tao; Xiao, Xianghui; Fezzaa, Kamel; Chen, Weinong W.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of geomaterials and construction materials such as concrete are reported to be dependent on the loading rates. However, the in situ cracking inside such specimens cannot be visualized using traditional optical imaging methods since the materials are opaque. In this study, the in situ sub-surface failure/damage mechanisms in Cor-Tuf (a reactive powder concrete), a high-strength concrete (HSC) and Indiana limestone under dynamic loading were investigated using high-speed synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast imaging. Dynamic compressive loading was applied using a modified Kolsky bar and fracture images were recorded using a synchronized high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging set-up. Three-dimensional synchrotron X-ray tomography was also performed to record the microstructure of the specimens before dynamic loading. In the Cor-Tuf and HSC specimens, two different modes of cracking were observed: straight cracking or angular cracking with respect to the direction of loading. In limestone, cracks followed the grain boundaries and voids, ultimately fracturing the specimen. Cracks in HSC were more tortuous than the cracks in Cor-Tuf specimens. The effects of the microstructure on the observed cracking behaviour are discussed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’.