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Sample records for high consanguinity rate

  1. Consanguineous marriage in an urban area of Saudi Arabia: rates and adverse health effects on the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Abdulkareem, A A; Ballal, S G

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the pattern and time trend of consanguineous marriage and its adverse health effects on the offspring in Dammam city, Eastern Province, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This city is known to attract Saudis from different parts of the country because it is in the heart of this industrial region. Five primary health care centers were randomly selected from different sectors of the city in addition to the city's only Maternity and Children's Hospital. For inclusion in the study a wife must have at least one pregnancy that terminated in either full term liveborn baby, still birth, or abortion. A total of 1307 ever-married Saudis completed a pre-structured questionnaire during an interview. The rate of consanguineous marriage was 52.0% with an average inbreeding coefficient of 0.0312. First-cousin marriages were the commonest (39.3%) of all matings. The consanguineous groups had a significantly higher number of pregnancies. The mean birth weight of the offspring of consanguineous couples was not statistically significant being less than that of the non-consanguineous. However, within the consanguineous groups the more closely related couples had smaller babies on average. No significant differences were noted for the rates of inherited diseases and reproductive wastage. The rate of consanguineous marriage in this city was high and so was the inbreeding coefficient. These figures place this nation among the countries with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. A nationwide study to determine accurately the relationship between consanguinity and inherited diseases has much to commend it.

  2. Consanguineous marriage in Oman: understanding the community awareness about congenital effects of and attitude towards consanguineous marriage.

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    Mazharul Islam, M

    2017-05-01

    Although consanguinity is widely practiced in Oman, the attitude of community towards consanguinity and the awareness of its health consequences to offspring remain largely unexplored. To analyse the levels and trends of consanguineous marriage and examine community awareness about congenital anomaly associated with consanguinity and attitude towards consanguinity in Oman. The data come from a nationally representative survey on Omani adults of age 18 years and above, irrespective of their marital status. Data were analysed using both descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques. The survey results indicate a very high rate (49%) of consanguineous marriage in Oman. There is a declining trend in consanguinity which may be attributed to decline in first cousin marriage. Omani adults have moderately high knowledge (69%) about health consequences of consanguineous marriage. There is a high positive attitude towards consanguineous marriage (75%) which appeared as a significant predictor of current practice of consanguineous marriage in Oman. The positive attitude of the Omani community towards consanguinity outweighs the negative health consequences of consanguinity, and the practice is likely to remain high in the near future. Strong educational and motivational programmes are needed to bring further changes in attitude towards consanguinity and, thus, reduce the burden of congenital anomalies associated with consanguinity in Oman.

  3. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  4. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in schoolchildren in a highly consanguineous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Qahtani, Razna; Teebi, Ahmad S; Bessisso, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to find the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptoms in a sample of primary schoolchildren in Qatar and investigate the behaviour of the children with and without ADH symptoms in a highly consanguineous community. A total of 2,500 primary school students, aged 6-12 years, were randomly selected from the government primary schools, and 1,869 students (947 boys and 922 girls) gave consent to participate in this study. An Arabic questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic variables and a standardized Arabic version of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for ADH symptoms. Of the 947 boys, 158 (16.7%; 95% confidence interval, CI, 14.4-19.2) and of the 922 girls, 50 (5.4%; 95% CI 4.1-7.1) scored above the cut-off (>or=15) for ADH symptoms, thus giving an overall prevalence of 11.1% (95% CI 9.7-12.6). The children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms were in the age group of 6-9 years. Children who had higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores (p = 0.002). Two hundred (96.2%) children with ADH were disobedient, 126 (60.6%) noisy and hyperactive, 76 (36.5%) very cranky, 78 (37.5%) troublesome and 79 (37.9%) nervous. The logistic regression identified socio-economic condition, number of children, school performance and poor relationship between parents as the main contributors to ADH. Although the univariate analysis showed a significant relationship (p = 0.010) between ADH symptoms and consanguineous parents, logistic regression did not support this association (p = 0.075). This suggests that consanguinity has no impact on ADH children. The study revealed that ADH is a common problem among schoolchildren. The children with higher scores for ADH symptoms had a poorer school performance than those with lower scores. A significant difference exists between the behaviour of children with and without ADH. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Consanguinity and primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Aldhekri, Hasan; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders caused by defects in the immune system that predispose patients to infections, autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferation and malignancies. Most PIDs are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; therefore, they are more common in areas with high rates of consanguineous marriage. Reports about PIDs from these areas have demonstrated a peculiar prevalence of more severe forms of diseases compared to other regions, and patients born to consanguineous parents have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to other patients. Individuals at high risk of having a child with a PID who wish to have a healthy child have limited options, these include prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. However, these options require a collaborative team of specialists and may not always be implemented due to geographic, religious, financial or social factors. The recent introduction of newborn-screening programs for a number of T and B lymphocyte deficiencies will facilitate early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, which may include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. There is a need for the implementation of strategies to increase public awareness of the health risks associated with consanguineous marriage. It should be stressed that genetic counseling should be an important component of the care of patients with PIDs as well as their families. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins

    OpenAIRE

    Na’amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-01-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the ma...

  7. Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency in Israel: High Proportion of Founder Mutations in MMR Genes and Consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris, Hagit N; Barnes-Kedar, Inbal; Toledano, Helen; Halpern, Marisa; Hershkovitz, Dov; Lossos, Alexander; Lerer, Israela; Peretz, Tamar; Kariv, Revital; Cohen, Shlomi; Half, Elizabeth E; Magal, Nurit; Drasinover, Valerie; Wimmer, Katharina; Goldberg, Yael; Bercovich, Dani; Levi, Zohar

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in any of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, cause Lynch syndrome (LS), an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome conferring a high risk of colorectal, endometrial, and other cancers in adulthood. Offspring of couples where both spouses have LS have a 1:4 risk of inheriting biallelic MMR gene mutations. These cause constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, a severe recessively inherited cancer syndrome with a broad tumor spectrum including mainly hematological malignancies, brain tumors, and colon cancer in childhood and adolescence. Many CMMRD children also present with café au lait spots and axillary freckling mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. We describe our experience in seven CMMRD families demonstrating the role and importance of founder mutations and consanguinity on its prevalence. Clinical presentations included brain tumors, colon cancer, lymphoma, and small bowel cancer. In children from two nonconsanguineous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) families, the common Ashkenazi founder mutations were detected; these were homozygous in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. In four consanguineous families of various ancestries, different homozygous mutations were identified. In a nonconsanguineous Caucasus/AJ family, lack of PMS2 was demonstrated in tumor and normal tissues; however, mutations were not identified. CMMRD is rare, but, especially in areas where founder mutations for LS and consanguinity are common, pediatricians should be aware of it since they are the first to encounter these children. Early diagnosis will enable tailored cancer surveillance in the entire family and a discussion regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-10-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the maternity wards of the only hospital serving the Bedouin population were interviewed between November 2009 and January 2010. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 44.8 %. The most common type of spousal relationship was first cousins (65.7 % of all consanguineous marriages). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.0238. Factors significantly associated with consanguinity were less years of schooling (OR 0.94, 95 % CI (0.88-0.99), p = 0.02) and younger age at marriage of the wife (OR 0.90, 95 % CI (0.80-0.96), p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the rate of consanguineous marriages among Bedouins is very high, making this population at risk for congenital malformations and genetic diseases. Efforts should be directed at better education and provision of premarital and prenatal counseling on the health consequences of consanguineous marriages and the possibilities to lower those risks.

  9. Consanguinity and genetic disorders: Profile from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.; Masri, Amira T.; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2007-01-01

    With 20-30% of all marriages occurring between first cousins, increasing attention in Jordan is now given to role of consanguinity in the occurrence of genetic diseases. The objective of this study is to define the specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages. Etiological categories and consanguinity rates were studied among 623 families with genetic syndromes, congenital anomalies or mental retardation, or both, seen at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics for the period August 2002 to August 2006. Comparisons were made for first cousin marriage rates in the study group and that for the general population. First cousin marriages constituted 69%, 22% and 41.7% of marriages among families with autosomal recessive conditions (group 1), dominant, X-linked and chromosomal conditions (group 2) and sporadic undiagnosed conditions (group 3) respectively. The differences in the rates of the first cousin matings were highly significant when comparing known figures in the general population with group 1 and 3, but not significant with group 2. Two messages to the public and health care personnel regarding consanguinity can be derived from this study. The first message is that among genetic disorders, only autosomal recessive disorders are strongly associated with consanguinity. The second message is that approximately 30% of sporadic undiagnosed cases of mental retardation, congenital anomalies and dimorphism may have an autosomal recessive etiology with risks of recurrence in future pregnancies. (author)

  10. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.

  11. Consanguinity and its relevance to clinical genetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2013-01-29

    Jan 29, 2013 ... Autosomal dominant e.g. Marfan's syndrome and achondroplasia. ... In X-linked diseases consanguineous marriage was de- tected in all cases of ..... government should put strict laws for premarital tests. Conflict of interest .... V. Genetic contribution to high neonatally lethal malformation rate in the United ...

  12. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  13. Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in Mangalore

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    Bhagya Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: This study was conducted on 1164 married women in Mangalore to investigate the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages. All the women were interviewed personally using a structured questionnaire. Family pedigree was constructed to study the type of consanguineous marriages. Data analysis was done by SPSS Win 13.0. Results: A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53% was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%. Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62% of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75% followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus. Conclusion: The frequency of consanguinity was found to be low in Mangalore. The findings contradict with the earlier reports of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South India. Increased female education, increased socio-economic status and decrease in parental decisions in marriages may be the reasons.

  14. THE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AND INFANT MORTALITY IN TURKEY.

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    Koç, İsmet; Eryurt, Mehmet Alİ

    2017-07-01

    Turkey has high levels of infant mortality and consanguineous marriages. It has had a high level of infant mortality for its economic level for many years. Over recent decades, although adult mortality rates have not been very different from those of other countries with similar socioeconomic structures, its life expectancy at birth has remained low due to its high infant mortality rate. This has been called the Turkish Puzzle. According to the Turkey Family Structure and Population Issues Survey, 27% of women had a consanguineous marriage in 1968. Subsequent Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys (TDHSs) found the rate of consanguineous marriages to be stagnated at 22-24%, with a resistance to reduction. According to the TDHS-2008, 24% of women had a consanguineous marriage. Numerous studies in various countries of the world have indicated that consanguineous marriages, particularly of first-degree, have the effect of increasing infant mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the causal impact of consanguineous, particularly first-degree consanguineous, marriages on infant mortality, controlling for individual, cultural, bio-demographic and environmental factors. Data were merged from four Turkish DHS data sets (1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008). Multivariate analysis revealed that first-degree consanguineous marriages have increased infant mortality by 45% in Turkey: 57% in urban areas and 39% in rural areas. The results indicate that there is a causal relationship between consanguineous marriages and infant mortality. This finding should be taken into account when planning policies to reduce infant mortality in Turkey, and in other countries with high rates of consanguineous marriage and infant mortality.

  15. New MCM8 mutation associated with premature ovarian insufficiency and chromosomal instability in a highly consanguineous Tunisian family.

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    Bouali, Nouha; Francou, Bruno; Bouligand, Jérôme; Imanci, Dilek; Dimassi, Sarra; Tosca, Lucie; Zaouali, Monia; Mougou, Soumaya; Young, Jacques; Saad, Ali; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne

    2017-10-01

    To identify the gene(s) involved in the etiology of premature ovarian insufficiency in a highly consanguineous Tunisian family. Genetic analysis of a large consanguineous family with several affected siblings. University hospital-based cytogenetics and molecular genetics laboratories. A highly consanguineous Tunisian family with several affected siblings born to healthy second-degree cousins. None. Targeted exome sequencing was performed by next-generation sequencing for affected family members. Mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Functional experiments were performed to explore the deleterious effects of the identified mutation. DNA damage was induced by increasing mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations on cultured peripheral lymphocytes. Analysis of the next-generation sequencing data revealed a new homozygous missense mutation in the minichromosome maintenance 8 gene (MCM8).This homozygous mutation (c. 482A>C; p.His161Pro) was predicted to be deleterious and segregated with the disease in the family. MCM8 participates in homologous recombination during meiosis and DNA double-stranded break repair by dimerizing with MCM9. Mcm8 knock out results in an early block in follicle development and small gonads. Given this, we tested the chromosomal breakage repair capacity of homozygous and heterozygous MCM8 p.His161Pro mutation on cultured peripheral lymphocytes exposed to increasing MMC concentrations. We found that chromosomal breakage after MMC exposure was significantly higher in cells from homozygously affected individuals than in those from a healthy control. Our findings provide additional support to the view that MCM8 mutations are involved in the primary ovarian insufficiency phenotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consanguinity and isolated atrial septal defect in North East of Iran.

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    Moghaddam, Hasan Mottaghi; Esfehani, Reza Jafarzadeh; Panah, Nader Yazdan; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    The rate of consanguineous marriage is high in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. The relationship between consanguineous marriage and congenital heart disease is discussed in some studies, but there is not much data for relationship between atrial septal defect (ASD) and consanguineous marriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between consanguineous marriage and ASD echocardiographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study approved by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences ethics committee and took place in Mashhad, Iran, for a period of 3 years from August 2008 till September 2011. In this cross-sectional study, 113 ASD patients participated and they were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of family relationship between their parents: first group-"no relationship," second group- "third degree relationship," and third group- "far relationship." Among the 54 male and 59 female ASD patients, the most prevalent type of ASD was ASD secundum (85.0%) followed by sinus venosus (8.8%). A total of 56% patients were present in the first group and 15% and 29% in the second group and the third group, respectively." The relationship between consanguinity and type of ASD (P relationship between the age of onset of disease and consanguinity (P=.003) was also observed. Considering the fact that there is a high prevalence of ASD and consanguineous marriage in Iran and bearing in mind the results of the present study, we recommend educating couples about the outcomes of consanguineous marriage in pre-marriage counseling.

  17. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians.

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    Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.

  18. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN JORDAN: AN UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul; Ababneh, Faisal M; Khan, Md Hasinur Rahaman

    2017-08-10

    This study examined the recent level, trends and determinants of consanguineous marriage in Jordan using time-series data from the Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). According to the 2012 JPFHS, 35% of all marriages were consanguineous in Jordan in 2012. There has been a declining trend in consanguinity in the country, with the rate decreasing from a level of 57% in 1990. Most consanguineous marriage in 2012 were first cousin marriages, constituting 23% of all marriages and 66% of all consanguineous marriages. The data show that women with a lower age at marriage, older marriage cohort, larger family size, less than secondary level of education, rural place of residence, no employment, no exposure to mass media, a monogamous marriage, a husband with less than higher level of education and lower economic status, and those from the Badia region, were more likely to have a consanguineous marriage. Increasing age at marriage, level of education, urbanization and knowledge about the health consequences of consanguinity, and the ongoing socioeconomic and demographic transition in the country, will be the driving forces for further decline in consanguinity in Jordan.

  19. Consanguineous marriages in the genetic counseling centers of Isfahan and the ethical issues of clinical consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, Narges; Nouri, Nayereh; Tirgar, Samane; Soleimani, Elham; Yazdani, Vida; Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage, which is common in many regions in the world, has absorbed much attention as a causative factor in raising the incidence of genetic diseases. The adverse effects may be attributed to the expression of the genes received from common ancestors and mortality and morbidity of the offspring. Iran has a high rate of consanguineous marriages. In recent years genetic counseling has come to be considered in health care services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in orde...

  20. The relationship between consanguineous marriage and death in fetus and infants

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    Majid Mehr Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban areas of Iran, the aim of this study was to identify its role in increasing fetal and infant deaths. Materials ans Methods : This was a cross-sectional study in which 494 mothers with more than one exceptional child (mentally retarded and physically-dynamically disabled or with normal children were selected based on multi-stage random sampling method. Data was gathered using the features of parents with more than one exceptional child questionnaire. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was acceptable. Hierarchical log-linear method was used for statistical analysis. Results: Consanguineous marriage significantly increased the number of births of exceptional children. Moreover, there was a significant relation between the history of fetal/infant death and belonging to the group. There was a significant relation between consanguineous marriage and the history of fetal/infant death which means consanguineous marriage increased the prevalence of fetal/infant death in parents with exceptional children rather than in parents with normal children. Conclusions: The rate of fetal/infant death in exceptional births of consanguineous marriages was higher than that of non-consanguineous marriages.

  1. The relationship between consanguineous marriage and death in fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Majid Mehr; Hooman, Heidar Ali; Afrooz, Gholam Ali; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi

    2012-05-01

    Given the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban areas of Iran, the aim of this study was to identify its role in increasing fetal and infant deaths. This was a cross-sectional study in which 494 mothers with more than one exceptional child (mentally retarded and physically-dynamically disabled) or with normal children were selected based on multi-stage random sampling method. Data was gathered using the features of parents with more than one exceptional child questionnaire. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was acceptable. Hierarchical log-linear method was used for statistical analysis. Consanguineous marriage significantly increased the number of births of exceptional children. Moreover, there was a significant relation between the history of fetal/infant death and belonging to the group. There was a significant relation between consanguineous marriage and the history of fetal/infant death which means consanguineous marriage increased the prevalence of fetal/infant death in parents with exceptional children rather than in parents with normal children. The rate of fetal/infant death in exceptional births of consanguineous marriages was higher than that of non-consanguineous marriages.

  2. Consanguinity, endogamy and inborn errors of metabolism in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Al-Mamari, Watfa; Islam, M Mazharul; Al-Yahyaee, Said A

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman, like many other Arab countries, has relatively high rates of consanguinity. Reports suggest that the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is also high in Oman. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the number of patients with IEM being followed at the only two tertiary centers in Oman treating such patients, and to calculate the consanguinity rates among these families. The electronic medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. A total of 285 patients with IEM were being followed at the 2 centers involved; 162 (56.8%) were male and 123 (43.2%) were female. The history of consanguinity was documented or available for 241 patients: 229 patients (95%) were born to consanguineous parents related as second cousins or closer. First-cousin marriages were reported in 191 families (79.3%), while 31 patients (12.9%) were born to second cousins. The parents of 5 patients (2%) were related as double first cousins, and 2 patients (1%) were born to first cousins once removed. The average coefficient of inbreeding (F) in our study was 0.081. Seventeen patients (6%) had associated comorbid conditions other than IEM. Our study highlights the clinical burden of IEM in Oman and emphasizes the high consanguinity rates among the parents of affected patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages in Syria.

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    Othman, Hasan; Saadat, Mostafa

    2009-09-01

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the Syrian Arab Republic. Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 67,958 (urban areas: 36,574 couples; rural areas: 31,384 couples) from the following provinces: Damascus, Hamah, Tartous, Latakia, Al Raqa, Homs, Edlep and Aleppo. In each province urban and rural areas were surveyed. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins (F=1/8), first cousins (F=1/16), second cousins (F=1/64) and beyond second cousins (Fconsanguinity was 30.3% in urban and 39.8% in rural areas. Total rate of consanguinity was found to be 35.4%. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (alpha) was 0.0203 and 0.0265 in urban and rural areas, respectively. The mean proportion of consanguineous marriages ranged from 67.5% in Al Raqa province to 22.1% in Latakia province. The alpha-value ranged from 0.0358 to 0.0127 in these two provinces, respectively. The western and north-western provinces (including Tartous, Lattakia and Edlep) recorded lower levels of inbreeding than the central, northern and southern provinces. The overall alpha-value was estimated to be about 0.0236 for the studied populations. First cousin marriages (with 20.9%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (with 7.8%) and second cousin marriages (with 3.3%), and beyond second cousin was the least common type.

  4. Consanguinity in Qatar: knowledge, attitude and practice in a population born between 1946 and 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandridge, A L; Takeddin, J; Al-Kaabi, E; Frances, Y

    2010-01-01

    From March 2007 to March 2008 a cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar to estimate the prevalence of consanguinity among Qataris and to assess their knowledge of the risks and their attitudes towards the practice. A secondary objective was to test the acceptability of sixteen Likert-style questions within the Qatari population. Face-to-face interviews using a 70-item structured questionnaire were conducted by three native Arabic-speaking medical students with 362 Qatari employees. Where consanguinity existed between the employee's parents, a diagram of the consanguinal relationship (phylogram) was completed. The response rate was 93%. By phylogram, 22% of participants reported a cousin relationship between their parents (consanguinal relationship) and another 15% reported that their parents were from the same tribe (affinal relationship). With respect to their own marital decision, 68% of the respondents had been married at least once. By phylogram, 35% of these reported a consanguineous relationship (first marriage), 9% reported only an affinal relationship and 56% reported that they were not married to a blood relative. Results on the sixteen Likert-style attitude questions were stratified by consanguinity status of parents and of self. In the stratification by consanguinity status of parents the top five attitudes differed by group but there appeared to be more similarity between the consanguinal and only tribal groups. Attitudinal results were stratified by sex. Results showed that the males had a stronger belief in several of the attitudes than females with the exception of causation of genetic abnormalities and health problems. The phylogram was shown to collect more detailed and explicit data than hard-coding. With respect to knowledge, the results showed that knowledge was imperfect with high proportions of participants not knowing that consanguinity has been implicated in autosomal recessive diseases such as thalassaemia, inborn errors of metabolism

  5. Consanguinity and major genetic disorders in Saudi children: Acommunity-based cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al-Omar, Ahmad A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a high rate of consanguinity in Saudi Arabia; however,information on its relationship with genetic disorders is limited. Theobjective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the role ofconsanguinity in genetic disorders. The study sample was determined by amultistage probability random sampling procedure. Primary care physiciansperformed a history and physical examination of all children and adolescentsyounger than 19 years and all cases of genetic diseases were recorded. Thechi-square test was used to compare proportions. During the two-year studyperiod (2004-2005), 11554 of 11874 (97%) mothers answered the question onconsanguinity and 6470 of 11554 (56%) were consanguineous. There was nosignificant association between first-cousin consanguinity and Down syndrome(P=0.55). Similarly, there was no significant association with either sicklecell disease (P=0.97) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency(P=0.67) for-cousin in consanguinity. A borderline statistical significancewas found for major congenital malformations (P=0.05). However, the mostsignificant association with first-cousin consanguinity was congenital heartdisease (CHD) (P=0.01). Finally, no significant association was found fortype 1 diabetes mellitus (P=0.92). For all types of consanguinity, similartrends of association were found, with a definite statistically significantassociation only with CHD (P=0.003). The data suggest a significant role ofparental consanguinity in CHD. However, a relationship between consanguinityand other genetic diseases could not be established. The effect ofconsanguinity on genetic diseases is not uniform and this should be takeninto consideration in genetic counseling. (author)

  6. Consanguineous marriages in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Afghanistan populations. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 7140 from the following provinces: Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Kabul, Kunduz, Samangan and Takhar. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The proportion of consanguineous marriages in the country was 46.2%, ranging from 38.2% in Kabul province to 51.2% in Bamyan province. The equivalent mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was 0.0277, and ranged from 0.0221 to 0.0293 in these two regions. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (pconsanguineous marriages, followed by double first cousin (6.9%), second cousin (5.8%), beyond second cousin (3.9%) and first cousin once removed (1.8%). There were significant differences between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (χ2=177.6, df=25, pconsanguinity.

  7. An empirical analysis of the effects of consanguineous marriages on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Kökdener, Meltem; Ersin, Oezgür ömer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, development experiences toward economic development are investigated to provide an alternative analysis of economic development, human capital, and genetic inheritance in the light of consanguineous marriages. The countries analyzed in the study are discussed in accordance with consanguineous marriage practices and classified by their per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. A broad range of countries are analyzed in the study. Arab countries that experienced high rates of growth in their gross national income during the twentieth century but failed to fulfill adequate development measures as reflected in the growth in national income, countries undergoing transition from tight government regulation to free market democracy, and African nations that have experienced complications in the process of development show important differences in the process of economic development. It is shown that the countries that have reached high average development within the context of per capita GDP have overcome problems integral to consanguineous marriage.

  8. Genetics of intellectual disability in consanguineous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Kahrizi, Kimia; Musante, Luciana; Fattahi, Zohreh; Herwig, Ralf; Hosseini, Masoumeh; Oppitz, Cornelia; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Suckow, Vanessa; Larti, Farzaneh; Beheshtian, Maryam; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Akhtarkhavari, Tara; Mehvari, Sepideh; Otto, Sabine; Mohseni, Marzieh; Arzhangi, Sanaz; Jamali, Payman; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Taghdiri, Maryam; Papari, Elaheh; Soltani Banavandi, Mohammad Javad; Akbari, Saeide; Tonekaboni, Seyed Hassan; Dehghani, Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Bader, Ingrid; Davarnia, Behzad; Cohen, Monika; Khodaei, Hossein; Albrecht, Beate; Azimi, Sarah; Zirn, Birgit; Bastami, Milad; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Bahrami, Gholamreza; Keleman, Krystyna; Vahid, Leila Nouri; Tzschach, Andreas; Gärtner, Jutta; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Varaghchi, Jamileh Rezazadeh; Timmermann, Bernd; Pourfatemi, Fatemeh; Jankhah, Aria; Chen, Wei; Nikuei, Pooneh; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Oladnabi, Morteza; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2018-01-04

    Autosomal recessive (AR) gene defects are the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in countries with frequent parental consanguinity, which account for about 1/7th of the world population. Yet, compared to autosomal dominant de novo mutations, which are the predominant cause of ID in Western countries, the identification of AR-ID genes has lagged behind. Here, we report on whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 404 consanguineous predominantly Iranian families with two or more affected offspring. In 219 of these, we found likely causative variants, involving 77 known and 77 novel AR-ID (candidate) genes, 21 X-linked genes, as well as 9 genes previously implicated in diseases other than ID. This study, the largest of its kind published to date, illustrates that high-throughput DNA sequencing in consanguineous families is a superior strategy for elucidating the thousands of hitherto unknown gene defects underlying AR-ID, and it sheds light on their prevalence.

  9. Congenital abnormalities in newborns of consanguineous and nonconsanguineous parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, S

    1979-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the types, patterns, and frequencies of congenital anomalies among newborns of both consanguineous and nonconsanguineous parents in southern Iran. From 9526 consecutive pregnancies observed, 9623 newborns resulted (9431 singleton and 95 sets of multiple gestation). There were 7261 newborns from nonconsanguineous parents and 2362 (24.5%) babies from consanguineous marriages. Of the total pregnancies, 1.54% resulted in malformed children (1.53% of singleton and 2.1% of multiple gestations). The incidence of congenital abnormalities in newborns of nonconsanguineous parents was 1.66% as compared to 4.02% for newborns of the consanguineous group. Major and multiple malformations were found to be slightly more common in the consanguinous group. Prematurity, prenatal mortality rate, and congenital abnormalities were more common in the consanguineous group. Probably the closer the familial relationship of the parents, the greater the chances of congenital abnormalities.

  10. The frequency of consanguineous marriage in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayram, S; Sari, N; Akgün, C; Doğan, M; Tuncer, O; Caksen, H; Oner, A F

    2009-01-01

    The frequency of consanguineous marriage in Eastern Turkey: The rate of consanguineous marriage (CM) varies depended on different factors such as race, characteristics of population, and religion and moral features in different countries. Gene frequency and genetic structure are changed by CMs. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of CM and its effects on miscarriage, stillbirth, congenital malformation and ratio of newborn death. This study was performed in Van region, Eastern Turkey, between September 2005 and April 2006. A total of 650 families from 24 districts chosen in accordance with the number of inhabitants were included in this study. First cousin marriages were accepted as a first degree CMs, sesquialter and second cousin marriages as second degree and marriages between distant relatives were accepted as a third degree CM. Monthly income of the families was classified in accordance with minimum wage determined by government. Of all families, 224 (34.4%) had CM, and 168 (75%) had first-degree consanguinity. A lower CM rate was found in mothers who graduated from secondary school or upgrading (p relationship was found between CM and fathers' education level. While a low CM rate was found in families who had two or less children (p < 0.01), high rate was observed in families who had five or more children. In addition, a high rate of miscarriage, stillbirth and mental-motor retardation was found in families with CM (p < 0.05). The rate of child mortality between the aged 0-2 years was found to be higher in families with CM (p < 0.01). The higher CM rate was observed in families who married due to pressure or insistence of their families than married voluntarily (p < 0.05). Our study showed that CM rate was very high, 34.4%, in our region Eastern Turkey.

  11. Application of a high-throughput genotyping method for loci exclusion in non-consanguineous Australian pedigrees with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel L; De Roach, John N; McLaren, Terri L; Hewitt, Alex W; Hoffmann, Ling; Lamey, Tina M

    2012-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited blindness, caused by progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina, and affects approximately 1 in 3,000 people. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in gene therapy for RP and related diseases, making genetic characterization increasingly important. Recently, high-throughput technologies have provided an option for reasonably fast, cost-effective genetic characterization of autosomal recessive RP (arRP). The current study used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method to exclude up to 28 possible disease-causing genes in 31 non-consanguineous Australian families affected by arRP. DNA samples were collected from 59 individuals affected with arRP and 74 unaffected family members from 31 Australian families. Five to six SNPs were genotyped for 28 genes known to cause arRP or the related disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Cosegregation analyses were used to exclude possible causative genes from each of the 31 families. Bidirectional sequencing was used to identify disease-causing mutations in prioritized genes that were not excluded with cosegregation analyses. Two families were excluded from analysis due to identification of false paternity. An average of 28.9% of genes were excluded per family when only one affected individual was available, in contrast to an average of 71.4% or 89.8% of genes when either two, or three or more affected individuals were analyzed, respectively. A statistically significant relationship between the proportion of genes excluded and the number of affected individuals analyzed was identified using a multivariate regression model (pA) and USH2A in two families (c.2276 G>T). This study has shown that SNP genotyping cosegregation analysis can be successfully used to refine and expedite the genetic characterization of arRP in a non-consanguineous population; however, this method is effective only when DNA samples are

  12. An insight into recent consanguinity within the Basque area in Spain. Effects of autochthony, industrialization and demographic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Sanchez, M A; Peña, J A; Aresti, U; Calderón, R

    2001-01-01

    The importance of studying the genetic kinship of those human groups characterized by a deeply rooted ethnicity has traditionally been and still is an interesting goal of anthropological and population genetic studies. However, only a few surveys have aimed to learn about the impact of industrial development on the consanguinity of these populations and even those have concentrated on industrialized regions. This approach is worth analysing in Spain, where industrialization was late in relation to other western European countries. In this work we analyse the characteristics of inbreeding in Guipúzcoa from 1951 to 1995. This Basque province underwent industrial and tourist development earlier than other Spanish regions. It has the highest density of Basque speakers and has always occupied a central position within the map of distribution of the Basque language. Guipúzcoa is geographically placed in the core of the Basque area. SUDJECTS AND METHODS: Data on consanguineous marriages recorded in the province of Guipúzcoa between 1951 and 1995 were taken from Roman Catholic dispensations stored in the Diocesan Archives of San Sebastián, the province's capital city. Over the whole time period, a total of 1152 consanguineous marriages were registered. The high frequencies of first cousin (M22) (F = 1/16) and uncle-niece, aunt-nephew (M12) (F = 1/8) consanguineous marriages distinguish Guipúzcoa from the rest of Iberian populations. The M22/M33 ratio (with M33 being second cousins) has never dropped below 0.67, which represents a significant deviation from the expectation value of 0.25. When consanguineous marriages are classified according to marriage partner birthplaces interesting results emerge. Provincial endogamy shows the highest consanguinity rates (57%) and the proportion of M22/M33 is also rather high (0.63). However, a major contribution to the consanguinity levels and mean inbreeding coefficient recorded in Guipúzcoa over recent decades has been made by

  13. Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N; AlHashem, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: T...

  14. Consanguineous marriages in the genetic counseling centers of Isfahan and the ethical issues of clinical consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Narges; Nouri, Nayereh; Tirgar, Samane; Soleimani, Elham; Yazdani, Vida; Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage, which is common in many regions in the world, has absorbed much attention as a causative factor in raising the incidence of genetic diseases. The adverse effects may be attributed to the expression of the genes received from common ancestors and mortality and morbidity of the offspring. Iran has a high rate of consanguineous marriages. In recent years genetic counseling has come to be considered in health care services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the genetic clinics in Isfahan. We aimed to define the different types of marriages, specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages, and mode of inheritance in the family tree. We also narratively reviewed the ethical aspects of the issue. The data were collected using a simple questionnaire. A total number of 1535 couples from urban and rural areas formed the study population. The marriages were classified according to the degree of the relationship between couples, including: double cousin, first cousin, first cousin once removed, second cousin and beyond second cousin. The SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. Data obtained through genetic counseling offered during a 5-year period revealed that 74.3% had consanguineous relationships, 62.3% were first cousins, 1% were double cousins and 7.8% were second cousins. In addition, 76% of the couples had at least one genetic disease in their family tree. Related ethical issues were also considered in this study, including autonomy and informed decision making, benefit and harm assessment, confidentiality, ethics in research, justice in access to counseling services, financial problems ethics, and the intellectual property of scientific success.

  15. Paternal asthma is a predictor for childhood asthma in the consanguineous families from the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Maries; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Al-Dhaheri, Sherina M; Al-Dhaheri, Aysha Ahmed; Al-Dhaheri, Afra A; Al-Kaabi, Fatima M; Al-Muhairi, Shamma J; Joseph, Jose

    2009-03-01

    Consanguinity is known to increase the burden of genetic disorders among offspring. However, the effect of consanguinity on a complex disorder like childhood asthma has not been studied previously. Therefore, we explored this relationship by studying the asthma prevalence in children between 6 and 14 years of age among the local Arab families of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where consanguinity is known to be highly prevalent. A total of 1136 children from 295 families met our inclusion criteria. The prevalence of childhood asthma was higher among children in consanguineous families (43.3%) compared to non-consanguineous (22.6%, p consanguinity and the number of asthmatic children per family (p = 0.0002). Girls from consanguineous families had proportionately more asthma (42.9%, p consanguineous families increased asthma risk for both boys and girls (p = 0.021 for boys, p consanguineous families. The significant asthma predictors for girls from the consanguineous families were the degree of consanguinity and paternal asthma. The only predictor for boys was paternal asthma. These interesting observations merit further studies on both larger samples and in other consanguineous communities for confirmation.

  16. Endogamy, consanguinity and community genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Centre for Human Genetics, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Perth, WA 6027, Australia ... vidual mutation profiles, but to date the clinical con- .... rity of clinical studies only the effects of consanguinity ..... invest in the training of specialist medical, scientific, ... tions in a prospective study at a teaching hospital.

  17. A novel loss-of-function mutation in GPR54/KISS1R leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in a highly consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimri, Revital; Lebenthal, Yael; Lazar, Liora; Chevrier, Lucie; Phillip, Moshe; Bar, Meytal; Hernandez-Mora, Eva; de Roux, Nicolas; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2011-03-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), the kisspeptin receptor, is essential for stimulation of GnRH secretion and induction of puberty. Recently loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 have been implicated as a cause of isolated idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). The objective of the study was to identify the genetic cause of IHH in a consanguineous pedigree and to characterize the phenotypic features from infancy through early adulthood. In six patients with normosmic IHH belonging to two families of Israeli Muslim-Arab origin highly related to one another, DNA was analyzed for mutations in the GnRHR and GPR54 genes, with functional analysis of the mutation found. The five males underwent comprehensive endocrine evaluation and were under longitudinal follow-up; the one female presented in early adulthood. A new homozygous mutation (c.T815C) in GPR54 leading to a phenylalanine substitution by serine (p.F272S) was detected in all patients. Functional analysis showed an almost complete inhibition of kisspeptin-induced GPR54 signaling and a dramatic decrease of the mutated receptor expression at the cell surface. The males exhibited the same clinical features from infancy to adulthood, characterized by cryptorchidism, a relatively short penis, and no spontaneous pubertal development. The female patient presented at 18 yr with impuberism and primary amenorrhea. Repeated stimulation tests demonstrated complete gonadotropin deficiency throughout follow-up. A novel loss-of-function mutation (p.F272S) in the GPR54 gene is associated with familial normosmic IHH. Underdeveloped external genitalia and impuberism point to the major role of GPR54 in the activation of the gonadotropic axis from intrauterine life to adulthood.

  18. Associations of recurrent miscarriages with chromosomal abnormalities, thrombophilia allelic polymorphisms and/or consanguinity in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Rola F; Assidi, Mourad; Banni, Huda A; Zahed, Hanan A; Karim, Sajjad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Bajouh, Osama; Jamal, Hassan S; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed H; Abuzenadah, Adel M

    2016-10-10

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or recurrent spontaneous abortion is an obstetric complication that affects couples at reproductive age. Previous reports documented a clear relationship between parents with chromosomal abnormalities and both recurrent miscarriages and infertility. However, limited data is available from the Arabian Peninsula which is known by higher rates of consanguineous marriages. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and thrombophilic polymorphisms, and to correlate them with RPL and consanguinity in Saudi Arabia. Cytogenetic analysis of 171 consent patients with RPL was performed by the standard method of 72-h lymphocyte culture and GTG banding. Allelic polymorphisms of three thrombophilic genes (Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin A20210G, MTHFR C677T) were performed using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and gel electrophoresis. Data analysis revealed that 7.6 % of patients were carrier of numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities. A high rate of translocations (46 %) was associated to increased incidence of RPL. A significant correlation between consanguineous RPL patients and chromosomal abnormalities (P consanguineous marriages in the Saudi population, these results underline the importance of systematic cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling preferably at the premarital stage or at least during early pregnancy phase through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

  19. Parental consanguinity and associated factors in congenital talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, T; Nataraj, A R

    2012-03-01

    The cause of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is multifactorial and, consanguinity could be one of the causative factors in its development. The purpose of this study was, to determine the prevalence of parental consanguinity in CTEV and other factors like associated, congenital anomalies, maternal and fetal factors and also the severity of CTEV in these patients. The above factors were studied in 54 patients of less than 1 month of age with parental, consanguinity and 91 feet were evaluated for its severity using Dimeglio classification at the time of presentation. Out of 174 children presented to our department with CTEV, 54 (31%) children were born out, of consanguineous marriage. Thirty seven (68.5%) patients had bilateral CTEV. Twenty five (46.3%), patients had associated congenital anomalies and myelomeningocele being the commonest anomaly, associated. Out of 91 feet 61 (67%) were of grade 4 severity. High grade of severity observed in both idiopathic and non idiopathic CTEV suggests the, probable role of consanguinity as an etiological factor in the development of CTEV especially in our, part of the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential social, economic and general health benefits of consanguineous marriage: results from the Born in Bradford cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Raj S; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Small, Neil

    2014-10-01

    More than 1 billion people live in societies where consanguineous marriages are common. When children are born to consanguineous unions, there is an increased probability of the expression of single-gene disorders with a recessive mode of inheritance. There are presumptive social benefits of consanguineous marriages reported in the literature. The UK's Born in Bradford birth cohort study recruited 12 453 women at 26-28 weeks' gestation between 2007 and 2010. In all, 11 396 completed a questionnaire, including questions about their relationship to their baby's father. We compared Pakistani and Other ethnic groups in consanguineous relationships and Pakistani, Other and White British groups not in consanguineous relationships, calculating percentages and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals). In the Pakistani group, 59.3% of women (n = 3038) were blood relatives of their baby's father. Consanguinity was uncommon in the Other ethnic group (7.3%, n = 127) and rare (n = 5) in the White British group. Compared with non-consanguineous counterparts, mothers in consanguineous relationships were socially and economically disadvantaged (e.g. never employed, less likely to have higher education). The Pakistani consanguineous group's social, economic and health lifestyle circumstances were equivalent to, in some cases better than, women in non-consanguineous relationships (e.g. up-to-date in paying bills, or in disagreeing that they wished for more warmth in their marital relationship). The consanguineous relationship group had less separation/divorce. Rates of cigarette smoking during pregnancy were lower in mothers in consanguineous relationships. Debate about consanguinity should balance the potential protective effect of consanguineous relationships with established genetic risk of congenital anomaly in children. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  2. RESEARCH NOTE Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous families with primary microcephaly ... Translational Research Institute, Academic Health System, Hamad Medical ..... bridging the gap between homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing.

  3. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Nemati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal children were selected by cluster sampling from elementary, guidance and high schools of Ardabil city and 423 couples parenting disabled children were selected non-randomly among which 130 had deaf children. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of consanguineous marriage and chi-square test to compare prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of normal and deaf children.Results: Descriptive analyses showed that 80 out of 130 (61.54% parents who had deaf children have had consanguineous marriage. Furthermore data analysis demonstrated that prevalence of consanguineous marriage was significantly higher among parents of deaf children (p<0.001.Conclusion: Consanguineous marriage plays a major role in expression of recessive genes and could lead to development of various handicaps including deafness. Increasing couples' awareness about consequences of consanguineous marriage and conducting genetic counseling are indispensable.

  4. The Use of High-Density SNP Array to Map Homozygosity in Consanguineous Families to Efficiently Identify Candidate Genes: Application to Woodhouse-Sakati Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly B. Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two consanguineous Qatari siblings presented for evaluation: a 17-4/12-year-old male with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, alopecia, intellectual disability, and microcephaly and his 19-year-old sister with primary amenorrhea, alopecia, and normal cognition. Both required hormone treatment to produce secondary sex characteristics and pubertal development beyond Tanner 1. SNP array analysis of both probands was performed to detect shared regions of homozygosity which may harbor homozygous mutations in a gene causing their common features of abnormal pubertal development, alopecia, and variable cognitive delay. Our patients shared multiple homozygous genomic regions; ten shared regions were >1 Mb in length and constituted 0.99% of the genome. DCAF17, encoding a transmembrane nuclear protein of uncertain function, was the only gene identified in a homozygous region known to cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. DCAF17 mutations are associated with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by alopecia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and extrapyramidal movements. Sequencing of the coding exons and flanking intronic regions of DCAF17 in the proband revealed homozygosity for a previously described founder mutation (c.436delC. Targeted DCAF17 sequencing of his affected sibling revealed the same homozygous mutation. This family illustrates the utility of SNP array testing in consanguineous families to efficiently and inexpensively identify regions of genomic homozygosity in which genetic candidates for recessive conditions can be identified.

  5. Impact of 226C>T MSH2 gene mutation on cancer phenotypes in two HNPCC-associated highly-consanguineous families from Kuwait: emphasis on premarital genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafie, Makia J; Al-Awadi, Sadiqa; Al-Mosawi, Fatemah; Elshafey, Alaa; Al-Ali, Waleed; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2009-01-01

    Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of the commonest cancer susceptibility syndromes. It is characterized by early onset colon cancer and a variety of extracolonic tumours. Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, and PMS2) are responsible for this disorder. Identifying an affected individual depends on the tumour histopathology, family history that fulfils the Amsterdam and/or Bethesda criteria, tumour immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and finally molecular analysis of an affected member. It is a laborious, time consuming and expensive procedure, which needs the effort of a multi-disciplinary team. However, once the diagnosis is established and germline defect is identified, other high risk pre-symptomatic carriers could be offered intensive surveillance and management as a preventive measure against cancer development. Here, we present two large highly consanguineous HNPCC-families from Kuwait in whom a founder MSH2 mutation was identified. The relationship between this mutation and cancer expressivity in two large consanguineous families harbouring other genetic defects is discussed. Moreover, we shed light on the challenges pertaining to diagnosis, screening, premarital counselling of couples and prenatal diagnosis of offspring with biallelic MSH2 gene mutation.

  6. Modernization and Consanguineous Marriage in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Benjamin P.; Hirschman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Used data on 4,667 women from the Iran Fertility Survey to examine trends and social correlates of consanguineous marriage. Found modest increase in proportion of marriages between cousins in Iran from 1940s to 1970s. Results suggest that modernization may be eroding social bases on consanguinity, whereas increased availability of cousins may lead…

  7. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  8. The changing pattern and determinants of declining consanguinity in Jordan during 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2018-03-01

    Consanguinity is a deep rooted cultural trait in Jordan. To examine the patterns and determinants of declining rates of consanguineous marriage in Jordan during 1990-2012 in the context of the changing pattern of socio-economic and demographic conditions. The data come from the 1990 and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). A total of 6461 women in 1990 and 11,352 women in 2012 were successfully interviewed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used for data analysis. Consanguinity was found to be widely practiced (35% in 2012) until recent times in Jordan. However, there has been a secular declining trend over the last few decades as the practice of consanguinity has declined from 56% in 1990 to 35% in 2012. Increasing age at marriage and female education, higher level of education of husbands, declining family size, increasing rate of urbanisation and female employment, exposure to mass media and higher economic status appeared as significant predictors of declining consanguinity in Jordan. The findings of this study support Goode's hypothesis of a decrease of consanguinity with modernisation. Although consanguinity is a deeply rooted cultural trend in Jordan, it is gradually losing ground due to modernisation and socio-demographic transition of the country.

  9. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages in west and south of Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Tajbakhsh, Khadijeh

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of consanguinity in eight provinces of Afghanistan has recently been reported by Saify & Saadat (2012). The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among other populations of Afghanistan. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 5200 from the following provinces: Farah, Ghazni, Herat, Hilmand, Kabul, Kandahar, Logar, Parwan and Wardak. Consanguineous marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples: double first cousins, first cousins, first cousins once removed, second cousins and beyond second cousins. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for each population. The α in the country was 0.0226, ranging from 0.0203 in Farah province to 0.0246 in Herat province. There were significant differences between provinces for frequencies of different types of marriages (pconsanguineous marriages, followed by second cousins (16.0%), first cousins once removed (14.0%), beyond second cousins (6.9%) and double first cousins (1.6%). There was significant difference between ethnic groups for the types of marriages (pconsanguinity among ethnic groups in Afghanistan, respectively. The present study shows that the Afghani populations, the same as other Islamic populations, have high levels of consanguinity.

  10. Effect of Consanguinity on Low Birth Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Ameri, Pegah; Soltanian, Alireza; Bahrami, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Consanguinity (when couples share at least one common ancestor) is a public health issue with a variety of distributions and incidence rates worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have explored the association between consanguinity and low birth weight (LBW). However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the overall association between consanguineous marriage and LBW. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and reference lists of articles up to May 2015. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies addressing the association between consanguinity and LBW. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and the funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data and reported the overall odds ratio (OR) and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effects model. We included 24 out of 3941 retrieved studies, with 44,131 participants. We indicated that LBW was associated significantly with first-cousin marriages (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69) and non-significantly with second-cousin marriages (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.91). Furthermore, first-cousin marriages can reduce the birth weight of siblings of consanguineous couples 144 g more compared to non-consanguineous marriages. This meta-analysis measured the association between consanguinity and LBW. Based on the current evidence, consanguineous marriage can increase the risk for LBW. However, further evidence based on large cohort studies conducted in different settings is required to make a robust conclusion regarding the effect of consanguinity on LBW.

  11. Genome-wide linkage in a highly consanguineous pedigree reveals two novel loci on chromosome 7 for non-syndromic familial Premature Ovarian Failure.

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    Sandrine Caburet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human condition known as Premature Ovarian Failure (POF is characterized by loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. A majority of POF cases are sporadic, but 10-15% are familial, suggesting a genetic origin of the disease. Although several causal mutations have been identified, the etiology of POF is still unknown for about 90% of the patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a genome-wide linkage and homozygosity analysis in one large consanguineous Middle-Eastern POF-affected family presenting an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We identified two regions with a LOD(max of 3.26 on chromosome 7p21.1-15.3 and 7q21.3-22.2, which are supported as candidate regions by homozygosity mapping. Sequencing of the coding exons and known regulatory sequences of three candidate genes (DLX5, DLX6 and DSS1 included within the largest region did not reveal any causal mutations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We detect two novel POF-associated loci on human chromosome 7, opening the way to the identification of new genes involved in the control of ovarian development and function.

  12. Consanguineous marriage and reproduction in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlat, M

    1988-08-01

    Effects of consanguineous marriages on couples' fertility and on offspring mortality were investigated in Beirut through a population-based health survey of 2,752 households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used, and information was obtained from all ever-married women in the household about their reproductive performance and genealogical relationship with spouse; demographic and socioeconomic information was also recorded. Twenty-five percent of all marriages were between relatives, and the spouses were first cousins in approximately 57% of all consanguineous marriages. Total pregnancies, live births, and living children were significantly higher among consanguineous couples than among nonconsanguineous ones, as was the proportion dead among children ever born. However, no difference remained in either fertility or mortality, when allowance was made for socioeconomic status, religious affiliation, and marriage duration. The issue of confounding is discussed, and the lack of significant pattern in the final analysis is interpreted as resulting from a long-term practice of consanguineous marriages.

  13. Consanguinity Among Parents of Iranian Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajallouyan, Mohammad; Radfar, Shokofeh; Nouhi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seid Abbas; Amirsalari, Susan; Yousefi, Jaleh; Hasanali Fard, Mahdieh

    2016-11-01

    It seems that there is a relationship between consanguinity and profound hearing loss but there is little data about the association of consanguinity and hearing loss in Iran. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the causes of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among Iranian samples who are candidates for cochlear implantation. This study was retrospective, analytical, and designed to collect information about profound hearing impaired cases referred to the Baqiyatallah Cochlear implantation center using enumeration. A total of 310 children with profound hearing impairments participated in this study. They were aged from 6 months to 4 years old. The study was done between January 2007 and April 2009. Chi-square tests were used to show whether there was any statistical difference between the incidence of marital consanguinity of their parents and the normal population. Sixty-five percent of those 310 children had parents who had married with their relatives. Of the 203 (65%) parents that had consanguineous marriages, 132 were first cousins, which includes the children of two brothers (37 [11.8%] patrilateral parallel cousins), the children of two sisters (38 [12.2%] multi-lateral parallel cousins), or the children of a brother and a sister (57 [18.3%] cross cousins). Fifty-four (17.4%) of the parents were second cousins and 17 (5.2%) were beyond second cousins. Also, hearing loss etiology was obvious in 237 (76.3%) of the patients with profound hearing loss but was unknown in 73 (23.7%). Hereditary was identified as the most common cause in 33% of the cases. Our data demonstrated a 65% occurrence of consanguineous marriage among the parents of deaf children, which is statistically different from the percentage of consanguineous marriage among Iranian population (38%). This indicates an obvious relationship between severe hearing loss and consanguineous marriage.

  14. Thalassemia major and consanguinity in Shiraz city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali Akbar; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh

    2004-09-05

    Beta-thalassemia is among the most common genetic disorders in the world and in Iran, with widespread occurrence. A cross-sectional study on 648 beta-thalassemia patients in Shiraz, Iran was carried out to determine the demography of beta-thalassemia major in Shiraz city, Fars province, Iran and also the rate of consanguinity and the significance of pre-marriage counseling in decreasing familial marriages and consequently preventing this autosomal recessive genetic disease. All interviewed patients had thalassemia major and their age, sex, and the consanguinity between parents were recorded. 40.6% of beta-thalassemia patients were outcomes of first-cousin marriages. Comparison of the percentages of familial marriages (consanguinity) between parents of beta-thalassemia patients and a sample of normal population, revealed a statistically significant difference (pmarriages among thalassemic families, however, more education and awareness of young women and men about the increased risk of beta-thalassemia after familial marriage through pre-marriage counseling is still necessary.

  15. Consanguinity and spousal concordance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Kandari, Y; Crews, D E; Poirier, F E

    2002-12-01

    Consanguineous marriage is favored in Kuwait. This research focuses on the relationship of physical and cultural traits to marriage types in Kuwait and examines concordance as a function of consanguinity and marriage duration. In a nonrandom opportunistic sample of 242 couples anthropometric and blood pressure data have been collected as well as data on acculturation, religiosity, Farsi proficiency, level of education, occupation, and attitudes regarding fertility. Significant concordances occur in cultural characteristics among couples in all three types of marriages with respect to the degree of religiosity, acculturation, language similarity, education, and occupation. Non-consanguineous spouses have the highest concordance in educational level, occupation, and degree of acculturation, but the lowest for religiosity and Farsi proficiency. Nonkin marriages seem to be based on personal preferences. In the wider potential nonkin marriage pool spouses show more concordance in stature and education indicating the positive assortative mating for those traits. Non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association for triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses hip and waist circumferences, and body fat distribution. Unrelated spouses exhibit more concordance for physical traits than do related spouses. There is a significant correlation between spouses in first and double cousin marriages as well as in spouses in second and less than second cousin unions for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while non-consanguineous spouses show a significant association in diastolic blood pressure only.

  16. Consanguineous marriages and matrimonial distance: a study among three South Indian caste groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P G

    1988-12-01

    Reddy studies consanguineous marriages and matrimonial distance in 3 castes of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. The castes include the well-to-do agricultural caste, the Desuri Kapu; the 2nd, artisan caste in the middle of the hierarchy, the Devanga; and the third caste at the bottom of the social ladder, the Mala. During field work conducted in 1978-1979, prominent elders of the villages were approached; information on the consanguinity of marriage and matrimonial distance was gathered through intensive interviews of both men and women from all the households of the 3 castes. Among the total of 979 marriages, 28.9% occurred within the village, the proportion of intra-village marriages being significantly higher in Nellore taluk than in Sullurpet. The 3 castes overall show little difference in the incidence of intra-village marriages, but there is some within caste regional variation in the incidence of intra-village marriages, the Devanga showing a significantly higher incidence in Nellore than in Sullurpet. Intra-village marriages are more common among consanguineous couples (41.5%) than among non-consanguineous (18.3%), a highly significant excess in each of the caste groups. In short, Reddy concludes that intra-village marriages are more common among consanguineous couples than non-consanguineous, and mean matrimonial distance is also lower.

  17. Mutation Analysis of Consanguineous Moroccan Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Combining Microarray and Gene Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bouhouche

    2017-10-01

    pinpoint the genetic bases of autosomal recessive PD, particularly in countries with a high rate of consanguinity.

  18. Consanguinity and Disorders of Sexual Developments in the Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Consanguinity is very common in the Sudanese society. There is a lack of studies on consanguinity and its impact on genetic diseases in Sudan. In this study we correlated Disorders of Sexual developments (DSDs), as an example of genetic conditions, in relation with consanguinity. Material and Methods: A ...

  19. Association between consanguinity and survival of marriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general population who have no plan for divorce (as control group) were included in the study.

  20. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome with consanguinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Nguyen, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by unique posterior rib defectes, micrognathia, and mental deficiency. The mode of transmission is undetermined. This report describes the first case with documented parental consanguinity as well as hitherto undescribed CT and skeletal findings. (orig.)

  1. Epilepsy and consanguinity in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali Akbar

    2005-01-01

    The importance of consanguinity and its association with epilepsy has been suggested in some studies, but in one study the risk contributed to consanguinity for childhood epilepsy was not significanta. In the present study, there was an attempt to determine if consanguinity has any important association with epilepsy. All the epileptic children and adolescents up to the age of 18 years, who had been referred to Motahary Clinic in Shiraz, Iran, during a six-month period, were included in this cross-sectional study. The percentage of consanguinity in parents of the epileptic patients was compared to a sample of the general population in the same geographical area. In total, 181 unrelated epileptic children were included in this study. The mean age of these children was 7+/-4.6 years. The male/female ratio in these patients was 1.29. Overall, 61(33.7%) of the parents were first cousins (OR=2.264, 95%-CI: 1.618-3.169 in comparison to the general population), 37 (20.4%) were second cousins (OR=3.557, 95%-CI: 2.389-5.296), and 83 (45.9%) were not related. The percentage of consanguinity in parents of the epileptic patients was significantly higher in comparison to a sample of the general population (OR=2.612, 95%-CI: 1.929-3.536, Pmarriages (at least by 2.2 folds), as well as pre-marriage counseling for couples who have a family history of epilepsy are necessary as an effective preventive program.

  2. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  3. Social structure and consanguinity in a French mountain Population (1550-1849).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabino-Massa, Emma; Prost, Michel; Boëtsch, Gilles

    2005-04-01

    Sociocultural factors play a crucial role in the variation of consanguinity in a population. The choice of specific matrimonial strategies can favor the closure or opening of the group to the outside, whereas differential fertility affects the gene flow from one generation to another. In the present study we analyzed the role of socioprofessional groups in the maintenance of endogamy and consanguinity in a French Alpine valley: Vallouise in the Briançon area. In mountain environments, where the reproductive space is limited and quickly saturated, the autochthonous families adopt diversified matrimonial strategies. These marriage practices tend to prevent fragmentation of agricultural property. We analyzed the matrimonial behavior in the two main social groups of this population (décideurs and farmers) from 1550 to 1849. To better understand the behavior of the two social groups, we considered the two components of consanguinity, close and distant. Our study showed that the two groups had similar behavior regarding consanguinity. The way to prevent fragmentation of the patrimony was to choose a consanguineous spouse. This type of strategy inevitably leads to a high percentage of endogamy, which in this region of the Alps exceeded 90% through many centuries.

  4. Consanguineous Marriage Among the Parents of Hearing Impaired Students in Baghcheban Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nikbakht

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genetic studies show that consanguineous marriage can increase the probability of incidence of genetic impairments such as hearing impairments. The target of this study is to identify the prevalence of consanguinity among the parents of hearing impaired students in primary schools. Materials and Methods: We selected all of deaf students of Tehran (614 students. Their mothers answered to questionnaires. The questions were about Risk Factors of deafness in mother pregnancy or in neonatal period. Results: from 614 students, 389 parents of them (64% had consanguineous marriage and 223 person (36% didn’t have this factor. 2 person did not answer to this question. In this study we observed that there is 32.3% family history of hearing loss, 29.2%deaf sister and brother, 17% ear infection history. Other risk factors were studied too. Also there is significant correlation between consanguinity and more than one deaf children in the family (p<0.005. Conclusion: According to high incidence of consanguinity (64%that was observed in this study it may be one of most important causes of sensory neural hearing loss in children, so we should give enough information about this problem to the people.

  5. Hurler disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type IH: clinical features and consanguinity in Tunisian population

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    Chkioua Latifa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I was a group of rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, alpha -L -iduronidase, and the resulting accumulation of undergraded dematan sulfate and heparan sulfate. MPS I patients have a wide range of clinical presentations, that makes it difficult to predict patient phenotype which is needed for genetic counseling and also impedes the selection and evaluation of patients undergoing therapy bone marrow transplantation. Aim of the study consanguinity rates have been determined among 14 families with mucopolysaccharidosis type I, seen in the pediatric departments of different geographic areas of Tunisia (Central and Southern areas for the period August 2004 - August 2011 in order to investigate the relation between consanguinity and this disorder. Patients and methods Clinical and molecular analyses confirmed the diagnosis for MPS type I in the studied families. Results Most of the Tunisian MPS I patients have been identified at the homozygous status: p.P533R mutation (7 homozygous and one double heterozygous p.L578Q/p.P533R patients; 41.66% of all the investigated MPSI patients, p.F177S (1 homozygous patient; 5.55%, p.L530fs (1 patient; 5.55%, p.Y581X (2 patients; 11.11%, p.F602X (3 patients; 16.66%, p.R628X (1 patient; 5.55%. Another mutation: p.L578Q has been identified at the heterozygous status in the only double heterozygous p.L578Q/p.P533R case. Part of the mutations was the result of a founder effect. These described points are the consequences of the high rate of consanguinity. Conclusion The high frequency of p.P533R mutation could be explained by the high degree of inbreeding. This is due to the richness of the genetic background of the studied population. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to develop adequate preventive program adapted to the social, cultural, and economic context.

  6. Consanguineous marriage and reproduction in Beirut, Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Khlat, M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of consanguineous marriages on couples' fertility and on offspring mortality were investigated in Beirut through a population-based health survey of 2,752 households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used, and information was obtained from all ever-married women in the household about their reproductive performance and genealogical relationship with spouse; demographic and socioeconomic information was also recorded. Twenty-five percent of all marriages were between relative...

  7. Survey of familial glaucoma shows a high incidence of cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in non-consanguineous congenital forms in a Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millá, Elena; Mañé, Begoña; Duch, Susana; Hernan, Imma; Borràs, Emma; Planas, Ester; Dias, Miguel de Sousa; Carballo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify myocilin (MYOC) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1) mutations in a Spanish population with different clinical forms of familial glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods Index patients from 226 families participated in this study. Patients were diagnosed with familial glaucoma or OHT by complete ophthalmologic examination. Screening for MYOC mutations was performed in 207 index patients: 96 with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 21 with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), 18 with juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), five with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), and 67 with other types of glaucoma. One hundred two of the families (including all those in whom a MYOC mutation was detected) were also screened for CYP1B1 mutations: 45 POAG, 25 PCG, 21 JOAG, four ARS, and seven others. Results We examined 292 individuals (patients and relatives) with a positive family history of glaucoma or OHT. We identified two novel MYOC variants, p.Lys39Arg and p.Glu218Lys, in two families with POAG, and six previously reported MYOC mutations in seven families with POAG (four), JOAG (one), PCG (one), and normotensive glaucoma (one). CYP1B1 mutations were found in 16 index patients with PCG (nine), POAG (three), JOAG (two), and ARS (two). Conclusions The high percentage (9/25=36%) of mutations in CYP1B1 found in non-consanguineous patients with congenital glaucoma mandates genetic testing. However, the percentage of mutations (9/207=4.4%) in MYOC associated with glaucoma is relatively low in our population. The variable phenotype expression of glaucoma, even in families, cannot be explained with a digenic mechanism between MYOC and CYP1B1. PMID:23922489

  8. Relationship between birth order of spouses with different degrees of consanguineous relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B M; Malhotra, K C

    1991-08-01

    The relationship between birth order of spouses with different degrees of consanguinity is examined in a sample of 1826 couples belonging to the endogamous Vadde Fisherfolk of Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh, India. We attempt to explain the wide variation in the frequency of different kinds of consanguineous marriages through the age-sex structure of the population in general and especially of the related families. This structure may also be manifested in the association between the birth orders of spouses. A highly significant and large correlation between the birth orders of spouses in uncle-niece marriages and a gradual decrease in the correlation with increase in remoteness of the relationship between the spouses were observed. Given the distribution of age differences between the spouses and assuming a standard age-sex structure, it seems possible to estimate the optimum frequency with which at least close consanguineous marriages occur in any particular population.

  9. Consanguinity Ratio in Beta-Thalassemia Major Patients in District Bannu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. S.; Ahmed, M.; Khan, R. A.; Mushtaq, N.; Shah, M. W. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency of consanguinity in b-thalassemia major patients and its association with age, gender and hepatitis C virus antibody positivity. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2013 to July 2014 at various hospitals of district Bannu in the North Western Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Data was recorded on a predesigned questionnaire. Results: Out of 180 subjects, 133(74 percent) parents were cousins, while 47(26 percent) were unrelated. The frequency of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity was 14(7.77 percent). Conclusion: High prevalence of the disease in the study region was due to consanguineous marriages. (author)

  10. Consanguinity studies and genome research in Mediterranean developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, G.; Gialluisi, A.; Pippucci, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Classical studies of consanguinity have taken advantage of the relationship between the gene frequency for a rare autosomal recessive disorder (q) and the proportion of offspring of consanguineous couples who are affected with the same disorder. The Swedish geneticist Gunnar Dahlberg provided the first theoretical formulation of the inverse correlation between q and the increase in frequency of consanguineous marriages among parents of affected children with respect to marriages of t...

  11. Consanguinity, prematurity, birth weight and pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study at four primary health center areas of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, M B; Goudar, S S; Edlavitch, S A; Mahantshetti, N S; Naik, V; Hemingway-Foday, J J; Gupta, M; Nalina, H R; Derman, R; Moss, N; Kodkany, B S

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consanguinity adversely influences pregnancy outcome in South India, where consanguinity is a common means of family property retention. Data were collected from a prospective cohort of 647 consenting women, consecutively registered for antenatal care between 14 and 18 weeks gestation, in Belgaum district, Karnataka in 2005. Three-generation pedigree charts were drawn for consanguineous participants. χ (2)-Test and Student's t-test were used to assess categorical and continuous data, respectively, using SPSS version 14. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Overall, 24.1% of 601 women with singleton births and outcome data were consanguineous. Demographic characteristics between study groups were similar. Non-consanguineous couples had fewer stillbirths (2.6 vs 6.9% P=0.017; adjusted P=0.050), miscarriages (1.8 vs 4.1%, P=0.097; adjusted P=0.052) and lower incidence of birth weight birth (P=0.013), whereas smoking (P=0.015) and poverty (P=0.003) were associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Consanguinity significantly increases pregnancy loss and birth weight <2500 g.

  12. The Effect of Consanguineous Marriage on Mental Health among the Students of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Maryam; Deris, Fatemeh; Solati-Dehkordi, Kamal; Heidari-Soreshjani, Sheida; Karimi, Negar; Teimori, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    In Iran, after unintentional accidents, mental health problems are the second leading burden of disease. Consanguineous marriage is very common in Iran and the association between parental consanguinity and mental health is an important issue that has not yet been studied sufficiently in Iran. To investigate the effect of consanguinity and the degree of relationship on different levels of mental health. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, two groups of students were enrolled. The first group consisted of 156 students that had consanguineous parent (case group) and the second group was 156 students whose parents had non-blood relationship (control group). The students were evaluated using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Statistical analysis was conducted by Pearson's correlation coefficient, independent t-test and the one-way analysis of variance. Odd ratio was used to estimate the relative risk. Over 30% of the individuals were suffering from mental health problems. The most and least common mental health problems in both groups were social dysfunction (54.5% in the case group and the control group 50%) and depression (15.4% in the case group and 17.3% in the control group), respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of overall mental health and its subscales between student with non-consanguineous parent (control group) and the students that had consanguineous parent (case group) (p>0.05) and the status of mental health was not significantly different among student with different degree of kinship (p>0.05). The study revealed that social dysfunction was very common among the study students and also there were no relationship between parental consanguineous marriage and mental health. Parental consanguinity and genetic factors may not be the major causes of high prevalence of mental health problems in Iran and the effects of the environmental factors on these

  13. [Spectrum of congenital malformations observed in neonates of consanguineous parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Escalante, D; Castillo Zapata, I; Ruiz Allec, D; Ceballos Quintal, J M

    2006-01-01

    Consanguineous unions occur in all populations around the world. Couples related as second cousins or closer have been observed with deleterious effect. Among the clinical effects of parental consanguinity, the incidence of offspring with congenital malformations (CM) increases approximately two-fold. A hospital database of neonates with CM was searched to select neonates with parental consanguinity and two control groups. One control group consisted of healthy neonates and the other control group consisted of neonates with CM but without parental consanguinity. Both control groups consisted of the first neonate of the same sex to be born after a consanguineous neonate with CM. Family, sociodemographic and anthropometric variables, as well as the severity of the malformations, were compared between the two groups with CM. Neonates with CM were grouped into five categories: Major multiple CM, minor multiple CM, isolated major CM, isolated minor CM, and specific diseases. The indigenous Mayan subpopulation was also analyzed. Among 1117 neonates with CM, parental consanguinity was found in 21. Parental consanguinity was also found in 8 neonates in the group of healthy controls (OR 2.4 [1.05-5.95]). The most common form of consanguinity was between second cousins and was more frequent in the Mayan subpopulation. Major multiple CM were more frequent among consanguineous than among nonconsanguineous couples. No association was found between the severity of CM and the degree of relationship. The prevalence of consanguinity found in neonates with CM and healthy controls (1.9 % and 0.8 %) was similar to that found in other Latin populations. A higher prevalence was found in the Mayan population. Mayor multiple CM were more frequent among the neonates of consanguineous than among nonconsanguineous couples.

  14. The Implications of Parental Consanguinity on the Care of Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 6% of births worldwide, 7.9 million children, are born with a serious genetic congenital abnormality each year. A factor thought to increase the prevalence of birth defects is parental consanguinity, which is a social custom practiced in at least 20% of the world's population. The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between consanguinity and congenital defects. This article also aims to enhance neonatal healthcare practitioners' comprehension of its implications for practice and research. A review of literature was compiled from a search of the online databases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PubMed, EBSCO MegaFILE, and Google Scholar. Literature pertinent to this topic primarily consists of research studies that examine the inbreeding depression phenomenon through comparison of the prevalence of birth defects among the offspring of consanguineous and nonconsanguineous couples. Current studies indicate that the progeny of consanguineous couples are at an increased risk of congenital defects compared with those of nonconsanguineous couples. Consanguinity is one risk factor among many that can lead to a major birth defect. Relationships between consanguineous populations and neonatal healthcare practitioners such as registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physicians could significantly alter neonatal health outcomes. Specific recommendations such as genetic counseling and therapeutic communication are discussed. Further studies need to investigate the connection between consanguinity and birth defects while controlling for nongenetic variables. Moreover, a focus on consanguineous communities in the United States would prove beneficial.

  15. Genetic analysis of a consanguineous Pakistani family with Leber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... RESEARCH NOTE. Genetic analysis of a consanguineous Pakistani family with Leber .... representation of the deleterious mutation at genomic and protein level. ... In the last couple of years, numerous mutations in. GUCY2D ...

  16. [Analysis of clinical phenotype and mode of inheritance in retinitis pigmentosa patients with consanguineous marriage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei-ning; Sheng, Xun-lun; Liu, Ya-ni

    2012-10-01

    To analyse the mode of inheritance and clinical characteristics of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients with consanguineous marriage. RP patients were recruited for this study in Ningxia Eye Hospital from September 2009 to July 2011. All patients received complete ophthalmic examination. The mode of inheritance were determined based on family history and marriage history. Clinical features were characterized by complete ophthalmic examinations including visual acuity, macular OCT, visual field and electroretinogram (ERG). A total of 143 individuals with RP (33 families) were recruited. Based on analysis of family history and marriage history, 20 RP families (23 patients) had consanguineous marriage history accounted for 60.6% RP families (16.1% RP patients). There were 4 patients (from 4 families) diagnosed as Usher syndrome. In 20 RP families with consanguineous marriage history, 7 families (35.0%) were Hui ethnicity and 13 families (65%) were Han ethnicity. The marriages of 15 families were between first cousins and 3 families were between second cousins, only 2 families were between half cousins matrimony. Of 23 RP patients, 12 were males and 11 were females. The average age of onset was 11.4 ± 6.8 years and the average age of recruitment was (32.0 ± 13.5) years. The best-corrected visual acuity was less than 0.6 in 78.2% patients. According to the features of the fundus, 13 patients were classical retinitis pigmentosa and 10 patients were retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento. Visual field examination showed that all patients had varying degrees of peripheral visual field defect. Retinal neuroepithelial layer of macular and peripheral retina became thinner and retinal photoreceptors were disappeared. The average thickness of macular fovea was (186.1 ± 78.7) µm on right eyes and (187.4 ± 76.3) µm on left eyes. The incidence of RP with consanguineous marriages was high in Ningxia Region. The mode of inheritance of RP patients with consanguinity is autosomal

  17. The relationship between consanguineous marriage and death in fetus and infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Majid Mehr; Hooman, Heidar Ali; Afrooz, Gholam Ali; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in rural and urban areas of Iran, the aim of this study was to identify its role in increasing fetal and infant deaths. Materials ans Methods : This was a cross-sectional study in which 494 mothers with more than one exceptional child (mentally retarded and physically-dynamically disabled) or with normal children were selected based on multi-stage random sampling method. Data was gathered using the features of parents with more...

  18. Understanding High Rate Behavior Through Low Rate Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    challenges in high rate character- isation of polymers. The most important is that, owing to their low stress wavespeed, the structural response of...box’ tool, to provide supporting date for the rate dependent mechanical character- isation . Experiments were performed on a TA instruments Q800

  19. Addressing key issues in the consanguinity-related risk of autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous communities: lessons from a qualitative study of British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, A; Small, N; Ahmad, W I U; Atkin, K; Corry, P; Modell, B

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus regarding services required to help families with consanguineous marriages manage their increased genetic reproductive risk. Genetic services for communities with a preference for consanguineous marriage in the UK remain patchy, often poor. Receiving two disparate explanations of the cause of recessive disorders (cousin marriage and recessive inheritance) leads to confusion among families. Further, the realisation that couples in non-consanguineous relationships have affected children leads to mistrust of professional advice. British Pakistani families at-risk for recessive disorders lack an understanding of recessive disorders and their inheritance. Such an understanding is empowering and can be shared within the extended family to enable informed choice. In a three-site qualitative study of British Pakistanis, we explored family and health professional perspectives on recessively inherited conditions. Our findings suggest, firstly, that family networks hold strong potential for cascading genetic information, making the adoption of a family-centred approach an efficient strategy for this community. However, this is dependent on provision of high-quality and timely information from health care providers. Secondly, families' experience was of ill-coordinated and time-starved services, with few having access to specialist provision from Regional Genetics Services; these perspectives were consistent with health professionals' views of services. Thirdly, we confirm previous findings that genetic information is difficult to communicate and comprehend, further complicated by the need to communicate the relationship between cousin marriage and recessive disorders. A communication tool we developed and piloted is described and offered as a useful resource for communicating complex genetic information.

  20. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  1. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  2. Is consanguinity prevalence decreasing in Saudis?: a study in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Consanguineous mating and inbreeding have been a subject of human biological inquiry since George. Darwin, himself the son of a marriage between Charles. Darwin and his cousin Emma Wedgewood [2], who. Corresponding author: Arjumand S. Warsy. Department of Biochemistry. College of Science.

  3. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  4. The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency among children of short stature in Jordan and its relationship with consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Mustafa Ali, Moaath K; Al-Ani, Mohammad A; Momani, Munther S; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) among short-statured children in Jordan, where consanguineous marriage (CM) is common, is unknown. No studies have investigated the relationship between degrees of consanguinity and IGHD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IGHD among short-statured children referred to a university hospital in Jordan and its relationship with different degrees of consanguinity. We conducted a 24-month cross-sectional observational trial at an outpatient tertiary care center in Amman, Jordan. We obtained detailed family histories, medical evaluations and laboratory tests for 94 short-statured children (50 boys and 44 girls aged 6-16 years). Complete and partial GHD were defined as peak GH responses of 5 and 7 μg/l (15 and 21 mIU/l) [IRMA/DiaSorin®], respectively, in both exercise and insulin tolerance tests. GHD was diagnosed in 69·1% of the short children, including 86% (43/50) of the children of consanguineous parents (83·3%, 93·8% and 81·8% of children of first cousins, first cousins once removed and second cousins, respectively) and 50% (20/44) of the children of nonconsanguineous parents (P = 0·039, 0·002 and 0·013, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of small pituitary MRI between GH-deficient children of consanguineous parents and those of nonconsanguineous parents (28·6% vs 13·6%, P = 0·3). The prevalence of IGHD among referred short children in Jordan was exceptionally high and significantly higher in the children of CM. In countries where CM is common, preconception counselling and rigorous surveillance for GHD in short children may be indicated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, F.

    1982-03-01

    A high-rate C cell with disc electrodes was developed to demonstrate current rates which are comparable to other primary systems. The tests performed established the limits of abuse beyond which the cell becomes hazardous. Tests include: impact, shock, and vibration tests; temperature cycling; and salt water immersion of fresh cells.

  6. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  7. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy as a definitive treatment modality for locally advanced cervical cancer. T Refaat, A Elsaid, N Lotfy, K Kiel, W Small Jr, P Nickers, E Lartigau ...

  8. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  9. Assessing the influence of consanguinity on congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Bittles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous articles have been published linking consanguineous marriage to an elevated prevalence of congenital heart disease, with ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects the most commonly cited disorders. While initially persuasive, on closer examination many of these studies have fundamental shortcomings in their design and in the recruitment of study subjects and controls. Improved matching of cases and controls, to include recognition of the long-established community boundaries within which most marriages are contracted, and the assessment of consanguinity within specific levels and types of marital union would improve and help to focus the study outcomes. At the same time, major discrepancies between studies in their reported prevalence and types of congenital heart disease suggest an urgent need for greater standardization in the classification and reporting of these disorders.

  10. Assessing the influence of consanguinity on congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittles, Alan H.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published linking consanguineous marriage to an elevated prevalence of congenital heart disease, with ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects the most commonly cited disorders. While initially persuasive, on closer examination many of these studies have fundamental shortcomings in their design and in the recruitment of study subjects and controls. Improved matching of cases and controls, to include recognition of the long-established community boundaries within which most marriages are contracted, and the assessment of consanguinity within specific levels and types of marital union would improve and help to focus the study outcomes. At the same time, major discrepancies between studies in their reported prevalence and types of congenital heart disease suggest an urgent need for greater standardization in the classification and reporting of these disorders

  11. Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Lauren D C; Ku, David N

    2017-06-21

    The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. The prediction of high-shear thrombosis is a major area of biofluid mechanics in which point-of-care testing and computational modeling are promising future directions for clinically relevant research. Further research in this area will enable identification of patients at high risk for arterial thrombosis, improve prevention and treatment based on shear-dependent biological mechanisms, and improve blood-contacting device design to reduce thrombosis risk.

  12. High frame rate synthetic aperture duplex imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    aperture flow imaging as demonstrated in this paper. Synthetic aperture, directional beamforming, and cross-correlation are used to produce B-mode and vector velocity images at high frame rates. The frame rate equals the effective pulse repetition frequency of each imaging mode. Emissions for making the B...... estimation is −1.8% and the relative standard deviation 5.4%. The approach can thus estimate both high and low velocities with equal accuracy and thereby makes it possible to present vector flow images with a high dynamic range. Measurements are made using the SARUS research scanner, a linear array......Conventional color flow images are limited in velocity range and can either show the high velocities in systole or be optimized for the lower diastolic velocities. The full dynamics of the flow is, thus, hard to visualize. The dynamic range can be significantly increased by employing synthetic...

  13. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  14. Endorectal high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devic, S.; Vuong, T.; Evans, M.; Podgorsak, E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our quality assurance method for preoperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of endorectal tumours. Reproduction of the treatment planning dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for treatment success. Due to the cylindrical symmetry, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dose distribution shift along the applicator axis. (author)

  15. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  16. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  17. High dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy - treatment technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Aisen, Salim; Haddad, Cecilia Maria Kalil; Nadalin, Wladimir; Pedreira Junior, Wilson Leite; Chavantes, Maria Cristina

    1998-01-01

    High dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy is efficient in symptom relief due to obstructive endobronchial malignancies. However, it's role in survival improvement for patients with lung cancer is not yet established. The use of this treatment in increasing, specially in the developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to present the treatment technique used in the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital da Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo, based on an experience of 60 cases treated with 180 procedures. Some practical suggestions and rules adopted in the Department are described. The severe complications rate is 6.7%, demonstrating an adequate patient selection associated with the technique utilized. (author)

  18. Electronics for very high rate tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.H.; Dressnandt, N.; Ekenberg, T.; Gerds, E.J.; Newcomer, F.M.; Tedja, S.; Van Berg, R.; Van der Speigel, J.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented on a system of electronics designed for very high rate tracking detectors at the SSC and LHC. The primary goal was a system for signal detection, time measurement, and readout for the straw tracker for SDC. An integrated circuit incorporating eight channels of amplifier-shaper-discriminator (including detector tail cancellation), and two different integrated circuits for time measurement are described. The performance of tracking measurements up to counting rates of 8 MHz per wire is reported, as well as preliminary results from a baseline restoration circuit. (orig.)

  19. A Family Study of Consanguinity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Barwani, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhan, Ram; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa S. R. R.; Nahar, Vinayak K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. Objective: This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. Materials and Methods: This is a case series...

  20. High strain rate studies in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic compression studies using high velocity impact are usually considered to involve a catastrophic process of indeterminate loading rate by which a material is brough to a shock compressed state. Although this is frequently the case, methods are also available to control the rate of strain during the shock compression process. One of the most accurate of these methods makes use of the anomalous nonlinear elastic property of glass to transform an initial shock or step wave input into a ramp wave of known amplitude and duration. Fused silica is the most carefully calibrated material for this purpose and, when placed between the test specimen and the impact projectile, can provide loading strain rates in the range of 10 4 /s to 10 6 /s for final stress states of approximately 3.9 GPa or less.Ramp wave compression experiments have been conducted on dolomite at strain rates of 3 x 10 4 /s. Both initial yielding and subsequent deformation at this strain rate agrees well with previous shock wave studies (epsilon-dotapprox.10 6 /s) and differs substantially from quasi-static measurements (epsilon-dotapprox.10 -4 /s). The ramp wave studies have also uncovered a pressure-induced phase transition in dolomite initiating at 4.0 GPa

  1. Changing profile of couples seeking genetic counseling for consanguinity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Katrina E; Mountain, Helen; Nelson, John; Bittles, Alan H

    2005-01-15

    Consanguineous marriage is rare in most Western countries and, for example, in the USA it may be subject to regulation by both civil legislation and religious prescription. This is not the case in many regions of Asia and Africa where marriage within the family is strongly favored. Since the 1970s there has been widespread migration to North America, Western Europe, and Australasia from communities which encourage consanguineous marriage. To assess the effect of this trend on a genetic counseling program, the records of 302 couples referred to Genetic Services of Western Australia for consanguinity counseling were abstracted for the period 1975-2001. Overall, a family history of genetic disease or a previously affected child was reported in 28.8% of cases. Premarital or prepregnancy counseling on grounds of consanguinity was sought by 41.0% of couples, and a further 18.2% of consanguineous couples had been referred because of a consanguineous pregnancy. In 7.6% of cases a relationship closer than first cousin was involved. Through time there was a significant increase in the numbers of consanguineous consultants, and their patterns of religious affiliation and ethnic origin widened markedly. Although effectively excluded from entry to Australia prior to 1975, couples of Asian origin accounted for 25.5% of all consanguineous consultants. With ongoing migration, changes in the ethnic profiles and the specific counseling requirements of consanguineous couples can be expected to continue and probably accelerate.

  2. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  3. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  4. High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P.; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2012-11-01

    Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10 nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers.

  5. Impact of consanguineous marriages and degrees of inbreeding on fertility, child mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Mohd; Kaisar Ahmad, Mir; Azeem Anwar, Malik; Afzal, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to understand the relationship between consanguineous marriages and reproductive outcomes. A total of 999 families were recruited from five Muslim populations of Jammu region. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and inbreeding status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F). Fertility, mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and lethal equivalents were measured using standard methods. The significant differences for gross fertility was found to be higher among inbred groups as compared to the unrelated families (P consanguineous families of all populations in comparison with the non-consanguineous family groups. Moreover, the prenatal and postnatal child mortality rates (i.e., U5MR and U18MR) have presented a persuasive increase with an upsurge in the homozygosity level. The mortality rate was found to be maximum among families with the highest value of coefficient of inbreeding (F). The selection intensity (SI) also showed inflations among families with respect to their increasing inbreeding coefficients. The greater values of lethal equivalents per gamete (LEs/gamete) were observed for autosomal inheritance in comparison with sex-linked inheritance. Our conclusive assessment brings out the deleterious consequence of consanguineous marriages on reproductive outcomes.

  6. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  7. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  8. On high interest rates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lafaiete Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the question of why interest rates are so high in Brazil as compared to the international average. It looks at theoretical arguments based on excessive government deficits, structural lack of private savings, inflation bias, excessive investment demand and fear of floating. An informal look at the evidence does not strongly corroborate any of these arguments. Hence a wise central bank should consider "testing" the market to make sure it is not dealing with an extreme equilibrium configuration or a long standing disequilibrium.

  9. Flashing motor at high transition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Baoquan; Wang Liqiu; Liu Lianggang

    2007-01-01

    The movement of a Brownian particle in a fluctuating two-state periodic potential is investigated. At high transition rate, we use a perturbation method to obtain the analytical solution of the model. It is found that the net current is a peaked function of thermal noise, barrier height and the fluctuation ratio between the two states. The thermal noise may facilitate the directed motion at a finite intensity. The asymmetry parameter of the potential is sensitive to the direction of the net current

  10. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Souhei

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  11. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.

  12. Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaifallah A Alenizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

  13. Ultra Fast, High Rep Rate, High Voltage Spark Gap Pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    current rise time. The spark gap was designed to have a coaxial geometry reducing its inductance. Provisions were made to pass flowing gas between the...ULTRA FAST, HIGH REP RATE, HIGH VOLTAGE SPARK GAP PULSER Robert A. Pastore Jr., Lawrence E. Kingsley, Kevin Fonda, Erik Lenzing Electrophysics and...Modeling Branch AMSRL-PS-EA Tel.: (908)-532-0271 FAX: (908)-542-3348 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Directorate Ft. Monmouth

  14. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  15. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  16. High Data Rate Architecture (HiDRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Alan; Raible, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    high-rate laser terminals. These must interface with the existing, aging data infrastructure. The High Data Rate Architecture (HiDRA) project is designed to provide networked store, carry, and forward capability to optimize data flow through both the existing radio frequency (RF) and new laser communications terminal. The networking capability is realized through the Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) protocol, and is used for scheduling data movement as well as optimizing the performance of existing RF channels. HiDRA is realized as a distributed FPGA memory and interface controller that is itself controlled by a local computer running DTN software. Thus HiDRA is applicable to other arenas seeking to employ next-generation communications technologies, e.g. deep space. In this paper, we describe HiDRA and its far-reaching research implications.

  17. Do consanguineous parents of a child affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related parents with healthy offspring? Design of a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Martina C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offspring of consanguineous relations have an increased risk of congenital/genetic disorders and early mortality. Consanguineous couples and their offspring account for approximately 10% of the global population. The increased risk for congenital/genetic disorders is most marked for autosomal recessive disorders and depends on the degree of relatedness of the parents. For children of first cousins the increased risk is 2-4%. For individual couples, however, the extra risk can vary from zero to 25% or higher, with only a minority of these couples having an increased risk of at least 25%. It is currently not possible to differentiate between high-and low-risk couples. The quantity of DNA identical-by-descent between couples with the same degree of relatedness shows a remarkable variation. Here we hypothesize that consanguineous partners with children affected by an autosomal recessive disease have more DNA identical-by-descent than similarly-related partners who have only healthy children. The aim of the study is thus to establish whether the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous parents of children with an autosomal recessive disease is indeed different from its proportion in consanguineous parents who have healthy children only. Methods/Design This project is designed as a case-control study. Cases are defined as consanguineous couples with one or more children with an autosomal recessive disorder and controls as consanguineous couples with at least three healthy children and no affected child. We aim to include 100 case couples and 100 control couples. Control couples are matched by restricting the search to the same family, clan or ethnic origin as the case couple. Genome-wide SNP arrays will be used to test our hypothesis. Discussion This study contains a new approach to risk assessment in consanguineous couples. There is no previous study on the amount of DNA identical-by-descent in consanguineous

  18. Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Center for Accelerator Science and Education

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). Below details the Principal Investigators and contact information. Each PI submits separately for a budget through his corresponding institute. The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-­conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-­antimonide cathodes (BNL – LBNL) b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes (SBU -­ BNL) c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns (SBU) and copper RF photoguns (LBNL) Our work made extensive use of synchrotron radiation materials science techniques, such as powder-­ and single-­crystal diffraction, x-­ray fluorescence, EXAFS and variable energy XPS. BNL and LBNL have many complementary facilities at the two light sources associated with these laboratories (NSLS and ALS, respectively); use of these will be a major thrust of our program and bring our understanding of these complex materials to a new level. In addition, CHESS at Cornell will be used to continue seamlessly throughout the NSLS dark period and

  19. Cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome with consanguineous parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberg, R C; Gershanik, J J

    1976-06-01

    We describe a female infant with the cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome whom we recognized at birth because of her short neck, restriction of cervical movement, and low posterior hairline. X-ray examination showed anomalies of C1, and between C2-3 and C3-4; thus, we classified her as type II, with variable cervical fusion. At 24 months she was small and manifested hearing deficiency. The mother and father were consanguineous with five common ancestors four generations ago, which resulted in a coefficient of inbreeding equivalent to a second cousin relationship. The parents and grandparents were phenotypically normal, and the parents were radiologically normal. This form of the syndrome has previously been said to be autosomal dominant. Our conclusion of determination by a single autosomal recessive gene is evidence of genetic heterogeneity.

  20. Domestic violence and consanguineous marriages - perspective from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M Ali; Kayani, A; Shaikh, I Ali

    2014-01-09

    Domestic violence is globally endemic and adversely impacts the health and economic well-being of women and society. This study used the standardized and validated assessment instrument "Woman Abuse Screening Tool" to study the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence among married women. The relationship between domestic violence and consanguineous marriage was studied using the chi-squared test. Cumulatively, 1010 married women were interviewed. Emotional abuse was the most commonly reported abuse, reported by 721 (71.4%) women as either often or sometimes, followed by sexual abuse and physical abuse, reported by 527 (52.2%) and 511 (50.6%) respectively. Being married to one's cousin did not protect married women from being abused either emotionally or physically by their husbands; thsi was statistically significant. There is a need for better understanding of the magnitude and scale of domestic violence in Pakistan by using standardized assessment tools for meaningful comparisons across different parts of the country over time.

  1. Papillon-Lefevre syndrome: Reporting consanguinity as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aasim Farooq; Tangade, Pradeep; Agarwal, Swatantra

    2014-07-01

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis associated with severe early-onset periodontitis and premature loss of primary and permanent teeth. This report describes two cases of PLS in 28-year-old female and 16-year-old male siblings with consanguineously married parents. The patients presented to the Department of Public Health Dentistry of a dental education and research institute in India with thickening, flaking, and scaling of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. On oral examination, the female patient presented completely resorbed maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges with retention of only the third molars. The male patient retained only teeth 18, 13, 28, 38, and 45. Based on complete histories and clinical examination findings, a final diagnosis of PLS was made and treatment was initiated using an interdisciplinary dental approach in both cases.

  2. Papillon–Lefevre syndrome: Reporting consanguinity as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasim Farooq Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillon–Lefevre syndrome (PLS is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis associated with severe early-onset periodontitis and premature loss of primary and permanent teeth. This report describes two cases of PLS in 28-year-old female and 16-year-old male siblings with consanguineously married parents. The patients presented to the Department of Public Health Dentistry of a dental education and research institute in India with thickening, flaking, and scaling of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. On oral examination, the female patient presented completely resorbed maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges with retention of only the third molars. The male patient retained only teeth 18, 13, 28, 38, and 45. Based on complete histories and clinical examination findings, a final diagnosis of PLS was made and treatment was initiated using an interdisciplinary dental approach in both cases.

  3. Brachytherapy treatment with high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Rodriguez, Sergio Marcelino; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Lissi Lisbet; Ciscal Chiclana, Onelio Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Retrospectively analyze results and prognostic factors of cervical cancer patients treated with radio concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, radiation therapy combined modality. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2007, 198 patients with invasive cervical cancer were treated at the Oncology Department of Hospital Robau Celestino Hernandez (brachytherapy performed at INOR). The most common age group was 31 to 40 years. The histology in squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 84.3% of cases. The treatment consisted of external pelvic irradiation and vaginal brachytherapy, high dose rate. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly with a maximum of 70 mg for 5 weeks. Results: 66.2% of patients completed 5 cycles of chemotherapy. The median overall survival was 39 months, overall survival, disease-free survival and survival free of locoregional recurrence at 5 years of 78%, 76% and 78.6% respectively .. We found that clinical stage, histological type (adenocarcinoma worst outcome) were statistically related to level of response. Conclusions: Treatment with external pelvic radiation, brachytherapy and concurrent weekly cisplatin in patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer is feasible in the Chilean public health system, well tolerated and results comparable to international literature. (Author)

  4. Parental consanguinity and susceptibility to drug abuse among offspring, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh

    2010-11-30

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High mitogenomic evolutionary rates and time dependency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.; Denver, D.R.; Millar, C.D.; Heupink, T.; Aschrafi, A.; Emslie, S.D.; Baroni, C.; Lambert, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Using entire modern and ancient mitochondrial genomes of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) that are up to 44000 years old, we show that the rates of evolution of the mitochondrial genome are two to six times greater than those estimated from phylogenetic comparisons. Although the rate of

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE PREVALENCE AND THE AFFECTING FACTORS OF CONSANGUINOUS MARRIAGES AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk TEKBAS

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the prevalence and the affecting factors of consanguinous marriage which is common especially in around of our country and leads to very important health problems, a questionnaire was applied to all 402 married soldiers among 4300 soldiers of Etimesgut Armor School and Training Division Command. At the end of the study, it has been found that the overall prevalence of consanguinous marriage was 18.7%. Contrary to general expectations, ?love and marriage by loving? other than ?economical concerns? was determined as the basic reason of the consanguinous marriage. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(3.000: 120-128

  7. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  8. Ceramic high-rate timing RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, L.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fonte, P.; Hennetier, L.; Pereira, A.; Sousa Correia, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Following some previous work, we report here considerable improvements on the counting rate capability of timing RPCs by the use of ceramic electrodes with a resistivity of 10 9 Ω.cm. The X-ray sensitivity of the detector depends linearly on the counting rate with a slope of 9% per 100 kHz/cm 2 , free from charge depletion effects, while keeping a timing accuracy, measured with 511 keV synchronous photon pairs, around 90 ps σ up to 75 kHz/cm 2

  9. Modernization or cultural maintenance: the practice of consanguineous marriage in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat

    2008-11-01

    Consanguineous marriage has been the culturally preferred form of marriage in Iran. This paper examines the extent to which education, urbanization and changes in modes of economic production have affected the incidence of consanguineous marriage and attitudes towards consanguineous marriages. The 2002 Iran Fertility Transition Survey conducted in the four provinces of Gilan, Sistan and Baluchistan, Yazd and West Azarbaijan provides information on the degree of relationship of marriage partners from around 6550 ever-married women aged 15-49. Attitudinal data were also obtained. Overall, the level of marriage to biological relatives ranged from 23% in Gilan to 78% in Sistan and Baluchistan. The paper finds that the practice of marriage to biological relatives has remained surprisingly resilient in the face of modernizing influences and that ethnicity, province and area of residence remain important determinants. On the other hand, attitudes have shifted towards marriage with a non-relative. Anthropological research would illuminate the processes of consanguineous marriage in Iran.

  10. A consanguineous family with Hirschsprung disease, microcephaly, and mental retardation (Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, AS; Breuning, MH; Osinga, J; Van der Smagt, JJ; Catsman, CE; Buys, CHCM; Meijers, C; Hofstra, RMW

    Hirschsprung disease, mental retardation, microcephaly, and specific craniofacial dysmorphism were observed in three children from a large, consanguineous, Moroccan family. A fourth child showed similar clinical features, with the exception of Hirschsprung disease. The association of these

  11. Transition to high rate aerospace NDI processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Bert; Thomson, Clint; Ivakhnenko, Igor; Garner, Chuck

    2018-04-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of carbon fiber composite materials in military and commercial aircraft, processes to manufacture and inspect the structural components must evolve to ensure economic viability. Inspection techniques which were developed to inspect products produced at a rate of one or two structures a month are not fast or flexible enough to inspect more than 8500 parts per month. This presentation describes the evolution of phased array ultrasonic inspection systems to provide the increased rate capacity, the flexibility to accommodate multiple unique designs, and the ability to rapidly adjust to product design changes. The paper will describe how system developments were made in response to new programs resulting in a much less expensive, higher degree of accuracy, increased flexibility, and lower cycle time inspections.

  12. High exposure rate hardware ALARA plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1996-10-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable review provides a description of the engineering and administrative controls used to manage personnel exposure and to control contamination levels and airborne radioactivity concentrations. HERH waste is hardware found in the N-Fuel Storage Basin, which has a contact dose rate greater than 1 R/hr and used filters. This waste will be collected in the fuel baskets at various locations in the basins

  13. Why Are Real Interest Rates So High?

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie; Alex Kane; Robert L. McDonald

    1983-01-01

    This paper applies the Capital Asset Pricing Model to help explain the anomalous behavior of real interest rates during the last several years. Specifically,we are able to show that the increased volatility of bond prices since the change in Federal Reserve operating procedure in October 1979 has substantially increased the required real risk premium on long term bonds. We also consider and reject the possibility that increased risk alone accounts for the recent increase in the short-term rea...

  14. Prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children in Ardabil, North Western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrooz Nemati; Gholam Ali Afrooz; Ali Asgari; Bagher Ghobari Bonab

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Having healthy non-handicapped children plays a major role in mental health of the family and decreases family and society's costs. While consanguineous marriage could lead to expression of recessive genes and a variety of handicaps including deafness, the aim of present study was to scrutinize the prevalence of consanguineous marriage among parents of deaf and normal children as well as its relationship with deafness.Methods: In this study, 467 couples parenting normal ch...

  15. A Family Study of Consanguinity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Barwani, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa S R R; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. This is a case series research design. Extreme or deviant case sampling was applied. Data were collected in homes, camps, and clinical settings in the Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The patterns of consanguineous marriages and the relationship between children with ID and their relatives with ID, epilepsy, and mental illness were analyzed and reported with pedigree charts. Multiple patterns of consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal populations were observed. ID was found to be associated in children with their relatives of the first, second, and third generations. ID may inherit in individuals from their relatives of the first, second, and third generations who have ID, epilepsy, or mental illness and married in the relationship. Appropriate knowledge, guidance, and counseling may be provided to potential couples before planning a consanguineous marriage.

  16. A family study of consanguinity in children with intellectual disabilities in Barwani, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Lakhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intellectual disability (ID can be inherited in families through consanguineous marriage. The ID in an individual can be associated with the ID, epilepsy, and mental illness in their parents. Such connections can be seen more closely among consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal population in India. Objective: This study shows a few common patterns of the consanguineous relationship in the parents of children with ID in India. Materials and Methods: This is a case series research design. Extreme or deviant case sampling was applied. Data were collected in homes, camps, and clinical settings in the Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The patterns of consanguineous marriages and the relationship between children with ID and their relatives with ID, epilepsy, and mental illness were analyzed and reported with pedigree charts. Results: Multiple patterns of consanguineous marriages in tribal and nontribal populations were observed. ID was found to be associated in children with their relatives of the first, second, and third generations. Conclusion: ID may inherit in individuals from their relatives of the first, second, and third generations who have ID, epilepsy, or mental illness and married in the relationship. Appropriate knowledge, guidance, and counseling may be provided to potential couples before planning a consanguineous marriage.

  17. Consanguineous marriage in PR China: a study in rural Man (Manchu) communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Qian, Cong; Bittles, A H

    2002-01-01

    Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in China, information on its prevalence is very limited. The Man (Qing) dynasty ruled China for over 250 years, but no consanguinity studies have been reported on this important population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the present-day level of consanguineous marriage in the Man community, and to compare the data with existing consanguinity information on other Chinese populations. The study was conducted in a group of 11 rural Man communities in the north-eastern Chinese province of Liaoning. Household-based interviews were conducted by local staff on 513 couples, 418 of whom were Man with another 95 Man-Han inter-ethnic marriages. Basic pedigrees were constructed to determine the biological relationship between each set of spouses. Thirty of the 418 couples were in a consanguineous union, with a mean coefficient of inbreeding alpha = 0.0012. The small population sizes of the study may have contributed to the spatial variation in the patterns of inbreeding. Across generations there was a reduction in consanguineous marriages and an increase in inter-ethnic unions, which paralleled changes in civil marriage regulations.

  18. High readmission rate after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, L C

    2015-01-01

    investigated. RESULTS: After valve surgery, the self-reported health was lower (Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical Component Scale (PCS): 44.5 vs. 50.6 and Mental Component Scale (MCS): 51.9 vs. 55.0, pClinical signs......BACKGROUND: After heart valve surgery, knowledge on long-term self-reported health status and readmission is lacking. Thus, the optimal strategy for out-patient management after surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Using a nationwide survey with linkage to Danish registers with one year follow-up, we...... included all adults 6-12months after heart valve surgery irrespective of valve procedure, during Jan-June 2011 (n=867). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding health-status (n=742), and answers were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Readmission rates and mortality were...

  19. High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Smith, Ryan L; Shelton, Nikki; Whitaker, May; Butler, Duncan; Haworth, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192 Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192 Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192 Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192 Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.

  20. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  1. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  2. [Juvenile myasthenia gravis in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study of two consanguine sisters born from consanguinity in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneh, Nidain; Apetse, Kossivi; Diatewa, Bénédicte Marèbe; Domingo, Sidik Abou-Bakr; Agba, Aidé Isabelle; Ayena, Koffi Didier; Balogou, Koffi Agnon; Balo, Komi Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a rare acquired autoimmune pathology causing neuromuscular transmission impairment. Juvenile onset of myasthenia gravis is often characterized by ocular involvement. We report two cases of ocular juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) in two siblings. They were two young girls, XA and XB, aged 11 and 9 years, of Malian origin, residing in Togo, born from first-degree of consanguinity presenting to Ophthalmology due to progressive decrease in visual acuity. XA showed visual acuity 8/10 on both eyes while XB showed improvement in visual acuity from 3/10 to 7/10 using a pinhole occluder, suggesting ametropia. XA had a 2-year history of bilateral ptosis lifting the upper eyelid of 7 mm, while XB had a 3-year history of bilateral ptosis with no lifting of the upper eyelid. Ice pack test was strongly positive in both patients. They had Cogan's lid twitch with paresis of the oculomotor nerve without diplopia. The dosage of acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies was normal. The diagnosis of JMG associated with ametropia was suspected. Ametropia was corrected by glasses and a specific treatment with pyridostigmine was initiated, but both patients were lost to follow-up. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis with inaugural ophthalmologic manifestation is rare but it can occur among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies should be conducted to establish the features of this disease.

  3. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Miao; Walt Haney

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates d...

  4. Inbreeding in Gredos mountain range (Spain): contribution of multiple consanguinity and intervalley variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Jiménez, A M; Colantonio, S E

    2001-04-01

    The present paper examines consanguineous marriages occurring between 1874 and 1975 in three valleys (Tormes, Alberche, and Tiétar) in the Sierra de Gredos mountain range, Avila province, Spain. Information was obtained from parish registers of 42 localities, corresponding to a total of 41,696 weddings. Consanguineous marriages were defined as those up to the third degree of consanguinity (second cousins). From 1874 to 1975 the percentage of related mates was 4.45% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0011868 (for 1874 to 1917 corresponding figures up to the fourth degree were 16.44% and 0.00 19085, respectively). In order to ascertain the characteristics and evolution of mating patterns in Gredos, the contribution of each degree of kinship was analyzed as a whole and then for each valley separately. Regarding total consanguineous marriages in Gredos, there is a low frequency of uncle-niece matings (0.21%) and a first-second cousin mating ratio (C22/C33) of 0.23 (up to the third degree of consanguinity). Before 1918 multiple matings (i.e., those involving more than a single relationship) accounted for 19.16% of consanguineous marriages (up to the fourth degree). The observed frequencies of multiple consanguineous marriages was, on average, about twice that expected at random, and the proportion of such marriages to total inbreeding was 34.65%. The temporal change of the Gredos inbreeding pattern was characterized by a recent decrease; the highest inbreeding levels correspond to the period from 1915 to 1944. Finally, intervalley differences (maximum inbreeding coefficient in the Tormes, minimum in the Tiétar) are interpreted considering the geography, population size, and population mobility for each valley

  5. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Miao

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates discrepancies between alternative results at national, state, and state ethnic group levels. Despite the graduation rate method used, results indicate that high school graduation rates in the U.S. have been declining in recent years and that graduation rates for black and Hispanic students lag substantially behind those of white students. As to graduation rate method preferred, this study found no evidence that the conceptually more complex methods yield more accurate or valid graduation rate estimates than the simpler methods.

  6. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  7. Consanguinity and its relationship to differential fertility and mortality in the Kotia: a tribal population of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim; Naidu, J M; Mascie-Taylor, C G

    1997-04-01

    Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The mean inbreeding coefficient for the sample (F) was 0.0172. Women in consanguineous marriages had a lower mean number of total conceptions, live births and living offspring (net fertility) than women in non-consanguineous marriages. Significant heterogeneity was found in the means of living offspring for FSD, MBD and non-consanguineous couples, but not for conceptions and live births.

  8. [The point-digital interpretation and the choice of the dermatoglyphic patterns on human fingers for diagnostics of consanguineous relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, V N; Rakitin, V A; Fomina, E E

    The objective of the present study was the development of the point-digital model for the scaless interpretation of the dermatoglyphic papillary patterns on human fingers that would allow to comprehensively describe, in digital terms, the main characteristics of the traits and perform the quantitative assessment of the frequency of their inheritance. A specially developed computer program, D.glyphic. 7-14 was used to mark the dermatoglyphic patterns on the fingerprints obtained from 30 familial triplets (father + mother + child).The values of all the studied traits for kinship diagnostics were found by calculating the ratios of the sums of differences between the traits in the parent-parent pairs to those in the respective parent-child pairs. The algorithms for the point marking of the traits and reading out the digital information about them have been developed. The traditional dermatoglyphic patterns were selected and the novel ones applied for the use in the framework of the point-digital model for the interpretation of the for diagnostics of consanguineous relationship. The present experimental study has demonstrated the high level of inheritance of the selected traits and the possibility to develop the algorithms and computation techniques for the calculation of consanguineous relationship coefficients based on these traits.

  9. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  10. The american high school graduation rate : trends and levels

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses multiple data sources and a unified methodology to estimate the trends and levels of the U.S. high school graduation rate. Correcting for important biases that plague previous calculations, we establish that (a) the true high school graduation rate is substantially lower than the official rate issued by the National Center for Educational Statistics; (b) it has been declining over the past 40 years; (c) majority/minority graduation rate differentials are substantial and have n...

  11. Challenges in the care for consanguineous couples: an exploratory interview study among general practitioners and midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeuw Marieke E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often suggested that an effort must be made to increase awareness among consanguineous couples of their reproductive risk, and to refer them for genetic counseling if needed. Primary care professionals are considered most appropriate for addressing the subject and identifying couples at risk during consultations in their practice. This Dutch study aims to explore the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of such professionals regarding their care for consanguineous couples. Methods Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and general practitioners. Results Although most primary care professionals considered it their task to inform couples about the risks of consanguinity, during consultations the topic was generally only briefly touched upon and quickly abandoned. Important reasons for this were professionals’ beliefs about religious and social values of couples, their low perception of the couples’ reproductive risk and expected limited feasibility of referral. Feelings of embarrassment regarding addressing consanguinity did not seem to play a significant role. Conclusions Primary care professional beliefs about their clients’ religious and social values, their attitudes toward the risk, and perceived limited options for referral seem to conflict with the professional norm to address the topic of consanguinity.

  12. The decline in consanguineous marriage among Muslims in Israel: The role of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona Schellekens

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are two explanations for the inverse relationship between consanguinity and women's education. The female empowerment hypothesis posits that better-educated women will demand more freedom in choosing a marriage partner, whereas the role incompatibility hypothesis posits that school enrollment may prevent women from fulfilling spousal obligations. Objective: This article presents estimates of the relative contributions of school enrolment and educational attainment to the decline in consanguineous marriage. Methods: Our data comes from three rounds of the Palestinians in Israel Socio-Economic Survey. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, we estimated discrete-time event history models to assess the effects of education on the probability of a consanguineous marriage. To test the two hypotheses we constructed two distinct education vectors for each woman from information on the number of years of schooling. The first charts yearly enrolment in education, whereas the second vector reflects actual attainment in each year. Results: Between 1975‒1979 and 2005‒2010, consanguineous marriage declined by almost 60Š. The rise in the age of leaving school explains about a third of the decline. Educational attainment did not contribute to the decline. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present estimates of the relative contributions of school enrolment and educational attainment to the decline in consanguineous marriage.

  13. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG IRANIAN MANDAEANS LIVING IN SOUTH-WEST IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Zarghami, Mahdis

    2018-07-01

    SummarySeveral studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. A total of 137 couples (urban areas: 79 couples; rural areas: 58 couples) were included in the study. Information on the consanguineous marriages of the subjects was collected through direct interviews. Marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples as double first cousins, first cousins, first cousin once removed, second cousins and unrelated marriages. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for the population, stratified by rural and urban areas. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 50.7% in urban and 86.2% in rural areas. There was a significant difference between rural and urban areas in types of marriages (χ 2=24.8, df=4, p<0.001) and first cousin marriages (51.8%) were the most common type. The overall α-value was estimated to be 0.0363 for the Iranian Mandaean population.

  14. Temporal dynamics of high repetition rate pulsed single longitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing (GIG) cavity, single-mode dye laser pumped by high repetition rate ... in a high loss cavity, a detailed theoretical study and optimization of cavity ..... rate for high conversion efficiency and longer pulse width of the single-mode dye laser.

  15. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    OpenAIRE

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security ...

  16. High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1996-01-01

    Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.

  17. WDR73 missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in a consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chen; Gai, Nan; Zou, Yongyi; Zheng, Yu; Ma, Ruiyu; Wei, Xianda; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2017-01-01

    Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a very rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, and various central nervous system abnormalities, mostly cerebral hypoplasia or cerebellar atrophy, intellectual disability and neural-migration defects. WDR73 is the only gene known to cause GMS, and has never been implicated in other disease. Here we present a Chinese consanguineous family with infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia but no microcephaly. Whole exome sequencing identified a WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation. The mutation is confirmed to be segregated in this family by Sanger sequencing according to a recessive inheritance pattern. It is predicted to be deleterious by multiple algorithms and affect highly conserved site. Structural modeling revealed conformational differences between the wild type protein and the p.W371G protein. Real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed altered mRNA and protein levels in mutated samples. Our study indicates the novel WDR73 p.W371G missense mutation causes infantile onset intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia in recessive mode of inheritance. Our findings imply that microcephaly is a variable phenotype in WDR73-related disease, suggest WDR73 to be a candidate gene of severe intellectual disability and cerebellar hypoplasia, and expand the molecular spectrum of WDR73-related disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High rate flame synthesis of highly crystalline iron oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchan-Merchan, W; Taylor, A M; Saveliev, A V

    2008-01-01

    Single-step flame synthesis of iron oxide nanorods is performed using iron probes inserted into an opposed-flow methane oxy-flame. The high temperature reacting environment of the flame tends to convert elemental iron into a high density layer of iron oxide nanorods. The diameters of the iron oxide nanorods vary from 10 to 100 nm with a typical length of a few microns. The structural characterization performed shows that nanorods possess a highly ordered crystalline structure with parameters corresponding to cubic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) with the [100] direction oriented along the nanorod axis. Structural variations of straight nanorods such as bends, and T-branched and Y-branched shapes are frequently observed within the nanomaterials formed, opening pathways for synthesis of multidimensional, interconnected networks

  19. Inbreeding coefficients and degree of consanguineous marriages in Spain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Colantonio, Sonia Edith

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of consanguineous marriages corresponding to uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), and second cousin (C33) to the inbreeding coefficient (alpha) was analyzed from a sample of Spanish areas and periods. Multiple regressions were performed taking as independent variables the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected (C12, C22, C23, and C33) and as dependent variable the inbreeding coefficient (alpha). According to the results obtained for any degree and period, rural frequencies always surpass urban. However, the pattern is similar in both areas. In the period where consanguinity was more elevated (1890-1929) the C22/C33 ratio increased. Its variation is not due to C22 and C33 changes in the same way. In rural areas, this ratio surpasses the expected value by a factor of 2-3, but in urban areas it was 7-10 times larger, in some cases due to migration. While in rural Spain the C33 frequency was approximately 1.5 times C22, in cities C22 was 1.5 times C33. The best fit among the various types of consanguineous matings and alpha involves a lineal relationship. Regardless of the number of variables contributing significantly to alpha, C22 matings are always present. Moreover, their standardized (beta) coefficients are the highest. The above indicates that this consanguineous relationship conditions the inbreeding coefficient the most. In the period of greater consanguinity, close relationships, uncle-niece C12, and first cousin once removed (C23) make a significant contribution to alpha. In rural Spain second cousins (C33) always significantly determined alpha; however, in cities the inbreeding variation was mainly due to C12 and C23. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  1. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  2. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  3. Introduction to State Estimation of High-Rate System Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Dodson, Jacob; Joyce, Bryan

    2018-01-13

    Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer's convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued that adaptive observers are important to this research. In particular, adaptive data-driven observers are advantageous due to their adaptability and lack of dependence on the system model.

  4. Processing of high-temperature superconductors at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamalis, A.G.; Pantazsopoulos, G.; Manolakos, D.E.; Szalay, A.

    2000-01-01

    This new book provides, for the first time, a systematic, unified presentation of all steps in the processing of high-temperature superconductor materials, ranging from synthesis of various systems to fabrication and industrial applications. Also covered are characterization techniques and current directions in research and development. The authors are leading specialists who bring to this new book their many years of experience in research, education and industrial engineering work in superconductor materials. This book is primarily focused on the bulk-fabrication techniques of high-temperature ceramic superconducting components, especially on the combination of dynamic powder-consolidation and subsequent deformation processing. The properties of these ceramics, which are difficult-to-form materials by applying conventional techniques, are combined for the net-shape manufacturing of such components for the construction of HTS deviceshor e llipsis. However, very important topics such as superconducting structures, chemical synthesis, film fabrication and characterization techniques are also reviewedhor e llipsis to provide a complete, comprehensive view of superconductors engineering

  5. High dose rate brachytherapy in treatment of high grade astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Alejo, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Cerro, E. del; Torres, J.J.; Martinez, R.

    1996-01-01

    From May 1994 to June 1995, 18 patients with high grade astrocytomas were entered prospectively on a selective protocol combining surgery, external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic interstitial implantation with HDR Iridium 192 and chemotherapy. Only those patients with tumor size 100cc or less average dimension, high grade astrocytoma, Karnofsky 70 or greater, unilateral, circumscribed, unifocal, tumor stable or responding to external radiation and supratentorial were included in the study. Ages ranged from 16 to 69 years. There were 13 males and 5 females. Surgery consisted of biopsy only in 3 patients, subtotal resection in 11, and gross total resection in 4 patients. Focal external beam radiation portals included the contrast enhancing mass on CT scan plus a 3 cm margin. The protocol called for minimum tumor dose of 60 Gy to be given in 2 Gy daily fractions. An interstitial brachytherapy boost was to be performed two weeks after the conclusion of external beam radiation. The dose was 30 Gy in 4 fractions. The authors analyze on basis on their personal experience, the possibilities and the limits offered by this therapeutic procedure in neuro-oncology. Using stereotactic techniques, interstitial brachytherapy of brain tumors was technically possible with negligible acute morbidity and mortality, and appeared to be effective and may provide for an increase in tumor control in selected cases

  6. The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Maroun, Lateefeh

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined the effect of consanguineous marriage in the Arab community on reading disabilities of offspring. It examined whether the rate of reading disabilities was higher among offspring of first-cousin parents than offspring of unrelated parents; and whether reading-disabled children of first-cousin parents were more disabled in phonological awareness and phonological decoding than reading-disabled children of unrelated parents and normally reading younger children. These questions were investigated among 814 pupils of the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades, using word recognition and reading comprehension tests. Two experimental groups were chosen from this population. These were a reading-disabled group of 22 pupils who were children of first-cousin marriages and 21 pupils who were children of unrelated parents. A control group was also selected, consisting of 21 younger normally reading pupils at the same reading level. All the groups were tested on non-words, real words, phonological, orthographic and working memory measures. The results indicated that the rate of reading disabilities among children of first-cousin parents was higher than that of with children of second-cousin parents, distantly related parents, or unrelated parents. Further, no differences were found in phonological awareness and decoding between the two reading-disabled groups. Moreover, the results indicate a significant advantage of the younger normal readers over the reading-disabled children in the measures of phonological awareness, decoding, and orthographical knowledge that requires spelling. However, in reading common words and choosing words in context, the performance of the reading-disabled groups and the normally reading group were similar. It has been suggested that further research is needed to evaluate the role of intelligence, nevertheless our results provide new evidence for a genetic basis to reading disabilities.

  7. Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it. (paper)

  8. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Diew Lai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. For Malaysia, no significant causal relation is found from the rate of interest to exchange rates, as the authorities in Malaysia did not actively adopt a high interest rate policy to defend the currency.

  9. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  10. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among shi'a populations of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kheshen, Ghadir; Saadat, Mostafa

    2013-09-01

    In genetics, a consanguineous marriage means union between couples who are related as second cousins or closer. The present cross-sectional study was carried out in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages in the Shi'a population living in widespread territories in Lebanon including the Bekaa Valley, the south of Lebanon and the southern suburb of Beirut. Data on types of marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in the study was 1203. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 28.4%, with first cousin marriages (21.3%) being the most common type followed by first cousins once removed (5.5%), then double first cousins (0.8%). The frequencies of second cousin and beyond second cousin marriages were the same at 0.4% of all the marriages. The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was estimated at about 0.0161 for the population. There were no significant differences between the three studied territories for frequencies of different types of marriages (p>0.1), nor were there significant differences between the rural and urban areas (p>0.1).

  11. SNP Analysis and Whole Exome Sequencing: Their Application in the Analysis of a Consanguineous Pedigree Segregating Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Nickerson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia encompasses a large and heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. We employed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing to investigate a consanguineous Maori pedigree segregating ataxia. We identified a novel mutation in exon 10 of the SACS gene: c.7962T>G p.(Tyr2654*, establishing the diagnosis of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS. Our findings expand both the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of this rare disorder, and highlight the value of high-density SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing as powerful and cost-effective tools in the diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous disorders such as the hereditary ataxias.

  12. How Did Successful High Schools Improve Their Graduation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janna Siegel; Smith, Robert W.; Rinka, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The researchers surveyed 23 North Carolina high schools that had markedly improved their graduation rates over the past five years. The administrators reported on the dropout prevention practices and programs to which they attributed their improved graduation rates. The majority of schools reported policy changes, especially with suspension. The…

  13. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the thermal decomposition behaviour of the aforementioned powder at high heating rates was taken into considera- ... does not change the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride ... from titanium hydride in a sequence of steps.

  14. Treatment of the prostate cancer with high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Torres Silva, Felipe

    2002-01-01

    The prostate cancer treatment in early stages is controversial. The high dose rate brachytherapy has been used like monotherapy or boost with external beam radiotherapy in advanced disease. This paper describes the technique and the advantages over other modalities

  15. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of titanium hydride ... hydride powder, while switching it from internal diffusion to chemical reaction. ... TiH phase and oxides form on the powder surface, controlling the process.

  16. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  17. Quantum Communication with a High-Rate Entangled Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathaniel C.; Chaffee, Dalton W.; Lekki, John D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A high generation rate photon-pair source using a dual element periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PP KTP) waveguide is described. The photon-pair source features a high pair generation rate, a compact power-efficient package, and continuous wave (CW) or pulsed operation. Characterization and test results are presented. Details and preliminary results of a laboratory free-space QKD experiment with the B92 protocol are also presented.

  18. APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussaillant Catalina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel. Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  19. APOA5 Q97X mutation identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Serrano, Valentina; Maiz, Alberto; Eyheramendy, Susana; Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Chavez, Matías; Smalley, Susan V; Fuentes, Marcela; Rigotti, Attilio; Rubio, Lorena; Lagos, Carlos F; Martinez, José Alfredo; Santos, José Luis

    2012-11-15

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  20. Loss-of-function mutations in the thyrotropin receptor gene as a major determinant of hyperthyrotropinemia in a consanguineous community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum-Rakover, Yardena; Grasberger, Helmut; Mamanasiri, Sunee; Ringkananont, Usanee; Montanelli, Lucia; Barkoff, Marla S; Dahood, Ahmad Mahameed-Hag; Refetoff, Samuel

    2009-05-01

    Resistance to TSH (RTSH) is a condition of impaired responsiveness of the thyroid gland to TSH, characterized by elevated serum TSH, low or normal thyroid hormone levels, and hypoplastic or normal-sized thyroid gland. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical course and the genotype-phenotype relationship of RTSH caused by two different TSH receptor (TSHR) gene mutations in a consanguineous population. We conducted a clinical and genetic investigation of 46 members of an extended family and 163 individuals living in the same town. In vitro functional studies of the mutant TSHRs were also performed. Two TSHR gene mutations (P68S and L653V) were identified in 33 subjects occurring as homozygous L653V (five subjects), heterozygous L653V (20 subjects), heterozygous P68S (four subjects), and compound heterozygous L653V/P68S (four subjects). With the exception of one individual with concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, all homozygotes and compound heterozygotes presented with compensated RTSH (high TSH with free T(4) and T(3) in the normal range). Only nine of 24 heterozygotes had mild hyperthyrotropinemia. The L653V mutation resulted in a higher serum TSH concentration and showed a more severe in vitro abnormality than P68S. Haplotype analysis predicted a founder of the L653V six to seven generations earlier, whereas the P68S is older. Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies indicate that TSH and T(4) concentrations remain stable over time. High frequency hyperthyrotropinemia in an Israeli Arab-Muslim consanguineous community is attributed to two inactivating TSHR gene mutations. Concordant genotype-phenotype was demonstrated clinically and by in vitro functional analysis. Retrospective and prospective studies indicate that in the absence of concomitant autoimmune thyroid disease, elevated TSH levels reflect stable compensated RTSH.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial clefts and the influence of consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, N M; Sabbagh, H J; Innes, N P T; El Derwi, D; Hanno, A Z; Al-Aama, J Y; Habiballah, A H; Mossey, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and describe the characteristics of non-syndromic orofacial cleft (NSOFC) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and examine the influence of consanguinity. Six hospitals were selected to represent Jeddah's five municipal districts. New born infants with NSOFC born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 were clinically examined and their number compared to the total number of infants born in these hospitals to calculate the prevalence of NSOFC types and sub-phenotypes. Referred Infants were included for the purpose of studying NSOFC characteristics and their relationship to consanguinity. Information on NSOFC infants was gathered through parents' interviews, infants 'files and patient examinations. Prospective surveillance of births resulted in identifying 37 NSOFC infants born between 1st of January 2010 to 31st of December 2011 giving a birth prevalence of 0.80/1000 living births. The total infants seen, including referred cases, were 79 children. Consanguinity among parents of cleft palate (CP) cases was statistically higher than that among cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) patients (P = 0.039). Although there appears to be a trend in the relationship between consanguinity and severity of CL/P sub-phenotype, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.248). Birth prevalence of NSOFC in Jeddah City was 0.8/1000 live births with CL/P: 0.68/1000 and CP: 0.13/1000. Both figures were low compared to the global birth prevalence (NSOFC: 1.25/1000, CL/P: 0.94/1000 and CP: 0.31/1000 live births). Consanguineous parents were statistically higher among CP cases than among other NSOFC phenotypes.

  2. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S.; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M.; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  3. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  4. Pre-marital genetic counselling to consanguineous couples: attitudes, beliefs and decisions among counselled, noncounselled and unrelated couples in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, S; Reznik, H; Bat-Miriam-Katznelson, M; Goldman, B

    1995-11-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 Israeli subjects who received genetic counselling while considering marriage to a close relative, 40 subjects married to a close relative who did not receive pre-marital genetic counselling, and 125 controls married to a nonrelative and never having considered marrying a relative. It was found that 72% of the consanguineous couples who received pre-marital genetic counselling proceeded with their plans and married their relative; 86% of them reported that the counselling influenced their final decision to some degree. Counsellees' appraisals of genetic counselling revealed unfulfilled expectations to obtain more definitive answers, and mixed reactions to the nondirective approach applied by the counsellors. Comparisons between consanguineous and control couples revealed different views about consanguinity in general, and genetic risks in particular. Consanguineous couples, unlike controls, perceived consanguinity as an ordinary form of marriage, and had more favorable attitudes towards it. Compared to the noncounselled consanguineous group, consanguineous couples who received pre-marital genetic counselling had fewer children, estimated their genetic risk as lower but its subjective significance as higher, and perceived genetic disorders as more severe. The implications of these results are discussed from both theoretical and practical standpoints.

  5. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meco, Halim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt

  6. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  7. Decay rate of the false vacuum at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate, within the semiclassical approach, the high temperature behaviour of the decay rate (Γ) of the metastable vacuum in Field Theory. We exhibit some exactly soluble (1+1) and (3+1) dimensional examples and develop a formal expression for γ in the high temperature limit. (Author) [pt

  8. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  9. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  10. Regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutations and effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutation and the effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis of beta b-thalassemia and to target the high risk population for screening. A total of 499 couples were referred to Gentec Lab., Lahore, from all over Pakistan for prenatal diagnosis of b-thalassemia. After counseling, chorionic villus sampling was done between 10-16 weeks of gestation. DNA analysis was done by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) for type of mutation in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Ethnicity, race and consanguineous relationship of parents was determined.b-thalassemia was prevalent in Punjabis (60.7%) followed by Saraikees (25.5%). Castewise it was most frequent in Rajputs followed by Jatts, Arain, Sheikhs and Pathans. 56.7% of the couples were first cousins and 19.8% were relatives. The commonest mutations were Frameshift 8-9 (Fr8-9) 33.5%, Intervening Sequence 1-5 (IVS 1-5) 17.2%, Fr4142 - 8%, IVS 1-1 - 5.2%, Deletion 619 (Del 619) 4.2% and Codon 5 (Cd 5) - 4.2%. In samples sent for analysis, 53.1% turned out to be carriers (trait), 25.3% were diseased (thalassemia major) and 21.6% were normal. P-value of all results was less than 0.001. In this series, the highest frequency was found in Punjabi Rajputs. The commonest mutation was Fr 8-9. Most parents were first cousins. Premarital thalassemia carrier testing can effectively reduce the disease. (author)

  11. Clinical Application of Screening for GJB2 Mutations before Cochlear Implantation in a Heterogeneous Population with High Rate of Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application of mutation screening and its effect on the outcome of cochlear implantation is widely debated. We investigated the effect of mutations in GJB2 gene on the outcome of cochlear implantation in a population with a high rate of consanguineous marriage and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Two hundred and one children with profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss were included. Forty-six patients had 35delG in GJB2. Speech awareness thresholds (SATs and speech recognition thresholds (SRTs improved following implantation, but there was no difference in performance between patients with GJB2-related deafness versus control (all >0.10. Both groups had produced their first comprehensible words within the same period of time following implantation (2.27 months in GJB2-related deaf versus 2.62 months in controls, =0.22. Although our findings demonstrate the need to uncover unidentified genetic causes of hereditary deafness, they do not support the current policy for genetic screening before cochlear implantation, nor prove a prognostic value.

  12. Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  14. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  15. Low dose rate and high dose rate intracavitary treatment for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo

    1997-01-01

    From 1984 through 1993, 144 previous untreated patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix were treated with either low dose rate 137 Cs therapy (LDR) or high dose rate 60 Co therapy (HDR). The local failure rates for more than 2-years for the primary lesions were 11.8% (8 of 63 patients) for LDR and 18.0% (11 of 61 patients). Rectal complication rates were significantly lower for HDR versus LDR (14.3% VS. 32.8%. p<0.01). Also, bladder complication rates were significantly lower for HDR versus LDR (0% VS. 10.4%, p<0.005). Treatment results in term of local control were equivalent for HDR and LDR treatment. However, the incidence of complications was higher for the LDR group than for the HDR group. (author)

  16. Measurement of viscosity of slush at high shear rates

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 俊一; 川村, 公之; 津川, 圭一; 和泉, 薫; Kobayashi, Shun'ichi; Kawamura, Kimiyuki; Tugawa, Keiichi; Izumi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of viscosity of slush were carried out using a method of flow along an inclined smooth surface in a 0℃cold room. The method was used to get the values of viscosity under high shear rates (25 and 75s^). From our experiments two important results were obtained: 1) the viscosity of slush decreases with increasing shear rates; 2) The fluid behavior is pseudoplastic that the values of non-Newtonian index of viscosity were less than unity.

  17. Radiobiological aspects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation in interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy and total body irradiation are discussed in terms of dose-rate fractionation sensitivity for various tissues. A scaling between dose-rate and fraction size was established for acute and late normal-tissue effects which can serve as a guideline for local treatment in the range of dose rates between 0.02 and 0.005 Gy/min and fraction sizes between 8.5 and 2.5 Gy. This is valid provided cell-cycle progression and proliferation can be ignored. Assuming that the acute and late tissue responses are characterized by α/β values of about 10 and 3 Gy and a mono-exponential repair half-time of about 3 h, the same total doses given with either of the two methods are approximately equivalent. The equivalence for acute and late non-hemopoietic normal tissue damage is 0.02 Gy/min and 8.5 Gy per fraction; 0.01 Gy/min and 5.5 Gy per fraction; and 0.005 Gy/min and 2.5Gy per fraction. A very low dose rate, below 0.005 Gy/min, is thus necessary to simulate high dose-rate radiotherapy with fraction sizes of about 2Gy. The scaling factor is, however, dependent on the repair half-time of the tissue. A review of published data on dose-rate effects for normal tissue response showed a significantly stronger dose-rate dependence for late than for acute effects below 0.02 Gy/min. There was no significant difference in dose-rate dependence between various acute non-hemopoietic effects or between various late effects. The consistent dose-rate dependence, which justifies the use of a general scaling factor between fraction size and dose rate, contrasts with the wide range of values for repair half-time calculated for various normal-tissue effects. This indicates that the model currently used for repair kinetics is not satisfactory. There are also few experimental data in the clinical dose-rate range, below 0.02 Gy/min. It is therefore

  18. U.S. High School Graduation Rates: Patterns and Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Murnane

    2013-01-01

    I survey the evidence on patterns in U.S. high school graduation rates over the period 1970–2010 and report the results of new research conducted to fill in holes in the evidence. I begin by pointing out the strengths and limitations of existing data sources. I then describe six striking patterns in graduation rates. They include stagnation over the last three decades of the twentieth century, significant race-, income-, and gender-based gaps, and significant increases in graduation rates o...

  19. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J.; LaFontaine, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps. PMID:20625528

  20. THE AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATE: TRENDS AND LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Lafontaine, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    This paper applies a unified methodology to multiple data sets to estimate both the levels and trends in U.S. high school graduation rates. We establish that (a) the true rate is substantially lower than widely used measures; (b) it peaked in the early 1970s; (c) majority/minority differentials are substantial and have not converged for 35 years; (d) lower post-1970 rates are not solely due to increasing immigrant and minority populations; (e) our findings explain part of the slowdown in college attendance and rising college wage premiums; and (f) widening graduation differentials by gender help explain increasing male-female college attendance gaps.

  1. A review of reaction rates in high temperature air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul

    1989-01-01

    The existing experimental data on the rate coefficients for the chemical reactions in nonequilibrium high temperature air are reviewed and collated, and a selected set of such values is recommended for use in hypersonic flow calculations. For the reactions of neutral species, the recommended values are chosen from the experimental data that existed mostly prior to 1970, and are slightly different from those used previously. For the reactions involving ions, the recommended rate coefficients are newly chosen from the experimental data obtained more recently. The reacting environment is assumed to lack thermal equilibrium, and the rate coefficients are expressed as a function of the controlling temperature, incorporating the recent multitemperature reaction concept.

  2. High rate tests of the LHCb RICH Upgrade system

    CERN Multimedia

    Blago, Michele Piero

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the upgrade of the LHCb RICH detectors from 2020 is to readout the photon detectors at the full 40 MHz rate of the LHC proton-proton collisions. A test facility has been setup at CERN with the purpose to investigate the behaviour of the Multi Anode PMTs, which have been proposed for the upgrade, and their readout electronics at high trigger rates. The MaPMTs are illuminated with a monochromatic laser that can be triggered independently of the readout electronics. A first series of tests, including threshold scans, is performed at low trigger rates (20 kHz) for both the readout and the laser with the purpose to characterise the behaviour of the system under test. Then the trigger rate is increased in two separate steps. First the MaPMTs are exposed to high illumination by triggering the pulsed laser at a high (20 MHz) repetition rate while the DAQ is readout at the same low rate as before. In this way the performance of the MaPMTs and the attached electronics can be evaluated ...

  3. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison

    2017-11-28

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode, a semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a liquid electrolyte, and an ion permeable membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness in the range of about 250 .mu.m-2,500 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least 5 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/2.

  4. High-rate performance of muon drift tube detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwegler, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. In parallel with the first LHC run from 2009 to 2012, which culminated in the discovery of the last missing particle of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs boson, planning of upgrades of the LHC for higher instantaneous luminosities (HL-LHC) is already progressing. The high instantaneous luminosity of the LHC puts high demands on the detectors with respect to radiation hardness and rate capability which are further increased with the luminosity upgrade. In this thesis, the limitations of the Muon Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at the high background counting rates at the LHC and performance of new small diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) detectors at the even higher background rates at HL-LHC are studied. The resolution and efficiency of sMDT chambers at high γ-ray and proton irradiation rates well beyond the ones expected at HL-LHC have been measured and the irradiation effects understood using detailed simulations. The sMDT chambers offer an about an order of magnitude better rate capability and are an ideal replacement for the MDT chambers because of compatibility of services and read-out. The limitations of the sMDT chambers are now in the read-out electronics, taken from the MDT chambers, to which improvements for even higher rate capability are proposed.

  5. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of Silver Nanowires: Rate-Dependent Brittle-to-Ductile Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Gao, Wei; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio

    2016-01-13

    The characterization of nanomaterials under high strain rates is critical to understand their suitability for dynamic applications such as nanoresonators and nanoswitches. It is also of great theoretical importance to explore nanomechanics with dynamic and rate effects. Here, we report in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) tensile testing of bicrystalline silver nanowires at strain rates up to 2/s, which is 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in the literature. The experiments are enabled by a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) with fast response time. It was identified that the nanowire plastic deformation has a small activation volume (ductile failure mode transition was observed at a threshold strain rate of 0.2/s. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that along the nanowire, dislocation density and spatial distribution of plastic regions increase with increasing strain rate. Furthermore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations show that deformation mechanisms such as grain boundary migration and dislocation interactions are responsible for such ductility. Finally, the MD and experimental results were interpreted using dislocation nucleation theory. The predicted yield stress values are in agreement with the experimental results for strain rates above 0.2/s when ductility is pronounced. At low strain rates, random imperfections on the nanowire surface trigger localized plasticity, leading to a brittle-like failure.

  6. High data rate coding for the space station telemetry links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D. R.; Viterbi, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coding systems for high data rates were examined from the standpoint of potential application in space-station telemetry links. Approaches considered included convolutional codes with sequential, Viterbi, and cascaded-Viterbi decoding. It was concluded that a high-speed (40 Mbps) sequential decoding system best satisfies the requirements for the assumed growth potential and specified constraints. Trade-off studies leading to this conclusion are viewed, and some sequential (Fano) algorithm improvements are discussed, together with real-time simulation results.

  7. Predicting High Frequency Exchange Rates using Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Palikuca, Aleksandar; Seidl,, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This thesis applies a committee of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines on high-dimensional, high-frequency EUR/USD exchange rate data in an effort to predict directional market movements on up to a 60 second prediction horizon. The study shows that combining multiple classifiers into a committee produces improved precision relative to the best individual committee members and outperforms previously reported results. A trading simulation implementing the committee classifier...

  8. Decay rate of the false vacuum at high tempratures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Within the semiclassical approach, the high temperaure behaviour of the decay rate of the metastable vacuum in Field Theory is investigated. It is shown that, contrarily to what has been proposed in the literature, the pre-exponential factor exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the temperature. Furthermore, this dependence is such that at very high temperatures it is as important as the exponential factor and consequently it spoils many conclusions drawn up to now on Cosmological Phase Transitions. (Author) [pt

  9. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  10. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCONNOR, P.; GRATCHEV, V.; KANDASAMY, A.; POLYCHRONAKOS, V.; TCHERNIATINE, V.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    1999-01-01

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm 2 /s

  11. Digital approach to high rate gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolczuk, Stefan; Mianowski, Slawomir; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Sibczynski, Pawel; Swiderski, Lukasz; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Zychor, Izabella [Narodowe Centrum Badan Jadrowych (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock, (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Basic concepts and preliminary results of creating high rate digital spectrometry system using efficient ADCs and latest FPGA are presented as well as a comparison with commercially available devices. The possibility to use such systems, coupled to scintillators, in plasma experiments is discussed. (authors)

  12. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  13. Twinning in copper deformed at high strain rates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Copper samples having varying microstructures were deformed at high strain rates using a split-. Hopkinson pressure bar. Transmission electron microscopy results show deformation twins present in samples that were both annealed and strained, whereas samples that were annealed and left unstrained, as well ...

  14. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  15. Sphaleron rate at high temperature in 1+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, Jan; Tang, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    We resolve the controversy in the high temperature behavior of the sphaleron rate in the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions. The T 2 behavior at intermediate lattice spacings is found to change into T ((2)/(3)) behavior in the continuum limit. The results are supported by analytic arguments that the classical approximation is good for this model

  16. CONSANGUINITY, GENETICS AND DEFINITIONS OF KINSHIP IN THE UK PAKISTANI POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittles, A H; Small, N A

    2016-11-01

    Consanguineous marriage is a controversial topic in many Western societies, with attention mainly focused on the health of immigrant communities from Asia and Africa. In the UK consanguinity is especially prevalent in the Pakistani community, which now numbers over 1.1 million. Less attention has been paid to the influence of hereditary population stratification within Pakistani communities, in particular biraderi (literally brotherhood) membership, which denotes male lineages that largely govern marriage partner choice and hence the transmission of disease genes. The various roles played by biraderi and their relationship to other socio-occupational and kinship terms, such as caste, quom and zat, are often overlooked in health-based studies. The interchangeable use of these different kinship terms without rigorous definition can create identity uncertainty and hinders inter-study comparisons. Where feasible, standardization of terminology would be both desirable and beneficial, with biraderi the preferred default term to identify specific social and genetic relationships within the Pakistani diaspora.

  17. High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, M., E-mail: myoshizumi@istec.or.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO{sub 2}/sputter-LMO (LaMnO{sub 3})/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7})/Hastelloy{sup TM} to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4 deg. of DELTAphiCeO{sub 2} in an XRD phi scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum I{sub c} value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of I{sub c} value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high J{sub c} and I{sub c} properties.

  18. Physical nature of strain rate sensitivity of metals and alloys at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, E. N.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Mayer, A. E.; Selyutina, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    The role of instabilities of plastic flow at plastic deformation of various materials is one of the important cross-disciplinary problems which is equally important in physics, mechanics and material science. The strain rate sensitivities under slow and high strain rate conditions of loading have different physical nature. In the case of low strain rate, the sensitivity arising from the inertness of the defect structures evolution can be expressed by a single parameter characterizing the plasticity mechanism. In our approach, this is the value of the characteristic relaxation time. In the dynamic case, there are additional effects of “high-speed sensitivity” associated with the micro-localization of the plastic flow near the stress concentrators. In the frames of mechanical description, this requires to introduce additional strain rate sensitivity parameters, which is realized in numerous modifications of Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models. The consideration of both these factors is fundamental for an adequate description of the problems of dynamic deformation of highly inhomogeneous metallic materials such as steels and alloys. The measurement of the dispersion of particle velocities on the free surface of a shock-loaded material can be regarded as an experimental expression of the effect of micro-localization. This is also confirmed by our results of numerical simulation of the propagation of shock waves in a two-dimensional formulation and analytical estimations.

  19. The impact of consanguinity on the frequency of inborn errors of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Raja Majid; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Skovby, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    for selected IEM with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a national screening program of newborns covering the period from 2002 until April 2017. Among the 838,675 newborns from Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, a total of 196 newborns had an IEM of whom 155 from Denmark were included...... children. The data indicate a strong association between consanguinity and IEM. These figures could be useful to health professionals providing antenatal, pediatric, and clinical genetic services....

  20. Radiation shielding and dose rate distribution for the building of the high dose rate accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Takagaki, Torao; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Yohta.

    1984-03-01

    A high dose rate electron accelerator was established at Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Takasaki Establishment, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1975. This report shows the fundamental concept for the radiation shielding of the accelerator building and the results of their calculations which were evaluated through the model experiments. After the construction of the building, the leak radiation was measured in order to evaluate the calculating method of radiation shielding. Dose rate distribution of X-rays was also measured in the whole area of the irradiation room as a data base. (author)

  1. High strain-rate soft material characterization via inertial cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jonathan B.; Barajas, Carlos; Henann, David L.; Johnsen, Eric; Franck, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of soft materials at high strain-rates is challenging due to their high compliance, slow wave speeds, and non-linear viscoelasticity. Yet, knowledge of their material behavior is paramount across a spectrum of biological and engineering applications from minimizing tissue damage in ultrasound and laser surgeries to diagnosing and mitigating impact injuries. To address this significant experimental hurdle and the need to accurately measure the viscoelastic properties of soft materials at high strain-rates (103-108 s-1), we present a minimally invasive, local 3D microrheology technique based on inertial microcavitation. By combining high-speed time-lapse imaging with an appropriate theoretical cavitation framework, we demonstrate that this technique has the capability to accurately determine the general viscoelastic material properties of soft matter as compliant as a few kilopascals. Similar to commercial characterization algorithms, we provide the user with significant flexibility in evaluating several constitutive laws to determine the most appropriate physical model for the material under investigation. Given its straightforward implementation into most current microscopy setups, we anticipate that this technique can be easily adopted by anyone interested in characterizing soft material properties at high loading rates including hydrogels, tissues and various polymeric specimens.

  2. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-07-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8.7 F g-1 at the discharge current of 1 A g-1.

  3. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  4. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG A COHORT OF MULTIETHNIC HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Hamamy, Hanan; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice related to consanguinity among multiethnic health care providers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Using a cross-sectional study design, a validated, self-administered close-ended questionnaire was randomly distributed to health care providers in different health institutions in the country between 1st August 2012 and 31st July 2013. A total of 1235 health care providers completed the study questionnaire. Of the 892 married participants (72.23% of total), 11.43% were married to a first cousin, and were predominantly Arabs, younger than 40 years and male. Only 17.80% of the patients seen by the health care providers requested consanguinity related counselling. A knowledge barrier was expressed by 27.49% of the participants, and 85.67% indicated their willingness to have more training in basic genetic counselling. A language barrier was expressed as a limiting factor to counselling for consanguinity among non-Arabs. The health care providers had a major dearth of knowledge that was reflected in their attitude and practice towards consanguinity counselling. This finding indicates the need for more undergraduate and postgraduate medical and nursing education and training in the counselling of consanguineous couples. It is recommended that consanguinity counselling is included in the current premarital screening and counselling programmes in the Kingdom.

  5. The risk ratio for development of hereditary sensorineural hearing loss in consanguineous marriage offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Kabel, Abdelmagied; Abo El-Naga, Heba Abd El-Rehem; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed; Salem, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to define the relative risk of development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriages. This is a retrospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary referral center in Jeddah, KSA. The study group included 1600 probands (848 males, 752 females), with age range 0.5-12 years (6.6 ± 3.6). The study group comprised of two equal, age and sex matched subgroups; Hearing Loss (HL) group and Normal Hearing (NH) group. The children included in the HL group should have idiopathic or non syndromic genetic sensorineural hearing loss. The HL Group comprised 800 children with variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. Profound and severe degrees of hearing loss were the most prevalent degrees (P marriage offspring in the NH group was 42.5%, while in the HL group it was 68.9% (P  0.05). The relative risk and 95% confidence interval (RR, 95% CI) for development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriage was 1.76 (95% CI 1.57-1.97, P marriage progeny to develop SNHL when compared to non consanguineous progeny. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Spallation model for the high strain rates range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, E.; Eliezer, S.; Henis, Z.; Moshe, E.; Ludmirsky, A.; Goldberg, I. B.

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of the dynamic spall strength in aluminum and copper shocked by a high power laser to pressures of hundreds of kbars show a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at values of about 107 s-1. We suggest that this behavior is a result of a change in the spall mechanism. At low strain rates the spall is caused by the motion and coalescence of material's initial flaws. At high strain rates there is not enough time for the flaws to move and the spall is produced by the formation and coalescence of additional cavities where the interatomic forces become dominant. Material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and cavities of a critical radius are formed in it due to thermal fluctuations. These cavities grow due to the tension. The total volume of the voids grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. Simplified calculations based on this model, describing the metal as a viscous liquid, give results in fairly good agreement with the experimental data and predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates.

  7. Highly variable rates of genome rearrangements between hemiascomycetous yeast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiascomycete yeasts cover an evolutionary span comparable to that of the entire phylum of chordates. Since this group currently contains the largest number of complete genome sequences it presents unique opportunities to understand the evolution of genome organization in eukaryotes. We inferred rates of genome instability on all branches of a phylogenetic tree for 11 species and calculated species-specific rates of genome rearrangements. We characterized all inversion events that occurred within synteny blocks between six representatives of the different lineages. We show that the rates of macro- and microrearrangements of gene order are correlated within individual lineages but are highly variable across different lineages. The most unstable genomes correspond to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Chromosomal maps have been intensively shuffled by numerous interchromosomal rearrangements, even between species that have retained a very high physical fraction of their genomes within small synteny blocks. Despite this intensive reshuffling of gene positions, essential genes, which cluster in low recombination regions in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tend to remain syntenic during evolution. This work reveals that the high plasticity of eukaryotic genomes results from rearrangement rates that vary between lineages but also at different evolutionary times of a given lineage.

  8. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  9. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  10. Study of magnetorheological fluids at high shear rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz [University of Nevada, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2006-08-15

    The tunable rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) materials at high shear rates are studied using a piston-driven flow-mode-type rheometer. The proposed method provides measurement of the apparent viscosity and yield stress of MR fluids for a shear rate range of 50 to 40,000 s{sup -1}. The rheological properties of a commercial MR fluid, as well as a newly developed MR polymeric gel, and a ferrofluid-based MR fluid are investigated. The results for apparent viscosity and dynamic and static shear stresses under different applied magnetic fields are reported. (orig.)

  11. Palaeohistological Evidence for Ancestral High Metabolic Rate in Archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Lucas J; Guénard, Guillaume; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Cubo, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic heat production in archosaurs has played an important role in their evolutionary radiation during the Mesozoic, and their ancestral metabolic condition has long been a matter of debate in systematics and palaeontology. The study of fossil bone histology provides crucial information on bone growth rate, which has been used to indirectly investigate the evolution of thermometabolism in archosaurs. However, no quantitative estimation of metabolic rate has ever been performed on fossils using bone histological features. Moreover, to date, no inference model has included phylogenetic information in the form of predictive variables. Here we performed statistical predictive modeling using the new method of phylogenetic eigenvector maps on a set of bone histological features for a sample of extant and extinct vertebrates, to estimate metabolic rates of fossil archosauromorphs. This modeling procedure serves as a case study for eigenvector-based predictive modeling in a phylogenetic context, as well as an investigation of the poorly known evolutionary patterns of metabolic rate in archosaurs. Our results show that Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs exhibit metabolic rates very close to those found in modern birds, that archosaurs share a higher ancestral metabolic rate than that of extant ectotherms, and that this derived high metabolic rate was acquired at a much more inclusive level of the phylogenetic tree, among non-archosaurian archosauromorphs. These results also highlight the difficulties of assigning a given heat production strategy (i.e., endothermy, ectothermy) to an estimated metabolic rate value, and confirm findings of previous studies that the definition of the endotherm/ectotherm dichotomy may be ambiguous. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. High Data Rate Optical Wireless Communications Based on Ultraviolet Band

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2017-10-01

    Optical wireless communication systems based on ultraviolet (UV)-band has a lot inherent advantages, such as low background solar radiation, low device dark noise. Besides, it also has small restrictive requirements for PAT (pointing, acquisition, and tracking) because of its high atmospheric scattering with molecules and aerosols. And these advantages are driving people to explore and utilize UV band for constructing and implementing a high-data-rate, less PAT communication links, such as diffuse-line-of-sight links (diffuse-LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS). The responsivity of the photodetector at UV range is far lower than that of visible range, high power UV transmitters which can be easily modulated are under investigation. These factors make it is hard to realize a high-data-rate diffuse-LOS or NLOS UV communication links. To achieve a UV link mentioned above with current devices and modulation schemes, this thesis presents some efficient modulation schemes and available devices for the time being. Besides, a demonstration of ultraviolet-B (UVB) communication link is implemented utilizing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The demonstration is based on a 294-nm UVB-light-emitting-diode (UVB-LED) with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 9 nm, and according to the measured L-I-V curve, we set the bias voltage as 7V for maximum the ac amplitude and thus get a high signal-noise-ratio (SNR) channel, and the light output power is 190 μW with such bias voltage. Besides, there is a unique silica gel lens on top of the LED to concentrate the beam. A -3-dB bandwidth of 29 MHz was measured and a high-speed near-solar-blind communication link with a data rate of 71 Mbit/s was achieved using 8-QAM-OFDM at perfect alignment, and 23.6 Mbit/s using 2-QAM-OFDM when the angle subtended by the pointing direction of the UVB-LED and photodetector (PD) is 12 degrees, thus establishing a diffuse-line-of-sight (LOS) link

  13. High-Rate Performance of Muon Drift Tube Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwegler, Philipp

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Centre for Particle Physics, CERN, collides protons with an unprecedentedly high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity. The collision products are recorded and analysed by four big experiments, one of which is the ATLAS detector. In parallel with the first LHC run from 2009 to 2012, which culminated in the discovery of the last missing particle of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs boson, planning of upgrades of the LHC for higher instantaneous luminosities (HL-LHC) is already progressing. The high instantaneous luminosity of the LHC puts high demands on the detectors with respect to radiation hardness and rate capability which are further increased with the luminosity upgrade. In this thesis, the limitations of the Muon Drift Tube (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at the high background counting rates at the LHC and performance of new small diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) detectors at the even higher background rates at HL-LHC are stud...

  14. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  15. Mechanical characterization of rocks at high strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamic characterization in tension and compression of three rocks, Carrara marble, Onsernone gneiss and Peccia Marble, at high strain-rates. Two versions of a Split Hopkinson Bar have been used. The version for direct tension tests is installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, while the traditional version in compression is installed at the Laboratory of Dynamic Investigation of Materials of Lobachevsky State University. Results of the tests show a significantly strain-rate sensitive behaviour, exhibiting dynamic strength increasing with strain-rate. The experimental research has been developed in the frame of the Swiss-Russian Joint Research Program.

  16. High freight rates hinder oil markets' return to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane damage to refineries in the US has created shortages of refined products there, boosting imports and sending freight rates across the Atlantic to record levels. The situation was made worse for a time by a strike at France's main oil terminals in the Mediterranean, which prevented some oil tankers from being rapidly redeployed to routes across the Atlantic. Worldscale (WS) rates for routes from the UK and Europe to the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts rose well above WS500 for clean tonnage during October. High rates were nevertheless not simply confined to product tankers crossing the Atlantic. Rates for crude tankers to the US have also risen, and tightness has begun to appear in some other markets as well. The net result has been to slow down the movement of oil from regions of surplus to those of scarcity, depressing prices in the former and keeping them at high levels in the latter. Atlantic tanker markets look like remaining tight for the rest of the year and perhaps beyond. (author)

  17. Investigation of high-rate lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Catherine A.; Gust, Steven; Farrington, Michael D.; Lockwood, Judith A.; Donaldson, George J.

    Chemical analysis of a commercially produced high-rate D-size lithium-thionyl cell was carried out, as a function of rate of discharge (1 ohm and 5 ohms), depth of discharge, and temperature (25 C and -40 C), using specially developed methods for identifying suspected minor cell products or impurities which may effect cell performance. These methods include a product-retrieval system which involves solvent extraction to enhance the recovery of suspected semivolatile minor chemicals, and methods of quantitative GC analysis of volatile and semivolatile products. The nonvolatile products were analyzed by wet chemical methods. The results of the analyses indicate that the predominant discharge reaction in this cell is 4Li + 2SOCl2 going to 4LiCl + S + SO2, with SO2 formation decreasing towards the end of cell life (7 to 12 Ah). The rate of discharge had no effect on the product distribution. Upon discharge of the high-rate cell at -40 C, one cell exploded, and all others exhibited overheating and rapid internal pressure rise when allowed to warm up to room temperature.

  18. Development of amplifier and shaper for high-rate MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiji, Ichinori; Nanjo, Hajime; Kawasaki, Naoki; Maeda, Yosuke; Naito, Daichi; Seki, Shigeto; Nakagiri, Kota; Sasao, Noboru; Nomura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    A multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC) will be used as an in-beam charged particle detector for the J-PARC E14 (KOTO) experiment. The maximum counting rate of the MWPC is expected to be up to 1 MHz per channel due to the high neutron and photon flux, expected to be 1 GHz for the 30 x 30 cm"2 area. An amplifier to cope with such high counting-rate is required. We developed a prototype of such amplifier, which has a charge preamplifier with the integration time of 3 ns and a pulse shaping part with three pole-zero cancellation networks. The shaper reduced the characteristic long tail lasting tens of microseconds in the signal of MWPC to 150 ns. Its performance has been tested by using a single-channel MWPC which has almost the same geometrical parameters as the MWPC to be installed in the KOTO experiment. (author)

  19. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2007-01-01

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm 2 at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode

  20. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-01-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electr...

  1. High repetition rate burst-mode spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Reginato, L.; Hester, R.; Chesterman, A.; Cook, E.; Yokota, T.; Dexter, W.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the design and testing of a pressurized gas blown spark gap switch capable of high repetition rates in a burst mode of operation. The switch parameters which have been achieved are as follows: 220-kV, 42-kA, a five pulse burst at 1-kHz, 12-ns risetime, 2-ns jitter at a pulse width of 50-ns

  2. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Bennett, M.J.; Carroll, J.B.; Chiba, J.; Chikanian, A.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Debbe, R.; Doke, T.; Engelage, J.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Hayano, R.S.; Hallman, T.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Kumar, B.S.; Kuo, C.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Stankus, P.; Tanaka, K.H.; Welsh, R.C.; Zhan, W.

    1995-01-01

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.))

  3. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bennett, M J [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Carroll, J B [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chiba, J [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Chikanian, A [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Crawford, H J [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cronqvist, M [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dardenne, Y [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Debbe, R [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Doke, T [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Engelage, J [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Flores, I [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Greiner, L [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hayano, R S [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hallman, T J [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Heckman, H H [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kashiwagi, T [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kikuchi, J [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kumar, B S [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kuo, C [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lindstrom, P J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nagamiya, S; E878 Collaboration

    1995-04-21

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.)).

  4. MDT Performance in a High Rate Background Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; Hessey, N P; Riegler, W

    1998-01-01

    A Cs137 gamma source with different lead filters in the SPS beam-line X5 has been used to simulate the ATLAS background radiation. This note shows the impact of high background rates on the MDT efficiency and resolution for three kinds of pulse shaping and compares the results with GARFIELD simulations. Furthermore it explains how the performance can be improved by time slewing corrections and double track separation.

  5. High rate amplifier-digitizer system for liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Lobkowicz, F.; Fukushima, Y.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost charge amplifier for a liquid argon photon detector and a new method for pulse height analysis are described. This scheme is suitable for high-energy photon detection with high counting rate. Samples of preamplifer output are taken just before and just after the arrival of the charge from the detector. The difference of these samples provides a stable pedestal and rejects low frequency noise. Short two-pulse resolving time (approximately equal to 200ns) is achieved. 6 refs

  6. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    1982-08-01

    A compact, disc shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed by Altus Corporation. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data is presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 Amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20/sup 0/C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  7. Abuse resistant high rate lithium/thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.

    A compact, disk shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data are presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40 C to +70 C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20 C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.

  8. Semi-solid electrodes having high rate capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Holman, Richard; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Tan, Taison

    2017-11-28

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to electrochemical cells having high rate capability, and more particularly to devices, systems and methods of producing high capacity and high rate capability batteries having relatively thick semi-solid electrodes. In some embodiments, an electrochemical cell includes an anode and a semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode includes a suspension of an active material of about 35% to about 75% by volume of an active material and about 0.5% to about 8% by volume of a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. An ion-permeable membrane is disposed between the anode and the semi-solid cathode. The semi-solid cathode has a thickness of about 250 .mu.m to about 2,000 .mu.m, and the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least about 7 mAh/cm.sup.2 at a C-rate of C/4. In some embodiments, the semi-solid cathode slurry has a mixing index of at least about 0.9.

  9. High Strain Rate and Shock-Induced Deformation in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale non-equilibrium molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are now commonly used to study material deformation at high strain rates (10^9-10^12 s-1). They can provide detailed information-- such as defect morphology, dislocation densities, and temperature and stress profiles, unavailable or hard to measure experimentally. Computational studies of shock-induced plasticity and melting in fcc and bcc single, mono-crystal metals, exhibit generic characteristics: high elastic limits, large directional anisotropies in the yield stress and pre-melting much below the equilibrium melt temperature for shock wave propagation along specific crystallographic directions. These generic features in the response of single crystals subjected to high strain rates of deformation can be explained from the changes in the energy landscape of the uniaxially compressed crystal lattice. For time scales relevant to dynamic shock loading, the directional-dependence of the yield strength in single crystals is shown to be due to the onset of instabilities in elastic-wave propagation velocities. The elastic-plastic transition threshold can accurately be predicted by a wave-propagation stability analysis. These strain-induced instabilities create incipient defect structures, which can be quite different from the ones, which characterize the long-time, asymptotic state of the compressed solid. With increase compression and strain rate, plastic deformation via extended defects gives way to amorphization associated with the loss in shear rigidity along specific deformation paths. The hot amorphous or (super-cooled liquid) metal re-crystallizes at rates, which depend on the temperature difference between the amorphous solid and the equilibrium melt line. This plastic-amorphous transition threshold can be computed from shear-waves stability analyses. Examples from selected fcc and bcc metals will be presented employing semi-empirical potentials of the embedded atom method (EAM) type as well as

  10. Scale dependence of rock friction at high work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Takizawa, Shigeru; Xu, Shiqing; Kawakata, Hironori

    2015-12-10

    Determination of the frictional properties of rocks is crucial for an understanding of earthquake mechanics, because most earthquakes are caused by frictional sliding along faults. Prior studies using rotary shear apparatus revealed a marked decrease in frictional strength, which can cause a large stress drop and strong shaking, with increasing slip rate and increasing work rate. (The mechanical work rate per unit area equals the product of the shear stress and the slip rate.) However, those important findings were obtained in experiments using rock specimens with dimensions of only several centimetres, which are much smaller than the dimensions of a natural fault (of the order of 1,000 metres). Here we use a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus with metre-sized rock specimens to investigate scale-dependent rock friction. The experiments show that rock friction in metre-sized rock specimens starts to decrease at a work rate that is one order of magnitude smaller than that in centimetre-sized rock specimens. Mechanical, visual and material observations suggest that slip-evolved stress heterogeneity on the fault accounts for the difference. On the basis of these observations, we propose that stress-concentrated areas exist in which frictional slip produces more wear materials (gouge) than in areas outside, resulting in further stress concentrations at these areas. Shear stress on the fault is primarily sustained by stress-concentrated areas that undergo a high work rate, so those areas should weaken rapidly and cause the macroscopic frictional strength to decrease abruptly. To verify this idea, we conducted numerical simulations assuming that local friction follows the frictional properties observed on centimetre-sized rock specimens. The simulations reproduced the macroscopic frictional properties observed on the metre-sized rock specimens. Given that localized stress concentrations commonly occur naturally, our results suggest that a natural fault may lose its

  11. A new high rate positron lifetime measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedwell, M.O.; Paulus, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Positron lifetime measuring system, a technique to perform non-destructive studies on the internal structure of materials, has many components common to those used for nuclear time spectroscopy systems. In each case, a timing coincidence curve is measured for the energy range of interest, and this is accomplished in a typical timing coincidence system. The paper first describes the conventional timing coincidence system, then a new fast timing system is introduced. Comparing to the conventional fast/slow timing system, the fast timing technique offers reduced complexity, lower system cost, and improved high data rate capability. Experimental results show that the FWHM timing resolution ranges from 190 ps for a 1.1 : 1 dynamic range to 337 ps for a 100 : 1 dynamic range of signals with 60 Co. As for the timing resolution as a function of energy, the FWHM resolution for each channel ranges from 124 ps at 1 MeV to 400 ps at 100 keV. Since the excellent timing performance is maintained even at very high input rate, the experimenters can use much more active sources to increase the true coincidence rate and reduce data accumulation time. This method has the added advantage of minimizing long term drift effects since the experiments can be conducted in less time. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8.7 F g -1 at the discharge current of 1 A g -1 .

  13. High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Bojaxhiu, Beat; Simcock, Mathew; Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard; Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Brömme, Jens O.; Geretschläger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3–23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

  14. Brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer. Low dose rate to high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko; Furukawa, Souhei; Kakimoto, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    To examine the compatibility of low dose rate (LDR) with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, we reviewed 399 patients with early oral tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0) treated solely by brachytherapy at Osaka University Hospital between 1967 and 1999. For patients in the LDR group (n=341), the treatment sources consisted of Ir-192 pin for 227 patients (1973-1996; irradiated dose, 61-85 Gy; median, 70 Gy), Ra-226 needle for 113 patients (1967-1986; 55-93 Gy; median, 70 Gy). Ra-226 and Ir-192 were combined for one patient. Ir-192 HDR (microSelectron-HDR) was used for 58 patients in the HDR group (1991-present; 48-60 Gy; median, 60 Gy). LDR implantations were performed via oral and HDR via a submental/submandibular approach. The dose rates at the reference point for the LDR group were 0.30 to 0.8 Gy/h, and for the HDR group 1.0 to 3.4 Gy/min. The patients in the HDR group received a total dose of 48-60 Gy (8-10 fractions) during one week. Two fractions were administered per day (at least a 6-h interval). The 3- and 5-year local control rates for patients in the LDR group were 85% and 80%, respectively, and those in the HDR group were both 84%. HDR brachytherapy showed the same lymph-node control rate as did LDR brachytherapy (67% at 5 years). HDR brachytherapy achieved the same locoregional result as did LDR brachytherapy. A converting factor of 0.86 is applicable for HDR in the treatment of early oral tongue cancer. (author)

  15. High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

  16. High rate 4π β-γ coincidence counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A high count rate 4π β-γ coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The equations used to correct for the β, γ, and coincidence channel dead times and for accidental coincidences are presented but not rigorously developed. Experimental results are presented for a decaying source of 56 Mn initially at 2 x 10 6 d/s and a set of 60 Co sources of accurately known source strengths varying from 10 3 to 2 x 10 6 d/s. A check of the accidental coincidence equation for the case of two independent sources with varying source strengths is presented

  17. Miniaturized star tracker for micro spacecraft with high angular rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Zhifeng; Niu, Zhenhong; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-10-01

    There is a clear need for miniaturized, lightweight, accurate and inexpensive star tracker for spacecraft with large anglar rate. To face these new constraints, the Beijing Institute of Space Long March Vehicle has designed, built and flown a low cost miniaturized star tracker that provides autonomous ("Lost in Space") inertial attitude determination, 2 Hz 3-axis star tracking, and digital imaging with embedded compression. Detector with high sensitivity is adopted to meet the dynamic and miniature requirement. A Sun and Moon avoiding method based on the calculation of Sun and Moon's vector by astronomical theory is proposed. The produced prototype weight 0.84kg, and can be used for a spacecraft with 6°/s anglar rate. The average angle measure error is less than 43 arc second. The ground verification and application of the star tracker during the pick-up flight test showed that the capability of the product meet the requirement.

  18. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  19. Low resistance bakelite RPC study for high rate working capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, T.; Han, L.; Hou, S.; Liu, M.; Li, Q.; Song, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents series efforts to lower resistance of bakelite electrode plate to improve the RPC capability under high rate working condition. New bakelite material with alkali metallic ion doping has been manufactured and tested. This bakelite is found unstable under large charge flux and need further investigation. A new structure of carbon-embedded bakelite RPC has been developed, which can reduce the effective resistance of electrode by a factor of 10. The prototype of the carbon-embedded chamber could function well under gamma radiation source at event rate higher than 10 kHz/cm 2 . The preliminary tests show that this kind of new structure performs as efficiently as traditional RPCs

  20. High and low dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    For the brachytherapy component of the r[iation treatment of cervical carcinoma, high dose rate (HDR) is slowly replacing conventional low dose rate (LDR) due primarily to r[iation safety and other physical benefits attributed to the HDR modality. Many r[iation oncologists are reluctant to make this change because of perceived r[iobiological dis[vantages of HDR. However, in clinical practice HDR appears to be as effective as LDR but with a lower risk of late complications, as demonstrated by one randomized clinical trial and two comprehensive literature and practice surveys. The reason for this appears to be that the r[iobiological dis[vantages of HDR are outweighed by the physical [vantages. (orig.)

  1. High-rate, High Temperature Acetotrophic Methanogenesis Governed by a Three Population Consortium in Anaerobic Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Dang; Jensen, Paul; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike; Batstone, Damien

    2016-01-01

    A combination of acetate oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis has been previously identified to enable high-rate methanogenesis at high temperatures (55 to 65°C), but this capability had not been linked to any key organisms. This study combined RNA-stable isotope probing on 13C-labelled acetate and 16S amplicon sequencing to identify the active micro-organisms involved in high-rate methanogenesis. Active biomass was harvested from three bench-scale thermophilic bioreactors treating waste...

  2. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  3. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  4. Proportional chambers and multiwire drift chambers at high rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The high event and particle rates expected for ISABELLE intersecting storage rings raise the question whether PWC's and drift chambers, now widely in use in experiments, still can operate under such conditions. Various effects depend on the number of avalanches produced per length of wire N and the size of the avalanche Q, i.e., on the number of positive ions created in an avalanche. Therefore the important parameter for the following discussion is the product QN. The minimum Q is determined by the type and noise level of preamplifiers used. Examples are given for a typical low noise amplifier as well as for a typical integrated ''cheap'' amplifier. The rate/wire length N depends on the chamber arrangement, wire spacing, etc. In multiwire drift chambers, a single wire shows space-charge effects reducing the pulse height by 1% at a rate of N = 7 x 10 3 mm -1 sec -1 . At a rate of N approximately equal to 10 5 mm -1 sec -1 an efficiency loss of the order of 1% was noticed. The aging effect due to deposits on the anode wire can be reduced using low noise amplifiers and low gas gain to such an extent that a lifetime of about half a year at ISABELLE can be expected. The use of conventional cheap preamplifiers will result in a typical lifetime of about 30 days. Improvements are probable. The time resolution of Δt/sub r/ = 4 nsec fwhm seems adequate for event rates of 10 7 sec -1 . The memory time Δt/sub m/ greater than or equal to 100 nsec may cause serious problems for pattern recognition depending on layout and readout. The use of induced signals on cathode pads, thus reading out shorter parts of the wire, can solve the problem

  5. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  6. Accuracy assessment of high-rate GPS measurements for seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Ekström, G.

    2007-12-01

    Analysis of GPS measurements with a controlled laboratory system, built to simulate the ground motions caused by tectonic earthquakes and other transient geophysical signals such as glacial earthquakes, enables us to assess the technique of high-rate GPS. The root-mean-square (rms) position error of this system when undergoing realistic simulated seismic motions is 0.05~mm, with maximum position errors of 0.1~mm, thus providing "ground truth" GPS displacements. We have acquired an extensive set of high-rate GPS measurements while inducing seismic motions on a GPS antenna mounted on this system with a temporal spectrum similar to real seismic events. We found that, for a particular 15-min-long test event, the rms error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates was 2.5~mm, with maximum position errors of 10~mm, and the error spectrum of the GPS estimates was approximately flicker noise. These results may however represent a best-case scenario since they were obtained over a short (~10~m) baseline, thereby greatly mitigating baseline-dependent errors, and when the number and distribution of satellites on the sky was good. For example, we have determined that the rms error can increase by a factor of 2--3 as the GPS constellation changes throughout the day, with an average value of 3.5~mm for eight identical, hourly-spaced, consecutive test events. The rms error also increases with increasing baseline, as one would expect, with an average rms error for a ~1400~km baseline of 9~mm. We will present an assessment of the accuracy of high-rate GPS based on these measurements, discuss the implications of this study for seismology, and describe new applications in glaciology.

  7. Australian high-dose-rate brachytherapy protocols for gynaecological malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; Dally, M.; Stevens, M.; Thornton, D.; Carruthers, S.; Jeal, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is no consensus over the optimal dose fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy used for gynaecological malignancy. In Australian public hospital departments of radiation oncology, HDR brachytherapy for gynaecological cancer is being more commonly used. A survey of public departments that are using this technology, or that plan to introduce this technology, was performed. Their current protocols are presented. In general, protocols are similar biologically; however, the practical aspects such as the number of fractions given do vary and may reflect resource restrictions or, alternatively, differences in interpretations of the literature and of the best protocols by clinicians. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Development of ultra high speed photographic system using high repetition rate visible laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Hun; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jung Bog; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Byung Deok; Rhi, Jong Hoon; Baik, Dae Hyun; Han, Jae Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jeong, Do Yung; Choi, An Seong; Jeong, Chan Ik; Park, Dae Ung; Jeong, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Heon Jun; Jang, Rae gak; Jo, Do Hun; Park, Min Young

    1992-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and commercialize a high speed photographic system equipped with a high repetition rate visible laser. The developed system provides the characteristics of high time resolution and large number of frames. The system consists of 10 W air cooled CVL or a 30 W water cooled CVL, a rotating drum-type high speed camera with the framing rate of 35,000 fps, and a automatic control device. The system has the performance of 10 nsec time resolution, 35,000 fps framing rate, and 250 picture frames. The high speed photographic systems are widely applied to the fields such as high-efficient engine development, high-speed vibration analysis, shock wave propagation study, flow visualization analysis, weapon development, etc. (Author)

  9. High dose rate versus low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for carcinoma of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hideya; Koizumi, Masahiko; Kagawa, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Ken; Shiomi, Hiroya; Imai, Atsushi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Tanaka, Eichii; Nose, Takayuki; Teshima, Teruki; Furukawa, Souhei; Fuchihata, Hajime

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with cancer of the floor of mouth are treated with radiation because of functional and cosmetic reasons. We evaluate the treatment results of high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial radiation for cancer of the floor of mouth. Methods and Materials: From January 1980 through March 1996, 41 patients with cancer of the floor of mouth were treated with LDR interstitial radiation using 198 Au grains, and from April 1992 through March 1996 16 patients with HDR interstitial radiation. There were 26 T1 tumors, 30 T2 tumors, and 1 T3 tumor. For 21 patients treated with interstitial radiation alone, a total radiation dose of interstitial therapy was 60 Gy/10 fractions/6-7 days in HDR and 85 Gy within 1 week in LDR. For 36 patients treated with a combination therapy, a total dose of 30 to 40 Gy of external radiation and a total dose of 48 Gy/8 fractions/5-6 days in HDR or 65 Gy within 1 week in LDR were delivered. Results: Two- and 5-year local control rates of patients treated with HDR interstitial radiation were 94% and 94%, and those with LDR were 75% and 69%, respectively. Local control rate of patients treated with HDR brachytherapy was slightly higher than that with 198 Au grains (p = 0.113). For late complication, bone exposure or ulcer occurred in 6 of 16 (38%) patients treated with HDR and 13 of 41 (32%) patients treated with LDR. Conclusion: HDR fractionated interstitial brachytherapy can be an alternative to LDR brachytherapy for cancer of the floor of mouth and eliminate radiation exposure for the medical staff

  10. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  11. New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.

  12. High repetition rate driver circuit for modulation of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, B.R.; Goel, J.; Wolkstein, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    An injection laser modulator comprises a self-biased field effect transistor (FET) and an injection laser to provide a quiescent state during which lasing of the injection laser occurs in response to a high repetition rate signal of pulse coded modulation (pcm). The modulator is d.c. coupled to an input pulse source of pcm rendering it compatible with an input pulse referenced to ground and not being subject to voltage level shifting of the input pulse. The modulator circuit in its preferred and alternate embodiments provides various arrangements for high impedance input and low impedance output matching. In addition, means are provided for adjusting the bias of the FET as well as the bias of the injection laser

  13. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  14. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  15. High rate capability of lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Zelinsky, M.A.; Keister, P.

    1986-01-01

    High rate characteristics of the lithium/silver vanadium oxide system were investigated in test cells providing four different limiting surface areas. The cells were tested by constant current and constant resistance discharge with current densities ranging from 0.04 to 6.4 mA/cm/sup 2/. The maximum current density under constant resistance and constant current discharges which would deliver 50% of theoretical capacity was determined. The ability of the cells to deliver high current pulses was evaluated by application of 10 second pulses with current densities ranging from 3 to 30 mA/cm/sup 2/. The voltage delay characteristics of the cells were determined after 1 to 3 months of storage at open circuit voltage or under low level background currents. The volumetric and gravimetric energy density of the SVO system is compared to other cathode materials

  16. Low power ion spectrometer for high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.W.; Dullenkopf, P.; Glasmachers, A.; Melbert, J.; Winkelnkemper, W.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes in detail the electronic concept for a time-of-flight (TOF) ion spectrometer for high counting rates and high dynamic range which can be used as a satellite instrument. The detection principle of the spectrometer is based on a time-of-flight and energy measurement for each incident ion. The ionmass is related to these two quantities by a simple equation. The described approach for the mass identification systems is using an analog fast-slow concept: The fast TOF-signal preselects the gainstep in the much slower energy channel. The conversion time of the mass identifier is approximately 10 -6 s and the dynamic range of the energy channel is better than 10 3 (20 keV to 25 MeV). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a TOF-spectrometer capable to measure the ion composition in planetary magnetospheres. (orig.) [de

  17. Radiation Parameters of High Dose Rate Iridium -192 Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    A lack of physical data for high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 sources has necessitated the use of basic radiation parameters measured with low dose rate (LDR) Ir-192 seeds and ribbons in HDR dosimetry calculations. A rigorous examination of the radiation parameters of several HDR Ir-192 sources has shown that this extension of physical data from LDR to HDR Ir-192 may be inaccurate. Uncertainty in any of the basic radiation parameters used in dosimetry calculations compromises the accuracy of the calculated dose distribution and the subsequent dose delivery. Dose errors of up to 0.3%, 6%, and 2% can result from the use of currently accepted values for the half-life, exposure rate constant, and dose buildup effect, respectively. Since an accuracy of 5% in the delivered dose is essential to prevent severe complications or tumor regrowth, the use of basic physical constants with uncertainties approaching 6% is unacceptable. A systematic evaluation of the pertinent radiation parameters contributes to a reduction in the overall uncertainty in HDR Ir-192 dose delivery. Moreover, the results of the studies described in this thesis contribute significantly to the establishment of standardized numerical values to be used in HDR Ir-192 dosimetry calculations.

  18. High-rep-rate Thomson scattering for LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Holly, D. J.; Schmitz, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Osakabe, M.; Morisaki, T.

    2017-10-01

    A high-rep-rate pulse-burst laser system is being built for the LHD Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. This laser will have two operating scenarios, a fast-burst sequence of 15 kHz rep rate for at least 15 ms, and a slow-burst sequence of 1 kHz for at least 50 ms. There will be substantial flexibility in burst sequences for tailoring to experimental requirements. This new laser system will operate alongside the existing lasers in the LHD TS diagnostic, and will use the same beamline. This increase in temporal resolution capability complements the high spatial resolution (144 points) of the LHD TS diagnostic, providing unique measurement capability unmatched on any other fusion experiment. The new pulse-burst laser is a straightforward application of technology developed at UW-Madison, consisting of a Nd:YAG laser head with modular flashlamp drive units and a customized control system. Variable pulse-width drive of the flashlamps is accomplished by IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, producing >1.5 J q-switched pulses with 20 ns FWHM. Burst operation of this laser system will be used to capture fast time evolution of the electron temperature and density profiles during events such as ELMs, RMP perturbations, and various MHD modes. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan).

  19. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  20. Portable radiation meters evaluation in high rates of air kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    A set of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma (teletectors) commonly used in emergencies in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analyst is parameters for the detectors behavior were established, specifying their sensitivities and operating characteristics. Applied tests were: reading equipment variation with battery voltage, geotropism effect, energy dependence, the angular dependence and overload. Thus it was possible to determine the most common characteristic found in these equipment (quality control programs). The behavior of 17 portable meters was analyzed and in this study, 10 of them have been tested. It was performed to characterize the gamma irradiating system (radiation dosimetry field) that possesses higher activity in teletectors for testing of larger measuring range. New calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. Therefore, it was made the improvement of the quality control programme of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma calibration laboratory, benefiting the users of such equipment with better consistent calibration measurements. (author)

  1. Audits in high dose rate brachytherapy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, M.H.; Rosa, L.A.; Velasco, A.; Paiva, E. de; Goncalves, M.; Castelo, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of well established dosimetry protocols for HDR sources is a point of great concern regarding the uniformity of procedures within a particular country. The main objective of this paper is to report the results of an implementation of the audit program in dosimetry of high dose rate brachytherapy sources used by the radiation therapy centers in Brazil. In Brazil, among 169 radiotherapy centers, 35 have HDR brachytherapy systems. This program started in August 2001 and until now eight radiotherapy services were audited. The audit program consists of the visit in loco to each center and the evaluation of the intensity of the source with a well type chamber specially design for HDR 192 Ir sources. The measurements was carried out with a HDR1000PLUS Brachytherapy Well Type Chamber and a MAX 4000 Electrometer, both manufactured by Standard Imaging Inc. The chamber was calibrated in air kerma strength by the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin in the USA. The same chamber was calibrated in Brazil using a 192 lr high dose rate source whose intensity was determined by 60 Co gamma rays and 250 kV x rays interpolation methodology. The Nk of 60 Co and 250 kV x rays were provided by the Brazilian National Standard Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LMNRI)

  2. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  3. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-01

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  4. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  5. Loss of function mutations in RP1 are responsible for retinitis pigmentosa in consanguineous familial cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Firoz; Ullah, Inayat; Ali, Shahbaz; Gottsch, Alexander D.H.; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Khan, Shaheen N.; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ayyagari, Radha; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was undertaken to identify causal mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in consanguineous families. Methods Large consanguineous families were ascertained from the Punjab province of Pakistan. An ophthalmic examination consisting of a fundus evaluation and electroretinography (ERG) was completed, and small aliquots of blood were collected from all participating individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells, and a genome-wide linkage or a locus-specific exclusion analysis was completed with polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs). Two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated, and all coding exons and exon–intron boundaries of RP1 were sequenced to identify the causal mutation. Results The ophthalmic examination showed that affected individuals in all families manifest cardinal symptoms of RP. Genome-wide scans localized the disease phenotype to chromosome 8q, a region harboring RP1, a gene previously implicated in the pathogenesis of RP. Sanger sequencing identified a homozygous single base deletion in exon 4: c.3697delT (p.S1233Pfs22*), a single base substitution in intron 3: c.787+1G>A (p.I263Nfs8*), a 2 bp duplication in exon 2: c.551_552dupTA (p.Q185Yfs4*) and an 11,117 bp deletion that removes all three coding exons of RP1. These variations segregated with the disease phenotype within the respective families and were not present in ethnically matched control samples. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that these mutations in RP1 are responsible for the retinal phenotype in affected individuals of all four consanguineous families. PMID:27307693

  6. High rate response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes under direct tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Ngoc Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Tran, Tuan Kiet [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, 01 Vo Van Ngan, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The tensile response of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) at high strain rates (5–24 s{sup −} {sup 1}) was investigated. Three types of steel fibers, including twisted, long and short smooth steel fibers, were added by 1.5% volume content in an ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) with a compressive strength of 180 MPa. Two different cross sections, 25 × 25 and 25 × 50 mm{sup 2}, of tensile specimens were used to investigate the effect of the cross section area on the measured tensile response of UHPFRCs. Although all the three fibers generated strain hardening behavior even at high strain rates, long smooth fibers produced the highest tensile resistance at high rates whereas twisted fiber did at static rate. The breakages of twisted fibers were observed from the specimens tested at high strain rates unlike smooth steel fibers. The tensile behavior of UHPFRCs at high strain rates was clearly influenced by the specimen size, especially in post-cracking strength.

  7. High Data Rate Satellite Communications for Environmental Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Munger, J.; Emch, P. G.; Sen, B.; Gu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite to ground communication bandwidth limitations place constraints on current earth remote sensing instruments which limit the spatial and spectral resolution of data transmitted to the ground for processing. Instruments such as VIIRS, CrIS and OMPS on the Soumi-NPP spacecraft must aggregate data both spatially and spectrally in order to fit inside current data rate constraints limiting the optimal use of the as-built sensors. Future planned missions such as HyspIRI, SLI, PACE, and NISAR will have to trade spatial and spectral resolution if increased communication band width is not made available. A number of high-impact, environmental remote sensing disciplines such as hurricane observation, mega-city air quality, wild fire detection and monitoring, and monitoring of coastal oceans would benefit dramatically from enabling the downlinking of sensor data at higher spatial and spectral resolutions. The enabling technologies of multi-Gbps Ka-Band communication, flexible high speed on-board processing, and multi-Terabit SSRs are currently available with high technological maturity enabling high data volume mission requirements to be met with minimal mission constraints while utilizing a limited set of ground sites from NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) or TDRSS. These enabling technologies will be described in detail with emphasis on benefits to future remote sensing missions currently under consideration by government agencies.

  8. MED23-associated Intellectual Disability in a Non-consanguineous Family

    OpenAIRE

    Trehan, Aditi; Brady, Jacqueline M.; Maduro, Valerie; Bone, William; Huang, Yan; Golas, Gretchen A.; Kane, Megan; Lee, Paul R.; Thurm, Audrey; Gropman, Andrea L.; Paul, Scott M.; Vezina, Gilbert; Markello, Thomas C.; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous condition arising from a variety of environmental and genetic factors. Among these causes are defects in transcriptional regulators. Herein, we report two brothers in a non-consanguineous family with novel compound heterozygous, disease-segregating mutations (NM_015979.3: [3656A>G];[4006C>T], NP_057063.2: [H1219R];[R1336X]) in MED23. This gene encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex that modulates the expression of RNA polymerase II-dependent ...

  9. High fall incidence and fracture rate in elderly dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinder-Bos, H A; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Gansevoort, R T; Diepenbroek, A; Gaillard, C A J M

    2014-12-01

    Although it is recognised that the dialysis population is ageing rapidly, geriatric complications such as falls are poorly appreciated, despite the many risk factors for falls in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, complications and risk factors for falls in an elderly dialysis population. A one-year observational study of chronic dialysis patients aged ≥ 70 years. At baseline, patient characteristics were noted and during follow-up the vital parameters and laboratory values were recorded. Patients were questioned weekly about falls, fall circumstances and consequences by trained nurses. 49 patients were included with a median age of 79.3 years (70-89 years). During follow-up 40 fall accidents occurred in 27 (55%) patients. Falls resulted in fractures in 15% of cases and in hospital admissions in 15%. In haemodialysis (HD) patients, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) before HD was lower in fallers compared with non-fallers (130 vs. 143 mmHg). Several patients in the lower blood pressure category received antihypertensive medication. For every 5 mmHg lower SBP (before HD) the fall risk increased by 30% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.65, p = 0.03). Furthermore, fall risk increased by 22% for every 10 pmol/l rise of parathyroid hormone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.39, p = 0.004). Elderly dialysis patients have a high incidence of falls accompanied by a high fracture rate. Given the high complication rate, elderly patients at risk of falling should be identified and managed. Reduction of blood pressure-lowering medication might be a treatment strategy to reduce falls.

  10. Cosmological Evolution of the Central Engine in High-Luminosity, High-Accretion Rate AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guainazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the status of observational studies aiming at probing the cosmological evolution of the central engine in high-luminosity, high-accretion rate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. X-ray spectroscopic surveys, supported by extensive multi-wavelength coverage, indicate a remarkable invariance of the accretion disk plus corona system, and of their coupling up to redshifts z≈6. Furthermore, hard X-ray (E >10 keV surveys show that nearby Seyfert Galaxies share the same central engine notwithstanding their optical classication. These results suggest that the high-luminosity, high accretion rate quasar phase of AGN evolution is homogeneous over cosmological times.

  11. High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD

  12. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L.

    2014-01-01

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  13. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it

    2014-12-21

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  14. High dose rate versus medium dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy in inoperable esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, J.; Jager, J.; Jong, J. de; Rijken, J.; Pannebakker, M.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the results of medium dose rate (MDR) intraluminal brachytherapy (ILBT) and high dose rate (HDR) ILBT in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma, with regard to dysphagia, complication rate and survival. Material and methods: Included were 114 patients with inoperable esophageal cancer who were treated with a single session of ILBT. In all cases a single dose of 15 Gy was administered, calculated at a 1 cm radius. Forty-eight patients were treated with MDR ( 137 Cs)ILBT. In June 1990 MDR was replaced by HDR and from then 66 patients were treated with HDR ( 192 Ir). Dysphagia was prospectively scored using a 5-point scale at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Results: No significant differences were noted between the two groups with regard to pretreatment variables. In patients treated with MDR-ILBT improvement of swallowing ability was noted in 30 out of 42 evaluable patients (71%), no change in 9 (21%) and progression of dysphagia in 3 patients (8%), as compared to 34 out of 59 evaluable patients (58%), 16 (27%) and 6 (15%) resp. in de HDR-ILBT group. In the latter category, progression of dysphagia was caused by fistulae in 2 patients. The differences were not significant (ns). Additional treatment in case of recurrent or persistent dysphagia was needed in 50% of the cases in the MDR-ILBT group as compared to 41% in the HDR-ILBT group (ns). The median survival of the MDR-ILBT group was 3.9 months as compared to 4.3 months in the HDR-ILBT group (ns). In 2 patients (4%) treated with MDR-ILBT bronchio-oesphageal fistulae developed at 6 weeks and 2 months. In the HDR-ILBT group fistulae were noted in 7 cases (11%) at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 2, 3, 3, 4 and 9 months (ns). In all of these cases persistent of recurrent tumour was present. Conclusions: No significant differences were noted with regard to palliation of dysphagia, survival and complication rate between MDR-ILBT and HDR-ILBT in the management of esophageal

  15. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  16. RCS Leak Rate Calculation with High Order Least Squares Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Kang, Young Kyu; Kim, Yang Ki

    2010-01-01

    As a part of action items for Application of Leak before Break(LBB), RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program is upgraded in Kori unit 3 and 4. For real time monitoring of operators, periodic calculation is needed and corresponding noise reduction scheme is used. This kind of study was issued in Korea, so there have upgraded and used real time RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program in UCN unit 3 and 4 and YGN unit 1 and 2. For reduction of the noise in signals, Linear Regression Method was used in those programs. Linear Regression Method is powerful method for noise reduction. But the system is not static with some alternative flow paths and this makes mixed trend patterns of input signal values. In this condition, the trend of signal and average of Linear Regression are not entirely same pattern. In this study, high order Least squares Method is used to follow the trend of signal and the order of calculation is rearranged. The result of calculation makes reasonable trend and the procedure is physically consistence

  17. High dose rate brachytherapy for the palliation of malignant dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homs, Marjolein Y.V.; Eijkenboom, Wilhelmina M.H.; Coen, Veronique L.M.A.; Haringsma, Jelle; Blankenstein, Mark van; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Siersema, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a commonly used palliative treatment for esophageal carcinoma. We evaluated the outcome of HDR brachytherapy in patients with malignant dysphagia. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis over a 10-year period was performed of 149 patients treated with HDR brachytherapy, administered in one or two sessions, at a median dose of 15 Gy. Patients were evaluated for functional outcome, complications, recurrent dysphagia, and survival. Results: At 6 weeks after HDR brachytherapy, dysphagia scores had improved from a median of 3 to 2 (n=104; P<0.001), however, dysphagia had not improved in 51 (49%) patients. Procedure-related complications occurred in seven (5%) patients. Late complications, including fistula formation or bleeding, occurred in 11 (7%) patients. Twelve (8%) patients experienced minor retrosternal pain. Median survival of the patients was 160 days with a 1-year survival rate of 15%. Procedure-related mortality was 2%. At follow-up, 55 (37%) patients experienced recurrent dysphagia. In 34 (23%) patients a metal stent was placed to relieve persistent or recurrent dysphagia. Conclusion: HDR brachytherapy is a moderately effective treatment for the palliation of malignant dysphagia. The incidence of early major complications is low, however, persistent and recurrent dysphagia occur frequently, and require often additional treatment

  18. Decay rates of resonance states at high level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Gorin, T.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Rotter, I.; Technische Univ. Dresden

    1996-05-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation of an open quantum mechanical system is solved by using the stationary bi-orthogonal eigenfunctions of the non-Hermitean time independent Hamilton operator. We calculate the decay rates at low and high level density in two different formalism. The rates are, generally, time dependent and oscillate around an average value due to the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions. The decay law is studied disregarding the oscillations. In the one-channel case, it is proportional to t -b with b∼3/2 in all cases considered, including the critical region of overlapping where the non-orthogonality of the wavefunctions is large. Starting from the shell model, we get b∼2 for 2 and 4 open decay channels and all coupling strengths to the continuum. When the closed system is described by a random matrix, b∼1+K/2 for K=2 and 4 channels. This law holds in a limited time interval. The distribution of the widths is different in the two models when more than one channel are open. This leads to the different exponents b in the power law. Our calculations are performed with 190 and 130 states, respectively, most of them in the critical region. The theoretical results should be proven experimentally by measuring the time behaviour of de-excitation of a realistic quantum system. (orig.)

  19. Routine quality control of high dose rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Calcina, Carmen S.; Almeida, Adelaide de; Rocha, Jose R. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A Quality Assurance program should be installed also for High Dose Rate brachytherapy, in the order to achieve a correct dose administration to the patient and for the safety to those involved directly with the treatment. The work presented here has the following purposes: Analyze the types of equipment tests presented by the official protocols (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX), evaluate the brachytherapy routine tests of protocols from various national and international radiotherapy services and compare the latter with those presented in the official protocols. As a result, we conclude the following: TG56 presents a higher number of tests when compared to the other official protocols and most of the tests presented by the analyzed services are present in TG56. A suggestion for a basic protocol is presented, emphasizing the periodicity and tolerance level of each of the tests. (author)

  20. Behavior of fiber reinforced metal laminates at high strain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newaz, Golam; Sasso, Marco; Amodio, Dario; Mancini, Edoardo

    2018-05-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Laminate (CARALL) is a good system for energy absorption through plastic deformation in aluminum and micro-cracking in the composite layers. Moreover, CARALL FMLs also provide excellent impact resistance due to the presence of aluminum layer. The focus of this research is to characterize the CARALL behavior under dynamic conditions. High strain rate tests on sheet laminate samples have been carried out by means of direct Split Hopkinson Tension Bar. The sample geometry and the clamping system were optimized by FEM simulations. The clamping system has been designed and optimized in order reduce impedance disturbance due to the fasteners and to avoid the excessive plastic strain outside the gauge region of the samples.

  1. Safety handling manual for high dose rate remote afterloading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This manual is mainly for safety handling of 192 Ir-RALS (remote afterloading system) of high dose rate and followings were presented: Procedure and document format for the RALS therapy and for handling of its radiation source with the purpose of prevention of human errors and unexpected accidents, Procedure for preventing errors occurring in the treatment schedule and operation, and Procedure and format necessary for newly introducing the system into a facility. Consistency was intended in the description with the quality assurance guideline for therapy with small sealed radiation sources made by JASTRO (Japan Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology). Use of the old type 60 Co-RALS was pointed out to be a serious problem remained and its safety handling procedure was also presented. (K.H.)

  2. Calibration of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M H [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dozimetria, Rio de Jainero (Brazil); Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas, UERL, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sibata, C H [Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for calibration of high dose rate sources used in afterloading brachytherapy systems is described. The calibration for {sup 192}Ir is determined by interpolating {sup 60}Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. All measurements were done using the same build up caps as described by Goetsch et al and recommended by AAPM. The attenuation correction factors were determined to be 0.9903, 0.9928 and 0.9993 for {sup 192}Ir, {sup 60}Co and 250 kV x-ray, respectively. A wall + cap thickness of 0.421 g.cm{sup -2} is recommended for all measurements to ensure electronic equilibrium for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir gamma-ray beams. A mathematical formalism is described for determination of (N{sub x}){sub Ir}. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  3. Closed cycle high-repetition-rate pulsed HF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1997-04-01

    The design and performance of a closed cycle high repetition rate HF laser is described. A short pulse, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2 gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr within a 15 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm3 volume. Transverse, recirculated gas flow adequate to enable repetitive operation up to 3 kHz is imposed by a centrifugal fan. The fan also forces the gas through a scrubber cell to eliminate ground state HF from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes spent gas removed by the scrubber. Typical mean laser output powers up to 3 W can be maintained for extended periods of operation.

  4. Pulsed dose rate and fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy: choice of brachytherapy schedules to replace low dose rate treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Andries G.; Aardweg, Gerard J.M.J. van den; Levendag, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy is a new type of afterloading brachytherapy (BT) in which a continuous low dose rate (LDR) treatment is simulated by a series of 'pulses,' i.e., fractions of short duration (less than 0.5 h) with intervals between fractions of 1 to a few hours. At the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, the term 'PDR brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with a large number of fractions (at least four per day), while the term 'fractionated high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy' is used for treatment schedules with just one or two brachytherapy fractions per day. Both treatments can be applied as alternatives for LDR BT. This article deals with the choice between PDR and fractionated HDR schedules and proposes possible fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: To calculate HDR and PDR fractionation schedules with the intention of being equivalent to LDR BT, the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been used in an incomplete repair formulation as given by Brenner and Hall, and by Thames. In contrast to earlier applications of this model, both the total physical dose and the overall time were not kept identical for LDR and HDR/PDR schedules. A range of possible PDR treatment schedules is presented, both for booster applications (in combination with external radiotherapy (ERT) and for BT applications as a single treatment. Because the knowledge of both α/β values and the half time for repair of sublethal damage (T (1(2)) ), which are required for these calculations, is quite limited, calculations regarding the equivalence of LDR and PDR treatments have been performed for a wide range of values of α/β and T (1(2)) . The results are presented graphically as PDR/LDR dose ratios and as ratios of the PDR/LDR tumor control probabilities. Results: If the condition that total physical dose and overall time of a PDR treatment must be exactly identical to the values for the corresponding LDR treatment regimen is not applied, there appears

  5. Novel compound heterozygous mutations of ALDH1A3 contribute to anophthalmia in a non-consanguineous Chinese family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anophthalmia is a rare eye development anomaly resulting in absent ocular globes or tissue in the orbit since birth. Here, we investigated a newborn with bilateral anophthalmia in a Chinese family. Exome sequencing revealed that compound heterozygous mutations c.287G > A (p.(Arg96His and c.709G > A (p.(Gly237Arg of the ALDH1A3 gene were present in the affected newborn. Both mutations were absent in all of the searched databases, including 10,000 in-house Chinese exome sequences, and these mutations were confirmed as having been transmitted from the parents. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis across distantly related species revealed that the residues at positions 96 and 234 were evolutionarily highly conserved. In silico analysis predicted these changes to be damaging, and in vitro expression analysis revealed that the mutated alleles were associated with decreased protein production and impaired tetrameric protein formation. This study firstly reported that compound heterozygous mutations of the ALDH1A3 gene can result in anophthalmia in humans, thus highlighting those heterozygous mutations in ALDH1A3 should be considered for molecular screening in anophthalmia, particularly in cases from families without consanguineous relationships.

  6. A novel NDUFV1 gene mutation in complex I deficiency in consanguineous siblings with brainstem lesions and Leigh syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, C; Rens, C; Aeby, A; Balériaux, D; Van Bogaert, P; Remiche, G; Smet, J; Van Coster, R; Abramowicz, M; Pirson, I

    2012-09-01

    Although deficiency of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is a frequent cause of encephalopathy in children, only a few mutations have been reported in each of its subunits. In the absence of families large enough for conclusive segregation analysis and of robust functional testing, it is difficult to unequivocally show the causality of the observed mutations and to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations, making additional observations necessary. We observed two consanguineous siblings with an early-onset encephalopathy, medulla, brainstem and mesencephalon lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging and death before 8 months of age, caused by a complex I deficiency. We used a homozygosity mapping approach and identified a missense mutation in the NDUFV1 gene. The mutation, p.Arg386His, affects a highly conserved residue, contiguous to a cysteine residue known to coordinate an Fe ion. This observation adds to our understanding of complex I deficiency disease. It validates the important role of Arg386 and therefore supports the current molecular model of iron-sulfur clusters in NDUFV1. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  8. HIGH-DOSE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY IN CARCINOMA CERVIX STAGE IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathya Maruthavanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Radiotherapy is the standard treatment in locally advanced (IIB-IVA and early inoperable cases. The current standard of practice with curable intent is concurrent chemoradiation in which intracavitary brachytherapy is an integral component of radiotherapy. This study aims at assessing the efficacy of HDR ICBT (High-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy in terms local response, normal tissue reactions, and feasibility. METHODS AND MATERIALS A total of 20 patients of stage IIIB cancer of the uterine cervix were enrolled in the study and were planned to receive concurrent chemotherapy weekly along with EBRT (external beam radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy/25 Fr. Suitability for ICBT was assessed at 40 Gy/20 Fr. 6/20 patients were suitable at 40 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 5.5 Gy to point A in 4 sessions (5.5 Gy/4 Fr. The remaining 14/20 patients completed 50 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 6 Gy to point A in 3 sessions (6 Gy/3 Fr. RESULTS A total of 66 intracavitary applications were done and only one application required dose modification due to high bladder dose, the pelvic control rate was 85% (17/20. 10% (2/20 had stable disease and 5% (1/20 had progressive disease at one year of follow up. When toxicity was considered only 15% developed grade I and grade II rectal complications. Patient compliance and acceptability was 100%. Patients were very comfortable with the short treatment time as compared with patients on LDR ICBT (low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment interviewed during the same period. CONCLUSION This study proves that HDR brachytherapy is efficacious and feasible in carcinoma of cervix stage IIIB. It also proves that good dose distribution can be achieved with HDR intracavitary facility by the use of dose optimization. The short treatment time in HDR ICBT makes it possible to maintain this optimised dose distribution throughout the treatment providing a gain in the therapeutic ratio and

  9. Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, K.; Eisele, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Rocket propellants with reduced smoke and high burning rates recommend themselves for use in a rocket motor for high accelerating tactical missiles. They serve for an improved camouflage on the battle field and may enable guidance control due to the higher transmission of their rocket plume compared to traditional aluminized composite propellants. In this contribution the material based ranges of performance and properties of three non aluminized rocket propellants will be introduced and compared to each other. The selected formulations based on AP/HTPB; AP/PU/TMETN and AP/HMX/GAP/TMETN have roughly the same specific impulse of I{sub SP}=2430 Ns/kg at 70:1 expansion ratio. The burning rates in the pressure range from 10-18 MPa vary from to 26-33 mm/s for the AP/HTPB propellant, 52-68 mm/s for the formulation based on AP/PU/TMETN and 28-39 mm/s for the propellant based on AP/HMX/GAP. With 58% and 20% AP-contents the propellants with nitrate ester plasticizers create a much smaller secondary signature than the AP/HTPB representative containing 85% AP. Their disadvantage, however, is the connection of high performance to a high level of energetic plasticizer. For this reason, the very fast burning propellant based on AP/PU/TMETN is endowed with a low elastic modulus and is limited to a grain configuration which isn`t exposed too much to the fast and turbulent airstream. The mechanical properties of the AP/HMX/GAP-propellant are as good or better as those of the AP/HTPB propellant. The first one exhibits the same performance and burn rates as the composite representative but produces only one fifth of HCl exhaust. For this reason it is recommended for missile applications, which must have high accelerating power together with a significantly reduced plume signature and smoke production. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rauchreduzierte Festtreibstoffe mit hohen Abbrandgeschwindigkeiten bieten sich fuer den Antrieb hochbeschleunigender taktischer Flugkoerper an, da sie gegenueber

  10. High repetition rate, high energy, actively Q-switched all-in-fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J. B.; Bertrand, A.; Guillemet, S.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report an actively Q-switched Ytterbium-doped all-in-fibre laser delivering 10ns pulses with high repetition rate (from 100kHz to 1MHz). The laser operation has been validated at three different wavelengths (1040, 1050 and 1064nm). The laser can deliver up to 20Watts average power with an high beam quality (M2 = 1).

  11. High-power pre-chirp managed amplification of femtosecond pulses at high repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Dongbi; Luo, Daping; Zeng, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond pulses at 250 MHz repetition rate from a mode-locked fiber laser are amplified to high power in a pre-chirp managed amplifier. The experimental strategy offers a potential towards high-power ultrashort laser pulses at high repetition rates. By investigating the laser pulse evolution in the amplification processes, we show that self-similar evolution, finite gain bandwidth and mode instabilities determine pulse characteristics in different regimes. Further average power scaling is limited by the mode instabilities. Nevertheless, this laser system enables us to achieve sub-50 fs pulses with an average power of 93 W. (letter)

  12. Sexting Rates and Predictors From an Urban Midwest High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, David; Somers, Cheryl L; Pernice, Francesca Maria; Hillman, Stephen B; Kernsmith, Poco

    2018-06-01

    Risks associated with teen sexting draw increasing concern from teachers and communities as developments in communication software and devices make sharing private content faster and simpler each year. We examined rates, recipients, and predictors of teen sexting to better plan education and preventative policies and strategies. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to determine the most likely predictors of teen sexting using prior survey studies and theoretical conceptions. We surveyed 314 high school students in an urban area of a large Midwestern city. Males were found to more frequently report sexting. Impulsivity, frequency of electronic communication, peer pressure, peer sexting, and social learning significantly predicted sexting beyond age, race, and sex. Self-esteem did not moderate the effect of peer pressure to sext. Structural predictive models attained good fit to the data, and neither were moderated by sex. Sexting was highly associated with reported peer pressure, perceived norms, and impulsive decision making. Adolescents in relationships may be at particular risk of sexting. These findings will help parents, teens, and educators take appropriate measures to inform about and encourage the safe use of technology. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  13. Optimized dose distribution of a high dose rate vaginal cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuofeng; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present a comparison of optimized dose distributions for a set of high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cylinders calculated by a commercial treatment-planning system with benchmark calculations using Monte-Carlo-calculated dosimetry data. Methods and Materials: Optimized dose distributions using both an isotropic and an anisotropic dose calculation model were obtained for a set of HDR vaginal cylinders. Mathematical optimization techniques available in the computer treatment-planning system were used to calculate dwell times and positions. These dose distributions were compared with benchmark calculations with TG43 formalism and using Monte-Carlo-calculated data. The same dwell times and positions were used for a quantitative comparison of dose calculated with three dose models. Results: The isotropic dose calculation model can result in discrepancies as high as 50%. The anisotropic dose calculation model compared better with benchmark calculations. The differences were more significant at the apex of the vaginal cylinder, which is typically used as the prescription point. Conclusion: Dose calculation models available in a computer treatment-planning system must be evaluated carefully to ensure their correct application. It should also be noted that when optimized dose distribution at a distance from the cylinder surface is calculated using an accurate dose calculation model, the vaginal mucosa dose becomes significantly higher, and therefore should be carefully monitored

  14. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  15. An integrated CMOS high data rate transceiver for video applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yaping; Sun Lingling; Che Dazhi; Liang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a 5 GHz CMOS radio frequency (RF) transceiver built with 0.18 μm RF-CMOS technology by using a proprietary protocol, which combines the new IEEE 802.11n features such as multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO) technology with other wireless technologies to provide high data rate robust real-time high definition television (HDTV) distribution within a home environment. The RF frequencies cover from 4.9 to 5.9 GHz: the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Each RF channel bandwidth is 20 MHz. The transceiver utilizes a direct up transmitter and low-IF receiver architecture. A dual-quadrature direct up conversion mixer is used that achieves better than 35 dB image rejection without any on chip calibration. The measurement shows a 6 dB typical receiver noise figure and a better than 33 dB transmitter error vector magnitude (EVM) at −3 dBm output power. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

  17. High Rate Micromechanical Behavior of Grafted Polymer Nanoparticle Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edwin

    We report the ultra high strain rate behavior of films comprised of polymer grafted nanoparticles (NPs) and compare the results to homopolymer films. The films are formed by flow coating a suspension of polystyrene (PS) chains of 230 kg/mol grafted to 16nm diameter SiO2\\ at a graft density of 0.6 chains/nm2 resulting a film with 1 vol % SiO2. Films of 267 kg/mol PS were also flow coated and both films were impacted at velocities 350-700 ms-1 using 3.7 micron SiO2\\ projectiles to achieve increments in kinetic energy (KE) of 1:2:4. The KE of the projectiles before and after penetration was measured to determine the penetration energy. TEM and SEM suggest the projectile initially induces plastic flow due to the adiabatic temperature rise from impact. As the projectile deforms the film, the lower magnitude, biaxial stress state in the peripherial regions causes material microvoid formation and initiation of craze growth in the radial and tangential directions. The anchoring of the grafted polymer chains to the NPs increases the penetration energy relative to the pure homopolymer by 50% and the films capacity to delocalize the impact by 200%. These results suggest that highly grafted NP films may be useful in lightweight protection systems. In collaboration with Omri Fried, Olawale Lawal, Yang Jiao, Victor Hsaio, Thevamaran Ramathasan, Mujin Zhou, Richard Vaia.

  18. The status of low dose rate and future of high dose rate Cf-252 brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Chuba, P.J.; Fontanesi, J.

    1997-12-01

    This work describes the current status of the US low dose rate (LDR) Cf-252 brachytherapy program. The efforts undertaken towards development of a high dose rate (HDR) remotely after loaded Cf-252 source, which can accommodate 1 mg or greater Cf-252, are also described. This HDR effort is a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), commercial remote after loader manufactures, the Gershenson Radiation Oncology Center (ROC), and Wayne State University. To achieve this goal, several advances in isotope chemistry and source preparation at ORNL must be achieved to yield a specific material source loading of greater than or equal 1 mg Cf-252 per mm3. Development work with both radioactive and non-radioactive stand-ins for Cf-252 have indicated the feasibility of fabricating such sources. As a result, the decreased catheter diameter and computer controlled source placement will permit additional sites (e.g. brain, breast, prostate, lung, parotid, etc.) to be treated effectively with Cf-252 sources. Additional work at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) remains in source fabrication, after loader modification, and safe design. The current LDR Cf-252 Treatment Suite at the ROC is shielded and licensed to hold up to 1 mg of Cf-252. This was designed to maintain cumulative personnel exposure, both external to the room and in direct isotope handling, at less than 20 microSv/hr. However, cumulative exposure may be greatly decreased if a Cf-252 HDR unit is employed which would eliminate direct isotope handling and decrease treatment times from tilde 3 hours to an expected range of 3 to 15 minutes. Such a Cf-252 HDR source will also demonstrate improved dose distributions over current LDR treatments due to the ability to step the point-like source throughout the target volume and weight the dwell time accordingly

  19. Consanguinity among the risk factors for underweight in children under five: a study from rural Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnain, S.F.; Hashmi, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem, especially in developing countries. Of the 11 million children under 5 who die each year in the developing countries mainly from preventable causes, the death of about 54% are either directly or indirectly attributable to malnutrition. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and associated factors for underweight in rural Sindh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jhangara Town, located in District Dadu, Sindh. Eight hundred children under 5 years of age were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to elicit required information and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: The overall prevalence for underweight was 54.3% in the study population, which was higher than the prevalence reported by PDHS 1990 - 91. In multivariate analysis, various factors for underweight were consanguinity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0 - 2.07), low birth weight (parents perspective) (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.08 - 2.16) and lack of breast-feeding (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.19 - 6.17). Conclusion: Effective strategies to discourage consanguineous marriages between first cousins are required. Promoting breast feeding is another factor that should be incorporated while designing control strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malnutrition in children (<5 years). (author)

  20. Familial Recurrence of 3MC Syndrome in Consanguineous Families: A Clinical and Molecular Diagnostic Approach With Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Olivia K; Haynes, Karla; Schweitzer, Daniela; Johns, Alexis; Magee, William P; Urata, Mark M; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A

    2017-11-01

    We report four individuals from two unrelated consanguineous families with 3MC syndrome. In the first family, chromosome microarray data revealed that the two affected sisters, born to first-cousin parents, shared a unique homozygous C-terminal deletion in the COLEC11 gene. Two affected brothers from a second family, also born to first-cousin parents, shared a region of homozygosity that included the second gene known to cause the 3MC syndrome, MASP1. We discuss the diagnostic approach of craniofacial disorders born to consanguineous parents and highlight a literature search and reference a helpful dysmorphology solution powered by FDNA (Facial Dysmorphology Novel Analysis) technology.

  1. Yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten at high strain rates and very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škoro, G.P.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Edgecock, T.R.; Booth, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New experimental data on the yield strength of molybdenum, tantalum and tungsten. ► High strain rate effects at record high temperatures (up to 2700 K). ► Test of the consistency of the Zerilli–Armstrong model at very high temperatures. - Abstract: Recently reported results of the high strain rate, high temperature measurements of the yield strength of tantalum and tungsten have been analyzed along with new experimental results on the yield strength of molybdenum. Thin wires are subjected to high stress by passing a short, fast, high current pulse through a thin wire; the amplitude of the current governs the stress and the repetition rate of the pulses determines the temperature of the wire. The highest temperatures reached in the experiments were 2100 °C (for molybdenum), 2250 °C (for tantalum) and 2450 °C (for tungsten). The strain-rates in the tests were in the range from 500 to 1500 s −1 . The parameters for the constitutive equation developed by Zerilli and Armstrong have been determined from the experimental data and the results have been compared with the data obtained at lower temperatures. An exceptionally good fit is obtained for the deformation of tungsten.

  2. Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwinsyah Lubis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat. To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control, C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P0.05. Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05 respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05. It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.

  3. Urethral stricture following high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Lisa; Williams, Scott G.; Tai, Keen Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Cleeve, L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, timing, nature and outcome of urethral strictures following high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for prostate carcinoma. Methods and materials: Data from 474 patients with clinically localised prostate cancer treated with HDRB were analysed. Ninety percent received HDRB as a boost to external beam radiotherapy (HDRBB) and the remainder as monotherapy (HDRBM). Urethral strictures were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0. Results: At a median follow-up of 41 months, 38 patients (8%) were diagnosed with a urethral stricture (6-year actuarial risk 12%). Stricture location was bulbo-membranous (BM) urethra in 92.1%. The overall actuarial rate of grade 2 or more BM urethral stricture was estimated at 10.8% (95% CI 7.0-14.9%), with a median time to diagnosis of 22 months (range 10-68 months). All strictures were initially managed with either dilatation (n = 15) or optical urethrotomy (n = 20). Second line therapy was required in 17 cases (49%), third line in three cases (9%) and 1 patient open urethroplasty (grade 3 toxicity). Predictive factors on multivariate analysis were prior trans-urethral resection of prostate (hazard ratio (HR) 2.81, 95% CI 1.15-6.85, p = 0.023); hypertension (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.37-5.85, p = 0.005); and dose per fraction used in HDR (HR for 1 Gy increase per fraction 1.33, 95% CI 1.08-1.64, p = 0.008). Conclusions: BM urethral strictures are the most common late grade 2 or more urinary toxicity following HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Most are manageable with minimally invasive procedures. Both clinical and dosimetric factors appear to influence the risk of stricture formation.

  4. High dose rate brachytherapy for superficial cancer of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, Philippe; D'Hombres, Anne; Truc, Gilles; Barillot, Isabelle; Michiels, Christophe; Bedenne, Laurent; Horiot, Jean Claude

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with external radiotherapy, combined modality treatment, or HDR brachytherapy alone to limited esophageal cancers. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1996, 25 patients with limited superficial esophagus carcinomas were treated by high dose rate brachytherapy. The mean age was 63 years (43-86 years). Five patients showed superficial local recurrence after external radiotherapy. Eleven patients without invasion of the basal membrane were staged as Tis. Fourteen patients with tumors involving the submucosa without spreading to the muscle were staged as T1. Treatment consisted of HDR brachytherapy alone in 13 patients, external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in 8 cases, and concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy in 4 cases. External beam radiation was administered to a total dose of 50 Gy using 2 Gy daily fractions in 5 weeks. In cases of HDR brachytherapy alone (13 patients), 6 applications were performed once a week. Results: The mean follow-up is 31 months (range 24-96 months). Twelve patients received 2 applications and 13 patients received 6 applications. Twelve patients experienced a failure (48%), 11/12 located in the esophagus, all of them in the treated volume. One patient presented an isolated distant metastasis. In the patients treated for superficial recurrence, 4/5 were locally controlled (80%) by brachytherapy alone. After brachytherapy alone, 8/13 patients were controlled (61%). The mean disease-free survival is 14 months (1-36 months). Overall survival is 76% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years, and 14% at 3 years. Overall survival for Tis patients is 24% vs. 20% for T1 (p 0.83). Overall survival for patients treated by HDR brachytherapy alone is 43%. One patient presented with a fistula with local failure after external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Four stenosis were registered, two were diagnosed on barium swallowing without symptoms, and two required dilatations. Conclusion: High dose rate brachytherapy permits the treating

  5. High-dose-rate brachytherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Firuza D.; Rai, Bhavana; Mallick, Indranil; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is in wide use for curative treatment of cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has recommended that the individual fraction size be <7.5 Gy and the range of fractions should be four to eight; however, many fractionation schedules, varying from institution to institution, are in use. We use 9 Gy/fraction of HDR in two to five fractions in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We found that our results and toxicity were comparable to those reported in the literature and hereby present our experience with this fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients with Stage I-III carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1996 and 2000. The total number of patients analyzed was 113. The median patient age was 53 years, and the histopathologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% of patients. The patients were subdivided into Groups 1 and 2. In Group 1, 18 patients with Stage Ib-IIb disease, tumor size <4 cm, and preserved cervical anatomy underwent simultaneous external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks with central shielding and HDR brachytherapy of 9 Gy/fraction, given weekly, and interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy. The 95 patients in Group 2, who had Stage IIb-IIIb disease underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions within 4.5 weeks followed by two sessions of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy of 9 Gy each given 1 week apart. The follow-up range was 3-7 years (median, 36.4 months). Late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rate was 74.5% and 62.0%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 100% for Stage I, 80% for Stage II, and 67.2% for Stage III patients. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 88.8% for

  6. Managing Clutter in a High Pulse Rate Echolocation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Isbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of echolocation for navigating in dense, cluttered environments is a challenge due to the need for rapid sampling of nearby objects in the face of delayed echoes from distant objects. In the wild, echolocating bats frequently encounter this situation when leaving the roost or while hunting. If long-delay echoes from a distant object are received after the next pulse is sent out, these “aliased” echoes appear as close-range phantom objects. Little is known about how bats cope with these situations. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy to manage aliasing in cases where a single target is actively being tracked at close range. This paper presents three reactive strategies for a high pulse-rate sonar system to combat aliased echoes: (1 changing the interpulse interval to move the aliased echoes away in time from the tracked target, (2 changing positions to create a geometry without aliasing, and (3 a phase-based, transmission beam-shaping strategy to illuminate the target and not the aliasing object.

  7. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation: high rates of maternal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Candido

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Women regain fertility a few time after renal transplantation. However, viability of pregnancy and maternal complications are still unclear. Objective: To describe the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients, focusing on maternal complications. Methods: Retrospective study of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients between 2004 and 2014, followed up 12 months after delivery. Each pregnancy was considered an event. Results: There were 53 pregnancies in 36 patients. Mean age was 28 ± 5years. Pregnancy occurred 4.4 ± 3.0 years post-transplant. Immunosuppression before conception was tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisone in 74% of the cases. There were 15% miscarriages in the 1st trimester and 8% in 2nd trimester. In 41% of the cases, it was necessary to induce labor. From all births, 22% were premature and 17% very premature. There were 5% stillbirths and 5% of neonatal deaths. De novo proteinuria occurred in 60%, urinary tract infection in 23%, preeclampsia in 11%, acute rejection in 6%, and graft loss in 2% of the cases. It was observed a significant increase in creatinine at preconception comparing to 3rd trimester and follow-up (1.17 vs. 1.46 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although the sample is limited, the number of miscarriages was higher than in the general population, with high rates of maternal complications. Sustained increase of creatinine suggests increased risk of graft loss in long-term.

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  9. A high rate clarifier for load levelling in sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R A; Davey, A; Li, H

    2003-01-01

    The combining of chemically assisted clarification with a proprietary physical separation technology has led to a high rate process for clarifying flocculated sewage and other waste streams. This hybrid physico-chemical system, known as the CDS Fine Solids Separation (FSS) System, was developed over a two year period within a sewage treatment plant environment. This paper summarises the results of a recent field trial of the system with a Victorian water authority which experiences heavy loading of sewers in a coastal town during holiday periods. The trial sought to evaluate the FSS as a tool for smoothing the load on the 11 km long sewer to the sewage treatment plant (STP). The FSS system could possibly enable the costly augmentation of the sewer to be deferred, particularly as the capacity of the existing sewer pipe is satisfactory for most of the year. Water quality parameters were determined for a range of flowrates and operational conditions over a two month period. Large reductions were achieved in TSS, TP, FC, turbidity and BOD5, with only minimal reductions in NH3 and TON. These results showed that the FSS could meet the authority's objectives for load levelling and would provide a 20-25% increase in effective sewer capacity. The data are also discussed in terms of possible use of the effluent from the FSS for water reuse applications.

  10. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  11. High rate of destruction of molecular clouds by hot stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari-Malayeri, M.; Lortet, M.C.; Deharveng, L.

    1980-01-01

    Tenorio-Tagle (1979) first proposed the idea of a third dynamical phase, the champagne phase, following the formation and expansion phases of an HII region. The champagne phase begins when the high pressure gas of an HII region formed inside a molecular cloud reaches the edge of the cloud and bursts into the lower pressure, low density, intercloud medium. One important implication of the model is the prediction of an enormous enhancement of the rate of erosion of the molecular cloud by the ionising radiation of hot stars, which begins as soon as the process of the decrease of the gas density between the star and the cloud is started. The proportion of hydrogen molecules eroded by ionising photons may reach about 10 -2 . The mass eroded may exceed the mass of the ionised gas in the case where the ionisation front reaching the edge of the cloud is of D-type. Additional mechanisms (for instance stellar winds), if at work, may even increase the efficiency of the mechanism. (Auth.)

  12. CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate for high-rate, high-radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko, E-mail: thirono@uni-bonn.de [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Barbero, Marlon; Breugnon, Patrick; Godiot, Stephanie [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, Hans [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Liu, Jian; Pangaud, Patrick [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Peric, Ivan [IPE, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pohl, David-Leon [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Rozanov, Alexandre [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Rymaszewski, Piotr [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wang, Anqing [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institute der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-21

    A depleted CMOS active pixel sensor (DMAPS) has been developed on a substrate with high resistivity in a high voltage process. High radiation tolerance and high time resolution can be expected because of the charge collection by drift. A prototype of DMAPS was fabricated in a 150 nm process by LFoundry. Two variants of the pixel layout were tested, and the measured depletion depths of the variants are 166 μm and 80 μm. We report the results obtained with the prototype fabricated in this technology.

  13. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements at high neutron fluence and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) techniques have been used to measure 239-Pu, 235-U, and 237-Np fission rates for total neutron fluences approaching 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 at temperatures in the range 680 to 830 0 F. Natural quartz crystal SSTRs were used to withstand the high temperature environment and ultra low-mass fissionable deposits of the three isotopes were required to yield scannable track densities at the high neutron fluences. The results of these high temperature, high neutron fluence measurements are reported

  14. High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Sprouffske

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli's genomic mutation rate affect adaptive evolution. To do so, we evolved multiple replicate populations of asexual E. coli strains engineered to have four different mutation rates for 3000 generations in the laboratory. We measured the ability of evolved populations to grow in their original environment and in more than 90 novel chemical environments. In addition, we subjected the populations to whole genome population sequencing. Although populations with higher mutation rates accumulated greater genetic diversity, this diversity conveyed benefits only for modestly increased mutation rates, where populations adapted faster and also thrived better than their ancestors in some novel environments. In contrast, some populations at the highest mutation rates showed reduced adaptation during evolution, and failed to thrive in all of the 90 alternative environments. In addition, they experienced a dramatic decrease in mutation rate. Our work demonstrates that the mutation rate changes the global balance between deleterious and beneficial mutational effects on fitness. In contrast to most theoretical models, our experiments suggest that this tipping point already occurs at the modest mutation rates that are found in the wild.

  15. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Performance of Drift-Tube Detectors at High Counting Rates for High-Luminosity LHC Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, Bernhard; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Manfredini, Alessandro; Nowak, Sebastian; Ott, Sebastian; Richter, Robert; Schwegler, Philipp; Zanzi, Daniele; Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, Andre

    2016-01-01

    The performance of pressurized drift-tube detectors at very high background rates has been studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN and in an intense 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich Van-der-Graaf tandem accelerator for applications in large-area precision muon tracking at high-luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS muon drifttube (MDT) chambers with 30 mm tube diameter have been designed to cope with and neutron background hit rates of up to 500 Hz/square cm. Background rates of up to 14 kHz/square cm are expected at LHC upgrades. The test results with standard MDT readout electronics show that the reduction of the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm, while leaving the operating parameters unchanged, vastly increases the rate capability well beyond the requirements. The development of new small-diameter muon drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for LHC upgrades is completed. Further improvements of tracking e?ciency and spatial resolution at high counting rates will be achieved with ...

  17. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  18. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates with a prototype High Purity Germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. J.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are required for applications in nuclear safeguards, emergency response, and fundamental nuclear physics. To overcome one of the shortcomings of conventional High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, we have developed a prototype device capable of achieving high event throughput and high energy resolution at very high count rates. This device, the design of which we have previously reported on, features a planar HPGe crystal with a reduced-capacitance strip electrode geometry. This design is intended to provide good energy resolution at the short shaping or digital filter times that are required for high rate operation and which are enabled by the fast charge collection afforded by the planar geometry crystal. In this work, we report on the initial performance of the system at count rates up to and including two million counts per second.

  19. Transistor reset preamplifier for high-rate high-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Cork, C.P.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed transistor reset of high resolution charge sensitive preamplifiers used in cooled semiconductor spectrometers can sometimes have an advantage over pulsed light reset systems. Several versions of transistor reset spectrometers using both silicon and germanium detectors have been built. This paper discusses the advantages of the transistor reset system and illustrates several configurations of the packages used for the FET and reset transistor. It also describes the preamplifer circuit and shows the performance of the spectrometer at high rates

  20. Physics and quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lowell L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To review the physical aspects of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, including commissioning and quality assurance, source calibration and dose distribution measurements, and treatment planning methods. Following the introduction of afterloading in brachytherapy, development efforts to make it 'remote' culminated in 1964 with the near-simultaneous appearance of remote afterloaders in five major medical centers. Four of these machines were 'high dose rate', three employing 60Co and one (the GammaMed) using a single, cable-mounted 192Ir source. Stepping-motor source control was added to the GammaMed in 1974, making it the precursor of modern remote afterloaders, which are now suitable for interstitial as well as intracavitary brachytherapy by virtue of small source-diameter and indexer-accessed multiple channels. Because the 192Ir sources currently used in HDR remote afterloaders are supplied at a nominal air-kerma strength of 11.4 cGy cm2 s-1 (10 Ci), are not collimated in clinical use, and emit a significant fraction (15%) of photons at energies greater than 600 keV, shielding and facility design must be undertaken as carefully and thoroughly as for external beam installations. Licensing requirements of regulatory agencies must be met with respect both to maximum permissible dose limits and to the existence and functionality of safety devices (door interlocks, radiation monitors, etc.). Commissioning and quality assurance procedures that must be documented for HDR remote afterloading relate to (1) machine, applicator, guide-tube, and facility functionality checks, (2) source calibration, (3) emergency response readiness, (4) planning software evaluation, and (5) independent checks of clinical dose calculations. Source calibration checks must be performed locally, either by in-air measurement of air kerma strength or with a well ionization chamber calibrated (by an accredited standards laboratory) against an in-air measurement of air kerma strength for the

  1. High versus low-dose rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Sonali S; Tergas, Ana I; Deutsch, Israel; Burke, William M; Hou, June Y; Ananth, Cande V; Huang, Yongmei; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Brachytherapy plays an important role in the treatment of cervical cancer. While small trials have shown comparable survival outcomes between high (HDR) and low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, little data is available in the US. We examined the utilization of HDR brachytherapy and analyzed the impact of type of brachytherapy on survival for cervical cancer. Women with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with primary (external beam and brachytherapy) radiotherapy between 2003-2011 and recorded in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were analyzed. Generalized linear mixed models and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to examine predictors of HDR brachytherapy use and the association between HDR use and survival. A total of 10,564 women including 2681 (25.4%) who received LDR and 7883 (74.6%) that received HDR were identified. Use of HDR increased from 50.2% in 2003 to 83.9% in 2011 (Puse of HDR. While patients in the Northeast were more likely to receive HDR therapy, there were no other clinical or socioeconomic characteristics associated with receipt of HDR. In a multivariable Cox model, survival was similar between the HDR and LDR groups (HR=0.93; 95% CI 0.83-1.03). Similar findings were noted in analyses stratified by stage and histology. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated no difference in survival based on type of brachytherapy for stage IIB (P=0.68), IIIB (P=0.17), or IVA (P=0.16) tumors. The use of HDR therapy has increased rapidly. Overall survival is similar for LDR and HDR brachytherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do high fetal catecholamine levels affect heart rate variability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To deternrine the relationship between Umbilical arterial catecholamine levels and fetal heart rate variability and meconium passage. Study design. A prospective descriptive study was perfonned. Umbilical artery catecholamine levels were measured in 55 newborns and correlated with fetal heart rate before ...

  3. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  4. High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli’s genomic mutation rate affect adaptive evolution. To do so, we evolved multiple replicate populations of asexual E. coli strains engineered to have four different mutation rates for 3000 generations in the laboratory. We measured the ability of evolved populations to grow in their original environment and in more than 90 novel chemical environments. In addition, we subjected the populations to whole genome population sequencing. Although populations with higher mutation rates accumulated greater genetic diversity, this diversity conveyed benefits only for modestly increased mutation rates, where populations adapted faster and also thrived better than their ancestors in some novel environments. In contrast, some populations at the highest mutation rates showed reduced adaptation during evolution, and failed to thrive in all of the 90 alternative environments. In addition, they experienced a dramatic decrease in mutation rate. Our work demonstrates that the mutation rate changes the global balance between deleterious and beneficial mutational effects on fitness. In contrast to most theoretical models, our experiments suggest that this tipping point already occurs at the modest mutation rates that are found in the wild. PMID:29702649

  5. High-Pressure Burning Rate Studies of Solid Rocket Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    monopropellant burning rate. The self-de§agration rates of neat AP are plotted in Fig. 2 for both pressed pellets and single crystals. There is agreement...rate data from various investigators: 1 ¡ [2]; pressed pellets : 2 ¡ [3], 3 ¡ [4], and 4 ¡ [2]; and single crystals: 5 ¡ [5], and 6 ¡ [6]. Line ¡ AP...7]. Strand or window burners have had more use in the solid propellant community. There are numerous types and styles of combustion vessels, but they

  6. Mechanical characterization of alloys in extreme conditions of high strain rates and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the description of the mechanical characterization of alloys under extreme conditions of temperature and loading. In fact, in the frame of the Cost Action CA15102 “Solutions for Critical Raw Materials Under Extreme Conditions (CRM-EXTREME)” this aspect is crucial and many industrial applications have to consider the dynamic response of materials. Indeed, for a reduction and substitution of CRMs in alloys is necessary to design the materials and understand if the new materials behave better or if the substitution or reduction badly affect their performance. For this reason, a deep knowledge of the mechanical behaviour at high strain-rates of considered materials is required. In general, machinery manufacturing industry or transport industry as well as energy industry have important dynamic phenomena that are simultaneously affected by extended strain, high strain-rate, damage and pressure, as well as conspicuous temperature gradients. The experimental results in extreme conditions of high strain rate and high temperature of an austenitic stainless steel as well as a high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 are presented.

  7. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  8. The High Strain Rate Deformation Behavior of High Purity Magnesium and AZ31B Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livescu, Veronica; Cady, Carl M.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Henrie, Benjamin L.; Gray, George T.

    The deformation in compression of pure magnesium and AZ31B magnesium alloy, both with a strong basal pole texture, has been investigated as a function of temperature, strain rate, and specimen orientation. The mechanical response of both metals is highly dependent upon the orientation of loading direction with respect to the basal pole. Specimens compressed along the basal pole direction have a high sensitivity to strain rate and temperature and display a concave down work hardening behavior. Specimens loaded perpendicularly to the basal pole have a yield stress that is relatively insensitive to strain rate and temperature and a work hardening behavior that is parabolic and then linearly upwards. Both specimen orientations display a mechanical response that is sensitive to temperature and strain rate. Post mortem characterization of the pure magnesium was conducted on a subset of specimens to determine the microstructural and textural evolution during deformation and these results are correlated with the observed work hardening behavior and strain rate sensitivities were calculated.

  9. MED23-associated intellectual disability in a non-consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Aditi; Brady, Jacqueline M; Maduro, Valerie; Bone, William P; Huang, Yan; Golas, Gretchen A; Kane, Megan S; Lee, Paul R; Thurm, Audrey; Gropman, Andrea L; Paul, Scott M; Vezina, Gilbert; Markello, Thomas C; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Tifft, Cynthia J

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous condition arising from a variety of environmental and genetic factors. Among these causes are defects in transcriptional regulators. Herein, we report on two brothers in a nonconsanguineous family with novel compound heterozygous, disease-segregating mutations (NM_015979.3: [3656A > G];[4006C > T], NP_057063.2: [H1219R];[R1336X]) in MED23. This gene encodes a subunit of the Mediator complex that modulates the expression of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. These brothers, who had profound ID, spasticity, congenital heart disease, brain abnormalities, and atypical electroencephalography, represent the first case of MED23-associated ID in a non-consanguineous family. They also expand upon the clinical features previously reported for mutations in this gene. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Domestic violence in consanguineous marriages - findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is a pandemic and estimated to affect one in three women globally, in their lifetime. Marriages within blood relations in Pakistan are common. In this study a secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13 was done to study the prevalence and profile of domestic violence in the context of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. Almost 65% of women had some kind of blood relationship with their husbands. Women having a blood relationship with husbands were more likely to report having ever been subjected to marital control behaviours, emotional and physical violence by their husbands, compared to ones without such relationship. However, these associations fail to reach statistical significance; underscoring the ubiquitous nature of marital control and violence. More effective public health education campaigns for just and equal treatment of wives by their husbands to speedily curb the scourge of domestic violence in the country are needed.

  11. Parental consanguineous marriages and clinical response to chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Khalili, Maryam; Omidvari, Shahpour; Ansari-Lari, Maryam

    2011-03-28

    The main aim of the present study was investigating the association between parental consanguinity and clinical response to chemotherapy in females affected with locally advanced breast cancer. A consecutive series of 92 patients were prospectively included in this study. Clinical assessment of treatment was accomplished by comparing initial tumor size with preoperative tumor size using revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Clinical response defined as complete response, partial response and no response. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used to evaluate the association of parental marriages (first cousin vs unrelated marriages) and clinical response to chemotherapy (complete and partial response vs no response). Number of courses of chemotherapy was considered as time, in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that offspring of unrelated marriages had poorer response to chemotherapy (log rank statistic=5.10, df=1, P=0.023). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Search for consanguinity within and among families of patients with trichothiodystrophy associated with xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, F; Zei, G; Stefanini, M; Colognola, R; Santachiara, A S; Lagomarsini, P; Marinoni, S; Salvaneschi, L

    1990-01-01

    The association of two rare hereditary disorders, trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), was found in four patients from three families, apparently unrelated but living in the same geographical area. In order to test the hypothesis of a common ancestor, consanguinity within and among the families was checked using three different approaches: reconstruction of genealogical trees, typing of blood markers, and surname analysis. The results of the three types of analyses strengthen the hypothesis that, in at least two out of the three families, the genetic defect determining the TTD/XP phenotype is identical by descent, as a consequence of remote inbreeding. This implies that if two mutations are responsible for the two diseases they are at linked loci or affect the same gene. PMID:2308151

  13. Usher syndrome in four siblings from a consanguineous family of Pakistani origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trop, I; Schloss, M D; Polomeno, R; Der Kaloustian, V

    1995-04-01

    Usher syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Two types are accepted clinically: type I is associated with profound congenital deafness with progressive pigmentary retinopathy and total loss of vestibular function. Type II is a milder form, with moderate-to-profound hearing loss and a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa. Vestibular function is preserved. A total of five loci have been identified as accounting for the two distinct phenotypic presentations. We describe a consanguineous family of Pakistani origin whose four children all are affected with Usher syndrome type I. DNA analysis showed non-linkage to any of the loci already identified as tightly linked to the Usher syndrome type I.

  14. The Rate Sensitivity of High Strength Syntactic Foam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doleski, Robert; Plunkett, Stephen; Tucker, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    .... Quasi-static experiments were also conducted in compression, tension, and shear. A comparison of the quasi-static and dynamic properties showed that syntactic foam is mildly dependent on rate in compression...

  15. Experimental characterization and modelling of UO2 mechanical behaviour at high temperatures and high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize and model the mechanical behavior of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) during a Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). The fuel loading during a RIA is characterized by high strain rates (up to 1/s) and high temperatures (1000 C - 2500 C). Two types of UO 2 pellets (commercial and high density) were therefore tested in compression with prescribed displacement rates (0.1 to 100 mm/min corresponding to strain rates of 10 -4 - 10 -1 /s) and temperatures (1100 C - 1350 C - 1550 C et 1700 C). Experimental results (geometry, yield stress and microstructure) allowed us to define a hyperbolic sine creep law and a Drucker-Prager criterion with associated plasticity, in order to model grain boundaries fragmentation at the macroscopic scale. Finite Element Simulations of these tests and of more than 200 creep tests were used to assess the model response to a wide range of temperatures (1100 C - 1700 C) and strain rates (10 -9 /s - 10 -1 /s). Finally, a constitutive law called L3F was developed for UO 2 by adding to the previous model irradiation creep and tensile macroscopic cracking. The L3F law was then introduced in the 1.5D scheme of the fuel performance code ALCYONE-RIA to simulate the REP-Na tests performed in the experimental reactor CABRI. Simulation results are in good agreement with post tests examinations. (author) [fr

  16. Modelling of behaviour of metals at high strain rates

    OpenAIRE

    Panov, Vili

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was to produce the improvement of the existing simulation tools used for the analysis of materials and structures, which are dynamically loaded and subjected to the different levels of temperatures and strain rates. The main objective of this work was development of tools for modelling of strain rate and temperature dependant behaviour of aluminium alloys, typical for aerospace structures with pronounced orthotropic properties, and their implementa...

  17. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  18. Consanguineous marriage and increased risk of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus: a case-control study in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orcun; Yildirim, Cengiz; Akgun, Rahmi C; Haberal, Bahtiyar; Yazici, Ayse C; Tuncay, Ismail C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate if there is any relationship between consanguineous marriages and idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV). A case-control study on CTEV screening was conducted in a rural eastern city of Turkey between 2009 and 2011 and a total of 28 cases (infants with idiopathic CTEV) and 575 controls (healthy infants) were recruited. Sociodemographic status of the infants, including gestational age and birth weights, maternal characteristics and, if any, the degree of consanguinity, were recorded. As an inclusion criterion, only singleton, full-term, live births were accepted. A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between idiopathic CTEV and parental consanguinity. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Among maternal and infant characteristics, significant risk factors for idiopathic CTEV in the regression analysis were work status (employed), consanguineous marriage, sex (male), and gestational age (>42 wk). Babies born to first-cousin parents had >4 times the risk of idiopathic CTEV [OR, 4.138, (95% CI, 1.484, 11.538)] and the risk for those born to distant relatives was 2.9 times higher [OR, 2.941, (95% CI, 1.070, 8.087)] than for children of unrelated parents. Consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with an increased risk of idiopathic CTEV. This association remained significant even after adjusting for potential confounding variables. To obtain more accurate results, a population-based screening study with an increased number of cases and controls should be performed in future studies. Case-control study investigating the effect of a patient characteristic on the outcome of disease (level-III).

  19. High speed surface cleaning by a high repetition rated TEA-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Hirai, Ryo; Hagiwara, Kouji; Nagasaka, Keigo; Tashiro, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of high speed cleaning of solid surfaces by the laser ablation technique using a TEA-CO 2 laser. The laser pulses with the repetition rate of 1 kHz were applied to paint, rust, moss and dirt attached on the surfaces. The attachments were effectively removed without the damage of bulk surfaces by the irradiation of line-focused sequential pulses with an energy of 300 mJ/pulse. A cleaning rate reached to 17 m 2 /hour for the case of paint removal from iron surfaces. (author)

  20. Hazard rate for a two-channel protective system subject to a high demand rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Youngblood, R.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1989-01-01

    A basic figure of merit associated with a protective system for an industrial plant is the number of accidents expected to occur in the plant within a given period of time, with the system installed. By definition, in a plant equipped with a protective system, an accident can only happen if an initiating event (a demand) occurs while the protective system is unavailable, that is, while it is in one of its possible failed states. This means that the hazard rate or accident frequency depends on the demand rate and on the unavailability of the protective systems. It has long been recognized that the demand rate influences the unavailability of the protective system, and practical expressions incorporating that effect have been developed for single-channel (Lees, 1982) and multi-channel (Kumamoto and Henley 1978) protective systems. The effect has also been incorporated into a Markovian treatment of a plant protection system (Papazoglou and Cho, 1985). In a previous paper (Oliveira and Netto, 1987) a Markovian approach was used to derive analytical expressions for the evaluation of the plant hazard rate for a single-channel protective system, properly accounting for the effects of the demand and the repair rates. In this paper the authors present an extension of that model to the case of a plant equipped with a two-channel protective system

  1. Potassium vapor assisted preparation of highly graphitized hierarchical porous carbon for high rate performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Qunli; Hu, Aiping; Xiao, Kuikui; Zhang, Shiying; Deng, Weina; Fan, Binbin; Zhu, Yanfei; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    Ultrahigh graphitized carbon microspheres with rich hierarchical pores (AGHPCM-1) have been successfully synthesized through the one-step activation-carbonization strategy (OACS) with porous sulfonated poly-divinylbenzene as the carbon precursor, iron as the hard template and catalyst, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as activation agent. Through the XRD, TEM, Raman and BET analysis, AGHPCM-1 shows very high graphitization degree and rich micro-, meso- and macro-pores. More importantly, the mechanism for KOH to improve the graphitization degree of carbon materials in OACS has been illustrated by the thermodynamical theory. The tremendous heat releasing from the reaction between the catalyst precursor of Fe2O3 and potassium vapor plays a key role in the formation of graphitized carbon. It may provide a general direction to prepare highly graphitized porous carbon at a moderate temperature. Integrating the advantages of high graphitization degree and rich hierarchical porous structure, the AGHPCM-1 exhibits an excellent rate performance with a response to up to the high current density of 150 A g-1 and high scan rate of 2000 mV s-1. No obvious capacitance decay can be observed after 10000 charge/discharge cycles even at the high current density of 20 A g-1.

  2. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P.; Tamura, E.; Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B.

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10 6 counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10 7 events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author)

  3. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A F; Guedes, G P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I M; Oliveira, N B [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. [A preliminary analysis of the high birth rate in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, N

    1981-01-01

    The author first provides some basic demographic data for India and points out that the current annual rate of population growth of 2.45 percent is slightly higher than the annual increase in food production. Problems in the areas of employment, education, housing, and transportation, as well as the general problem of poverty, are seen as a consequence of this imbalance. The lack of success of the national family planning program is attributed primarily to the failure to achieve a satisfactory rate of economic growth. Contributory factors include early marriage, the low status of women, the desire for large families, and administrative problems associated with the family planning program.

  5. High dose rate 192Ir calibration: Indonesia experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha; Tjiptanto, D.; Darmasyah, R.; Kurniawan, B.

    2002-01-01

    Indonesia with a population of more than 200 Million people which spread on about 5000 islands, up to now only has 23 radiotherapy centers and some not active anymore. As mention by Parkin et al that Cervix/Utery and breast cancer are the most estimated numbers of new cases of cancers in women for developing countries, stomach and lung cancers in men. Indonesia as a developing country is likely similar to other developing countries on numbers of new cases of cancers in women. But quite different in men, in Indonesia the most common cancers are nasopharynx and thyroid cancers. The use of lr-192 sources in high dose-rate (HDR) remotely afterloaded brachytherapy treatments have greatly increased in recent years and variety of such sources are commercially available. Nine radiotherapy centers in Indonesia installed Nucletron microSelectron HDR remote afterloader. Based on the data of CiptoMangunkusurno Hospital, Jakarta that the most common cancers are the cervix, breast, nasopharynx and thyroid cancers which of percentage are about 31%, 25 %, 13%, and 6 % respectively. It means that the use of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy has to be an effective tool in the treatments. Two methods have been studied and applied to calibrate HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy in Indonesia, especially for Nucletron microSelectron HDR 192 lr remote afterloader brachytherapy. Calibration of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy source has been done by Cavity lonization Chamber and with Well Type lonization Chamber. First, 0.6 cc of NE Farmer type dosimeter that was calibrated to 60 Co and 250 kV of x-rays in air kerma was used in this experiment. Position of measurement (detector and source) at the center of the room and about 1 meter from the floor. Eight variation of distances from 10 cm to 40 cms have been carried out measurement as recommended by IAEA-TECDOC-1079. Correction have been given for scatters, non-uniformity, and attenuation. To solve the problem of scatter correction factor was used Matlab programming

  6. A system approach to high quality picture-rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Cordes, C.N.; Riemens, B.; Haan, de G.

    2010-01-01

    Various techniques have been implemented to improve the motion portrayal of flat-panel displays, of which the widespread introduction of motion-compensated picture-rate conversion systems is an essential part. However, a careful design of such systems is critical as they have the potential to

  7. Key requirements for high quality picture-rate conversion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.

    2009-01-01

    Past LCD-TV generations suffered from a poor motion portrayal, causing the blurring of moving objects. Hence, various techniques have been implemented to improve their motion portrayal, of which the widespread introduction of motion compensated picture-rate conversion in TV systems is an essential

  8. High triacylglycerol turnover rate in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, Massimo; Saltin, Bengt; Olsen, David B

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the relationship between plasma fatty acids (FA) and intramuscular triacylglycerol (IMTAG) kinetics of healthy volunteers. With this aim [U-(13)C]-palmitate was infused for 10 h and FA kinetics determined across the leg. In addition, the rate of FA incorporation...

  9. Anomalous electric field changes and high flash rate beneath a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In spite of many experimental and theoretical studies the relationships between storm dynamics, severe weather,and lightning activity have been least understood.Measurements of electric field made under a severe thunderstorm at a northeastern Indian station,Guwahati,India are reported. Lightning flash rate increases ...

  10. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306

  11. Development of bonded semiconductor device for high counting rate high efficiency photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We are trying to decrease dose exposure in medical diagnosis by way of measuring the energy of X-rays. For this purpose, radiation detectors for X-ray energy measurement with high counting rate should be developed. Direct bonding of Si wafers was carried out to make a radiation detector, which had separated X-ray absorber and detector. The resistivity of bonding interface was estimated with the results of four-probe measurements and model calculations. Direct bonding of high resistivity p and n-Si wafers was also performed. The resistance of the pn bonded diode was 0.7 MΩ. The resistance should be increased in the future. (author)

  12. Development of a high-count-rate neutron detector with position sensitivity and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.; Sandoval, J.

    1996-01-01

    While the neutron scattering community is bombarded with hints of new technologies that may deliver detectors with high-count-rate capability, high efficiency, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high resolution across large areas, only the time-tested, gas-filled 3 He and scintillation detectors are in widespread use. Future spallation sources with higher fluxes simply must exploit some of the advanced detector schemes that are as yet unproved as production systems. Technologies indicating promise as neutron detectors include pixel arrays of amorphous silicon, silicon microstrips, microstrips with gas, and new scintillation materials. This project sought to study the competing neutron detector technologies and determine which or what combination will lead to a production detector system well suited for use at a high-intensity neutron scattering source

  13. Homozygous missense mutation in the LMAN2L gene segregates with intellectual disability in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiullah, Rafiullah; Aslamkhan, Muhammad; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Thiel, Christian; Mustafa, Ghulam; Wiemann, Stefan; Schlesner, Matthias; Wade, Rebecca C; Rappold, Gudrun A; Berkel, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1%-3% of the population worldwide. It is characterised by high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity and in most cases the underlying cause of the disorder is unknown. In our study we investigated a large consanguineous family from Baluchistan, Pakistan, comprising seven affected individuals with a severe form of autosomal recessive ID (ARID) and epilepsy, to elucidate a putative genetic cause. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of a trio, including a child with ID and epilepsy and its healthy parents that were part of this large family, revealed a homozygous missense variant p.R53Q in the lectin mannose-binding 2-like (LMAN2L) gene. This homozygous variant was co-segregating in the family with the phenotype of severe ID and infantile epilepsy; unaffected family members were heterozygous variant carriers. The variant was predicted to be pathogenic by five different in silico programmes and further three-dimensional structure modelling of the protein suggests that variant p.R53Q may impair protein-protein interaction. LMAN2L (OMIM: 609552) encodes for the lectin, mannose-binding 2-like protein which is a cargo receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum important for glycoprotein transport. Genome-wide association studies have identified an association of LMAN2L to different neuropsychiatric disorders. This is the first report linking LMAN2L to a phenotype of severe ARID and seizures, indicating that the deleterious homozygous p.R53Q variant very likely causes the disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  15. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  17. Heavy-duty high-repetition-rate generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present our results on high-power repetitive pulse sources for continuous operation. Two 1-10-kW systems using advanced spark gap technology and a transmission line transformer have been tested for several hundred hours at a 60-MW pulse level. High reliability and above 90% overall efficiency are

  18. Compact Beamformer Design with High Frame Rate for Ultrasound Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In medical field, two-dimension ultrasound images are widely used in clinical diagnosis. Beamformer is critical in determining the complexity and performance of an ultrasound imaging system. Different from traditional means implemented with separated chips, a compact beamformer with 64 effective channels in a single moderate Field Programmable Gate Array has been presented in this paper. The compactness is acquired by employing receive synthetic aperture, harmonic imaging, time sharing and linear interpolation. Besides that, multi-beams method is used to improve the frame rate of the ultrasound imaging system. Online dynamic configuration is employed to expand system’s flexibility to two kinds of transducers with multi-scanning modes. The design is verified on a prototype scanner board. Simulation results have shown that on-chip memories can be saved and the frame rate can be improved on the case of 64 effective channels which will meet the requirement of real-time application.

  19. High-dose rate fractionated interstitial radiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The limitations of treating oropharyngeal cancer patients with definitive external radiotherapy are the complications of salivary glands, taste buds, mandible and temporomandibular joints. To avoid these complications we started interstitial radiotherapy as boost after 46 Gy of external radiotherapy. Ten cases (retromolar trigone; 1, soft palate; 1, base of tongue; 3, lateral wall; 5) were treated with this method and seven cases were controlled locally. With short follow-up period, xerostomia and dysgeusia are less than definitive external radiotherapy as clinical impression and no in-field recurrences have been experienced. With markedly increased tumor dose, the local control rate can be improved. This treatment method will be an alternative to definitive external radiotherapy to gain better QOL and higher control rate. (author).

  20. High repetition rate ultrashort laser cuts a path through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Lorena; Schubert, Elise; Mongin, Denis; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Metzger, Thomas; Michel, Knut; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the transmission of a 1030 nm, 1.3 ps laser beam of 100 mJ energy through fog increases when its repetition rate increases to the kHz range. Due to the efficient energy deposition by the laser filaments in the air, a shockwave ejects the fog droplets from a substantial volume of the beam, at a moderate energy cost. This process opens prospects for applications requiring the transmission of laser beams through fogs and clouds.

  1. Soft X ray spectrometry at high count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Brouquet, P.; Uhre, N.

    1978-06-01

    Two modifications of the classical method of X-ray spectrometry by a semi-conductor diode permit a count rate of 10 5 c/s with an energy resolution of 350 eV. With a specially constructed pulse height analyzer, this detector can measure four spectra of 5 ms each, in the range of 1-30 keV, during a plasma shot

  2. High-repetition-rate hydrogen chamber: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This report is a conclusion to the tests realised with an experimental bubbles chamber in view to study the possibilities to increase the repetition rate. The more important parameters (the evolution of the bubbles, the expansion system) are considered in a theoretical way. Then the hardware is described. To end, experimental results are compared with the first evaluations. The calculations and the experimentation are against an oscillation system for the expansion. A system with a locking is to he considered. (authors) [fr

  3. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  4. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  5. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  6. Carbon nanotubes/cobalt sulfide composites as potential high-rate and high-efficiency supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ying; Shih, Zih-Yu; Yang, Zusing; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2012-10-01

    We have prepared carbon nanotube (CNT)/cobalt sulfide (CoS) composites from cobalt nitrate, thioacetamide, and CNTs in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone). CNT/CoS composites are deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates and then subjected to simple annealing at 300 °C for 0.5 h to fabricate CNT/CoS electrodes. Data collected from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and d-spacing reveal the changes in the CoS structures and crystalline lattices after annealing. Cyclic voltammetry results reveal that the annealed CNT/CoS composite electrodes yield values of 2140 ± 90 and 1370 ± 50 F g-1 for specific capacitance at scan rates of 10 and 100 mV s-1, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the annealed CNT/CoS composite electrodes provide higher specific capacitance relative to other reported ones at a scan rate of 100 mV s-1. CNT/CoS composite electrodes yield a power density of 62.4 kW kg-1 at a constant discharge current density of 217.4 A g-1. With such a high-rate capacity and power density, CNT/CoS composite supercapacitors demonstrate great potential as efficient energy storage devices.

  7. Drift chamber system for use in a high rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A system of short drift distance (0.125'') drift chambers is described. This system is being built for use in the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer. These chambers will be able to handle beam rates of several million/pulse and give a spatial resolution of the order of 150 μm. Cathode readout will provide unique 3-dimensional points for each crack. The readout will utilize three custom built integrated circuits, a four channel amplifier-shaper, a four channel discriminator and a four channel shift register delay and time digitizer. A summary of test results on a prototype is also given

  8. [High complication rate after surgical treatment of ankle fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørslev, Naja; Ebskov, Lars; Lind, Marianne; Mersø, Camilla

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality and re-operation rate of the surgical treatment of ankle fractures at a large university hospital. X-rays and patient records of 137 patients surgically treated for ankle fractures were analyzed for: 1) correct classification according to Lauge-Hansen, 2) if congruity of the ankle joint was achieved, 3) selection and placement of the hardware, and 4) the surgeon's level of education. Totally 32 of 137 did not receive an optimal treatment, 11 were re-operated. There was no clear correlation between incorrect operation and the surgeon's level of education.

  9. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-15

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  10. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  11. High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Andrew C.

    This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter

  12. A Lithium-Air Battery Stably Working at High Temperature with High Rate Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian; Li, Houpu; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Lie; Liao, Meng; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-02-01

    Driven by the increasing requirements for energy supply in both modern life and the automobile industry, the lithium-air battery serves as a promising candidate due to its high energy density. However, organic solvents in electrolytes are likely to rapidly vaporize and form flammable gases under increasing temperatures. In this case, serious safety problems may occur and cause great harm to people. Therefore, a kind of lithium-air that can work stably under high temperature is desirable. Herein, through the use of an ionic liquid and aligned carbon nanotubes, and a fiber shaped design, a new type of lithium-air battery that can effectively work at high temperatures up to 140 °C is developed. Ionic liquids can offer wide electrochemical windows and low vapor pressures, as well as provide high thermal stability for lithium-air batteries. The aligned carbon nanotubes have good electric and heat conductivity. Meanwhile, the fiber format can offer both flexibility and weavability, and realize rapid heat conduction and uniform heat distribution of the battery. In addition, the high temperature has also largely improved the specific powers by increasing the ionic conductivity and catalytic activity of the cathode. Consequently, the lithium-air battery can work stably at 140 °C with a high specific current of 10 A g -1 for 380 cycles, indicating high stability and good rate performance at high temperatures. This work may provide an effective paradigm for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High-rate, High Temperature Acetotrophic Methanogenesis Governed by a Three Population Consortium in Anaerobic Bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Ho

    Full Text Available A combination of acetate oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis has been previously identified to enable high-rate methanogenesis at high temperatures (55 to 65°C, but this capability had not been linked to any key organisms. This study combined RNA-stable isotope probing on 13C-labelled acetate and 16S amplicon sequencing to identify the active micro-organisms involved in high-rate methanogenesis. Active biomass was harvested from three bench-scale thermophilic bioreactors treating waste activated sludge at 55, 60 and 65°C, and fed with 13-C labelled and 12C-unlabelled acetate. Acetate uptake and cumulative methane production were determined and kinetic parameters were estimated using model-based analysis. Pyrosequencing performed on 13C- enriched samples indicated that organisms accumulating labelled carbon were Coprothermobacter (all temperatures between 55 and 65°C, acetoclastic Methanosarcina (55 to 60°C and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter (60 to 65°C. The increased relative abundance of Coprothermobacter with increased temperature corresponding with a shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation identified this as a potentially key oxidiser. Methanosarcina likely acts as both a hydrogen utilising and acetoclastic methanogen at 55°C, and is replaced by Methanothermobacter as a hydrogen utiliser at higher temperatures.

  14. High-rate, High Temperature Acetotrophic Methanogenesis Governed by a Three Population Consortium in Anaerobic Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dang; Jensen, Paul; Gutierrez-Zamora, Maria-Luisa; Beckmann, Sabrina; Manefield, Mike; Batstone, Damien

    2016-01-01

    A combination of acetate oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis has been previously identified to enable high-rate methanogenesis at high temperatures (55 to 65°C), but this capability had not been linked to any key organisms. This study combined RNA-stable isotope probing on 13C-labelled acetate and 16S amplicon sequencing to identify the active micro-organisms involved in high-rate methanogenesis. Active biomass was harvested from three bench-scale thermophilic bioreactors treating waste activated sludge at 55, 60 and 65°C, and fed with 13-C labelled and 12C-unlabelled acetate. Acetate uptake and cumulative methane production were determined and kinetic parameters were estimated using model-based analysis. Pyrosequencing performed on 13C- enriched samples indicated that organisms accumulating labelled carbon were Coprothermobacter (all temperatures between 55 and 65°C), acetoclastic Methanosarcina (55 to 60°C) and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter (60 to 65°C). The increased relative abundance of Coprothermobacter with increased temperature corresponding with a shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation identified this as a potentially key oxidiser. Methanosarcina likely acts as both a hydrogen utilising and acetoclastic methanogen at 55°C, and is replaced by Methanothermobacter as a hydrogen utiliser at higher temperatures.

  15. SAFT Li-ion Technology for High Rate Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nechev, Kamen; Deveney, Bridget; Guseynov, Teymur; Erbacher, John; Vukson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SAFT will present an update of its state-of-the art Very High Power (VHP) Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology. The VHP cells are currently being qualified for use in military aircraft applications as well as in future military hybrid vehicles...

  16. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  17. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  18. Waiving Away High School Graduation Rate Accountability? Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011, eleven states submitted applications to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) for waivers from key provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act. Although the waiver process presents an opportunity to strengthen college and career readiness among the nation's high school students, this analysis by the Alliance for Excellent…

  19. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  20. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MERLIN, a new high count rate spectrometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewley, R.I.; Eccleston, R.S.; McEwen, K.A.; Hayden, S.M.; Dove, M.T.; Bennington, S.M.; Treadgold, J.R.; Coleman, R.L.S.

    2006-01-01

    MERLIN is designed to be a high intensity, medium energy resolution spectrometer. As such, it will complement the high-resolution MAPS spectrometer at ISIS. MERLIN will utilise all the latest advances in technology with a supermirror guide to enhance flux as well as 3 m long position-sensitive detectors in a vacuum making it ideal for single-crystal users. The detector bank will cover a massive π steradians of solid angle with an angular range from -45 o to +135 o degrees in the horizontal plane and ±30 o degrees in the vertical plane. This will allow large swathes of Q,ω space to be accessed in a single run. The instrument will be ready for commissioning in February 2006. This paper presents details of design and performance of this new instrument

  2. A novel mutation in CDK5RAP2 gene causes primary microcephaly with speech impairment and sparse eyebrows in a consanguineous Pakistani family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Uzma; Farooq, Muhammad; Mang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    2 mutations is still under explored as only eleven families have been reported worldwide. Here, we analyzed a consanguineous Pakistani MCPH family, characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, speech impairment, moderately short stature and sparse eyebrows. Whole exome sequencing...

  3. Building a Grad Nation: Progress and Challenge in Raising High School Graduation Rates. Annual Update 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Jennifer L.; Balfanz, Robert; Bridgeland, John

    2016-01-01

    The nation has achieved an 82.3 percent high school graduation rate--a record high. Graduation rates rose for all student subgroups, and the number of low-graduation-rate high schools and students enrolled in them dropped again, indicating that progress has had far-reaching benefits for all students. This report is the first to analyze 2014…

  4. [Consanguineous marriage and morbi-mortality, short literature review based on an exceptional association: Usher syndrome and Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atipo-Tsiba, Pépin-Williams

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome is defined by the association of a progressive or non-progressive congenital sensorineural hearing loss with variable severity and a gradually blinding pigmentary retinopathy. Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis or Neurofibromatosis type 1 is the major clinically form of neurofibromatosis which occurs in approximately 90% of cases. Both types of disease are genetic in origin with very low prevalence. The probability of co-occurrence of these diseases in a single individual is exceptional. Inbreeding, as well as all genetic diseases, increases quite significantly the probability of their occurrence. Consanguineous marriages are still widespread in Maghreb and in some regions of the western African. This observation reports an exceptional case of this association in a 40-year-old man of Mauritanian origin born from a consanguineous union.

  5. Complex pulsing schemes for high frame rate imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Fink, Mathias; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    up to a pulse train. The acoustically generated high time-bandwidth (TB) product waveforms can be compressed by using a filter bank of matched filters one for every beam direction. Matched filtering compresses the pulse train to a single pulse at the scatterer position plus a number of spike axial...... with linear frequency modulation along the transducer elements, that cover the 70% fractional bandwidth of the 7 MHz transducer. The resulted images (after beamforming and matched filtering) show an axial resolution at the same order as in conventional pulse excitation and axial sidelobes down to -45 d...

  6. In silico analysis of a disease-causing mutation in PCDH15 gene in a consanguineous Pakistani family with Usher phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Saleha; Muhammad Ajmal; Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To map Usher phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and identify disease-associated mutation in a causative gene to establish phenotype-genotype correlation. METHODS: A consanguineous Pakistani family in which Usher phenotype was segregating as an autosomal recessive trait was ascertained. On the basis of results of clinical investigations of affected members of this family disease was diagnosed as Usher syndrome (USH). To identify the locus responsible for the Usher phenotype...

  7. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high $\\eta$ CMS muon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00185093; Lagarde, François; Laktineh, Imad; Buridon, Victor; Chen, Xiushan; Combaret, Christophe; Eynard, Alexis; Germani, Lionel; Grenier, Gerald; Mathez, Hervé; Mirabito, Laurent; Petrukhin, Alexei; Steen, Arnaud; Tromeur, William; Wang, Yi; Gong, A.; Moreau, Nathalie; de la Taille, Christophe; Dulucq, Fréderic

    2017-02-11

    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to $6 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The region of the forward muon spectrometer ($|\\eta| > 1.6$) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to 2 kHz/cm$^2$ ( including a safety factor 3 ) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The actual RPC technology of CMS cannot sustain the expected background level. A new generation Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low resistivity glass (LR) is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high eta muon stations of CMS. The design of small size prototypes and the studies of their performances under high rate particles flux is presented.

  8. High rate, fast timing Glass RPC for the high ${\\eta}$ CMS muon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I.; Buridon, V.; Chen, X.; Combaret, C.; Eynard, A.; Germani, L.; Grenier, G.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Wang, Y.; Gong, A.; Moreau, N.; de la Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Rios, A.A.O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Sayed, A.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.F.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharmag, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M.I.; Awan, I.M.; Hoorani, R.; Muhammad, S.; Shahzad, H.; Shah, M.A.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lim, J.H.; Park, S.K.; Kim, M.S.; Carpinteyro Bernardino, S.; Pedraza, I.; Uribe Estradam, C.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pant, L.M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Lanza, G.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S.J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J.C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-09-09

    The HL-LHC phase is designed to increase by an order of magnitude the amount of data to be collected by the LHC experiments. To achieve this goal in a reasonable time scale the instantaneous luminosity would also increase by an order of magnitude up to $6.10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ . The region of the forward muon spectrometer ($|{\\eta}| > 1.6$) is not equipped with RPC stations. The increase of the expected particles rate up to $2 kHz/cm^{2}$ (including a safety factor 3) motivates the installation of RPC chambers to guarantee redundancy with the CSC chambers already present. The actual RPC technology of CMS cannot sustain the expected background level. The new technology that will be chosen should have a high rate capability and provides a good spatial and timing resolution. A new generation of Glass-RPC (GRPC) using low-resistivity (LR) glass is proposed to equip at least the two most far away of the four high ${\\eta}$ muon stations of CMS. First the design of small size prototypes and studies of their perfor...

  9. High frame-rate neutron radiography of dynamic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Robinson, A.H.; Barton, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames/second. Synchronization has provided high-speed-motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycle of 7.62 mm munition rounds within a steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate the ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two-phase flow. The equipment uses the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to 3000 MW peak power, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16 mm high speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is approximately 4 x 10 11 n/cm 2 s with a pulse, full width at half maximum, of 9 ms. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on the image quality. Modulation transfer function analysis has been used to assist in the evaluation of the system performance

  10. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  11. High frame-rate neutron radiography of dynamic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Robinson, A.H.; Barton, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A system has been developed to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events having a duration of several milliseconds. The system has been operated in the range of 2000 to 10,000 frames/second. Synchronization has provided high-speed-motion neutron radiographs for evaluation of the firing cycle of 7.62 mm munition rounds within a steel rifle barrel. The system has also been used to demonstrate the ability to produce neutron radiographic movies of two phase flow. The equipment uses the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor capable of pulsing to 3000 MW peak power, a neutron beam collimator, a scintillator neutron conversion screen coupled to an image intensifier, and a 16 mm high speed movie camera. The peak neutron flux incident at the object position is approximately 4 x 10 11 n/cm 2 s with a pulse, full width at half maximum, of 9 ms. Special studies have been performed on the scintillator conversion screens and on the effects of statistical limitations on the image quality. Modulation transfer function analysis has been used to assist in the evaluation of the system performance. (Auth.)

  12. High rate deformation of metallic liner and its dislocation description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prut, V.V.; Shybaev, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of deformation in cylindrical liners are studied experimentally and theoretically in Z-pinch geometry, where the cylinders are deformed by a magnetic field created by a current flowing along the axis. This method allows one to obtain one-dimensional deformation and a reliable recording of magnetic field and cylinder deformation. The experiments are performed with a current amplitude of 0.8-3 MA and a current rise time of 2.5-4 μs. Aluminium and copper tubes, from 4 to 6 mm in diameter and 0.25-1 mm wall thick, are compressed. The deformation rates under study are in the range of 10 5 -10 6 s -1 . The time dependence of the radii of the copper and aluminium tubes are measured with a streak camera and by the pulsed x-ray technique. The time resolution of the streak and x-ray photographs is 10-15 ns, their spatial resolution is 10-15 μm. A rheological model describing the dynamics of compression is developed. The model includes the description of the metal as a plastic medium with moving dislocations in the solid state, and as a viscous medium in the liquid state. The one-dimensional solution to magneto-hydrodynamical equations of the liner dynamics is compared with the experimental results and thus the following rheological parameters of the metal are obtained: β, the probability of dislocation generation in plastic deformation; and σ d , the drag stress, the parameter which characterizes a drag force acting on the dislocation. (Author)

  13. Causes and prevalence of consanguineous marriage, child health, happiness in relationships and life satisfaction among the women in Hatay

    OpenAIRE

    İnandı, Tacettin; Savaş, Nazan; Arslan, Evrim; Yeniçeri, Arif; Erdem, Mehmet; Durmaz, Elif; Peker, Ersin; Alışkın, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the causes and prevalence of consanguineous marriages, their effects on the children's health, on life satisfaction and on relationship’s relation to the happiness of the women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of married, divorced or widowed women in Hatay, Turkey. The study sample was 584 women selected by a multistage sampling method. The data were collected during April and May 2014 at the women’s homes with a face to fac...

  14. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  15. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  16. High Dynamic Optimized Carrier Loop Improvement for Tracking Doppler Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Fereidountabar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical analysis and optimization of a carrier tracking loop are presented. Due to fast changing of the carrier frequency in some satellite systems, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO or Global Positioning System (GPS, or some planes like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, high dynamic tracking loops play a very important role. In this paper an optimized tracking loop consisting of a third-order Phase Locked Loop (PLL assisted by a second-order Frequency Locked Loop (FLL for UAVs is proposed and discussed. Based on this structure an optimal loop has been designed. The main advantages of this approach are the reduction of the computation complexity and smaller phase error. The paper shows the simulation results, comparing them with a previous work.

  17. 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brain implant: optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Dinesh; Chitra, S.; Gupta, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The new modality of stepping source dosimetry system (SSDs) illustrates a remarkable improvement in attaining the uniform and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume. The technique enables the physicist to correct for a certain amount of misplacement or curvature of implant geometry. The short course of brachytherapy provides good palliation in terms of functional improvements with low and acceptable toxicity in high-grade glioma. With continual refinements of the technique, brachytherapy performed by a skilled brachytherapy team offers an opportunity to improve patient survival and quality of life. Since 1997, micro selectron HDR 192 Ir treatments are done including gynecological, oesophageal, breast, surface mould, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and brain in our hospital. In this paper, procedure of interstitial brain implant in glioma as implant technique, simulation and treatment planning will be discussed

  18. Early detection of leprosy by examination of household contacts, determination of serum anti-PGL-1 antibodies and consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bazan-Furini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional clinical trial in which the serum anti-phenolic glycolipid (anti-PGL-1 antibodies were analysed in household contacts (HHC of patients with leprosy as an adjunct early leprosy diagnostic marker was conducted. The families of 83 patients underwent clinical examination and serum anti-PGL1 measurement using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 320 HHC, 98 were contacts of lepromatous leprosy (LL, 80 were contacts of borderline lepromatous (BL, 28 were contacts of borderline (BB leprosy, 54 were contacts of borderline tuberculoid (BT, 40 were contacts of tuberculoid (TT and 20 were contacts of indeterminate (I leprosy. Consanguinity with the patients was determined for 232 (72.5% HHC. Of those 232 contacts, 183 had linear consanguinity. Forty-nine HHC had collateral consanguinity. Fifty-eight contacts (18.1% tested positive for anti-PGL1 antibodies. The number of seropositive contacts based on the clinical forms of the index case was 17 (29.3% for LL, 15 (25.9% for BL, one (1.7% for BB, 14 (24.1% for BT, three (5.2% for TT and eight (13.7% for I. At the one year follow-up, two (3.4% of these seropositive contacts had developed BT leprosy. The results of the present study indicate that the serum anti-PGL-1 IgM antibody may be useful for evaluating antigen exposure and as a tool for an early leprosy diagnosis in HHC.

  19. Bringing High Rate, Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Gallaher, W.; Smith, S.; Bohnenstiehl, K.; Borsa, A.; Enders, M.; Coyle, B.; Paskievitch, J.; Read, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, completed the installation of a fourteen GPS stations, eight tiltmeters, one webcam, and one digital broadband seismometer on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. PBO collaborated with the USGS, who provided engineering support for this project. Combined with the USGS operated seismic network, the Unimak Island network is a state of the art scientific network. The primary data communications goal of the project was to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and to test the streaming of 1- Hz GPS data at a select set of GPS stations on Unimak Island. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO co-located the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The high-speed radio link deployed allowed the USGS to test the feasibility of broadband seismometer installations on Unimak Island. This collaboration with the USGS was another successful joint operation between PBO and the USGS. The technical and logistical challenges involved in the project as well as some preliminary results of the data communications system will be presented. These challenges include complicated logistics, bad weather, complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  20. Tiny timekeepers witnessing high-rate exhumation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajčmanová, Lucie

    2018-02-02

    Tectonic forces and surface erosion lead to the exhumation of rocks from the Earth's interior. Those rocks can be characterized by many variables including peak pressure and temperature, composition and exhumation duration. Among them, the duration of exhumation in different geological settings can vary by more than ten orders of magnitude (from hours to billion years). Constraining the duration is critical and often challenging in geological studies particularly for rapid magma ascent. Here, we show that the time information can be reconstructed using a simple combination of laser Raman spectroscopic data from mineral inclusions with mechanical solutions for viscous relaxation of the host. The application of our model to several representative geological settings yields best results for short events such as kimberlite magma ascent (less than ~4,500 hours) and a decompression lasting up to ~17 million years for high-pressure metamorphic rocks. This is the first precise time information obtained from direct microstructural observations applying a purely mechanical perspective. We show an unprecedented geological value of tiny mineral inclusions as timekeepers that contributes to a better understanding on the large-scale tectonic history and thus has significant implications for a new generation of geodynamic models.

  1. Phenotypic Progression of Stargardt Disease in a Large Consanguineous Tunisian Family Harboring New ABCA4 Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousra Falfoul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the progression of Stargardt (STGD disease over nine years in two branches of a large consanguineous Tunisian family. Initially, different phenotypes were observed with clinical intra- and interfamilial variations. At presentation, four different retinal phenotypes were observed. In phenotype 1, bull’s eye maculopathy and slight alteration of photopic responses in full-field electroretinography were observed in the youngest child. In phenotype 2, macular atrophy and yellow white were observed in two brothers. In phenotype 3, diffuse macular, peripapillary, and peripheral RPE atrophy and hyperfluorescent dots were observed in two sisters. In phenotype 4, Stargardt disease-fundus flavimaculatus phenotype was observed in two cousins with later age of onset. After a progression of 9 years, all seven patients displayed the same phenotype 3 with advanced stage STGD and diffuse atrophy. WES and MLPA identified two ABCA4 mutations M1: c.[(?_4635_(5714+?dup; (?_6148_(6479_+? del] and M2: c.[2041C>T], p.[R681∗]. In one branch, the three affected patients had M1/M1 causal mutations and in the other branch the two affected patients had M1/M2 causal mutations. After 9-year follow-up, all patients showed the same phenotypic evolution, confirming the progressive nature of the disease. Genetic variations in the two branches made no difference to similar end-stage disease.

  2. Gene mapping in an anophthalmic pedigree of a consanguineous Pakistani family opened new horizons for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical anophthalmia is a rare inherited disease of the eye and phenotype refers to the absence of ocular tissue in the orbit of eye. Patients may have unilateral or bilateral anophthalmia, and generally have short palpebral fissures and small orbits. Anophthalmia may be isolated or associated with a broader syndrome and may have genetic or environmental causes. However, genetic cause has been defined in only a small proportion of cases, therefore, a consanguineous Pakistani family of the Pashtoon ethnic group, with isolated clinical anophthalmia was investigated using linkage mapping. A family pedigree was created to trace the possible mode of inheritance of the disease. Blood samples were collected from affected as well as normal members of this family, and screened for disease-associated mutations. This family was analyzed for linkage to all the known loci of clinical anophthalmia, using microsatellite short tandem repeat (STR markers. Direct sequencing was performed to find out disease-associated mutations in the candidate gene. This family with isolated clinical anophthalmia, was mapped to the SOX2 gene that is located at chromosome 3q26.3-q27. However, on exonic and regulatory regions mutation screening of the SOX2 gene, the disease-associated mutation was not identified. It showed that another gene responsible for development of the eye might be present at chromosome 3q26.3-q27 and needs to be identified and screened for the disease-associated mutation in this family.

  3. Gene mapping in an anophthalmic pedigree of a consanguineous Pakistani family opened new horizons for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, M; Zafar, S; Hameed, A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clinical anophthalmia is a rare inherited disease of the eye and phenotype refers to the absence of ocular tissue in the orbit of eye. Patients may have unilateral or bilateral anophthalmia, and generally have short palpebral fissures and small orbits. Anophthalmia may be isolated or associated with a broader syndrome and may have genetic or environmental causes. However, genetic cause has been defined in only a small proportion of cases, therefore, a consanguineous Pakistani family of the Pashtoon ethnic group, with isolated clinical anophthalmia was investigated using linkage mapping. A family pedigree was created to trace the possible mode of inheritance of the disease. Blood samples were collected from affected as well as normal members of this family, and screened for disease-associated mutations. This family was analyzed for linkage to all the known loci of clinical anophthalmia, using microsatellite short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Direct sequencing was performed to find out disease-associated mutations in the candidate gene. This family with isolated clinical anophthalmia, was mapped to the SOX2 gene that is located at chromosome 3q26.3-q27. However, on exonic and regulatory regions mutation screening of the SOX2 gene, the disease-associated mutation was not identified. It showed that another gene responsible for development of the eye might be present at chromosome 3q26.3-q27 and needs to be identified and screened for the disease-associated mutation in this family. PMID:27785411

  4. Molecular genetic analysis of consanguineous Pakistani families with autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Nosheen; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Wasim; Naeem, Muhammad

    2011-02-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is an inherited disorder characterized by defective development of teeth, hairs and sweat glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the EDA gene, and autosomal forms of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are caused by mutations in either the EDAR or the EDARADD genes. To study the molecular genetic cause of autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in three consanguineous Pakistani families (A, B and C), genotyping of 13 individuals was carried out by using polymorphic microsatellite markers that are closely linked to the EDAR gene on chromosome 2q11-q13 and the EDARADD gene on chromosome 1q42.2-q43. The results revealed linkage in the three families to the EDAR locus. Sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice junctions of the EDAR gene revealed two mutations: a novel non-sense mutation (p.E124X) in the probands of families A and B and a missense mutation (p.G382S) in the proband of family C. In addition, two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified. The finding of mutations in Pakistani families extends the body of evidence that supports the importance of EDAR for the development of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Variable pathogenicity of exon 43del (FAA) in four Fanconi anaemia patients within a consanguineous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, A; Pronk, J C; Alikasifoglu, M; Joenje, H; Altay, C

    1999-01-01

    Four Fanconi anaemia group A (FAA) patients within two related consanguineous families are presented: the propositus (male, 13 years, transplanted at age 10), and his three cousins (one male, 8 years, and two female newborns). Assignment of the patients to FAA was based on the functional complementation analysis by somatic cell hybridization and confirmed by mutation screening showing a homozygous deletion of exon 43 (4267-4404del) in the FAA gene to be present in all four patients. The newborn patients had been diagnosed prenatally by DNA analysis. In spite of identical molecular pathology and close familial relationship the clinical phenotypes of the four patients were not concordant. Discordant symptoms included birthweight, pigmentation abnormalities, skeletal, renal and genital abnormalities, whereas microcephaly and possibly the haematological course were concordant. Differences in environmental conditions and/or genetic make-up along with chance effects during development may explain discordant phenotypes despite identical molecular pathology in these patients. However, our results do not rule out the possibility that the exon 43del mutation may have prognostic value for the haematological course of the disease.

  6. Ilmenite Nanotubes for High Stability and High Rate Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Litao; Liu, Jun; Xu, Xijun; Zhang, Liguo; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2017-05-23

    To solve the problem of large volume change and low electronic conductivity of earth-abundant ilmenite used in rechargeable Na-ion batteries (SIBs), an anode of tiny ilmenite FeTiO 3 nanoparticle embedded carbon nanotubes (FTO⊂CNTs) has been successfully proposed. By introducing a TiO 2 shell on metal-organic framework (Fe-MOF) nanorods by sol-gel deposition and subsequent solid-state annealing treatment of these core-shell Fe-MOF@TiO 2 , such well-defined FTO⊂CNTs are obtained. The achieved FTO⊂CNT electrode has several distinct advantages including a hollow interior in the hybrid nanostructure, fully encapsulated ultrasmall electroactive units, flexible conductive carbon matrix, and stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) of FTO in cycles. FTO⊂CNT electrodes present an excellent cycle stability (358.8 mA h g -1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g -1 ) and remarkable rate capability (201.8 mA h g -1 at 5000 mA g -1 ) with a high Coulombic efficiency of approximately 99%. In addition, combined with the typical Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode to constitute full SIBs, the assembled FTO⊂CNT//Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries are also demonstrated with superior rate capability and a long cycle life.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH RATE HIGH RESOLUTION DETECTOR FOR EXAFS EXPERIMENTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; O CONNOR,P.; BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.; LI,Z.; KUCZEWSKI,A.J.; SIDDONS,D.P.

    2002-11-10

    A new detector for EXAFS experiments is being developed. It is based on a multi-element Si sensor and dedicated readout ASICs. The sensor is composed of 384 pixels, each having 1 mm{sup 2} area, arranged in four quadrants of 12 x 8 elements, and wire-bonded to 32-channel front-end ASICs. Each channel implements low noise preamplification with self-adaptive continuous reset, high order shaper, band-gap referenced baseline stabilizer, one threshold comparator and two DAC adjustable window comparators, each followed by a 24-bit counter. Fabricated in 0.35{micro}m CMOS dissipates about 8mW per channel. First measurements show at room temperature a resolution of 14 rms electrons without the detector and of 40 rms electrons (340eV) with the detector connected and biased. Cooling at -35C a FWHM of 205eV (167eV from electronics) was measured at the Mn-K{alpha} line. A resolution of about 300eV was measured for rates approaching 100kcps/cm{sup 2} per channel, corresponding to an overall rate in excess of 10MHz/cm{sup 2}. A channel-to-channel threshold dispersion after DACs adjustment of 2.5 rms electrons was also measured.

  8. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  9. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Behavior for a High Specific Strength Steel: From Quasi-Static to Intermediate Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate effect on the tensile behaviors of a high specific strength steel (HSSS with dual-phase microstructure has been investigated. The yield strength, the ultimate strength and the tensile toughness were all observed to increase with increasing strain rates at the range of 0.0006 to 56/s, rendering this HSSS as an excellent candidate for an energy absorber in the automobile industry, since vehicle crushing often happens at intermediate strain rates. Back stress hardening has been found to play an important role for this HSSS due to load transfer and strain partitioning between two phases, and a higher strain rate could cause even higher strain partitioning in the softer austenite grains, delaying the deformation instability. Deformation twins are observed in the austenite grains at all strain rates to facilitate the uniform tensile deformation. The B2 phase (FeAl intermetallic compound is less deformable at higher strain rates, resulting in easier brittle fracture in B2 particles, smaller dimple size and a higher density of phase interfaces in final fracture surfaces. Thus, more energy need be consumed during the final fracture for the experiments conducted at higher strain rates, resulting in better tensile toughness.

  10. Positive predictive value of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes at different rates and durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Israel, Carsten W; Nair, Girish M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pacemakers can automatically identify and catalog atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). While most AHREs represent true atrial tachyarrhythmia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF), a review of stored electrograms suggests that a substantial proportion do not. As AHREs may lead to the initiation o...

  11. A novel VLSI processor for high-rate, high resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, Antonio; Gatti, E; Longoni, A; Buttler, W

    2000-01-01

    A novel time-variant VLSI shaper amplifier, suitable for multi-anode Silicon Drift Detectors or other multi-element solid-state X-ray detection systems, is proposed. The new read-out scheme has been conceived for demanding applications with synchrotron light sources, such as X-ray holography or EXAFS, where both high count-rates and high-energy resolutions are required. The circuit is of the linear time-variant class, accepts randomly distributed events and features: a finite-width (1-10 mu s) quasi-optimal weight function, an ultra-low-level energy discrimination (approx 150 eV), and a full compatibility for monolithic integration in CMOS technology. Its impulse response has a staircase-like shape, but the weight function (which is in general different from the impulse response in time-variant systems) is quasi trapezoidal. The operation principles of the new scheme as well as the first experimental results obtained with a prototype of the circuit are presented and discussed in the work.

  12. Using NIF to Test Theories of High-Pressure, High-Rate Plastic Flow in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Arsenlis, A.; Cavallo, R. M.; Huntington, C. M.; McNaney, J. M.; Park, H. S.; Powell, P.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Remington, B. A.; Swift, D.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Yang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Precisely controlled plasmas are playing key roles both as pump and probe in experiments to understand the strength of solid metals at high energy density (HED) conditions. In concert with theoretical advances, these experiments have enabled a predictive capability to model material strength at Mbar pressures and high strain rates. Here we describe multiscale strength models developed for tantalum starting with atomic bonding and extending up through the mobility of individual dislocations, the evolution of dislocation networks and so on until the ultimate material response at the scale of an experiment. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) probe strength in metals ramp compressed to 1-8 Mbar. The model is able to predict 1 Mbar experiments without adjustable parameters. The combination of experiment and theory has shown that solid metals can behave significantly differently at HED conditions. We also describe recent studies of lead compressed to 3-5 Mbar. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  13. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  14. Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 responsible for retinitis pigmentosa identified in consanguineous familial cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Inayat; Kabir, Firoz; Iqbal, Muhammad; Gottsch, Clare Brooks S.; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Khan, Shaheen N.; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ayyagari, Radha; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify pathogenic mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in consanguineous familial cases. Methods Seven large familial cases with multiple individuals diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa were included in the study. Affected individuals in these families underwent ophthalmic examinations to document the symptoms and confirm the initial diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from all participating members, and genomic DNA was extracted. An exclusion analysis with microsatellite markers spanning the TULP1 locus on chromosome 6p was performed, and two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. All coding exons along with the exon–intron boundaries of TULP1 were sequenced bidirectionally. We constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype for the four familial cases harboring the K489R allele and estimated the likelihood of a founder effect. Results The ophthalmic examinations of the affected individuals in these familial cases were suggestive of RP. Exclusion analyses confirmed linkage to chromosome 6p harboring TULP1 with positive two-point LOD scores. Subsequent Sanger sequencing identified the single base pair substitution in exon14, c.1466A>G (p.K489R), in four families. Additionally, we identified a two-base deletion in exon 4, c.286_287delGA (p.E96Gfs77*); a homozygous splice site variant in intron 14, c.1495+4A>C; and a novel missense variation in exon 15, c.1561C>T (p.P521S). All mutations segregated with the disease phenotype in the respective families and were absent in ethnically matched control chromosomes. Haplotype analysis suggested (p<10−6) that affected individuals inherited the causal mutation from a common ancestor. Conclusions Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 are responsible for the RP phenotype in seven familial cases with a common ancestral mutation responsible for the disease phenotype in four of the seven families. PMID:27440997

  15. Genetic analysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency in nine consanguineous Pakistani families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Sadaqat; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Imran, Muhammad; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Bhinder, Munir Ahmad; Shakeel, Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Aslam, Asim; Shehzad, Wasim; Cheema, Huma Arshad; Rehman, Habib

    2017-10-26

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, ketosis and lactic acidosis. FBPase is encoded by FBP1 gene and catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate in the last step of gluconeogenesis. We report here FBP1 mutations in nine consanguineous Pakistani families affected with FBPase deficiency. Nine families having one or two individuals affected with FBPase deficiency were enrolled over a period of 3 years. All FBP1 exonic regions including splicing sites were PCR-amplified and sequenced bidirectionally. Familial cosegregation of mutations with disease was confirmed by direct sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis. Three different FBP1 mutations were identified. Each of two previously reported mutations (c.472C>T (p.Arg158Trp) and c.841G>A (p.Glu281Lys)) was carried by four different families. The ninth family carried a novel 4-bp deletion (c.609_612delAAAA), which is predicted to result in frameshift (p.Lys204Argfs*72) and loss of FBPase function. The novel variant was not detected in any of 120 chromosomes from normal ethnically matched individuals. FBPase deficiency is often fatal in the infancy and early childhood. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is therefore crucial to preventing early mortality. We recommend the use of c.472C>T and c.841G>A mutations as first choice genetic markers for molecular diagnosis of FBPase deficiency in Pakistan.

  16. Exome sequencing of Pakistani consanguineous families identifies 30 novel candidate genes for recessive intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazuddin, S; Hussain, M; Razzaq, A; Iqbal, Z; Shahzad, M; Polla, D L; Song, Y; van Beusekom, E; Khan, A A; Tomas-Roca, L; Rashid, M; Zahoor, M Y; Wissink-Lindhout, W M; Basra, M A R; Ansar, M; Agha, Z; van Heeswijk, K; Rasheed, F; Van de Vorst, M; Veltman, J A; Gilissen, C; Akram, J; Kleefstra, T; Assir, M Z; Grozeva, D; Carss, K; Raymond, F L; O'Connor, T D; Riazuddin, S A; Khan, S N; Ahmed, Z M; de Brouwer, A P M; van Bokhoven, H; Riazuddin, S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, affecting 1-3% of the general population. Although research into the genetic causes of ID has recently gained momentum, identification of pathogenic mutations that cause autosomal recessive ID (ARID) has lagged behind, predominantly due to non-availability of sizeable families. Here we present the results of exome sequencing in 121 large consanguineous Pakistani ID families. In 60 families, we identified homozygous or compound heterozygous DNA variants in a single gene, 30 affecting reported ID genes and 30 affecting novel candidate ID genes. Potential pathogenicity of these alleles was supported by co-segregation with the phenotype, low frequency in control populations and the application of stringent bioinformatics analyses. In another eight families segregation of multiple pathogenic variants was observed, affecting 19 genes that were either known or are novel candidates for ID. Transcriptome profiles of normal human brain tissues showed that the novel candidate ID genes formed a network significantly enriched for transcriptional co-expression (P<0.0001) in the frontal cortex during fetal development and in the temporal-parietal and sub-cortex during infancy through adulthood. In addition, proteins encoded by 12 novel ID genes directly interact with previously reported ID proteins in six known pathways essential for cognitive function (P<0.0001). These results suggest that disruptions of temporal parietal and sub-cortical neurogenesis during infancy are critical to the pathophysiology of ID. These findings further expand the existing repertoire of genes involved in ARID, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and the transcriptome map of ID.

  17. Development of Fast High-Resolution Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00287945; Dubbert, J.; Horvat, S.; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Adomeit, S.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.; Zibell, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized drift-tube chambers are e?cient detectors for high-precision tracking over large areas. The Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reach a spatial resolution of 35 micons and almost 100% tracking e?ciency with 6 layers of 30 mm diameter drift tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas mixture at 3 bar and a gas gain of 20000. The ATLAS MDT chambers are designed to cope with background counting rates due to neutrons and gamma-rays of up to about 300 kHz per tube which will be exceeded for LHC luminosities larger than the design value of 10-34 per square cm and second. Decreasing the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm while keeping the other parameters, including the gas gain, unchanged reduces the maximum drift time from about 700 ns to 200 ns and the drift-tube occupancy by a factor of 7. New drift-tube chambers for the endcap regions of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been designed. A prototype chamber consisting of 12 times 8 l...

  18. Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa is highly prevalent in the Jerusalem region with a high frequency of founder mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Dror; Banin, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. The patients' clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder mutation. Previous studies

  19. Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at high work rates in world class and national level sprint skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P higher V(max) and TTE (all P better technique and to technique-specific power.

  20. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme

  1. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  2. Programmable High-Rate Multi-Mission Receiver for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and upcoming NASA space links require both highly reliable low-rate communications links supporting critical TT&C, ranging and voice services and highly...

  3. 31 CFR 356.21 - How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discount rate calculated? 356.21 Section 356.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... high yield or discount rate calculated? (a) Awards to submitters. We generally prorate bids at the highest accepted yield or discount rate under § 356.20(a)(2) of this part. For example, if 80.15% is the...

  4. The Impact of High School Exit Exams on Graduation Rates and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, Katherine; Balestra, Simone

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the short- and long-term effects of high school exit exams (HSEEs) on graduation rates and achievement using an interrupted time series approach. There is a positive overall effect of HSEE introduction for graduation rate trends, which is heterogeneous over time. HSEEs have a negative impact on graduation rates in the year of…

  5. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  6. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  7. High-Pressure Limit Rate Rules for α-H Isomerization of Hydroperoxyalkylperoxy Radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Samah Y; Davis, Alexander Cory; Al Rashidi, Mariam J; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    group. In this work, a combination of high level composite methods - CBS-QB3, G3 and G4 - is used to determine the high-pressure-limit rate parameters for the title reaction. Rate rules for H-migration reactions proceeding through 5-, 6-, 7- and 8

  8. Graduation Rates in South Carolina Public High Schools: The Effect of School Size and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…

  9. The Effect of Selected Nonmusical Factors on Adjudicators' Ratings of High School Solo Vocal Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of differentiated performance attire and stage deportment on adjudicators' ratings of high school solo vocal performances. High school choral students (n = 153) and undergraduate (n = 97) and graduate music majors (n = 32) served as adjudicators (N = 282). Adjudicators rated recorded solo vocal…

  10. High-rate operant behavior in two mouse strains: a response-bout analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Pesek, Erin F; Newland, M Christopher

    2009-06-01

    Operant behavior sometimes occurs in bouts characterized by an initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length. The generality of this structure was tested using high-rate nose-poking in mice. Reinforcement of short interresponse times produced high response rates while a random-interval schedule held reinforcement rates constant. BALB/c mice produced bouts that were more frequent, longer, and contained a higher within-bout rate of responding (nine nose-pokes/s) than did the C57BL/6 mice (five nose-pokes/s). Adding a running wheel decreased total nose-pokes and bout length, and increased bout-initiation rate. Free-feeding reduced nose-poking by decreasing bout-initiation rate. Photoperiod reversal decreased bout-initiation rate but not total nose-poke rate. Despite strain differences in bout structure, both strains responded similarly to the interventions. The three bout measures were correlated with overall rate but not with each other. Log-survival analyses provided independent descriptors of the structure of high-rate responding in these two strains.

  11. High frame rate retrospectively triggered Cine MRI for assessment of murine diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, Bram F; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Motaal, Abdallah G; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2013-03-01

    To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice with Cine MRI, a high frame rate (>60 frames per cardiac cycle) is required. For conventional electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, the frame rate is inversely proportional to the pulse repetition time (TR). However, TR cannot be lowered at will to increase the frame rate because of gradient hardware, spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise limitations. To overcome these limitations associated with electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, in this paper, we introduce a retrospectively triggered Cine MRI protocol capable of producing high-resolution high frame rate Cine MRI of the mouse heart for addressing left ventricular diastolic function. Simulations were performed to investigate the influence of MRI sequence parameters and the k-space filling trajectory in relation to the desired number of frames per cardiac cycle. An optimized protocol was applied in vivo and compared with electrocardiography-triggered Cine for which a high-frame rate could only be achieved by several interleaved acquisitions. Retrospective high frame rate Cine MRI proved superior to the interleaved electrocardiography-triggered protocols. High spatial-resolution Cine movies with frames rates up to 80 frames per cardiac cycle were obtained in 25 min. Analysis of left ventricular filling rate curves allowed accurate determination of early and late filling rates and revealed subtle impairments in left ventricular diastolic function of diabetic mice in comparison with nondiabetic mice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of plasma induced substrate heating during high rate deposition of microcrystalline solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Donker, M.N.; Schmitz, R.; Appenzeller, W.; Rech, B.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 13.56 MHz parallel plate hydrogen-dild. silane plasma, operated at high pressure and high power, was used to deposit microcryst. silicon solar cells with efficiencies of 6-9% at high deposition rates of 0.4-1.2 nm/s. In this regime new challenges arise regarding temp. control, since the high

  13. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushin, N N; Valuev, D V; Valueva, A V; Serikbol, A; Borovikov, I F

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66). (paper)

  14. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Malushin, N. N.; Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Serikbol, A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66).

  15. High dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) interstitial irradiation (IRT) of the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Lucas A.M.; Plas, Mirjam van der; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Hanssen, Alex E.J.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a newly developed technique to study radiation tolerance of rat spinal cord to continuous interstitial irradiation (IRT) at different dose rates. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted just laterally on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters are afterloaded with two 192 Ir wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1-2.3 mCi/cm) for the low dose rate (LDR) IRT or connected to the HDR micro-Selectron for the high dose rate (HDR) IRT. Spinal cord target volume is located at the level of Th 12 -L 2 . Due to the rapid dose fall-off around the implanted sources, a dose inhomogeneity across the spinal cord thickness is obtained in the dorso-ventral direction. Using the 100% reference dose (rate) at the ventral side of the spinal cord to prescribe the dose, experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at average dose rates of 0.49, 0.96 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hind-legs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each irradiated rat are used as experimental endpoints. Results: The histopathological damage seen after irradiation is clearly reflected the inhomogeneous dose distribution around the implanted catheters, with the damage predominantly located in the dorsal tract of the cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction in average dose rate, spinal cord radiation tolerance is significantly increased. When the dose is prescribed at the 100% reference dose rate, the ED 50 (induction of paresis in 50% of the animals) for the HDR-IRT is 17.3 Gy. If the average dose rate is reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.96 or 0.49 Gy/h, a 2.9- or 4.7-fold increase in the ED 50 values to 50.3 Gy and 80.9 Gy is observed; for the dose prescribed at the 150% reference dose rate (dorsal side of cord) ED 50 values are 26.0, 75.5 and 121.4 Gy, respectively. Using different types of analysis and in dependence of the dose prescription and reference dose rate, the

  16. A Common Ancestral Mutation in CRYBB3 Identified in Multiple Consanguineous Families with Congenital Cataracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jiao

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the genetic determinants of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in large consanguineous families.Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and slit-lamp photographs of the cataractous lenses were obtained. An aliquot of blood was collected from all participating family members and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. Initially, a genome-wide scan was performed with genomic DNAs of family PKCC025 followed by exclusion analysis of our familial cohort of congenital cataracts. Protein-coding exons of CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, and CRYBA4 were sequenced bidirectionally. A haplotype was constructed with SNPs flanking the causal mutation for affected individuals in all four families, while the probability that the four familial cases have a common founder was estimated using EM and CHM-based algorithms. The expression of Crybb3 in the developing murine lens was investigated using TaqMan assays.The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis localized the causal phenotype in family PKCC025 to chromosome 22q with statistically significant two-point logarithm of odds (LOD scores. Subsequently, we localized three additional families, PKCC063, PKCC131, and PKCC168 to chromosome 22q. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing identified a missense variation: c.493G>C (p.Gly165Arg in CRYBB3 that segregated with the disease phenotype in all four familial cases. This variation was not found in ethnically matched control chromosomes, the NHLBI exome variant server, or the 1000 Genomes or dbSNP databases. Interestingly, all four families harbor a unique disease haplotype that strongly suggests a common founder of the causal mutation (p<1.64E-10. We observed expression of Crybb3 in the mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15, and expression remained relatively steady throughout development.Here, we

  17. Microstructural evolution at high strain rates in solution-hardened interstitial free steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenishi, A.; Teodosiu, C.; Nesterova, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive transmission electron microscopical studies have been conducted for solution-hardened steels deformed at high (1000 s -1 ) and low (0.001 s -1 ) strain rates, in order to clarify the effects of strain rate and a jump in strain rate on the evolution of the microstructure and its connection with the mechanical response. It was revealed that the various types of microstructure, observed even within the same specimen, depend on the corresponding grain orientations and their evolution with progressive deformation depends on these microstructure types. At high strain rates, the dislocation density increases especially at low strains and the onset of dislocation organization is delayed. A jump in strain rate causes an increase of the dislocation density inside an organized structure. These results corroborated the mechanical behaviour at high strain rates after compensation for the cross-sectional reduction and temperature increase. The higher work-hardening rate at high strain rates could be connected to a delay in the dislocation organization. The high work-hardening rate just after a jump could be due to an increase of the density of dislocations distributed uniformly inside an organized structure

  18. Cost minimization analysis of high-dose-rate versus low-dose-rate brachytherapy in endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, James

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Endometrial cancer is a common, usually curable malignancy whose treatment frequently involves low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. These treatments involve substantial resource commitments and this is increasingly important. This paper presents a cost minimization analysis of HDR versus LDR brachytherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The perspective of the analysis is that of the payor, in this case the Ministry of Health. One course of LDR treatment is compared to two courses of HDR treatment. The two alternatives are considered to be comparable with respect to local control, survival, and toxicities. Labor, overhead, and capital costs are accounted for and carefully measured. A 5% inflation rate is used where applicable. A univariate sensitivity analysis is performed. Results: The HDR regime is 22% less expensive compared to the LDR regime. This is $991.66 per patient or, based on the current workload of this department (30 patients per year) over the useful lifetime of the after loader, $297,498 over 10 years in 1997 dollars. Conclusion: HDR brachytherapy minimizes costs in the treatment of endometrial cancer relative to LDR brachytherapy. These results may be used by other centers to make rational decisions regarding brachytherapy equipment replacement or acquisition

  19. Increased effects of machining damage in beryllium observed at high strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitscher, S.; Brewer, A.W.; Corle, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile tests at both low and high strain rates, and also impact shear tests, were performed on a weldable grade powder-source beryllium. Impact energies increased by a factor of 2 to 3 from the as-machined level after etching or annealing. Similar increases in the ductility from machining damage removal were observed from the tensile data at the higher strain rate (10 s -1 ) while an insignificant increase in elongation was measured at the lower strain rate (10 -4 s -1 ). High strain-rate tests appear to be more sensitive and reliable for evaluating machining practice and damage removal methods for beryllium components subjected to sudden loads. 2 tables

  20. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  1. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  2. Genotoxic effects of high dose rate X-ray and low dose rate gamma radiation in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Anne; Eide, Dag M; Brede, Dag A; Ellender, Michele; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Oughton, Deborah H; Bouffler, Simon D; Brunborg, Gunnar; Olsen, Ann Karin

    2017-10-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans are based on epidemiological data largely drawn from the Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies, which received an acute high dose rate (HDR) ionising radiation. Limited knowledge exists about the effects of chronic low dose rate (LDR) exposure, particularly with respect to the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor. As part of a study to investigate the development of colon cancer following chronic LDR vs. acute HDR radiation, this study presents the results of genotoxic effects in blood of exposed mice. CBAB6 F1 Apc +/+ (wild type) and Apc Min/+ mice were chronically exposed to estimated whole body absorbed doses of 1.7 or 3.2 Gy 60 Co-γ-rays at a LDR (2.2 mGy h -1 ) or acutely exposed to 2.6 Gy HDR X-rays (1.3 Gy min -1 ). Genotoxic endpoints assessed in blood included chromosomal damage (flow cytometry based micronuclei (MN) assay), mutation analyses (Pig-a gene mutation assay), and levels of DNA lesions (Comet assay, single-strand breaks (ssb), alkali labile sites (als), oxidized DNA bases). Ionising radiation (ca. 3 Gy) induced genotoxic effects dependent on the dose rate. Chromosomal aberrations (MN assay) increased 3- and 10-fold after chronic LDR and acute HDR, respectively. Phenotypic mutation frequencies as well as DNA lesions (ssb/als) were modulated after acute HDR but not after chronic LDR. The Apc Min/+ genotype did not influence the outcome in any of the investigated endpoints. The results herein will add to the scant data available on genotoxic effects following chronic LDR of ionising radiation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:560-569, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society. © 2017 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society.

  3. High-Rate Fast-Time GRPC for the high eta CMS muon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabito, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    CMS detector. In their single-gap version we will show that they can stand rates of few ${\\rm kHz/cm}^2$. We also demonstrate that using multi-gap glass RPC, a time resolution of about 60 ps is achieved.

  4. Sex linked versus autosomal inbreeding coefficient in close consanguineous marriages in the Basque country and Castile (Spain): genetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, R; Morales, B; Peña, J A; Delgado, J

    1995-10-01

    Pedigree structures of 161 uncle/niece-aunt/nephew and 4420 first cousin consanguineous marriages registered during the 19th and 20th centuries in two large and very different Spanish regions have been analysed and their genetic consequences evaluated. The frequencies of the different pedigree subtypes within each degree of relationship were quite similar in both populations despite significant heterogeneity in inbreeding patterns. The mean X-linked inbreeding coefficient (Fx) for each type of cousin mating was calculated and compared to that expected for autosomal genes (F). The effect of genealogical structure on the Fx/F ratio was compared to different cultural populations worldwide. Preferentiality and avoidance of close consanguinity along with specific types of pedigrees are discussed on the basis of premarital migration and sociocultural rules still deeply rooted in certain human groups. By admitting that the observed Fx coefficient is usually higher than F in most human populations some remarks have been made in terms of population genetic risk.

  5. High and highly variable cooling rates during pyroclastic eruptions on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Christoph; Clague, David A.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Stix, John

    2013-03-01

    We present a calorimetric analysis of pyroclastic glasses and glassy sheet lava flow crusts collected on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean, at a water depth of about 1400 m. The pyroclastic glasses, subdivided into thin limu o Pele fragments and angular, blocky clasts, were retrieved from various stratigraphic horizons of volcaniclastic deposits on the upper flanks of the volcanic edifice. Each analysed pyroclastic sample consists of a single type of fragment from one individual horizon. The heat capacity (cp) was measured via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and analysed using relaxation geospeedometry to obtain the natural cooling rate across the glass transition. The limu o Pele samples (1 mm grain size fraction) and angular fragments (0.5 mm grain size fraction) exhibit cooling rates of 104.3 to 106.0 K s- 1 and 103.9 to 105.1 K s- 1, respectively. A coarser grain size fraction, 2 mm for limu o Pele and 1 mm for the angular clasts yields cooling rates at the order of 103.7 K s- 1. The range of cooling rates determined for the different pyroclastic deposits presumably relates to the size or intensity of the individual eruptions. The outer glassy crusts of the sheet lava flows were naturally quenched at rates between 63 K s- 1 and 103 K s- 1. By comparing our results with published data on the very slow quenching of lava flow crusts, we suggest that (1) fragmentation and cooling appear to be coupled dynamically and (2) ductile deformation upon the onset of cooling is restricted due to the rapid increase in viscosity. Lastly, we suggest that thermally buoyant plumes that may arise from rapid heat transfer efficiently separate clasts based on their capability to rise within the plume and as they subsequently settle from it.

  6. Achieving high mobility ZnO : Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsberg, R J; Lim, S H N; Wallig, J; Anders, A; Zhu, Y K; Milliron, D J

    2011-01-01

    Achieving a high growth rate is paramount for making large-area transparent conducting oxide coatings at a low cost. Unfortunately, the quality of thin films grown by most techniques degrades as the growth rate increases. Filtered dc cathodic arc is a lesser known technique which produces a stream of highly ionized plasma, in stark contrast to the neutral atoms produced by standard sputter sources. Ions bring a large amount of potential energy to the growing surface which is in the form of heat, not momentum. By minimizing the distance from cathode to substrate, the high ion flux gives a very high effective growth temperature near the film surface without causing damage from bombardment. The high surface temperature is a direct consequence of the high growth rate and allows for high-quality crystal growth. Using this technique, 500-1300 nm thick and highly transparent ZnO : Al films were grown on glass at rates exceeding 250 nm min -1 while maintaining resistivity below 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm with electron mobility as high as 60 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . (fast track communication)

  7. The Relationships among the Fine Arts, School Culture, and High School Graduation Rates in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    High school graduation is the single largest hurdle that students must achieve to prepare for college and career (National Governor's Association, 2011). Fleischman & Heppen (2009) agree that American high schools must address the problem of declining graduation rate. Approximately 1.28 million students drop out of high school annually (Amos,…

  8. High speed and adaptable error correction for megabit/s rate quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, A R; Sato, H

    2014-12-02

    Quantum Key Distribution is moving from its theoretical foundation of unconditional security to rapidly approaching real world installations. A significant part of this move is the orders of magnitude increases in the rate at which secure key bits are distributed. However, these advances have mostly been confined to the physical hardware stage of QKD, with software post-processing often being unable to support the high raw bit rates. In a complete implementation this leads to a bottleneck limiting the final secure key rate of the system unnecessarily. Here we report details of equally high rate error correction which is further adaptable to maximise the secure key rate under a range of different operating conditions. The error correction is implemented both in CPU and GPU using a bi-directional LDPC approach and can provide 90-94% of the ideal secure key rate over all fibre distances from 0-80 km.

  9. Behavior of quenched and tempered steels under high strain rate compression loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.W.; Seifert, K.; Abdel-Malek, S.

    1997-01-01

    Two quenched and tempered steels were tested under compression loading at strain rates of ε = 2.10 2 s -1 and ε = 2.10 3 s -1 . By applying the thermal activation theory, the flow stress at very high strain rates of 10 5 to 10 6 s -1 is derived from low temperature and high strain rate tests. Dynamic true stress - true strain behaviour presents, that stress increases with increasing strain until a maximum, then it decreases. Because of the adiabatic process under dynamic loading the maximum flow stress will occur at a lower strain if the strain rate is increased. Considering strain rate, strain hardening, strain rate hardening and strain softening, a constitutive equation with different additive terms is successfully used to describe the behaviour of material under dynamic compression loading. Results are compared with other models of constitutive equations. (orig.)

  10. Activated carbon derived from melaleuca barks for outstanding high-rate supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiu-Ping; Huang, Liang; Gao, Xiang; Cheng, Yongliang; Yao, Bin; Hu, Zhimi; Wan, Jun; Xiao, Xu; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was prepared via carbonizing melaleuca bark in an argon atmosphere at 600 °C followed with KOH activation for high-rate supercapacitors. This AC electrode has a high capacitance of 233 F g-1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and an excellent rate capability of ˜80% when increasing the sweep rate from 2 to 500 mV s-1. The symmetric supercapacitor assembled by the above electrode can deliver a high energy density of 4.2 Wh kg-1 with a power density of 1500 W kg-1 when operated in the voltage range of 0-1 V in 1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte while maintaining great cycling stability (less than 5% capacitance loss after 10 000 cycles at sweep rate of 100 mV s-1). All the outstanding electrochemical performances make this AC electrode a promising candidate for potential energy storage application.

  11. Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, S; Krebs, M; Rothhardt, J; Carstens, H; Demmler, S; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2011-09-26

    The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Time-Efficient High-Rate Data Flooding in One-Dimensional Acoustic Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyun Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because underwater communication environments have poor characteristics, such as severe attenuation, large propagation delays and narrow bandwidths, data is normally transmitted at low rates through acoustic waves. On the other hand, as high traffic has recently been required in diverse areas, high rate transmission has become necessary. In this paper, transmission/reception timing schemes that maximize the time axis use efficiency to improve the resource efficiency for high rate transmission are proposed. The excellence of the proposed scheme is identified by examining the power distributions by node, rate bounds, power levels depending on the rates and number of nodes, and network split gains through mathematical analysis and numerical results. In addition, the simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing packet train method.

  13. High throughput route selection in multi-rate wireless mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yi-fei; GUO Xiang-li; SONG Mei; SONG Jun-de

    2008-01-01

    Most existing Ad-hoc routing protocols use the shortest path algorithm with a hop count metric to select paths. It is appropriate in single-rate wireless networks, but has a tendency to select paths containing long-distance links that have low data rates and reduced reliability in multi-rate networks. This article introduces a high throughput routing algorithm utilizing the multi-rate capability and some mesh characteristics in wireless fidelity (WiFi) mesh networks. It uses the medium access control (MAC) transmission time as the routing metric, which is estimated by the information passed up from the physical layer. When the proposed algorithm is adopted, the Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing can be improved as high throughput AODV (HT-AODV). Simulation results show that HT-AODV is capable of establishing a route that has high data-rate, short end-to-end delay and great network throughput.

  14. Phase-Separated Polyaniline/Graphene Composite Electrodes for High-Rate Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qin'e; Zhou, An'an; Huang, Zhifeng; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Polyaniline/graphene hydrogel composites with a macroscopically phase-separated structure are prepared. The composites show high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance. Further investigation demonstrates that polyaniline inside the graphene hydrogel has low rate performance, thus a phase-separated structure, in which polyaniline is mainly outside the graphene hydrogel matrix, can enhance the rate performance of the composites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Toward a 'all high rate' brachytherapy: organisation, biology and perspectives after treatment of 192 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Ferre, M.; Gautier, M.; Marcie, S.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of radiation protection regulations aimed at reducing the exposure to ionizing radiation from care-givers, low dose rate brachytherapy is usually replaced by a pulsed rate brachytherapy. The center Antoine Lacassagne has directed the outset to the use of a high-dose rate brachytherapy. The implications in terms of organization, biology and the prospects for such a change are the principal questions studied. (N.C.)

  16. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  17. High frame rate retrospectively triggered Cine MRI for assessment of murine diastolic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Abdurrachim, Desiree; Motaal, Abdallah G.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2013-01-01

    To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in mice with Cine MRI, a high frame rate (>60 frames per cardiac cycle) is required. For conventional electrocardiography-triggered Cine MRI, the frame rate is inversely proportional to the pulse repetition time (TR). However, TR cannot be lowered

  18. U.S. High School Graduation Rates: Patterns and Explanations. NBER Working Paper No. 18701

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    I survey the evidence on patterns in U.S. high school graduation rates over the period 1970-2010 and report the results of new research conducted to fill in holes in the evidence. I begin by pointing out the strengths and limitations of existing data sources. I then describe six striking patterns in graduation rates. They include stagnation over…

  19. NCLB Implementation Report: State Approaches for Calculating High School Graduation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    This review investigated the state accountability Workbooks provisionally approved and publicly reported by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) as of June 2003. These documents were obtained from the DOE Web site. This report examines state definitions of high school graduation rates and strategies for constructing graduation rate indicators. A…

  20. Demo : an embedded vision system for high frame rate visual servoing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Z.; He, Y.; Pieters, R.S.; Mesman, B.; Corporaal, H.; Jonker, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    The frame rate of commercial off-the-shelf industrial cameras is breaking the threshold of 1000 frames-per-second, the sample rate required in high performance motion control systems. On the one hand, it enables computer vision as a cost-effective feedback source; On the other hand, it imposes

  1. Boiling crisis during liquid motion at high mass rate and underheating in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, D.S.; Solov'ev, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    One describes a physical model of liquid boiling crisis in smooth wall channels for high values of underheating and of mass rate of flow. One worded a condition ensuring crisis initiation. Paper presents the calculated ratio for the critical density of thermal flow in channels enabling to analyze the effect of channel diameter, of underheating and of mass rate on it [ru

  2. High efficiency high rate microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells deposited at plasma excitation frequencies larger than 100 MHz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strobel, C.; Leszczynska, B.; Merkel, U.; Kuske, J.; Fischer, D.D.; Albert, M.; Holovský, Jakub; Michard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), 347-353 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : VHF * PECVD * microcrystalline silicon * solar cell * high rate * high efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  3. Macroporous 'bubble' graphene film via template-directed ordered-assembly for high rate supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Chun-Hsien; Zhao, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Bing-Sen; Kong, Qing-Qiang; Wang, Mao-Zhang; Yang, Yong-Gang; Cai, Rong; Sheng Su, Dang

    2012-07-21

    A three-dimensional bubble graphene film, with controllable and uniform macropores and tailorable microstructure, was fabricated by a facile hard templating strategy and exhibit extraordinary electrochemical capacitance with high rate capability (1.0 V s(-1)).

  4. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  5. High Rate Plastic Deformation and Failure of Tungsten-Sintered Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjerke, Todd

    2004-01-01

    The competition between plastic deformation and brittle fracture during high rate loading of a tungsten-sintered metal is examined through impact experiments, post-experiment microscopy, and numerical simulation...

  6. Postal auditing methodology used to find out the performance of high rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Campa, R.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes results from a methodology implemented at the Secondary Laboratory for Dosimetric Calibration at CPHR used to check the brachytherapy performance at high doses rate using Cesium 137 or cobalt 60 sources

  7. Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chong-Jian; He, Rui; Zheng, Ping; Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor

  8. Mathematical modeling of high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on granular packing patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chong-Jian, E-mail: chjtangzju@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China); He, Rui; Zheng, Ping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chai, Li-Yuan; Min, Xiao-Bo [Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A novel model was conducted to estimate volumetric nitrogen conversion rates. ► The packing patterns of the granules in Anammox reactor are investigated. ► The simple cubic packing pattern was simulated in high-rate Anammox UASB reactor. ► Operational strategies concerning sludge concentration were proposed by the modeling. -- Abstract: A novel mathematical model was developed to estimate the volumetric nitrogen conversion rates of a high-rate Anammox UASB reactor based on the packing patterns of granular sludge. A series of relationships among granular packing density, sludge concentration, hydraulic retention time and volumetric conversion rate were constructed to correlate Anammox reactor performance with granular packing patterns. It was suggested that the Anammox granules packed as the equivalent simple cubic pattern in high-rate UASB reactor with packing density of 50–55%, which not only accommodated a high concentration of sludge inside the reactor, but also provided large pore volume, thus prolonging the actual substrate conversion time. Results also indicated that it was necessary to improve Anammox reactor performance by enhancing substrate loading when sludge concentration was higher than 37.8 gVSS/L. The established model was carefully calibrated and verified, and it well simulated the performance of granule-based high-rate Anammox UASB reactor.

  9. Laryngeal High-Speed Videoendoscopy: Sensitivity of Objective Parameters towards Recording Frame Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schützenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current use of laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy in clinic settings involves subjective visual assessment of vocal fold vibratory characteristics. However, objective quantification of vocal fold vibrations for evidence-based diagnosis and therapy is desired, and objective parameters assessing laryngeal dynamics have therefore been suggested. This study investigated the sensitivity of the objective parameters and their dependence on recording frame rate. A total of 300 endoscopic high-speed videos with recording frame rates between 1000 and 15 000 fps were analyzed for a vocally healthy female subject during sustained phonation. Twenty parameters, representing laryngeal dynamics, were computed. Four different parameter characteristics were found: parameters showing no change with increasing frame rate; parameters changing up to a certain frame rate, but then remaining constant; parameters remaining constant within a particular range of recording frame rates; and parameters changing with nearly every frame rate. The results suggest that (1 parameter values are influenced by recording frame rates and different parameters have varying sensitivities to recording frame rate; (2 normative values should be determined based on recording frame rates; and (3 the typically used recording frame rate of 4000 fps seems to be too low to distinguish accurately certain characteristics of the human phonation process in detail.

  10. The optimal fraction size in high-dose-rate brachytherapy: dependency on tissue repair kinetics and low-dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sminia, Peter; Schneider, Christoph J.; Fowler, Jack F.

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Indications of the existence of long repair half-times on the order of 2-4 h for late-responding human normal tissues have been obtained from continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART). Recently, these data were used to explain, on the basis of the biologically effective dose (BED), the potential superiority of fractionated high-dose rate (HDR) with large fraction sizes of 5-7 Gy over continuous low-dose rate (LDR) irradiation at 0.5 Gy/h in cervical carcinoma. We investigated the optimal fraction size in HDR brachytherapy and its dependency on treatment choices (overall treatment time, number of HDR fractions, and time interval between fractions) and treatment conditions (reference low-dose rate, tissue repair characteristics). Methods and Materials: Radiobiologic model calculations were performed using the linear-quadratic model for incomplete mono-exponential repair. An irradiation dose of 20 Gy was assumed to be applied either with HDR in 2-12 fractions or continuously with LDR for a range of dose rates. HDR and LDR treatment regimens were compared on the basis of the BED and BED ratio of normal tissue and tumor, assuming repair half-times between 1 h and 4 h. Results: With the assumption that the repair half-time of normal tissue was three times longer than that of the tumor, hypofractionation in HDR relative to LDR could result in relative normal tissue sparing if the optimum fraction size is selected. By dose reduction while keeping the tumor BED constant, absolute normal tissue sparing might therefore be achieved. This optimum HDR fraction size was found to be largely dependent on the LDR dose rate. On the basis of the BED NT/TUM ratio of HDR over LDR, 3 x 6.7 Gy would be the optimal HDR fractionation scheme for replacement of an LDR scheme of 20 Gy in 10-30 h (dose rate 2-0.67 Gy/h), while at a lower dose rate of 0.5 Gy/h, four fractions of 5 Gy would be preferential, still assuming large differences between tumor

  11. High dose rate versus low dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer--a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Liu

    Full Text Available To compare the efficacy and safety of high dose rate (HDR and low dose rate (LDR brachytherapy in treating early-stage oral cancer.A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, restricted to English language up to June 1, 2012, was performed to identify potentially relevant studies.Only randomized controlled trials (RCT and controlled trials that compared HDR to LDR brachytherapy in treatment of early-stage oral cancer (stages I, II and III were of interest.Two investigators independently extracted data from retrieved studies and controversies were solved by discussion. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1. One RCT and five controlled trials (607 patients: 447 for LDR and 160 for HDR met the inclusion criteria. The odds ratio showed no statistically significant difference between LDR group and HDR group in terms of local recurrence (OR = 1.12, CI 95% 0.62-2.01, overall mortality (OR = 1.01, CI 95% 0.61-1.66 and Grade 3/4 complications (OR = 0.86, CI 95% 0.52-1.42.This meta-analysis indicated that HDR brachytherapy was a comparable alternative to LDR brachytherapy in treatment of oral cancer. HDR brachytherapy might become a routine choice for early-stage oral cancer in the future.

  12. Comparison of high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayed, Alaa; Mutch, David G.; Rader, Janet S.; Gibb, Randall K.; Powell, Matthew A.; Wright, Jason D.; El Naqa, Issam; Zoberi, Imran; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes for endometrial carcinoma patients treated with either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included 1,179 patients divided into LDR (1,004) and HDR groups (175). Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical Stages I-III were included. All patients were treated with postoperative irradiation. In the LDR group, the postoperative dose applied to the vaginal cuff was 60-70 Gy surface doses to the vaginal mucosa. The HDR brachytherapy prescription was 6 fractions of 2 Gy each to a depth of 0.5 cm from the surface of the vaginal mucosa. Overall survival, disease-free survival, local control, and complications were endpoints. Results: For all stages combined, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control at 5 years in the LDR group were 70%, 69%, and 81%, respectively. For all stages combined, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control at 5 years in the HDR group were 68%, 62%, and 78%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early or late Grade III and IV complications in the HDR or LDR groups. Conclusion: Survival outcomes, pelvic tumor control, and Grade III and IV complications were not significantly different in the LDR brachytherapy group compared with the HDR group

  13. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire cryogenic amplifier with high gain and MHz repetition rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Laurat, Julien; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate high gain amplification of 160-femtosecond pulses in a compact double-pass cryogenic Ti:sapphire amplifier. The setup involves a negative GVD mirrors recompression stage, and operates with a repetition rate between 0.2 and 4 MHz with a continuous pump laser. Amplification factors a...... as high as 17 and 320 nJ Fourier-limited pulses are obtained at a 800 kHz repetition rate....

  14. High-Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-22

    High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating Shear Banding and Fracture The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS...Report as of 05-Dec-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-13-1-0238 Organization: Columbia University Title: High Strain Rate Failure Modeling Incorporating

  15. Parasympathetic neural activity accounts for the lowering of exercise heart rate at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Calbet, J A; Rådegran, G

    2001-01-01

    In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied.......In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied....

  16. Evaluation of functioning of high dose rate brachytherapy at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Laura M.A.; Barreto, Rodrigo V.; Silva, Penha M.; Macedo, Afranio A.; Borges, Solange C.; Martinez, Valeria P.O.

    2001-01-01

    Quality control tests are very useful tools to assure the quality of patient's treatment. A daily control of the high dose rate micro selectron was performed based on the security parameters of the equipment and on the quickness of performance. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and to discuss the errors found during the first three years with the high dose rate brachytherapy, at the Instituto Nacional de Cancer. (author)

  17. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  18. High-rate tensile behavior of steel fiber-reinforced concrete for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Jin; Park, Gi-Joon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Joo, E-mail: djkim75@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jae Heum; Lee, Jang Hwa [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2311 Daewha-Dong, Ilsan-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 411-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The final goal is to develop a fiber reinforced concrete for containment buildings. • High rate tensile behavior of FRC was investigated. • Strain energy frame impact machine was used for tensile impact tests. • Different rate sensitivity of FRC was found according to the type fiber. • Adding more fibers by increasing S/a is positive for higher impact resistance of FRC. -- Abstract: The direct tensile behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) at high strain rates were investigated for their potential to enhance the resistance of the containment building of nuclear power plants (NPPs) against aircraft impact. Two types of deformed steel, hooked (H) and twisted (T) fibers were employed. To improve the tensile resistance of FRCs even at higher rates by adding more fibers, the mixture of concrete was modified by either increasing the sand-to-coarse aggregate ratio or decreasing the maximum size of coarse aggregate. All FRC specimens produced two to six times greater tensile strength and one to five times higher toughness at high strain rates (4–53 s{sup −1}) than those at a static rate (0.000167 s{sup −1}). T-fiber generally produced higher tensile strength and toughness than H-fiber at both static and high rates. Although both fibers showed favorable rate sensitivity, T-fiber produced much greater enhancement, at higher strain rates, in tensile strength and slightly lower enhancement in toughness than H-fiber. As the maximum size of coarse aggregate decreased from 19 to 5 mm, the tensile strength and toughness of FRCs with T-fibers noticeably increased at both static and high strain rates.

  19. Dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dao-chun [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Taizhou Vocational & Technical College, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, Ming-he, E-mail: meemhchen@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Lei; Cheng, Hu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China)

    2016-01-01

    High speed stamping process is used to high strength and high electrical conductivity phosphor bronze with extremely high strain rates more than 10{sup 3} s{sup −1}. This study on the dynamic tensile behaviour and deformational mechanism is to optimise the high speed stamping processes and improve geometrical precision in finished products. Thus, the tensile properties and deformation behaviour of C5191 phosphor bronze under quasi-static tensile condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s{sup −1} by electronic universal testing machine, and dynamic tensile condition at strain rate of 500, 1000 and 1500 s{sup −1} by split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB) apparatus were studied. The effects of strain rate and the deformation mechanism were investigated by means of SEM and TEM. The results showed that the yield strength and tensile strength of C5191 phosphor bronze under high strain rates deformation increased by 32.77% and 11.07% respectively compared with quasi-static condition, the strain hardening index increases from 0.075 to 0.251, and the strength of the material strain rates sensitivity index change from 0.005 to 0.022, which presented a clear sensitive to strain rates. Therefore, it is claimed that the dominant deformation mechanism was changed by the dislocation motion under different strain rates, and the ability of plastic deformation of C5191 phosphor bronze increased due to the number of movable dislocations increased significantly, started multi-line slip, and the soft effect of adiabatic temperature rise at the strain rate ranging from 500 to 1500 s{sup −1}.

  20. Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar: an experimental technique for high strain rate tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chavan, V.M.; Agrawal, R.G.; Patel, R.J.; Kapoor, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    Mechanical properties of materials are, in general, strain rate dependent, i.e. they respond differently at quasi-static and higher strain rate condition. The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), also referred to as Kolsky bar is a commonly used setup for high strain rate testing. SHPB is suitable for high strain rate test in strain rate range of 10 2 to 10 4 s -1 . These high strain rate data are required for safety and structural integrity assessment of structures subjected to dynamic loading. As high strain rate data are not easily available in open literature need was felt for setting up such high strain rate testing machine. SHPB at BARC was designed and set-up inhouse jointly by Refuelling Technology Division and Mechanical Metallurgy Division, at Hall no. 3, BARC. A number of conceptual designs for SHPB were thought of and the optimized design was worked out. The challenges of precision tolerance, straightness in bars and design and proper functioning of pneumatic gun were met. This setup has been used extensively to study the high strain rate material behavior. This report introduces the SHPB in general and the setup at BARC in particular. The history of development of SHPB, the basic formulations of one dimensional wave propagation, the relations between the wave velocity, particle velocity and elastic strain in a one dimensional bar, and the equations used to obtain the final stress vs. strain curves are described. The calibration of the present setup, the pre-test calculations and the posttest analysis of data are described. Finally some of the experimental results on different materials such as Cu, SS305, SA516 and Zr, at room temperature and elevated temperatures are presented. (author)